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Fungi on Mars and Extraterrestrial Civilizations. Genetics, Evolution, Alien Megastructures and Ancient Stars

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Reviewed in this report: It took a minimum of 7 billion years of genetic duplicative events for the first gene to become a life sustaining genome; i.e. at least 2.4 billion years before Earth was formed. Potentially habitable planets have been identified at least 5 billion years older than Earth. Microfossils have been found in meteors older than this solar system including evidence of evolutionary progression leading to corals and sponges. There is evidence of life, fossils and evolution on Mars paralleling Earth leading up to the Cambrian Explosion. The implications are: life on Earth-like planets evolves in patterns similar to life on Earth. Megastructures have been observed orbiting our own and distant suns. For thousands of years there have been reports of flying craft (“Unusual Aerial Phenomena”). According to a report by the U.S.A Office of the Director of National Intelligence these “Unidentified Aerial Phenomena” engage in maneuvers at hypersonic speeds that are completely beyond our technological capabilities or understanding. The implications are that Earth and its inhabitants are under surveillance. It is concluded that intelligent life and technologically advanced extraterrestrial civilizations have evolved in this galaxy on numerous Earth-like worlds, including those billions of years older than our own.
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Fungi on Mars and Extraterrestrial Civilizations.
Genetics, Evolution, Alien Megastructures and Ancient Stars
Rhawn Joseph1,2, David Duvall1,3
Abstract
Reviewed in this report: It took a minimum of 7 billion years of genetic duplicative events for the first gene to
become a life sustaining genome; i.e. at least 2.4 billion years before Earth was formed. Potentially habitable
planets have been identified at least 5 billion years older than Earth. Microfossils have been found in meteors older
than this solar system including evidence of evolutionary progression leading to corals and sponges. There is
evidence of life, fossils and evolution on Mars paralleling Earth leading up to the Cambrian Explosion. The
implications are: life on Earth-like planets evolves in patterns similar to life on Earth. Megastructures have been
observed orbiting our own and distant suns. For thousands of years there have been reports of flying craft
(“Unusual Aerial Phenomena”). According to a report by the U.S.A Office of the Director of National Intelligence
these “Unidentified Aerial Phenomena” engage in maneuvers at hypersonic speeds that are completely beyond our
technological capabilities or understanding. The implications are that Earth and its inhabitants are under
surveillance. It is concluded that intelligent life and technologically advanced extraterrestrial civilizations have
evolved in this galaxy on numerous Earth-like worlds, including those billions of years older than our own.
Key Words: Cambrian Explosion, Dyson Spheres, Whole Genome Duplication, Gene Duplication, Horizontal
Gene Transfer; Oldest Stars, Oldest Planets, Habitable Planets, Unusual Aerial Phenomena, Foo Fighters,
Kepler, KIC 8462852, Department of Defense Unidentified Aerial Phenomena Task Force
1. Astrobiology Research Center, California
2. Cosmology.com
3. Department of Zoology (Emeritus) Oklahoma State University, USA
Evolution of Intelligent Life in the Galaxy
Reviewed in this report: it took a minimum of 7 billion years (By) of genetic duplicative events
for the first gene to become a life sustaining genome; i.e. at least 2.4By before Earth was formed.
Potentially habitable planets have been identified at least 5By older than Earth. Microfossils have been
found in meteors older than this solar system including evidence of evolutionary progression leading to
corals and sponges. There is evidence of life, fossils and evolution on Mars paralleling Earth leading up
to the Cambrian Explosion. The implications are that life on habitable Earth-like planets evolves in a
pattern similar to life on Earth. Megastructures have been observed orbiting our own and distant suns,
and there have been numerous reports of flying craft (“Unusual Aerial Phenomena”) capable of
impossible speeds and maneuvers. The implications are that Earth and its inhabitants are under
surveillance. It is concluded that intelligent life and technologically advanced extraterrestrial
civilizations have evolved, in this galaxy, on numerous Earth-like worlds, including those billions of
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years older than our own.
Within this galaxy there are ancient stars ringed by planets (Bourrier, et al. 2017; Campante et al.
2015; Fridlund et al. 2017; Kunimoto et al. 2020), including over 1350 confirmed “super Earths” (NASA
2021a). How many Earth-like planets orbit stars like our own is unknown, but in this galaxy it has been
estimated that at least one out of five stars systems may be orbited by a habitable planet (Kunimoto et al.
2020). Given that there may be up to 400 billion stars (NASA 2015) in this galaxy which is over 13
billion years in age (Pace and Pasquini, 2004; Pasquini et al., 2005), then based on the calculations of
Kunimoto et al. (2020) up to 80 billion planets could be inhabited in this and another 80 billion in each
and every star spangled galaxy in the cosmos. As summed up by Campante et al. (2015) who has
discovered five sub-Earth sized worlds orbiting Kepler-444 which has an estimated age of 11.2 to 12.2
billion years: “Earth-size planets have formed throughout most of the universe's 13.8 billion year history,
leaving open the possibility for the existence of ancient life in the Galaxy.”
Anatomically “modern” humans appeared on this planet less than 50,000 years ago (Joseph 1996,
2000, 2011). Consider the scientific accomplishments of the last two centuries. If sciences marches on
and humans do not self-destruct in the fires of nuclear conflagration, or become extinct due to climate
change, cosmic catastrophes or plague and disease, what scientific technological marvels might they
accomplish in the next two hundred years? What about a thousand years from now? Or a million? A
hundred million? Or a billion? Intellectually, technologically, a billon years from now the “humans” of
the future might appear to us as gods; and they might view us as little different from talking monkeys in
comparison.
There are stars that twinkle in the darkness of night that were formed over 10 billion years ago,
six billion years before Earth became a twinkle in the eyes of God. Studies of the first life sustaining
minimal genome and genetic complexity indicate that the first gene was fashioned between 10 to 14
billion years ago (Joseph & Wickramasinghe, 2011) corresponding to when the Milky Way Galaxy began
to form; and that it took at least 7 billion years of genetic duplicative events to reach a level of genetic
complexity that made it possible for life to begin (Sharov 2006, 2009); at least 2 billion years before the
4.6By old Earth became Earth. There are solar systems with potentially habitable worlds over 10 billion
years in age, whereas our world is an estimated 4.6 billion years old.
What might be the technological and scientific accomplishments of “humans” and intelligent non-
human “animals” that evolved on Earth-like planets billions of years before our solar system was formed?
They might appear to us as “gods.”
Can a lizard comprehend a man?
Can a man comprehend a god?
Who dares speak for god?
Even the “gods” may have “gods” who have “gods.”
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Figure 1: Single image from a 2015 video filmed by U.S. Naval aviators of a shape shifting structure
soaring above the clouds. In audio recordings one of the pilots exclaims: “There’s a whole fleet of them.”
On 6/25/21, the Office of the Director of National Intelligence released a report titled “Preliminary
Assessment: Unidentified Aerial Phenomena” that t assesses “the threat posed by unidentified aerial
phenomena (UAP) and states that “UAP appear to demonstrate advanced technology” and reports that
UAPs appeared to remain stationary in winds aloft, move against the wind, manoeuvre abruptly, or
move at considerable speed, without discernible means of propulsion. In a small number of cases,
military aircraft systems processed radio frequency (RF) energy associated with UAP sightings.
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Figure 2. A cockpit photo taken from within an F/A-18 fighter jet with the pilot’s cell phone. The silver
object was 1,000 feet from the fighter jet flying at 35,000 feet above ground on the East Coast of the US.
