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Thesis
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Zeyad Alresly The aim of the present dissertation was to investigate the biological and chemical potential of two European mushroom species: Fomitopsis betulina and Calvatia gigantea. For this purpose, different extracts of both fungi were tested for: antimicrobial, antifungal, cytotoxic, in vitro wound healing, and anti-adhesive properties. Bioassay-guided fractionation led to the isolation of bioactive compounds, altogether 20 compounds were isolated and identified. The compounds were obtained from the ethyl acetate extracts, they included triterpenes, sterols and aromatic compounds. The separated substances from both fungi were proved for biological activities, some of them showed antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities.
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Allergic rhinitis and asthma are common chronic allergic diseases of the respiratory tract, which are accompanied by immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated inflammation and the involvement of type 2 T helper cells, mast cells, and eosinophils. Cordyceps sinensis (Berk.) Sacc is a fungal parasite on the larva of Lepidoptera. It has been considered to be a health-promoting food and, also, one of the best-known herbal remedies for the treatment of airway diseases, such as asthma and lung inflammation. In the present study, we demonstrated the antiallergic rhinitis effect of Cs-4, a water extract prepared from the mycelium culture of Cordyceps sinensis (Berk) Sacc, on ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic rhinitis in mice and the anti-asthmatic effect of Cs-4 in a rat model of asthma. Treatment with Cs-4 suppressed the nasal symptoms induced in OVA-sensitized and challenged mice. The inhibition was associated with a reduction in IgE/OVA-IgE and interleukin (IL)-4/IL-13 levels in the nasal fluid. