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Bay Leaf: Potential Health Benefits

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... This plant is widespread in the Mediterranean countries, e.g., Algeria, Turkey, Spain, Morocco, Italy, Greece, and Portugal, and cultivated in other temperate and warm parts of the world (Figure 1) [4,24]. It is also found in tropical and subtropical Asia, Australia, the Pacific, and South Asia. ...
... It is also found in tropical and subtropical Asia, Australia, the Pacific, and South Asia. Turkey, Italy, Belgium, Algeria, France, Tunisia, Iran, Morocco, Serbia, Greece, Portugal, Centers America, and the Southern United States are the commercial production centers of bay leaves [4,24]. It is a slow-growing, natural evergreen member of Mediterranean region vegetation. ...
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In 2015, the Expert Panel of the Flavor and Extract Manufacturers Association initiated the safety re-evaluation of over 250 natural flavor complexes (NFCs) used as flavor ingredients. This publication, 4th in a series focusing on the safety evaluation of NFCs, presents an evaluation of NFCs rich in hydroxyallylbenzene and hydroxypropenylbenzene constituents using a procedure initially published in 2005 and updated in 2018 that evaluates the safety of naturally occurring mixtures for their intended use as flavoring ingredients. The procedure requires the characterization of the chemical composition for each NFC and subsequent organization of the constituents into defined congeneric groups. The safety of each NFC is evaluated using the conservative threshold of toxicological concern (TTC) approach together with studies on absorption, metabolism and toxicology of the NFC and its constituent congeneric groups. By the application of this procedure, seven NFCs, derived from clove, cinnamon leaf and West Indian bay leaf were affirmed as “generally recognized as safe (GRAS)” under their conditions of intended use as flavor ingredients. An eighth NFC, an oleoresin of West Indian bay leaf, was affirmed based on its estimated intake, which is below the TTC of 0.15 μg/person per day for compounds with structural alerts for genotoxicity.
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Laurus nobilis L. (Family Lauraceae) is an evergreen tree widely distributed in the Mediterranean area and Europe. It is used in folk medicine of different countries as a stomachic and carminative as well as in treatment of gastric diseases. Extracts obtained with different methods (methanol and chloroform) from laurel leaves were evaluated for their gastroprotective activities in the rat. The antioxidant capacity of the different extracts has been also measured in vitro. In order to confirm the activities investigated, histological observations were performed. The gastric damage was significantly reduced by all extracts administered. The more effective protection was produced by chloroformic and methanolic crude extracts. The results obtained after oral administration of L. nobilis leaf extracts are in good agreement with their antioxidant capacity, confirming the relationship between pharmacological efficacy and antiradical activity. Histological evidences confirm the results evaluated with the animal procedures.
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The present study was conducted in order to assess the chemical composition of Laurus, its antioxidant activities, and benefit from the Laurus extract effect on neurotoxicity caused by lead acetate (Pb). Chemical profile was assayed by using liquid chromatography coupled with high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HR-MS). In this study, 40 male rats were divided into four groups (10 rats per each group): (1) control group, (2) Laurus group: rats treated with 250 mg/kg b. wt. of Laurus leaves extract, (3) Pb group: rats treated with 100 mg/kg b. wt. of lead acetate, (4) Pb + Laurus group: rats treated with 250 mg/kg b. wt. of Laurus leaves extract in addition to lead acetate for 30 days. At the end of experiment, some estimates were calculated from blood samples, brain tissue, and histological examination. The results showed that the extract is highly affluent in total flavonoids, total phenolic, and also has antioxidant activity. The LC-MS appeared a wide range of compounds in the extract. The oxidative stress resulted from exposure to lead acetate has been reported to cause reduction in body and brain weights, levels of RBCs, acetylcholinesterase (AChE), GSH, SOD, and CAT in addition to increase in levels of WBCs and MAD. Moreover, Laurus leaves extract notably lessened the biochemical changes caused by lead acetate in the blood, homogenate, and brain tissue (P < 0.05). The current study indicates the antioxidant activity of Laurus leaves extract and assumes that it has a defensive role against the oxidative damage caused by lead in a rat's brain.