Origins, Genetics & Evolution: The Colonization of Life on Earth
A confluence of evidence indicates that life was present on this planet during a period known as
the "Late Heavy Bombardment" (Joseph 2009; Joseph & Schild 2010; Joseph et al. 2020a) when Earth
was pummeled with massive extra-terrestrial debris causing the surface to melt and rocks to vaporize
(Schoenberg et al. 2002). Under these conditions almost all evidence of life would have been erased and
obliterated and any fossilized remains would have continued to be pulverized until after the conclusion of
the bombardment period 3.8 billion years ago (bya). And yet, despite these cataclysmic conditions, life
was present on Earth fractionating and synthesizing carbon 4.28 to 3.8bya (Manning et al. 2006; Mojzsis
et al. 1996; Nemchin et al. 2008; O'Neil et al. 2008). Microprobe analyses of the carbon isotope
composition of metasediments in Western Australia formed 4.2bya has revealed very high concentrations
of carbon 12, or "light carbon" which is typically associated with microbial life (Nemchin et al. 2008).
The discovery of banded iron formations in northern Quebec, Canada, consisting of alternating magnetite
and quartz dated to 4.28 bya, is also associated with biological activity (O'Neil et al. 2008). In addition,
carbon-isotope analysis of the phosphate mineral apatite in quartz-pyroxene rocks on Akilia, West
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Greenland and dated to 3.8 bya, was found to contain tiny grains of calcium and high levels of organic
carbon; which is indicative of photosynthesis, oxygen secretion, and biological activity (Mojzsis et al.
1996) most likely that of calcium secreting photosynthesizing cyanobacteria and possibly eukaryotic
algae. The high carbon contents of the protolith shale from S. W. Greenland, and the ratio of carbon
isotopes in graphite from metamorphosed sediments dating to 3.8bya is also indicative of
photosynthesizing activity (Rosing, 1999, Rosing & Frei, 2004) whereas the first stromatolites to survive
the bombardment are dated to 3.7 bya (Garwood 2012; Nutman et al. 2016) and most likely constructed
by photosynthesizing eukaryotic algae and prokaryotic cyanobacteria.
As predicted by the “deep roots” genetic model of evolution, eukaryotes appeared at the same
time prokaryotes began to diverge (Hartman, & Fedorov, 2002; Kurland, Collins, & Penny, 2007; Poole,
& Penny, 2007). Genetic data based on molecular clocks and DNA analysis of the eukaryotic and
prokaryotic genome performed by Feng et al., (1997) and Hedges (2001) indicates that this divergence,
on Earth, occurred over 4 billion years ago but that even 4400 bya cellular life was genetically complex.
If correct, this indicates that eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms had colonized Earth from the very
beginning; the first definitive morphological evidence of which (in addition to geobiological and
biochemical residue) includes the discovery of stromatolites dated to 3.7 bya (Garwood 2012; Nutman et
al. 2016) and microfossils resembling yeast cells and fungi discovered in 3.8 billion year old quartz
(Pflug 1978). Yeast and many species of fungi, are eukaryotes; whereas quartz is a favorite substrate
colonized by algae (Jung et al. 2020).
Genetic, geobiological and fossil evidence indicates that prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms
had colonized Earth during the great bombardment period when hundreds of thousands of meteors,
asteroids and comets were slamming into this planet; a time of cosmic turmoil that would have nearly
erased almost all evidence of earlier life, but which likely delivered life-bearing debris that was deposited
on Earth (Joseph 2000; Joseph et al. 2020). Over a dozen meteors--some of which are older than this
solar system-- have been discovered to contain the fossilized remnants of various organisms including
algae and cyanobacteria (Claus & Nagy 1961; Hoover 2011; McKay, et al., 1996, 1996; Pflug 1984;
Nagy et al. 1961, 1963a,b; Rozanov & Hoover 2003; Zhmur & Gerasimenko 1999; Zhmur et al. 1997).
As soon as this great bombarding “erasure” came to an end, life on Earth continued to proliferate;
building stromatolites and biologically terraforming the biosphere by liberating and precipitating various
minerals and engaging in photosynthesis and excreting oxygen and calcium thereby leading to the
development of a protective ozone layer (Joseph 2010a, 2013); and then between 540 and 500 million
years ago, oxygen breathing creatures with bones, brains and “modern eyes” appeared in all the oceans of
Earth (Erwin & Valentine 2013; Joseph 2000; 2013). All the phyla present today and many that became
extinct were flourishing in the oceans of Earth during what has been described as the “Cambrian
Explosion” (Erwin & Valentine 2013). And then this evolutionary progression continued with great leaps
after long periods of stasis (Eldredge & Gould, 1972; Gould 1977, 1988), eventually leading to complex
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insect societies, meat-eating and flowering plants, and fish, frogs, reptiles repto-mammals, mammals,
primates, and the self-proclaimed “crown of creation” woman and man.
Why should we believe that “human evolution” has stopped and will not continue into the future?
Anatomically “modern” humans with brains 1/3 larger and with men standing 6ft in height, appeared on
Earth less than 50,000 years ago whereas prior to that the slope-headed Neanderthals were the dominant
hominid (Joseph 2000, 2011).
Much of the human genome is “silent” and has not yet been expressed, and the same is true of
millions of retroviral genes embedded within the eukaryotic gene pool (Belshaw et al. 2005; Lander et al.
2001; McNeely 2017; Watson et al. 2013). However, when prior waves of retroviral and silent genes
were activated, the result led to the evolution of ape from monkey and then pre-humans from ape (Lopez-
Snchez et al., 2005; Romano et al., 2008). Silent genes, coupled with environmental change and
horizontal gene exchange, hold the genetic keys that can unlock and release future waves of evolutionary
development. And, in the future, there will be the genetic engineering of the human genome and the
inevitable creation of “designer babies” who may be stronger and more handsome beautiful and
intelligent and who may continue to alter their genome and that of their progeny (Jones 2009).
Earth is believed to have become Earth, around 4.6 bya. Estimates are that our Sun will not run
out of hydrogen for another five billion years. In the absence of a mass extinction event and cataclysmic
destruction of the biosphere, it can be predicted with absolute certainty: the humans of Earth will
continue to evolve for billions of years and develop technological marvels beyond the comprehension of
modern woman and man.
And the same evolutionary progression accompanied by astounding technological achievements
have assuredly already taken place, in this universe, on millions if not billions of Earth-like worlds much
older than our own.
Parallel Evolution on Mars and Other Worlds
Using Earth and Mars as analogs, the implications for life on other and more ancient Earth-like
planets are obvious. Life on Earth-like worlds will likely experience repeated mass extinction events and
will diversify, adapt and evolve into increasingly intelligent species with bones, brains and “modern
eyes,” paralleling the extinction and evolution of life on Earth (Elewa & Joseph 2009; Erwin &
Valentine, 2013; Joseph 2010b). This progression will likely begin with prokaryote- and eukaryotic-
photosynthesizing-stromatolite-building-calcium-and-oxygen secreting algae and cyanobacteria and
eventually lead to organisms similar to terrestrial acritarchs, then “Ediacarans” followed by legless
eyeless sponges and other simple metazoans. If, on other Earth-like worlds, the progression is not halted
by a cosmic collision or other mass extinguishing calamities that completely destroy the biosphere, then,
using Earth as an analog, this evolutionary progression has or will lead to a “Cambrian Explosion” of life
similar to what has taken place on Earth between 500 to 540 million years ago.
