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Engineering design of lifting device weighing up to 3.5 tons

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The paper deals with the engineering design of lifting device weighing up to 3.5 tons. The first part is devoted to market research and the use of lifting equipment. Variant with a scissor construction and a hydraulic drive is chosen. The design itself follows. The machine composes five main parts: the lower frame, the scissor structure, the ramp, the mechanical lock and the drive mechanism. The individual chapters are devoted to design and analysis of these components.
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ScienceDirect
Available online at www.sciencedirect.com
Transportation Research Procedia 55 (2021) 621–628
2352-1465 © 2021 The Authors. Published by ELSEVIER B.V.
This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0)
Peer-review under responsibility of the scientific committee of the TRANSCOM 2021: 14th International scientific conference on
sustainable, modern and safe transport
10.1016/j.trpro.2021.07.095
10.1016/j.trpro.2021.07.095 2352-1465
© 2021 The Authors. Published by ELSEVIER B.V.
This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0)
Peer-review under responsibility of the scientic committee of the TRANSCOM 2021: 14th International scientic conference
on sustainable, modern and safe transport
Available online at www.sciencedirect.com
ScienceDirect
Transportation Research Procedia 00 (2021) 000000
www.elsevier.com/locate/procedia
2352-1465 © 2021 The Authors. Published by ELSEVIER B.V.
This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0)
Peer-review under responsibility of the scientific committee of the TRANSCOM 2021: 14th International scientific conference on sustainable,
modern and safe transport
14th International scientific conference on sustainable, modern and safe transport
Engineering design of lifting device weighing up to 3.5 tons
Matúš Čuchora*, Ľuboš Kučeraa, Marián Dzimkoa
aUniverzity of Žilina, Univerzitná 8215/1, Žilina 010 26, Slovakia
Abstract
The paper deals with the engineering design of lifting device weighing up to 3.5 tons. The first part is devoted to market research
and the use of lifting equipment. Variant with a scissor construction and a hydraulic drive is chosen. The design itself follows.
The machine composes five main parts: the lower frame, the scissor structure, the ramp, the mechanical lock and the drive
mechanism. The individual chapters are devoted to design and analysis of these components.
© 2021 The Authors. Published by ELSEVIER B.V.
This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0)
Peer-review under responsibility of the scientific committee of the TRANSCOM 2021: 14th International scientific conference
on sustainable, modern and safe transport
Keywords: engineering design; scissor cocnstruction; hydraulic drive
1. Introduction
The automotive industry is a key sector of the Slovak economy. The current but also future trend is the production
of an increasing number of cars that need maintenance. Whether it is a regular change of tires and engine oil or a
repair of worn parts. There are many authorized and private car repair shops in Slovakia that provide these services.
The main equipment of every car workshop is a lifting device. The market offers a wide range of quality and low-
quality equipment.
During the development of lifting equipment, several basic types of equipment were differentiated. They differ in
construction, type of drive, materials used. The device that is the content of this paper consists of five units. The base
is formed by the lower frame, to which the scissor structure is connected by means of pins. It is connected to a ramp.
The entire device is set in motion by a hydraulic drive unit and the safety of operation is ensured by a mechanical
lock. This is the standard layout that can be found on today's market.
* Corresponding author.
E-mail address: matus.cuchor@fstroj.uniza.sk
Available online at www.sciencedirect.com
ScienceDirect
Transportation Research Procedia 00 (2021) 000000
www.elsevier.com/locate/procedia
2352-1465 © 2021 The Authors. Published by ELSEVIER B.V.
This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0)
Peer-review under responsibility of the scientific committee of the TRANSCOM 2021: 14th International scientific conference on sustainable,
modern and safe transport
14th International scientific conference on sustainable, modern and safe transport
Engineering design of lifting device weighing up to 3.5 tons
Matúš Čuchora*, Ľuboš Kučeraa, Marián Dzimkoa
aUniverzity of Žilina, Univerzitná 8215/1, Žilina 010 26, Slovakia
Abstract
The paper deals with the engineering design of lifting device weighing up to 3.5 tons. The first part is devoted to market research
and the use of lifting equipment. Variant with a scissor construction and a hydraulic drive is chosen. The design itself follows.
The machine composes five main parts: the lower frame, the scissor structure, the ramp, the mechanical lock and the drive
mechanism. The individual chapters are devoted to design and analysis of these components.
© 2021 The Authors. Published by ELSEVIER B.V.
This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0)
Peer-review under responsibility of the scientific committee of the TRANSCOM 2021: 14th International scientific conference
on sustainable, modern and safe transport
Keywords: engineering design; scissor cocnstruction; hydraulic drive
1. Introduction
The automotive industry is a key sector of the Slovak economy. The current but also future trend is the production
of an increasing number of cars that need maintenance. Whether it is a regular change of tires and engine oil or a
repair of worn parts. There are many authorized and private car repair shops in Slovakia that provide these services.