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Scope: Podocytes are a component of glomerular filtration barrier with interdigitating foot processes. The podocyte function depends on dynamics of actin cytoskeletal and focal adhesion crucial for foot process structure. This study investigated the renoprotective effects of eucalyptol on the F-actin cytoskeleton formation and focal adhesion assembly in glucose-loaded podocytes and diabetic kidneys. Methods and results: Eucalyptol at 1-20 #x000B5;M reversed the reduction of cellular level of F-actin, ezrin, cortactin and Arp2/3 in 33 mM glucose-loaded mouse podocytes, and oral administration of 10 mg/kg eucalyptol elevated tissue levels of actin cytoskeletal proteins reduced in db/db mouse kidneys. Eucalyptol inhibited podocyte morphological changes, showing F-actin cytoskeleton formation in cortical regions and agminated F-actin along the cell periphery. Eucalyptol induced focal adhesion proteins of paxillin, vinculin, talin1, FAK and Src in glucose-exposed podocytes and diabetic kidneys. Additionally, GTP-binding Rac1, Cdc42, Rho A and ROCK were upregulated in glucose-stimulated podocytes and diabetic kidneys, which was attenuated by supplying eucalyptol. Rho A gene depletion partially diminished GSK3β induction of podocytes by glucose. Conclusion: Eucalyptol ameliorated F-actin cytoskeleton formation and focal adhesion assembly through blockade of Rho signaling pathway entailing partial involvement of GSK3β, which may inhibit barrier dysfunction of podocytes and resultant proteinuria. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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Eucalyptol is a compound that has demonstrated antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and bronchodilator effects, but there are no investigations about the effects of this constituent on the respiratory system mechanics in relation to acute lung injury caused by short-term cigarette smoke (CS) exposure. In view of the above, this work investigated the effects of Eucalyptol on the mechanics of the respiratory system of mice in short-term CS exposure. For this, we used data from respiratory mechanics in vivo, and histopathology and lung parenchymal morpho-metry analysis in vitro. The experiments were performed on C57black/6 mice divided into 5 groups. One group exposed to ambient air (AA + T), and another to cigarette smoke (CS + T) for 5 consecutive days and treated with 1% Tween 80 solution. The other groups were exposed to cigarette smoke for 5 consecutive days, and treated with Eucalyptol at doses of 30 mg/kg (CS + E30), 100 mg/kg (CS + E100), 300 mg/kg (CS + E300). Our results demonstrated significant changes in all variables of respiratory mechanics and lung parenchyma mor-phometry analyzed for the AA + T group compared to the CS + T group, confirming the establishment of the lesion induced by exposure to cigarette smoke. We also observed that mice treated with Eucalyptol orally at a dose of 300 mg/kg (CS + E300) showed improvement in all variables compared to the group exposed to cigarette smoke and treated with 1% Tween 80 (CS + T) demonstrating the effectiveness of Eucalyptol in preventing lung injury induced by exposure to CS. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that the Eucalyptol was able to prevent the acute lung injury in mice submitted to short-term cigarette smoke exposure.
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An optimised 1,8-cineole-loaded self-microemulsifying drug delivery system (CIN-SMEDDS) with a mean droplet size, polydispersity index, mean zeta potential and encapsulation efficiency of 38.14 ± 1.47 nm, 0.208 ± 0.036, −9.312 ± 1.764 mV and 95.35% ± 1.13%, respectively, successfully ameliorated the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced endothelial injury in mice. Acute toxicity assay in mice through the oral administration of CIN-SMEDDS showed that the median lethal dose of CIN-SMEDDS was 2998.9 mg/kg. The results of 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay indicated that the cytotoxicity of CIN-SMEDDS to Caco-2 cells may be ascribed to the surfactant/co-surfactant mixture. In particular, CIN-SMEDDS remarkably inhibited inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8 with a simultaneous increase in IL-10 in LPS-treated mice. Haematoxylin-eosin staining results showed that CIN-SMEDDS attenuated LPS-induced vascular endothelial injury. Western blot results showed that the vascular protective effects of CIN-SMEDDS were associated with the NF-κB and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ signalling pathways. These findings indicated that CIN-SMEDDS can attenuate LPS-induced endothelial injury and thus was proposed as a promising agent for the treatment of inflammatory cardiovascular disease.