This is predictable as a similar progression has taken place on Mars leading to a “Cambrian
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Explosion” and the evolution of eyeless, legless, brainless metazoans (Elewa 2021; Joseph et al 2020). As
on Earth this progression began over 4 billion years ago as Mars had already been colonized by bacteria
(Mckay et al. 2009; Thomas-Kerpta 2009) and despite the Great Bombardment, stromatolites continued
to be constructed 3.7 bya and for the next several billion years until the near present (Rizzo & Cantasano
2009, 2015; Bianciardi et al. 2014, 2015; Joseph et al. 2020; Noffke 2015; Ruff & Farmer 2016).
There are fossils on Mars resembling eukaryotic algae and acritarchs (Bianciardi et al. 2021;
Joseph et al. 2020; Kaźmierczak 2016, 2020), and “tube worms” (DiGregorio 2018; Baucon et al. 2020;
Joseph et al. 2020) and “Ediacarans,” “sponges” and legless/eyeless metazoans that are morphologically
and statistically nearly identical to terrestrial fauna that appeared prior to and at the onset and during the
“Cambrian Explosion” (Joseph et al. 2020). And then, a catastrophic event or events, altered the course
of Martian evolutionary history: The Martian dynamo ceased to spin and the magnetic shield was lost, the
surface oceans froze beneath the surface and along with much of the atmosphere was lost to space. Mars
became cold and the surface bombarded by UV, cosmic, and gamma rays. However, life on Mars did not
cease to evolve (Elewa 2021; Joseph et al. 2020) and creatures with multiple legs and eyes have been
photographed in crevices and rock fissures, a few examples of which are presented in Figures 30-32.
When Mars experienced this cosmic calamity and mass extinction is unknown, but may have
taken place around 800 million years ago (Elewa 2021; Joseph et al. 2020) when the inner solar system
and the Earth-Moon was bombarded by an armada of meteors (Tanaka et al. 2020). This is not to rule out
the possibility that Mars became a failed Earth billions of years ago, or in the last 35,000 years as there
are eye-witness accounts describing how Mars was struck by a celestial object creating a spear-like
wound in the belly of the planet as described in Homer’s the Iliad; and the evidence of which is the spear-
like canyon, Valles Marineris, across the “belly” of the Red Planet that may have been carved by a moon-
sized comet.
Regardless of when these cataclysmic events took place, life on Mars was not completely
eradicated as living algae, fungi, and lichens have been identified (Armstrong 2021; Dass, 2017; Joseph
2006, 2014, 2016, 2021; Joseph et al. 2020, 2021; Krupa 2017; Latif et al 2021). Moreover, sequential
photographs, from the rovers Opportunity and Curiosity, prove that these and other organisms grow,
emerge from the surface, multiply, move to different locations, and have even contaminated and
colonized the rovers (Joseph et al. 2021).
There was life on Mars from the very beginning: they constructed stromatolites, evolved, became
fossilized, formed symbiotic (algae-fungal-lichen) relationships; dwell beneath the surface in pools of
thermally heated water ice; and then there are those with legs and eyes (Figures 30-32).
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Figure 3. Earth: Domical Concentric Stromatolite, Lake Thetis, W. Australia (From Joseph et al. 2020).
Figure 4. Mars: Domical Concentric Stromatolite, Gale Crater (Lakes), Mars (Joseph et al. 2020).
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Figure 5. Living stromatolites (Earth) vs Fossilized Stromatolite (Mars) depicting fenestra photosynthesis
oxygen vents (from Joseph et al. 2020).
Figure 6. Mars: Algae, microbial mats, and “carpets” of tubular organisms, Gale Crater (Lakes), Mars
(From Joseph et al. 2020).
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Figure 7. Mars: Algae and microbial mats / conical stromatolites, Gale Crater (Lakes), Mars (From
Joseph et al. 2020).
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Figure 8. Algae and open cone-like protrusions similar to fossilized gas bubbles (upper left), Gale Crater
(Lakes), Mars (From Joseph et al. 2020).
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Figure 9. Pinnicle-columnar stromatolites and thrombolites and algae growing upon Martian rocks, sand
and soil, Gale Crater (Lakes), Mars
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Figure 10. Algae, lichens, tubular fungi, and microbial mats and, surrounded by ovoid and tubular
specimens, Gale Crater (Lakes), Mars (From Joseph et al. 2020).
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Figure 11. Earth, Dibaeis is a genus of lichenized fungi in the Icmadophilaceae family.
Figure 12. Mars, Eagle Crater. These lichen/fungi are up to 8 mm in length, with bulging hyphae atop and just
beneath the rock surface. The bulbous cap may be a spore producing fruiting body. Note RATT grinding
instrument impression red-circled. Stems are hollow. (From Joseph 2021).
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Figure 13. Mars, Eagle Crater. Lichen-mushrooms (lichenized fungi?). These organisms have long stems
and bulbous spherical caps. Those that have stalks/stems are supported by substrate above the ground.
Figure 14. Mars, Growth of Martian fungal puffballs (circled in red). Seven days later, at least 18
spherical specimens have appeared in that same area. (From Joseph et al. 2021)
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Figure 15. Martian fungal puffballs growing out of the ground and increasing in size over three days
(From Joseph et al. 2020, 2021).
Figure 16. (Left) Earth: Fungal puffball (Basidiomycota) with stalk. (Right) Mars: Sol 257, Martian
fungal Puffballs with stalk (From Joseph et al. 2020, 2021).
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Figure 17. Sol 1148. Martian fungal “puffball.” Compare “lemon-shape” bulge/stalk with terrestrial
puffball (Figure 18, below).
Figure 18. Terrestrial fungal “puffball” (Basidiomycota). Note and compare “lemon-shape” stalk bulge.
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Figure 19. Martian mushrooms (puffballs) preparing to spore through their top cap. Note holes/apertures.
Figure 20. Terrestrial fungal puffballs) preparing to spore and sporing through their top cap.
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Figure 21. Martian mushrooms (puffballs) surrounded by fluffy white spores within which embryonic fungi are
growing (see Figure 22).
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Figure 22. Embryonic fungi growing with spores surrounding Martian mushrooms (see Figure 21).
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Figure 23: (Top row) Mars, Gale Crater, Fossilized Fungi (Middle row) Martian Embryonic fungi (Left bottom) Gale
Crater, Mars, Green algae and tubular fungi (Right bottom) Terrestrial fungi, cladonia-squamules Photo credit: https://
www.ukfungusday.co.uk/
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Figure 24. Mars, Gale Crater (lakes): Specimens resembling mineralized tube worm trace fossils. These
specimens are approximately 1 to 5 mm in length on average.
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Figure 25. (Top) Sol 869: Specimens resembling mineralized fossils of tubular worms and metazoans,
approximately 1 to 2 mm in length. (Bottom Left): Sol 1905 (“ichnofossils”) compared with Sol 869
(bottom right). Reprinted from Joseph et al. (2020a).
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Figure 26. (Top) Sol 809. (Bottom) Sol 809. Similar specimens in two different locations, photographed
alongside tubular, curved, and other fossil-like structures which resemble a variety of metazoans.
Reproduced from Joseph et al. 2020a.
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Figure 27. (First row): Sol 809 and Sol 869. (Second row) Sol 905 and Sol 905. Specimens photographed
in Gale Crater and that are quantitatively and statistically nearly identical to Ediacaran fossils of
Namacalathus (two, bottom left) and (with the exception of tail length) Cambrian fossils of
Lophotrochozoa (three bottom right). Photos of Namacalathus reproduced from and courtesy of
Kontorovich, A. E. et al. 2008. Photos of Lophotrochozoa reproduced from and courtesy of Zhang Z-F. et
al. 2014).