The main equipment of every car workshop is a lifting device. The market offers a wide range of quality and low-
quality equipment.
During the development of lifting equipment, several basic types of equipment were differentiated. They differ in
construction, type of drive, materials used. The device that is the content of this paper consists of five units. The base
is formed by the lower frame, to which the scissor structure is connected by means of pins. It is connected to a ramp.
The entire device is set in motion by a hydraulic drive unit and the safety of operation is ensured by a mechanical
lock. This is the standard layout that can be found on today's market.
* Corresponding author.
E-mail address: matus.cuchor@fstroj.uniza.sk
622 Matúš Čuchor et al. / Transportation Research Procedia 55 (2021) 621628
2 Matus Cuchor, Lubos Kucera, Marian Dzimko / Transportation Research Procedia 00 (2021) 000000
The thesis deals with the design of a lifting device for lifting cars up to 3.5 tons, which is intended primarily for
tire service. The lifting device must meet several requirements. The first is the ability to lift a vehicle weighing a
maximum of 3.5 tons. In this category of vehicles, there are smaller city cars, but also limousines that have different
wheelbase dimensions, ground clearance and vehicle width. These parameters affect the overall shape of the device.
Another criterion in the design is the minimum stroke of the device 600 mm, for comfortable work of the technician.
Last but not least, the safety of the device is a priority. The equipment must be designed to meet these requirements.
2. Lifting device in practice
Lifting devices are used to lift loads in the vertical direction to a height of several centimeters to meters. There
are different types of lifting equipment. Each of them can be used for a different application. Safety in their use is
paramount, so there are standards that address this safety. Standard STN 27 0143 contains safety principles,
maintenance, and operation of lifting equipment.
According to the method of force transmission, they are divided into:
mechanical,
pneumatic,
hydraulic,
combined.
3. Design of lifting device dimensions
The design must be based on the dimensions of the lifted load, which is a car weighing up to 3.5 tons. In this
category of cars, there are small hatchback vehicles, but also vehicles with an SUV or limousine body. The decisive
parameters when designing the dimensions of the lifting device are the wheelbase, the ground clearance and width
of vehicle. These parameters belong to the standardized data on the vehicle, which are determined by the standard
STN 30 0026. When designing the height of the lifting device, the lowest clear height of cars, which starts at 130
mm, is limiting. The wheelbase is between 2500 mm for small vehicles and 3000 mm for limousines. The last
parameter influencing the shape of the device is width, which normally ranges around 1500 mm.
Figure 1 shows a hatchback car with a wheelbase of 2500 mm and a ground clearance of 140 mm on a lifting
device at the bottom dead center.
Figure 1 Car on a lifting device
Matúš Čuchor et al. / Transportation Research Procedia 55 (2021) 621628 623
2 Matus Cuchor, Lubos Kucera, Marian Dzimko / Transportation Research Procedia 00 (2021) 000000
The thesis deals with the design of a lifting device for lifting cars up to 3.5 tons, which is intended primarily for
tire service. The lifting device must meet several requirements. The first is the ability to lift a vehicle weighing a
maximum of 3.5 tons. In this category of vehicles, there are smaller city cars, but also limousines that have different
wheelbase dimensions, ground clearance and vehicle width. These parameters affect the overall shape of the device.
Another criterion in the design is the minimum stroke of the device 600 mm, for comfortable work of the technician.
Last but not least, the safety of the device is a priority. The equipment must be designed to meet these requirements.
2. Lifting device in practice
Lifting devices are used to lift loads in the vertical direction to a height of several centimeters to meters. There
are different types of lifting equipment. Each of them can be used for a different application. Safety in their use is
paramount, so there are standards that address this safety. Standard STN 27 0143 contains safety principles,
maintenance, and operation of lifting equipment.
According to the method of force transmission, they are divided into:
mechanical,
pneumatic,
hydraulic,
combined.
3. Design of lifting device dimensions
The design must be based on the dimensions of the lifted load, which is a car weighing up to 3.5 tons. In this
category of cars, there are small hatchback vehicles, but also vehicles with an SUV or limousine body. The decisive
parameters when designing the dimensions of the lifting device are the wheelbase, the ground clearance and width
of vehicle. These parameters belong to the standardized data on the vehicle, which are determined by the standard
STN 30 0026. When designing the height of the lifting device, the lowest clear height of cars, which starts at 130
mm, is limiting. The wheelbase is between 2500 mm for small vehicles and 3000 mm for limousines. The last
parameter influencing the shape of the device is width, which normally ranges around 1500 mm.
Figure 1 shows a hatchback car with a wheelbase of 2500 mm and a ground clearance of 140 mm on a lifting
device at the bottom dead center.
Figure 1 Car on a lifting device
Matus Cuchor, Lubos Kucera, Marian Dzimko / Transportation Research Procedia 00 (2021) 000000 3
The dimensions of the lifting device at its bottom and top dead center are described in Figure 2. The top view is
shown in Figure 3.
Dimensions of the lifting device when viewed from the side:


  
  
  

Dimensions of the lifting device when viewed from above:
  
  

4. Forces acting on the structure
The calculation of the forces, stresses and reactions of the construction plays an important role in the design of
the device. The stability, safety and faultless operation of the whole mechanism depend on the results of the
calculation. The lifting device is a dynamic machine, where the individual components are given speed and
Figure 2 Dimension of the lifting device: side view
Figure 3 Dimensions of the lifting device: top view
624 Matúš Čuchor et al. / Transportation Research Procedia 55 (2021) 621628
4 Matus Cuchor, Lubos Kucera, Marian Dzimko / Transportation Research Procedia 00 (2021) 000000
acceleration. However, there are only three positions of the device that need to be verified for load. It is the bottom
dead center, the top dead center, and the position at which the piston must exert the greatest force in order to set the
device in motion. The following chapters show the calculation of the force required to move the device.
4.1. Forces acting on the structure at arm tilt BD, α=13˚
=1370 
/2=685 
 =1266,681 
 = 17167,5 
Static equilibrium conditions according to figure 4:
 = 0 → − .
2+. = 0 →  =.
2
 →  = 0,512 .  = 8789,760
(1)

= 0 → −  + 
+
= 0 → − + 0,512 + 
= 0 → 
= 0,512 . 
=8789,760
(2)
= −
(3)
= −
(4)
Figure 4 Position of the device when the arms are tilted 13˚
Matúš Čuchor et al. / Transportation Research Procedia 55 (2021) 621628 625
4 Matus Cuchor, Lubos Kucera, Marian Dzimko / Transportation Research Procedia 00 (2021) 000000
acceleration. However, there are only three positions of the device that need to be verified for load. It is the bottom
dead center, the top dead center, and the position at which the piston must exert the greatest force in order to set the
device in motion. The following chapters show the calculation of the force required to move the device.
4.1. Forces acting on the structure at arm tilt BD, α=13˚
=1370 
/2 = 685 
 =1266,681 
 = 17167,5 
Static equilibrium conditions according to figure 4:
 = 0 → − .
2+. = 0 →  =.
2
 →  = 0,512 .  = 8789,760
(1)
 = 0 → −  + + = 0 → − + 0,512 + = 0 →  = 0,512 . 
=8789,760
(2)
= −
(3)
= −
(4)
Figure 4 Position of the device when the arms are tilted 13˚
Matus Cuchor, Lubos Kucera, Marian Dzimko / Transportation Research Procedia 00 (2021) 000000 5
4.2. Conditions of static balance of the BD arm
Based on the symmetry of the device, the uniform distribution of the forces acting on the structure and the
identity of the arms AC and BD, it is sufficient to perform the calculation for only one of these arms. For this
purpose, the arm BD is selected, the static release of the forces of which is shown in Figure 5, the forces acting
being shown in red and the reactions in green.
Static equilibrium conditions:
              