Article
1,8-cineole is a natural monoterpene cyclic ether present in eucalyptus and has been reported to exhibit anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. The therapeutic effects of 1,8-cineole on neuropathic pain and the molecular mechanisms of its pharmacological actions remain largely unknown. In the present study, we investigated the analgesic mechanisms of orally administered 1,8-cineole in a rat model of chronic constriction injury (CCI) and examined the drug-induced modulation of P2X3 receptor expression in dorsal root ganglia. The mechanical withdrawal threshold and thermal withdrawal latency were measured in rats to assess behavioural changes 7 and 14 days after CCI surgery. Changes in P2X3 receptor mRNA expression of L4-5 dorsal root ganglia were analysed using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction at the 7th and 14th postoperative day. Additionally, we examined the expression of P2X3 receptor protein in L4-5 dorsal root ganglia 7 and 14 days after surgery using immunohistochemistry and western blots. We found that 1,8-cineole can alleviate pathological pain caused by P2X3 receptor stimulation and explored new methods for the prevention and treatment of neuropathic pain.
Article
Background: Eucalyptol is a monoterpenoid oil present in many plants, principally the Eucalyptus species, and has been reported to have anti-inflammatory and antioxidative effects. Hypothesis/purpose: Since the potential effect of eucalyptol on mouse lung repair has not yet been studied, and considering that chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the fourth leading cause of death worldwide, the aim of this study was to investigate eucalyptol treatment in emphysematous mice. Study design: Male mice (C57BL/6) were divided into the following groups: control (sham-exposed), cigarette smoke (CS) (mice exposed to 12 cigarettes a day for 60 days), CS + 1 mg/ml (CS mice treated with 1 mg/ml eucalyptol for 60 days), and CS + 10 mg/ml (CS mice treated with 10 mg/ml eucalyptol for 60 days). Mice in the CS and control groups received vehicle for 60 days. Eucalyptol (or the vehicle) was administered via inhalation (15 min/daily). Mice were sacrificed 24 h after the completion of the 120-day experimental procedure. Methods: Histology and additional lung morphometric analyses, including analysis of mean linear intercept (Lm) and volume density of alveolar septa (Vv[alveolar septa]) were performed. Biochemical analyses were also performed using colorimetric assays for myeloperoxidase (MPO), malondialdehyde (MDA), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, in addition to using ELISA kits for the determination of inflammatory marker levels (tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNF-α], interleukin-1 beta [IL-1β], interleukin 6 [IL-6], keratinocyte chemoattractant [KC], and tumor growth factor beta 1 [TGF-β1]). Finally, we investigated protein levels by western blotting (nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 [Nrf2], nuclear factor kappa B [NF-κB], matrix metalloproteinase 12 [MMP-12], tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase 1 [TIMP-1], neutrophil elastase [NE], and elastin). Results: Eucalyptol promoted lung repair at the higher dose (10 mg/ml), with de novo formation of alveoli, when compared to the CS group. This result was confirmed with Lm and Vv[alveolar septa] morphometric analyses. Moreover, collagen deposit around the peribronchiolar area was reduced with eucalyptol treatment when compared to the CS group. Eucalyptol also reduced all inflammatory (MPO, TNF-α IL-1β IL-6, KC, and TGF-β1) and redox marker levels (MDA) when compared to the CS group (at least p < 0.05). In general, 10 mg/ml eucalyptol was more effective than 1 mg/ml and, at both doses, we observed an upregulation of SOD activity when compared to the CS group (p < 0.001). Eucalyptol upregulated elastin and TIMP-1 levels, and reduced neutrophil elastase (NE) levels, when compared to the CS group. Conclusion: In summary, eucalyptol promoted lung repair in emphysematous mice and represents a potential therapeutic phytomedicine in the treatment of COPD.
Article
Cancers induced by human papillomavirus (HPV) infection remain a significant public health threat, fueling the study of new therapies. Laurel (Laurus nobilis) compounds and extracts recently showed in vitro activity against HPV-transformed cell lines. This work aims to evaluate the in vivo efficacy and hepatic toxicity of a laurel extract, in a transgenic mouse model of HPV16-induced cancer. The extract was administered in drinking water (20 mg/animal/day) for three consecutive weeks, using four experimental groups (n=10) (group I: HPV16-/- without treatment, group II: treated HPV16-/-, group III: HPV16+/- without treatment and group IV: treated HPV16+/-). Following the treatment period animals were sacrificed and skin samples were used to classify skin lesions histologically. Toxicological parameters included hematological and biochemical blood markers, splenic and hepatic histology and hepatic oxidative stress. The extract did not prevent the progression of HPV16-induced cutaneous lesions in this model. Treated wild-type animals showed mild hepatitis, while transgenic animals suffered weight loss. However, there were no changes concerning hematological, biochemical and hepatic oxidative stress markers.
Article
Scope The maintenance of interpodocyte slit diaphragm is critical in the sieving function of glomerular filtration barrier. Eucalyptol is a natural constituent in aromatic plants with antioxidant properties. This study investigated whether and how eucalyptol inhibited podocyte slit diaphragm malfunction in glucose‐exposed podocytes and diabetic mouse kidneys. Methods and results Podocytes were incubated in media containing 33 mM glucose with 1–20 μM eucalyptol. The in vivo model employed db/db mice orally administrated with 10 mg kg⁻¹ eucalyptol. Nontoxic eucalyptol enhanced podocyte expression of nephrin, podocin, FAT‐1, CD2AP and α‐actinin‐4 diminished by glucose. Oral administration of eucalyptol augmented the induction of the slit diaphragm proteins, α‐actinin‐4 and integrin β1 in diabetic kidneys, and ameliorated glomerular fibrosis and foot process effacement. Eucalyptol counteracted the RAGE induction in podocytes with glucose or AGE‐BSA, and elevated the reduction of the slit diaphragm proteins by AGE‐BSA. Eucalyptol attenuated the RAGE induction and AGE accumulation in diabetic kidneys. The blockade of ERK‐c‐Myc signaling enhanced the nephrin and CD2AP expression down‐regulated in AGE‐exposed podocytes. These results indicate that eucalyptol blocked glucose‐induced AGE‐RAGE axis and podocyte injury through disturbing RAGE‐ERK‐c‐Myc signaling. Conclusion Eucalyptol may be a potent agent antagonizing diabetes‐associated malformation of interpodocyte slit junction and podocyte actin cytoskeleton. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
Article
This study was conducted to investigate whether Eucalyptol plays a role in influencing bacterial growth in cigarette smoke exposed lungs. Rats were exposed to air (control) and cigarette smoke (smoking) in presence and absence of Eucalyptol (260 mg/day). Morphological analysis of lung structures and status of airway mucous production were observed under a microscope. Pathological changes of ciliated columnar epithelium in airways were examined using transmission electron microscopy. MUC5AC protein and mRNA expression in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and lungs were determined. Application of Eucalyptol reduced pulmonary bullae formation and airway mucus overproduction in the smoke exposed lungs. Treatment with Eucalyptol attenuated ciliated cell damage in cigarette smoke exposed lungs. Bacterial colonies of lungs were obviously lower in the Eucalyptol treated rats than that in the smoking rats (P < 0.01). Treatment with Eucalyptol reduced the counts of bacterial colonization residing in the challenged lungs (P < 0.01). Application of Eucalyptol not only decreased MUC5AC protein expression in BALF and tobacco-exposed lungs but also suppressed its mRNA expression in the lungs (all P < 0.05). Intervention of Eucalyptol benefits elimination of bacterial organisms from tobacco exposed lungs through attenuating ciliated cell damage and suppressing MUC5AC expression in the lungs. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
Article
Background: Previous studies of patients with type 2 diabetes showed that capsules containing 1, 2, and 3 g of bay leaves lower fasting blood glucose, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and total cholesterol concentrations after 30 days of treatment. However, the acute effect of bay leaves on postprandial glycemic and appetite responses has not yet been determined. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the effect of cookies containing different doses of bay leaves on postprandial glycemia, appetite, palatability, and gastrointestinal well-being in healthy subjects. Methods: In a randomized crossover study, 20 subjects consumed 3 test foods each providing 50 g of available carbohydrates. The test foods were provided as breakfast, 1–2 weeks apart, and were control cookies (CC) made from 100% wheat flour, cookies containing 3% (w/w) bay leaf powder (B3), and cookies containing 6% (w/w) bay leaf powder (B6). Blood glucose, subjective appetite, and gastrointestinal well-being were assessed at fasting and postprandially for 2 hours. Palatability of the test cookies was measured using 9-point hedonic scale. Results: There was a significant effect of time (p < 0.001), treatment (p = 0.033), and Time × Treatment interaction (p = 0.001) on postprandial blood glucose concentrations. Post hoc pairwise comparison showed that blood glucose concentration was significantly reduced by B6 compared to CC at 30 and 45 minutes (p = 0.014 and p = 0.010, respectively). However, there were no significant differences (p = 0.411) in blood glucose incremental areas under the curves (iAUCs) among the treatments. No significant effect on any of the appetite parameters was observed among the treatments. All of the cookies were rated as acceptable and subjects did not report any gastrointestinal discomfort. Conclusion: In conclusion, the results indicate that cookies containing bay leaf powder at 6% (w/w) incorporation level provides a palatable product that induces a reduced glycemic response.