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Figure 28. (Left) Sol 809. (Center) Terrestrial Namacalathus. (Right) Sol 869. Arrows indicate what may
be open apertures. (From Joseph et al. 2020).
Figure 29. (First row) fossilized remains of Ediacaran Kimberella. (Bottom row): Specimens
photographed in Gale Crater, quantitatively and statistically nearly identical to Ediacaran fossils of
Kimberella. Sol 809, Sol 809, Sol 809; Sol 880, Sol 905, Sol 905. Note proboscis and "zipper- like"
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appendages.
Figure 30. Mars, Gale Crater: Living Martian organisms; a sample of Martian life from the collection of
Rhawn Joseph
Figure 31. Mars, Gale Crater: Living Martian organisms; a sample of Martian life from the collection of
Rhawn Joseph
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Figure 32. Mars, Gale Crater: Living Martian organisms; a sample of Martian life from the collection of
Rhawn Joseph (“Proof of Life on Mars”).
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The Milky Way Galaxy and First Genes
It is not probable, and genetically impossible, for life to have originated independently on Earth
and/or Mars (Crick 1981; Dose 1988; Hoyle 1974; Joseph & Schild, 2010; Joseph & Wickramasinghe
2011; Sharov 2006; Yokey 1977). As will be explained in a later section, detailed genomic statistical
analysis indicates that the first gene was fashioned between 10bya to 14bya--in the time period
immediately following the hypothetical “Big Bang” creation of this universe and during the formation of
the Milky Way galaxy (Joseph & Wickramasinghe 2011).
According to the dating technique based on the accumulation of Beryllium, the Milky Way
Galaxy may have been born approximately 200 million years after the Big Bang (Pasquini et al. 2004)
making it one of the first galaxies to populate the “Big Bang” model of the Universe.
Although the “Big Bang” may have provided the environmental conditions for Life to emerge, it
may not have produced any organic elements. All elements heavier than lithium are synthesized in stars;
and WMAP (Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe) data reveal that the first stars in those portions of
the Universe detectable from Earth arose about 400 million years after this hypothetical “Big Bang”
(WMAP Science Team 2011). It is generally believed that it was only after the “death” of the first
generation of stars that carbon and the other elements necessary for Life could be synthesized. This adds
to the probability the first enzymes and nucleotides may have been fashioned within the embryonic Milky
Way galaxy (Joseph & Schild 2010b) and leading to the synthesis of DNA and RNA inside our galaxy
hundred million years after the end of the Big Bang. This hypothesis is consistent with quantitative
genetic analyses that indicates the first gene was fashioned between 10 and 14 billion years ago (Joseph
& Wickramasinghe 2011) when this Milky Way Galaxy was being formed (Pasquini et al. 2004).
It is possible that the turbulent protogalaxy that was to become the Milky Way provided the
necessary environment for the synthesis and the survival of the first genes and that the essential elements,
enzymes and nucleotides necessary to fashion the first gene or genes were produced via nucleosynthesis
within the Milky Way Galaxy (Joseph & Schild 2010b; Nani & Cavanna 2016). If those first genes
originated in an isolated corner, at the edge, or in the center of the galaxy, and if embedded or encased in
a protected environment, then over the following billions of years these first genes could travel about
800,000 ly (Leitner, & Ferneis 2016)--given a velocity of 40 km/s--the mean velocity of comets-- and
potentially make contact with every planet and protoplanet in this galaxy.
If the Milky Way was the incubator that gave rise to the first genes and provided the biochemical
framework for the emergence of a life-sustaining genome and thus the dispersal of life, this would
explain why life appeared on Earth and Mars at the same time (Joseph et al. 2020), and why there are
fossils of life in various meteorites older than this solar system.
As detailed in other reports (Joseph et al. 2020), Mars and Earth were likely colonized with life
during the proto-planetary stage of development and then repeatedly during and periodically after the
Great Bombardment by life-bearing meteors asteroids and comets. Moreover, via the ejection of masses
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of rock and soil following bolide impact and by solar winds, life has been repeatedly transferred to and
fro between these and other worlds for billions of years (Joseph et al. 2019).
Given that morphologically identical species such as algae appear on Earth and Mars and as
algae-fossils in numerous meteorites. The question then becomes: Why is there evidence of parallel
evolution on Mars and Earth; and, as based on fossilized evidence of corals, crinoids, and sponges in
meteor fragment (Birgham 1882; Hahn 1880), parallel evolution on some unknown planet? If they all
“evolved” from independent genes that were dispersed from a galactic genetic nursery; genes which
became life-sustaining genomes, then either it is the nature of DNA to evolve into similar species if
provided a similar environment and organisms with a minimal life sustaining genome, or, operational and
informational genes must have shared between hosts on innumerable planets via interplanetary horizontal
gene exchange. That is, these genetic seeds contained all the initial operational and informational genes to
“evolve” a biosphere and “evolve” organisms that could live in and change that biosphere making the
evolutionary progressions possible (Joseph 1997; 2000).
Parallel Evolution and Interplanetary Gene Exchange
It could be argued that similar species and what appears to be a parallel evolutionary progression
is due to the interplanetary migration of viruses, archaea and bacteria as they are cast from planet to
planet via ejection following bolide impact or ejected from upper atmospheres into space via powerful
solar winds, followed by colonization when they land upon another planet and then engage in horizontal
gene exchange with native born hosts (Joseph 1997, 2000, Joseph & Schild 2010, 2021; Joseph &
Wickramasinghe 2010; Joseph et al. 2019, 2020).
Intergalactic interplanetary horizontal gene exchange is likely a common form of genetic
currency, particularly among extraterrestrial viruses and bacteria which may contain in their collective
genomes all the genetic information to “evolve” every creatures that has walked, crawled, flown, swam or
slithered upon this Earth, including those yet to “evolve,” and those than never evolved on Earth, and
those which have and will “evolve” on innumerable habitable worlds, but not necessarily on Earth
(Joseph 1997, 2000, 2013; Joseph & Schild 2010a,b). When prokaryotes, eukaryotes, and viruses
contained in life-bearing debris crash upon the surface of inhabited planets the bacterial and viral
survivors would transfer and obtain copies of operational and informational genes from native species.
When life-bearing debris contaminated with the descendants of these organisms land on yet another
world, they would carry with them the genetic libraries obtained from the genomes of those still dwelling
in the “home planet;” and then horizontally transfer and obtain yet more genes from hosts they encounter
on the next world (Joseph 2000, 2009, 2010a, 2013; Joseph & Schild 2010; Joseph & Wickramasinghe
2010). And most of these harvested genes would be silent; until injected into a suitable host and
eventually activated. In consequence, parallel “evolution” may take place on innumerable similarly
habitable worlds; albeit during different epochs of time.
Again: the alternative is that it is the nature of DNA to not only reproduce and replicate, but to
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“evolve” the same species on similar planets with similar environments in response to changing
environments.
Comets, Corals, Crinoids and Sponges
That “evolution” will progress in parallel not just on Earth and Mars but on other worlds is
supported by the discovery of fossilized crinoids, corals and sponges in over 500 pounds of a cometary
fragments that burst apart upon striking the atmosphere and then the ground in 1866 (Birgham 1882;
Hahn 1880). Hahn (1880) upon examining, with a microscopic, thin slices he had cut from the fragments
of these meteorites, identified and photographed over 142 fossilized specimens, including corals, crinoids
and sponges. Hahn (1880) describes these fossilized organisms as a “world of animals in a rock that
arrived on Earth to bring us tidings from the smallest beings of a most distant place — a life-world which
a mortal eye could hardly hope to behold: a world of beings... Admittedly, the meteorites... contain no life
of higher construction; rather, all are lower life forms the same ones which prevail in the Silurian
strata — sponges, corals, and crinoids.”