(5)

  




   

 



           
(6)
Rotation around point B:

  


 



 
  
(7)
By calculating the system of equations, we achieve equation 8, which can be used to determine the required
force of the piston in any position:
 

  
(8)
Based on the derived formula for calculating the force of the piston AE and the known angles of the arm BD and
the piston AE from the geometry, a clear Table 1 was compiled, where the forces of the piston AE at individual
inclinations of the arm BD are described. This development of piston force is graphically shown in Figure 6.
Figure 5 Forces on the BD arm
626 Matúš Čuchor et al. / Transportation Research Procedia 55 (2021) 621628
6 Matus Cuchor, Lubos Kucera, Marian Dzimko / Transportation Research Procedia 00 (2021) 000000
Table 1 Piston forces at individual tilts of the BD arm
Angle α of the BD arm
>
˚
@
Angle β of the piston AE
>
˚
@
Piston force
>
N
@
3 7,9 0
5 13 0
7 18 22398,602
9 22,7 35807,995
11 27,2 45419,092
13 31,4 53085,423
15 35,3 47841,020
17 38,9 43389,614
19 42,3 41075,039
21 45,4 38816,194
23 48,3 37031,032
24 49,6 36276,123
The final solution and design of the lifting device is shown in the Figure 7. The design of the individual
components of the device was based on the calculated forces acting on the structure. The device consists of five
basic components, which are interconnected by pins. The lower part is formed by a lower frame to which the scissor
structure is attached. the upper part of the device is formed by a ramp, which serves to support the lifted vehicle. The
pistons set the whole device in motion. The safety of the device is ensured by a mechanical lock, which
mechanically closes the scissor system and prevents the scissor system from moving downwards.
Figure 6 Development of piston force
Matúš Čuchor et al. / Transportation Research Procedia 55 (2021) 621628 627
6 Matus Cuchor, Lubos Kucera, Marian Dzimko / Transportation Research Procedia 00 (2021) 000000
Table 1 Piston forces at individual tilts of the BD arm
Angle α of the BD arm >˚@
Angle β of the piston AE >˚@
Piston force >N@
3
7,9
0
5
13
0
7
18
22398,602
9
22,7
35807,995
11
27,2
45419,092
13
31,4
53085,423
15
35,3
47841,020
17
38,9
43389,614
19
42,3
41075,039
21
45,4
38816,194
23
48,3
37031,032
24
49,6
36276,123
The final solution and design of the lifting device is shown in the Figure 7. The design of the individual
components of the device was based on the calculated forces acting on the structure. The device consists of five
basic components, which are interconnected by pins. The lower part is formed by a lower frame to which the scissor
structure is attached. the upper part of the device is formed by a ramp, which serves to support the lifted vehicle. The
pistons set the whole device in motion. The safety of the device is ensured by a mechanical lock, which
mechanically closes the scissor system and prevents the scissor system from moving downwards.
Figure 6 Development of piston force
Matus Cuchor, Lubos Kucera, Marian Dzimko / Transportation Research Procedia 00 (2021) 000000 7
5. Conclusion
The result of the paper is the design of a lifting device weighing up to 3.5 tons, determined primarily for tire
service. Before the design, it is necessary to do a market research to find out what options and variants the market
offers. The survey shows that there are many devices that differ in the type of construction or the type of power
generation. Based on consultation with the trainer and personal judgment, a variant with a scissor construction is
chosen. The hydraulic type of drive is chosen because it outperforms competing drives.
Before the actual design, it is necessary to find out the basic dimensions of the lifted car, such as wheelbase,
ground clearance and width of the vehicle. These parameters are determined by the standard STN 30 0026 and affect
the dimensions of the lifting device. The wheelbase of the vehicle determines the length of the ramp. Thanks to the
adjustable approach platforms, it is variable and will thus suit vehicles with both short and long wheelbases. Another
important issue in the design is the height of the device itself. Comfortable handling of the lifted car must be ensured
for the operator, which makes the 600 mm stroke fully possible.
Device safety is a priority. The hydraulic piston system is reliable but equipping the device with a mechanical
lock is still necessary. The lock is designed to ensure the safe operation of the device. Manual operation of the
mechanical lock is simple and convenient.
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