Article
The accurate identification of bay leaf in natural products commerce may often be confusing as the name is applied to several different species of aromatic plants. The true “bay leaf”, also known as “bay laurel” or “sweet bay”, is sourced from the tree Laurus nobilis, a native of the Mediterranean region. Nevertheless, the leaves of several other species including Cinnamomum tamala, Litsea glaucescens, Pimenta racemosa, Syzygium polyanthum, and Umbellularia californica are commonly substituted or mistaken for true bay leaves due to their similarity in the leaf morphology, aroma, and flavor. Substitute species are, however, often sold as “bay leaves”. As such, the name “bay leaf” in literature and herbal commerce may refer to any of these botanicals. The odor and flavor of these leaves are, however, not the same as the true bay leaf, and for that reason they should not be used in cooking as a substitute for L. nobilis. Some of the bay leaf substitutes can also cause potential health problems. Therefore, the correct identification of the true bay leaf is important. The present work provides a detailed comparative study of the leaf morphological and anatomical features of L. nobilis and its common surrogates to allow for correct identification.
Article
Effects of dietary supplementation of Laurus nobilis on selected biochemical parameters and plasma oxidative status in growing rabbits, fed with and without enriched-fat diet, integrated with and without dried bay leaves meal, were investigated. In the test, 120 New Zealand white 35-day-old male rabbits were divided into four homogeneous groups of 30 animals each. A negative control group (CON) received a feed that met the animal nutrient requirement; a positive control group (CG) receiving a supplement of 2.5% pig fat in feed; an experimental group (GA) feeding an integration of 2.5% pig fat and 1 g/kg of dried bay leaves (Laurus nobilis) in feed; an experimental group (CA) with dried bay leaves at the rate of 1 g/kg in feed. The dietary integration with dried bay leaves meal have resulted in a significant decrease in the blood lipid profile, glycemic profile and liver enzymes, with reduced levels of ALT and AST, glucose, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, triglycerides and increased HDL cholesterol. Plasma oxidative status markers have statistically improved with an increase in blood total phenols, SOD, ORAC, the FRAP and lipo-vitamin concentration, together with a significant reduction in ROMs and the MDA values. The results of present research underline that the dietary treatment with bay leaves meal, in the extend of 1 g/kg feed, confirms the lowering cholesterol activity and the epato-protective and ipo-glycemic effect in enrich-fat diet, controlling the oxidative status of plasma markers.
Article
Free radical scavenging and antioxidants have attracted attention as a way to prevent the progression of Parkinson's disease (PD). This study was carried out to investigate the effects of n-hexane fraction from Laurus nobilis L. (Lauraceae) leaves (HFL) on dopamine (DA)-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and apoptosis in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. Compared with apomorphine (APO, ) as a positive control, the HFL value for DA-induced apoptosis was , and two major compounds from HFL, costunolide and dehydrocostus lactone, were and , respectively. HFL and these major compounds significantly inhibited ROS generation in DA-induced SH-SY5Y cells. A rodent 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) model of PD was employed to investigate the potential neuroprotective effects of HFL in vivo. 6-OHDA was injected into the substantia nigra of young adult rats and an immunohistochemical analysis was conducted to quantitate the tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive neurons. HFL significantly inhibited 6-OHDA-induced TH-positive cell loss in the substantia nigra and also reduced DA induced -synuclein (SYN) formation in SH-SY5Y cells. These results indicate that HFL may have neuroprotective effects against DA-induced in vitro and in vivo models of PD.
Article
Aims: Acute pancreatitis (AP) is an inflammatory condition wherein pro-inflammatory mediators, oxidative stress, and NF-κB signaling play a key role. Currently, no specific therapy exists and treatment is mainly supportive and targeted to prevent local pancreatic injury and systemic inflammatory complications. This study was aimed to examine whether 1,8-cineole, a plant monoterpene with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties could ameliorate cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis. Main methods: AP was induced in Swiss mice by six one hourly injections of cerulein (50 μg/kg, i.p.). 1,8-cineole (100, 200 and 400mg/kg, p.o.) was administered 1h prior to first cerulein injection, keeping vehicle and thalidomide treated groups as controls. Blood samples were taken 6-h later to determine serum levels of amylase and lipase, and cytokines. The pancreas was removed for morphological examination, myeloperoxidase (MPO) and malondialdehyde (MDA) assays, reduced glutathione (GSH) levels, and for nuclear factor (NF)-κB immunostaining. Key findings: 1,8-cineole effectively reduced the cerulein-induced histological damage, pancreatic edema and NF-κB expression, levels of MPO activity and MDA, and replenished the GSH depletion. Cerulein increased serum levels of amylase and lipase, and pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 were also decreased by 1,8-cineole pretreatment, similar to thalidomide, a TNF-α inhibitor. The anti-inflammatory IL-10 cytokine level was, however, enhanced by 1,8-cineole. Significance: These findings indicate that 1,8-cineole can attenuate cerulein-induced AP via an anti-inflammatory mechanism and by combating oxidative stress. Further studies are needed to clearly elucidate its benefits in patients on acute pancreatitis.
