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Point clouds are essential for storage and transmission of 3D content. As they can entail significant volumes of data, point cloud compression is crucial for practical usage. Recently, point cloud geometry compression approaches based on deep neural networks have been explored. In this paper, we evaluate the ability to predict perceptual quality of typical voxel-based loss functions employed to train these networks. We find that the commonly used focal loss and weighted binary cross entropy are poorly correlated with human perception. We thus propose a perceptual loss function for 3D point clouds which outperforms existing loss functions on the ICIP2020 subjective dataset. In addition, we propose a novel truncated distance field voxel grid representation and find that it leads to sparser latent spaces and loss functions that are more correlated with perceived visual quality compared to a binary representation. The source code is available at .

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... However, point clouds tend to be extremely sparse and this causes a class imbalance problem; this problem is resolved with the use of the focal loss (Lin et al., 2017). Quach et al. (2021) investigate differentiable loss functions and their correlation with perceived visual quality. Also, Guarda et al. (2020b) propose a neighborhood adaptive loss function as an alternative to the focal loss. ...
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Point clouds are becoming essential in key applications with advances in capture technologies leading to large volumes of data. Compression is thus essential for storage and transmission. In this work, the state of the art for geometry and attribute compression methods with a focus on deep learning based approaches is reviewed. The challenges faced when compressing geometry and attributes are considered, with an analysis of the current approaches to address them, their limitations and the relations between deep learning and traditional ones. Current open questions in point cloud compression, existing solutions and perspectives are identified and discussed. Finally, the link between existing point cloud compression research and research problems to relevant areas of adjacent fields, such as rendering in computer graphics, mesh compression and point cloud quality assessment, is highlighted.
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