Photographs of the specimens were examined by other experts in zoology (Birgham 1882) who
confirmed “that a large number of the formations in question are without doubt remains of coral
belonging to the class of the favositines, which on earth are now to be found only in a fossil state, and
then only in the oldest or palaeolithic stratum.”
Therefore, what these investigators observed are the fossils of organisms that had become extinct,
on Earth, hundreds of millions of years ago (Birgham 1882; Hahn 1880). Is it possible these meteorites
and their fossilized cargo originated on Earth, perhaps ejected following bolide impact? According to Dr.
Hahn (1880) “...the rock of the chondrites is not a type of sedimentary rock as on Earth, in which fossils
are embedded, that it is not a conglomerate formation; but rather, its whole mass is entirely formed of
organic beings, like our coral rocks... plant-animals! The whole stone is life.” In other words, this mass
of coral with its many embedded organisms, was ejected from its watery environment on a planet other
than our own and ejected into space only to eventually fall to Earth.
Hahn (1880) also found organisms that were completely alien to Earth: “I could not make a
systematic enumeration of the life which is preserved in the meteorites... I therefore only depicted the
organic beings that... coincide with terrestrial forms...” while leaving the others “to future investigation.”
Hahn, who was a famous zoologist in Germany, also discovered what he believed to be an
evolutionary progression in the fossilized assemblage that corresponds to and parallels the evolution of
life on Earth: “Anyone who even superficially surveys the forms will soon find that they provide an actual
historical development. All the transitions... are present.” As summed up by Birgham (1882): “we must,
therefore, accept this fact as important evidence that an organic evolution of great similarity to that on our
own earth has taken place on whatever planet from which these meteorites originated.” Hahn (1882),
however, was puzzled by his findings and asks: “how could evolution coincide on different planets?”
There is an answer: interplanetary transfer of life and horizontal gene exchange involving
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extraterrestrial viruses, bacteria and other organisms (Joseph 1997; 2000; 2013; Joseph & Schild 2010a.b
Joseph & Wickramasinghe 2010). The alternate answer is that it is the nature of DNA and genetic
biology to generate not just diversity but increasingly intelligent life forms in response to biological (and
non-biological) alterations in the environment
A Minimal First Life-Sustaining Genome: Genetics, Evolution, Gene Duplication
How life began is unknown. A single cell is comprised of an incredible mosaic of proteins and
nucleotides that have been precisely organized and fit together making DNA, the first gene, and life
possible. There is no evidence supporting the “organic soup” abiogenic origins of life hypothesis which
has been repeatedly disproved; even by true believers who, despite tens of millions of US dollars in
funding, have never been able to fashioned or generate life from non-life, or even create an
“intermediate” form of life, the only possible analog example of which may be a virus. Nor is there any
evidence of “proto-cells” the likes of which do not exist except in the imagination.
The trouble is that even a simple protozoan, or a bacterium, requires the prior formation of
about 2,000 enzymes, themselves also complex proteins, which are critical to the successful
formation of all the other 198,000 or so requisite proteins. The odds in favor of the
accidental formation of all 2,000 by accident (never mind the other 198,000), without which
no living organism could have come into existence, approaches a truly infinitesimal
magnitude...The chance that higher life forms might have emerged in this way is comparable
to the chance that a tornado sweeping through a junkyard might assemble a Boeing 747
from the materials therein. --Fred Hoyle
The evidence from Earth and Mars indicates that fully formed cellular organisms were present on
both planets from the very beginning (Mclean 2009; Joseph et al. 2019, 2020; Noffke 2015; Thomas-
Klerpta et al. 2009). And be it Mars or Earth, these organisms must have been equipped with a minimal
life-sustaining number of genes.
Life, as we know it, is not possible without a genome and at least 485 life sustaining genes
(Mycoplasma genitalium) consisting of at least 490,885 nucleotide base pairs (Nanoarchaeum equitans).
These two organisms are parasitic and may have a reduced genome size as they utilize the genomic
machinery of their host to replicate. Free living organisms have much larger genomes. Nevertheless,
Mycoplasma genitalium and Nanoarchaeum equitans have the smallest genomes and are therefore a
model for the minimal requirements for life.
Although, mycoplasma has been shown to remain viable even after 100 of its genes were removed
(Fraser et al., 1995; Glass et al., 2006) it nevertheless requires at least 485 genes to replicate and
reproduce despite having access to the genome of its host. This suggests that the first life forms must have
had a genome of at least 485 genes to replicate and reproduce and at least 382 genes to survive. These
numbers, 382 to 485 genes, provide us with a key to unlocking the age of the first gene and how many
billions of years of genetic duplicative events must have taken place before a minimal life sustaining
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genome was established.
As argued by Sharov (2006, 2009) and Joseph and Wickramasinghe (2011) the minimal and
progressive evolutionary functional genetic complexity of life can be roughly measured by the size of the
non-redundant functional genome as it increases exponentially in evolution. Genetic complexity and the
size of the genome can also be used as a clock that, in reverse can determine the age of the first gene and
the beginning of life, taking into account the exponential pattern of complexity and mechanisms of
positive feedback, including cooperation between genes, gene duplication, gene deletion, and the
generation of new functional niches for new genes.
Sharov (2006, 2009) performed a statistical analysis and quantitative comparative regression of
log-transformed functional non-redundant genome size versus the time of origin of large taxonomic
groups, and determined that genome complexity increased 7.8 fold per 1 billion years. Published data on
the size of nonredundant functional genomes of major phylogenetic lineages was plotted by Sharov
(2006) using the regression of logarithm of functional complexity versus time. Genetic complexity
increases exponentially over time. Sharov (2006) then performed a sensitivity analysis by varying these
points within the limits of uncertainty (± 300 Mya, and ± 0.3 log bp) and determined that the date of the
origin of DNA-based life may vary from 7 to 13 billion years ago which is billions of years greater than
the age of Earth and this solar system.
Joseph and Wickramasinghe (2011) recognized there are innumerable variables that influence
genetic interactions and the creation (and deletion) of genes, including enzymes, nucleotides, and the
horizontal transfer of operational genes. Therefore, they decided to narrowly focus their study and to base
their analysis on gene and whole genome duplicative events, beginning with a single gene. They
determined it would have taken 10 to 14 billion years to fashion a minimal life sustaining genome.
It is widely accepted that the eukaryotic genome has increased in size over the course of
evolution; a function of gene and whole genome duplication (WGD) as well as horizontal gene transfer
(HGT) and the influence of operational genes. It can be predicted that after the first genes were
established, they must have acquired the ability to replicate, thereby increasing in number with each
gene-duplicative event, becoming more variable; until finally a core set of at least 382 genes were
established, as this is the minimal number necessary for maintaining single cellular, albeit parasitic life
(Fraser et al., 1995; Glass et al., 2006).
Gene duplication is one of the cornerstones of evolution. For example, there is considerable
evidence that the entire eukaryotic genome underwent duplication at the onset of eukaryotic evolution
(Makarova et al., 2005). These genes then continued to undergo repeated episodes of single gene and
whole genome duplication (WGD) such that the eukaryotic genome increased in size (Kellis et al., 2004;
Dietrich et al., 2004; Dehal & Boore 2005) thereby triggering the transition and divergence between
numerous species, ranging from yeast and fungi (Liti & Louis, 2005) to chordates and non-chordates
(Dehal and Boore 2005; McLysaght et al., 2002). Again, other factors are involved.
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Whole genome duplicative events in prokaryotes appear to occur over a span of billions of years,
whereas WGD occurs in the eukaryote genome perhaps once every 100 million (Lynch et al., 2001;
Lynch and Conery 2000) to 250 million years (McLysaght et al., 2002; Dehal & Boore 2005); though in
fact the frequency is as yet unknown.
Whole genome duplications have occurred in almost all lineages, including yeast (Wong et al.,
2002; Vision et al., 2000; Kellis et al., 2004), fish (Van de Peer et al., 2003; Jaillon et al., 2004; Taylor et
al., 2001), frogs (Tymowska et al., 1977; Jeffreys et al., 1980) and plants (Blanc & Wolfe 2004). The
relatively large and complex vertebrate genome appears to have been duplicated at least twice
(McLysaght et al., 2002; Dehal & Boore 2005); again suggesting a duplication rate of once every 250
million years beginning with the Cambrian Explosion of metazoan life 540 million years ago.
Single gene and whole genome duplication played a central role in the primary radiation of
chordates (Dehal & Boore 2005) during the Cambrian explosion. There followed two additional
duplications during chordate evolution, thereby forming many of the gene families of vertebrates
(McLysaght et al., 2002). Hence, at least two distinct genome duplication events occurred early in
vertebrate evolution and after vertebrates began to colonize the surface of Earth (Dehal & Boore 2005).
Increases in the number of genes and the size of the genome, coupled with estimates as to the
length of time that must elapse between whole genome duplications, can provide gross estimates as to the
date of origin of the first genes. Using Earth as an analog, Joseph and Wickramasinghe (2011) determined
that at least 9 to 10 duplicative events would have been required at least once every 1 billion to 2.5 billion
years before a minimal number of genes necessary for life were established. As based on estimates of
whole genome duplicative events and the transitions from single cell to multi-cellularity, these initial
duplicative events, beginning with the first gene led to a minimal life-sustaining gene set and genome,
and then the divergence of prokaryotes to the superkingdoms of archae and bacteria, Joseph and
Wickramasinghe (2011) using complex comparative quantitative analysis, determined this took place
over nearly 10 billions of years of time, well before the establishment of life on this planet (4.4 to 3.8
bya) and thus prior to the creation of Earth.
However, these calculations were based on genes evolving and duplication in a slowly changing
environment and biosphere; i.e. that of Earth for billions of years. Given a different habitable
environment, one that rapidly or slowly changes over time, or which differs from Earth in gravity,
exposure to UV radiation, chemical and mineral composition, distance from the sun, axial tilt, period of
rotation, then gene and whole genome duplicative events could have taken place more slowly or rapidly.
In addition, gene duplication is often followed by accelerated sequence evolution as well as
rearrangement of a gene, and even gene deletion; all of which can affect gene and WGD. Then there is
the problem of horizontal gene transfer, such that genomes increase in size due to the acquisition of
additional genes inserted by prokaryotes and viruses over billions of years of time. Therefore, life on a
planet which is rich in viruses may evolve more rapidly. However as that information is not yet available,
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then, using Earth as an analog, increases of genome length and complexity as a function of duplicative
events represent a time sequence of evolution, assuming gene loss and all other variables are equal and
provided correction is made for those species that have accumulated larger number of silent (or “non-
coding” genes) by gene duplication.
Genomic analysis performed by Joseph and Wickramasinghe (2011) as based on increases in
genome size and the evolutionary record, and working backward based on a minimal gene set,
determined via quantitative analysis that beginning with the first fully functional gene it would have taken
10.4 to 14.5 billion years--in a changing Earthly environment-- for that gene to repeatedly duplicate itself
and for its genome to repeatedly duplicate to fashion a minimal life-sustaining genome of at least 382
genes.
It is important to stress that these “birthdates” refer not just to one gene, but possibly hundreds,
trillions, billions of genes--all of which may have been generated in a vast genetic nursery created by the
conditions that led to the formation of the Milky Way and its first stars and planets. These genes, in turn,
may have been dispersed upon innumerable planets that were forming at that time. Again, there are stars
ringed with planets over 10 billion years in age (Bourrier et al. 2017; Campante et al. 2015), which
coincides with the 10 billion year (minimal) first gene birthdate as calculated by Joseph and
Wickramasinghe (2011). However, although there may be billions of habitable worlds in this galaxy
(Kunimoto et al. 2020), not all planets would be identical to Earth, even if they are Earth-like; and this
means genetic duplicative events leading to life, may have taken place more rapidly or slowly on these
ancient worlds.
If provided with a suitable “host environment” such as a water world or protoplanet, any number
of these “first” genes could have immediately combined with their genetic “siblings” forming networks
consisting of just a few or dozens of genes thereby creating proto-genomes that began to replicate and
duplicate. A life-sustaining genome may have been fashioned much more rapidly or slowly on hundreds
of millions of planets after the first genes were “born” over 10 billion years ago.
As based on Sharov’s (2006) genetic complexity analysis, life may have begun (when the first
minimal life-sustaining genomes may have been established) 7 bya; at least 2.4 billion years before Earth
became Earth. Seven billion years ago the Milky Way may have already been populated by hundreds of
millions of planets, some of which were already several billions years old (Bourrier et al. 2017;
Campante et al. 2015).
Conservative estimates are that once life colonized Earth, all subsequent life forms evolved from
these original colonists and inherited their genes which continued to duplicate such that in consequence,
humans and all other organisms share some of the same highly conserved genes that are found in
prokaryotes and viruses (Bejerano 2004).
Coupled with evidence from Earth and Mars, it can be predicted that DNA-based life on older
Earth-like planets also evolved soon after these ancient worlds became contaminated with life at least
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seven billion years ago. Depending on cosmic calamities and other mass extinction events, if an Earth-
like biosphere was preserved it can also be predicted that evolution on these older more ancient worlds
would have come to include species that appeared, on Earth, during the Cambrian Explosion. Given that
that it took nearly 4.6 billion years for anatomically “modern” humans to evolve on Earth, it can also be
predicted that if these ancient planets remained Earth-like that, beginning at least 7 bya, eventually
intelligent non-human animals and those similar to modern humans would have evolved on some of these
worlds at least 2.4 billion years ago.
A question was asked at the beginning of this article: If science marches on and humans do not
self destruct or become extinct, what technological and scientific accomplishment might humans achieve
in another million years? What about 2.4 billion years from now? They might appear to us, as gods.
Evolutionary Advanced Extraterrestrial Civilizations: Star KIC 8462852
In 2015, the discovery of extraordinary events involving the light curve of F dwarf star KIC
8462852 was announced. Compared to other stars in the Kepler field, the light curve was marred by brief,
deep drops in flux, with non-periodic repetitions and asymmetric dips, including in a single day a 20%
decline of the stellar flux (Boyajian et al. 2015). Something massive is blocking that star’s light. Boyajian
et al. (2016) reported that these unusual dips in the light curve were widely scattered across a period of
1460 days and four years later there followed another group of overlapping dips, typically a few days to a
week in duration and were often in groups that lasted as long as several months. Schaefer (2016),
however, reported longer-term dimming at wavelengths from the ultraviolet to the infrared. Additional
analysis by Schaefer (2016) and Montet & Simon (2016) uncovered separate and additional flux
dimmings with time-scales of 100 and 4"yr, respectively. Between dips the light curves remained
constant, thus indicating that these light-blocking objects must be orbiting that sun.
Boyajian et"al. (2016) analyzed and proposed and dismissed a number of astrophysical scenarios
that could account for this periodic dimming and dips in the light curve, such as thick clouds of dust and
debris from a cosmic collision, or a swarm of comets orbiting around the star. Boyajian et al. (2016) also
found that in all other respect it was a typical F3V star with no apparent spectral peculiarities.
KIC 8462852, therefore, was found to exhibit two types of behavior thought to be unique among
stars: episodes of small brightness dips and a long-term decline in brightness between the dips. However,
it has also been reported that pre-main-sequence stars also exhibit dips (Cody et al. 2014). KIC 8462852
is not a young star.
Subsequent investigations and the search for stars exhibiting similar dipping behavior using the
Northern Sky Variability Survey and the All Sky Automated Survey for Supernovae resulted in the
location of 21 additional stars with similar light dipping and dimming patterns (Schmidt, 2019); fifteen of
which are similar to KIC 8462852 and six displaying even more extreme but similar light dimming and
dipping patterns. “Thus, the dipping phenomenon observed in Boyajian's star occurs among main-
sequence stars with masses similar to the Sun” (Schmidt, 2019).
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In 2018, Saito et al. reported that star VVV-WIT-07 also displays a sequence of recurrent dips with
a likely deep eclipse in 2012 July: “A search for periodicity in the VVV Ks-band light curve of VVV-
WIT-07 results in two tentative periods at P""322"d and P""170"d” and which is similar to the light
dimming reported for KIC 8462852. Therefore based on the data provided by Saito et al. (2018) the
star’s brightness faded for 11 days, then plummeted over the following 48 days, indicating that something
blocked more than three quarters of the stars light. This profound degree of dimming suggests that a
staggeringly large mega-object or group of mega-objects over a million kilometers wide are repeatedly
passing close to that sun.
No satisfactory purely celestial model or explanation has yet been proposed for these dimming and
dipping light curves (Boyajian et al. 2018; Bodman et al. 2018; Ksanformality & Tavrov 2017; Saito et al.
2018). This has led to speculation that a technologically advanced extraterrestrial civilization has
constructed massive energy collecting space crafts or megastructures that have been place in orbit around
KIC 8462852 (Horvath 2015; Wright & Sigurdsson 2016) and other stars including red giants, pre-main-
sequence and main-sequence stars similar to the Sun. This hypothesis, however, has also been rejected
(Ksanformality & Tavrov 2017; Geller 2015; Allen 2015) because it violates current human technologies
and technological abilities and there are no known materials that could survive an orbit so close to a sun.
Also, it has been questioned why an alien civilization would need so much energy. Possible
answers: For light speed travel into the future, the past, or to distant regions of this or other galaxies; to
open and close portals to other dimensions, or open “worm holes” in the fabric of space-time; for inter-
galactic warfare to destroy dangerous enemies dwelling on other worlds; or to “pull” and “push” a
habitable planet outside the danger zone as a host star expands and becomes a “red giant.”
Figure 33. KIC 8462852
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Megastructures Commonly Orbit Close to Our Sun
In our own solar system, and for over 200 years with the advent of the telescope, astronomers and
other star gazers have repeatedly observed massive megastructures orbit and pass close to the surface of
the Sun.
International Business Times (2020-02-27): “Planet-Sized UFO Flying In Front Of Sun.” Nature
(1849): Astronomers J. R. Hind and Benjamin Scott observed a planet-sized object cross the sun.
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (1877): Dr. Lescarbault, a French astronomer,
announced he had seen a planetary object cross close to the sun. Dr. Leverrier (the discoverer of the
planet Neptune), confirmed the “substantial accuracy of the reported observation” and further announced
the probable existence of a group Mercury sized planets that had crossed close to the surface of the sun
with each transit taking about 20 days. Nature (1860): An object the size of the planet Mercury crossed in
front of the sun on Jan. 29, 1860. The London Times (1860) a planet sized object was observed to slowly
cross the face of the sun. American Journal of Science (1837): two round planet sized objects of unequal
size moved across the sun, then changed position relatively to each other with each taking a different
course, if not orbit, each time.
“Huge Sphere Observed in Front of the Sun” (Independent November 16, 2016). “Alien Ship 25
Times The Size of Earth Spotted Near the Sun” (India.com, July 10, 2020).
The Annual Register (1762): on August 9, 1762, M. de Rostan, of Basle, France, was taking
altitudes of the sun and saw a vast, spindle-shaped body, about three of the sun's digits in breadth and
nine in length, advancing slowly across the disk of the sun. The spindle-shaped structure did not
disappear until the 7th of September, when it reached the sun's limb.
“UFO Spaceship Orbiting the Sun” (Live Science April 26, 2012). L’Année Scientifique (1865):
the astronomer M. Coumbray, of Constantinople observed a black object, sharply outlined, traverse the
disk of the sun. It descended into then detached itself from a group of sun spots near the limb of the sun,
and took 48 minutes to reach the other limb. L’Année Scientifique (1885,1886); astronomers report
observing a large number of black objects crossing the disk of the sun, some swiftly, some slowly; most
of them globular, but some seemingly triangular, and some of more complicated structure.
L’Astronomie (1886), the astronomer M. Briguiere's observed on April 15 and April 25, 1883,
irregular shaped structures crossing in front of the sun, and moving as if in alignment. L’Astronomie
(1887): Signor Ricco, of the Observatory of Palermo, while watching the sun, saw, slowly traversing its
disk, numerous black bodies in two long parallel lines, and a shorter parallel line.
“What is the mysterious giant black ‘cube’ spotted near the sun?” (Daily Mail May 6, 2016).
London Times (1883): an immense black spot was observed moving across the lower part of the sun.
L’Année Scientifique (1860): Astronomers Herrick, Buys-Ballot, and De Cuppis report observing hosts
of black objects passing across the sun.
Mysterious object seen speeding past sun” (The Guardian October 27, 2017). La Nature (1876):
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astronomers from the Rio de Janeiro Observatory report observing from December 12 1875, until Jan. 22,
1876 vast numbers of bodies crossing the sun, some of them luminous and some of them dark. Monthly
Notices of the Royal Astronomical Association (1870): Lieut. Herschel, while observing the sun, on Oct.
17 and 18, 1870 observed dark shadows crossing the sun and which then became luminous as they moved
away from the sun. This continued for two days, innumerable bodes passing in front of the sun in a
continuous stream, varying in size and velocity.
“Telescope images show a planet-size shadowy object tethered to the sun by a dark filament
(LiveScience March 13, 2012). L’Astronomie (1885): Astronomers at the Observatory of Zacatecas,
Mexico, observed a large number of small luminous bodies, entering the the disk of the sun on Aug. 12,
1883.
“Video Shows Giant UFO Hiding Near Sun (IBTimes July 17, 2019). Arago, Œuvres (1836): on
May 15, 1836, astronomer Auber Poe observed numerous luminous bodies which appeared to emerge
from then move out from the sun, in diverse directions.
“Russian newspaper claims UFO spotted near Sun; NASA says nope” (Chron.com May 18,
2017). Of course, there is always some newspaper reporter, “scientist,” or government bureaucrat who
believes it is their duty to ridicule and discredit all reports of extraterrestrial life.
The fact is, the humans of Earth are completely incapable of comprehending the mind, purpose,
motives or technological and scientific capabilities of intelligent extraterrestrials that may have evolved
beyond our current level of ability billions of years ago.