Article
The aim of this study was to identify the hepatoprotective effects of reynosin, sesquiterpenes from the leaves of Laurus nobilis, against thioacetamide (TAA)-induced apoptosis in primary hepatocyte cultures and an in vivo mouse model. Rat hepatocytes were isolated and pretreated with 0.13, 0.64, or 3.22 μM reynosin and then exposed to 100 mM TAA. Reynosin treatment significantly inhibited TAA-induced apoptosis and hepatocellular DNA damage in primary rat hepatocytes. We observed an increase in levels of antiapoptotic Bcl-2, Bcl-XL mRNA and a decrease in levels of proapoptotic Bax mRNA following reynosin treatment of hepatocytes. Apoptosis in BALB/c mice was induced with intra-peritoneal injection of 200 mg/kg TAA for 2 weeks every other day. Then reynosin (5 mg/kg) and TAA were intragastrically given for 3 weeks every other day. Aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase levels in the blood of mice were decreased in the reynosin administration group. Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL mRNA levels were increased, and the Bax mRNA level was decreased in reynosin-treated mice. Thus, reynosin inhibited TAA-induced apoptosis in primary hepatocytes and an in vivo mouse model.
Article
Keywords:Laurus nobilis;laurel oil;airborne;allergic contact dermatitis;herbal remedies;medicaments;cross sensitivity;plant extracts;sesquiterpene lactones
Article
Plants of 27 families, encompassing 75 species, have been selected on the basis of medicinal folklore. They are being studied in a broad screening programme for their anti-inflammatory activity, using carrageenin foot oedema in rats. Only 4 species were very active, inhibiting carrageenin foot oedema by 42 to 74%, but overall 72% exhibited some anti-inflammatory activity.
Article
We report that spice, vegetable and fruit extracts inhibit 12–O-tetradecanoylphorbol–13-acetate (TPA)-induced ear oedema in mice. About 100 methanol extracts obtained from spices, vegetables and fruits were assayed and their inhibition ratios calculated. In general, the spice extracts were more effective inhibitors than vegetable and fruit extracts. The methanol extracts of hop, stevia, cinnamon, turmeric, mate, mint, New Zealand spinach, watercress, tomato and seedling of radish markedly inhibited the inflammatory activity induced by TPA in mice. Two active compounds, humulone and lupeol 3-palmitate were separated from hop and stevia, respectively.
Article
This study investigates time-dependent aroma changes in human milk after intake of an odorant-containing pharmaceutical preparation by correlating sensory evaluation with quantitative results. Human milk donors ingested 100 mg of encapsulated 1,8-cineole. 21 milk samples from 12 participants underwent sensory analysis, of which 14 samples were quantified by stable isotope dilution assay (SIDA) analysis. Furthermore, several consecutive breast milk and exhaled breath gas samples from one volunteer after intake of 1,8-cineole were analysed by proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) and sensory evaluation on three separate days. The emergence of the characteristic eucalyptus-like odour of 1,8-cineole in exhaled breath after capsule ingestion coincided with its transfer into milk; its presence in breath was therefore used to indicate the time at which milk should be expressed for gathering samples. Odorant transfer could not be confirmed by sensory analysis in 7 of the 21 milk samples, most likely due to disadvantageous timing of milk expression. The other 14 samples exhibited a distinct eucalyptus-like odour. Quantitative results matched these observations with <20 μg/kg 1,8-cineole in the odourless samples and 70 to an estimated 2090 μg/kg 1,8-cineole in the other samples. Transfer of 1,8-cineole into human milk after oral intake is time dependent and exhibits large inter and intra-individual differences.
Article
The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of curcumin, β-myrcene (myrcene) and 1,8-cineole (cineole) on antioxidant defense system in rats given a persistent environmental pollutant (2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, TCDD). Rats (n = 112) were divided randomly into 8 equal groups. One group was kept as control and given corn oil as carrier. TCDD was orally administered at the dose of 2 μg/kg/week. Curcumin, myrcene and cineole were orally administered at the doses of 100 mg/kg/day, 200 mg/kg/day and 100 mg/kg/ day, respectively, by gavages dissolved in corn oil with and without TCDD. The liver samples were taken from half of all rats on day 30 and from the remaining half on day 60 for the determination of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), reduced glutathione (GSH), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and CuZn-SOD levels by spectrophotometric method. The results indicated that although TCDD significantly (p ≤ 0.01) increased formation of TBARS, it caused a significant decline in the levels of GSH, CAT, GSH-Px and CuZn-SOD in rats. In contrast, curcumin, myrcene and cineole significantly increased GSH, CAT, GSH-Px and CuZn-SOD levels but decreased formation of TBARS. Additionally, the antioxidative effects of curcumin, myrcene and cineole were increased at day 60 compared to day 30. In the TCDD groups given curcumin, myrcene and cineole, oxidative stress decreased by time. In conclusion, curcumin, myrcene and cineole showed antioxidant activity and eliminated TCDD-induced oxidative stress in rats in a time-dependent manner.
Article
Bay leaves (Laurus nobilis) have been shown to improve insulin function in vitro but the effects on people have not been determined. The objective of this study was to determine if bay leaves may be important in the prevention and/or alleviation of type 2 diabetes. Forty people with type 2 diabetes were divided into 4 groups and given capsules containing 1, 2 or 3 g of ground bay leaves per day for 30 days or a placebo followed by a 10 day washout period. All three levels of bay leaves reduced serum glucose with significant decreases ranging from 21 to 26% after 30 d. Total cholesterol decreased, 20 to 24%, after 30 days with larger decreases in low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol of 32 to 40%. High density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol increased 29 and 20% in the groups receiving 1 and 2 g of bay leaves, respectively. Triglycerides also decreased 34 and 25% in groups consuming 1 and 2 g of bay leaves, respectively, after 30 d. There were no significant changes in the placebo group. In summary, this study demonstrates that consumption of bay leaves, 1 to 3 g/d for 30 days, decreases risk factors for diabetes and cardiovascular diseases and suggests that bay leaves may be beneficial for people with type 2 diabetes.
Article
Nine condensed tannin related compounds isolated from LINDERAE UMBELLATAE Ramus, (+)-catechin ( 1), (-)-epicatechin ( 2), proanthocyanidin B-1 ( 3), B-2 ( 4), B-4 ( 5), trimer A ( 6), trimer B ( 7), cinnamtannin B (1) ( 8) and cinnamtannin D (1) ( 9), were tested for their effects on peptic activity and stress-induced gastric lesions in mice. Peptic activity of rat gastric juice was suppressed by 6 and 7 IN VITRO, and slightly suppressed by 8 and 9. In pylorus-ligated mice, these compounds, except for 4, administered orally exhibited anti-peptic activity. Pretreatments of 4,6 and 7 orally protected mice against stress-induced gastric lesions. Effects of these compounds on digestive systems were dìscussed.
Article
Two methods, using methylenelactone dimethylamino adducts, were used to remove selectively alpha-methylene gamma-butyrolactones from Laurus nobilis L. extracts. Isolated lactones were identified and "treated" extracts recovered. Two guinea-pig groups were sensitized to crude extracts and "treated" extracts, respectively, and tested with primary sensitizer and with different lactones. Only the first group showed strong skin reactions to crude extracts and to the lactones. Treated extracts were shown to be anallergic.
Article
The possible antiulcerogenic activity of Laurus nobilis seeds was tested on experimentally (ethanol) induced gastric ulcer in rats. The results indicated antiulcerogenic activity for 20 and 40% aqueous extracts as well as for the oily fraction of these seeds. In acute toxicity studies, the aqueous extract was found safe with LD50 compared to oil LD50 0.33 ml/kg body weight.
Article
The methanolic extract from the leaves of Laurus nobilis (bay leaf, laurel) potently inhibited the elevation of blood ethanol level in ethanol-loaded rat. Through bioassay-guided separation, costunolide, dehydrocostus lactone, and santamarine were isolated as the active constituents and the alpha-methylene-gamma-butyrolactone structure was found to be essential for the preventive effect on ethanol absorption. In addition, the retardation of gastric emptying seemed to be partially involved in the preventive effects.