Evidence of Technologically Advanced Extraterrestrial Technology
It is well established that unexplained aerial phenomenon of unusually shaped objects that could
move at great speeds and engage in rapid maneuvers have been observed in the skies above this planet for
thousands of years (Joseph 2017). With the advent of newspapers and an increasing number of scientific
journals, the reports of such sightings became common in the 17th, 18th and 19th century (Fort 1918).
From the outset of WWII, hundreds of U.S. and allied pilots were repeatedly confronted, toyed
with, and challenged by squadrons of UFOs (referred to as “Foo fighters”); all of which proved
invulnerable when fired upon (Joseph 2017). According to the reports of hundreds of military pilots and
their flight crews, the Foos were incredibly fast, had unusual shapes, were capable of amazing maneuvers
and impossible turns, and would ride alongside, above, below, and directly in front of U.S. fighter planes
which proved incapable of shooting them down (Military Intelligence Div. Res Unit/Science/WDGBI/S/
C No Science-30, 74738, 1/2/1945; Tactical Air Command Intelligence Bulletin, No 6, 1/128/1945).
On June 25, 2021, the Office of the Director of National Intelligence released a 9 page redacted
intelligence report, titled “Preliminary Assessment: Unidentified Aerial Phenomena” and which assessed
“the threat posed by unidentified aerial phenomena (UAP) and the progress the Department of Defense
Unidentified Aerial Phenomena Task Force has made in understanding this threat.” The focus of the
report was the over 120 incidents of extremely unusual aerial phenomena witnessed by Navy pilots and
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members of foreign militaries in the last two decades. These incidents involved repeated encounters with
strange objects that could engage in seemingly impossible maneuvers and change directions at incredible
speeds, and even change shape such as taking the form of a megalithic “spinning top.”
“UAP appear to demonstrate advanced technology” the report states, UAPs “appeared to remain
stationary in winds aloft, move against the wind, manoeuvre abruptly, or move at considerable speed,
without discernible means of propulsion. In a small number of cases, military aircraft systems processed
radio frequency (RF) energy associated with UAP sightings.”
Figure 34. Single image from a 2015 video filmed by U.S. Naval aviators of a shape shifting structure
soaring above the clouds. In audio recordings one of the pilots exclaims: “There’s a whole fleet of them.”
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According to this U.S. government report, there were repeated encounters, some on almost a daily
basis, including from 2014 to March 2015 over the East Coast. Navy pilots reported that the objects had
no visible engine or infrared exhaust plumes, but were capable of hypersonic speeds. Some of these
objects suddenly accelerated and disappeared in just a blink of an eye. Some were observed to rapidly zip
toward space, and others would descend and disappear into the ocean. Many of the incidents were
recorded on video, including one taken by a fighter jet’s camera in early 2015 that shows a whitish oval
object about the size of a commercial plane, but described as a giant Tic Tac, moving at hypersonic
speeds over the ocean as pilots expressed amazement. In audio recordings one of the pilots exclaims:
“There’s a whole fleet of them.”
Some UAP’s emit electromagnetic activity that could be likened to a technologically
advanced form of “radio” like transmission. They have also been observed to suddenly
accelerate to hypersonic speeds beyond “the sound barrier without a sonic boom.”
Although pilots have been reporting these encounters since the advent of the airplane, and despite
the fact that Japanese, German, American, and British pilots had hundreds of encounters with similar
objects during WWII--described as “Foo fighters” (Joseph 2017)-- the June 2021 U.S. government report
concluded that some of the aerial phenomena may be evidence of advanced experimental hypersonic
technology that has been developed by Russia or China. In this report it was also admitted that none of
these incidents were caused by any American military or other advanced U.S. government technology.
Therefore, despite the thousands year history of sightings and the fact that these encounters were
well documented during the 1940s, the U.S. government has sought to definitively rule out extraterrestrial
spacecraft and wishes the American public to believe that these incidents are due to Earth-based super
technologies developed by foreign powers.
Figure 35. Unusual Aerial Phenomena (“Foo fighters”) that harassed U.S. and allied and “enemy” pilots
during World War II. (From Joseph 2017).
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Figure 36. Unusual Aerial Phenomena (“Foo fighters”) that harassed U.S. and allied and “enemy” pilots
during World War II. (From Joseph 2017).
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Figures 37. Unusual Aerial Phenomena “battling” over Nuremberg, 1561 (From Joseph 2017).
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Figure 38 Medieval panting of fleet of disk shaped objects (Unusual Aerial Phenomena) that appeared in
the sky (From Joseph 2017).
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Figure 39. Medieval panting of fleet of saucer, circular disk shaped objects (Unusual Aerial Phenomena)
that are occupied and apparently under the control of the occupants (From Joseph 2017).
Figure 40. Unusual Aerial Phenomena, Temple of Osiris, Abydos, Ancient Egypt (From Joseph 2017).
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Conclusions
There is evidence of parallel evolutionary development on Mars, Earth, and an unknown planet
from whence meteorites containing fossilized chorals and sponges originated. In fact, every meteorite that
has been examined has been found to contain microfossils of bacteria, and often algae, and in some
instances viruses, fungi and diatoms.
Genetic studies indicate that beginning with the first complete gene, that it would have taken from
7 to 14 billion years of DNA and whole genome duplicative events to fashion a minimal life-sustaining
genome and that these duplicative events could have taken place even more rapidly in other planetary
environments. Complexity analysis of the genome indicates that life did not begin until at least 7 billion
years ago--at least two billion years before Earth became Earth.
There are stars that twinkle in the darkness of night that were formed over 10 billion years in the
past. Therefore, given genetics and morphological evidence of fossilized life found on Mars and in
various meteors and conclusive evidence that living organisms on Mars are growing and that Martian
organisms evolved to the complexity of metazoans with eyes and legs, and using Earth as an analog, it
can be predicted that “evolution” must have taken place on millions if not billions of worlds in this
galaxy; and that highly intelligent “animals” including those similar to humans evolved on numerous
ancient worlds billions of years ago. Some of these intelligent extraterrestrial “animals” have fashioned
technologies and flying craft that have Earth and its inhabitant under surveillance but are so advanced
their technologies cannot be comprehended by the humans of Earth.
There is evidence of megastructures orbiting distant stars. Since the advent of the telescope there
have been hundreds of reports of planet-sized megastructures orbiting close to our sun. It can be assumed
their purpose is to harness energy. Highly advanced flying craft capable of impossible speeds and
maneuvers have been filmed by U.S. Navy pilots. Reports of similar encounters have been commonplace
since humans learned to fly; but also extend backwards in time for thousands of years.
We have definitive proof that life evolved on Mars and proof that fungi and other organisms
continue to dwell, flourish and grow on the Red Planet. Fungi, algae and lichens are eukaryotes. Humans
are eukaryotes who evolved from eukaryotes. However, these “first” eukaryotes did not originate on
Earth or Mars, but arrived here encased in all manner of life-bearing debris that in turn originated from
worlds much older than our own. These “genetic seeds of life” swarm throughout the cosmos “infecting”
and “contaminating” innumerable worlds. The first life-sustaining gene set was fashioned around 2.4by
before Earth was formed. All of life on Earth is believed to have descended from and still harbor many of
the genes inherited from ancient ancestors and viruses that arrived here from other planets.
Based on the evidence reviewed in this report, the implications are obvious: Earth and its
inhabitants are under surveillance. Technologically advanced extraterrestrial life evolved on numerous
planets and exceeded our own level of scientific and technological capability billions of years before
Earth became a twinkle in God’s eye. “We” are not alone. “We” have never been alone in this cosmos.
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