Article
Through a bioassay-guided separation using inhibitory activity on blood ethanol elevation in oral ethanol-loaded rat, various sesquiterpenes having an alpha-methylene-gamma-butyrolactone moiety, costunolide (1), dehydrocostus lactone (2), zaluzanin D (3), reynosin (4), santamarine (5), 3alpha-acetoxyeudesma-1,4(15),11(13)-trien-12,6alpha-+ ++olide (6) and 3-oxoeudesma-1,4,11(13)-trien-12,6alpha-olide (7), were isolated as the active principle from the leaves of Laurus nobilis (bay leaf, laurel). In order to characterize the structure requirement for the activity, several reduction products (2a-2d) and amino acid adducts (2e, 2f) of the alpha-methylene-gamma-butyrolactone moiety were synthesized from 2 and the inhibitory activities of these sesquiterpenes, together with alpha-methylene-gamma-butyrolactone (12) and its related compounds (13-16), were examined. These results indicated that the gamma-butyrolactone or gamma-butyrolactol moiety having alpha-methylene or alpha-methyl group was essential for the inhibitory activity on ethanol absorption. Since 1, 2 and 12 showed no significant effect on glucose absorption, these sesquiterpenes appeared to selectively inhibit ethanol absorption. In addition, the acute toxicities of 1 and 2 in a single oral administration were found to be lower than that of 12.
Article
Basic inhibitory mechanisms of costunolide and its active component, alpha-methylene-gamma-butyrolactone (alpha-MGBL), on blood-ethanol elevation were investigated in rats. In normal rats, blood-ethanol elevation (30 min later) induced by 20% (v/v) ethanol [5 ml/kg, per os (p.o.)] was strongly inhibited by pretreatment (30 min earlier) with costunolide and alpha-MGBL (50 mg/kg, p.o.). In pylorus-ligated rats given ethanol, blood-ethanol level (30 min) was barely elevated compared with that of normal rats. Neither costunolide nor alpha-MGBL affected the blood-ethanol elevation in pylorus-ligated rats or that induced by intraperitoneal and intraduodenal ethanol administration. Moreover, these compounds given orally induced no irreversible changes in alcohol dehydrogenase activity in rat liver. We continuously investigated the rate of gastric emptying in rats given various test meals. Costunolide and alpha-MGBL suppressed gastric emptying in rats given 20% ethanol and 1% sodium carboxymethyl cellulose. alpha-MGBL (50 mg/kg), but not costunolide, suppressed gastric emptying in 20% glucose-loaded rats. In an in vitro experiment, alpha-MGBL contracted the pylorus strip at a high concentration (20 mM), which was the estimated concentration in the stomach when the substance was given orally in vivo. These findings suggested that alpha-MGBL constricted the pylorus and caused delay of gastric emptying. Moreover, both compounds increased gastric fluid secretion with pepsin and mucus. In conclusion, the inhibitory effects of costunolide and alpha-MGBL on blood-ethanol elevation were based on inhibition of gastric emptying and dilution of the ethanol concentration by the increased gastric fluid.
Article
The leaf essential oil of Laurus nobilis Linn., Lauraceae, which has been used as an antiepileptic remedy in Iranian traditional medicine, was evaluated for anticonvulsant activity against experimental seizures. The essential oil protected mice against tonic convulsions induced by maximal electroshock and especially by pentylenetetrazole. Components responsible for this effect may be methyleugenol, eugenol and pinene present in the essential oil. At anticonvulsant doses, the essential oil produced sedation and motor impairment. This effect seems to be related in part to cineol, eugenol and methyleugenol. Although the essential oil had an acceptable acute toxicity, further studies are required before any absolute conclusions can be drawn.
Article
Through evaluation of the data accumulated in Data Bank of Turkish Folk Remedies (TUHIB), five plant remedies, which are used to treat stomach ache were selected to test for their anti-ulcerogenic potency. In order to confirm the claimed activities, either decoction or methanol extracts were prepared from the roots of Asphodelus aestivus and Cichorium intybus, herbs of Equisetum palustre and Viscum album ssp. album and fruits of Laurus nobilis, according to their folkloric application way and tested for their effects on ethanol-induced gastric ulcer model in rats. Pharmacological experiments clearly demonstrated that the relevant extracts of all the plants given orally showed significant stomach protection against this model of ulcerogenesis. Results were further evaluated by using histopathological techniques.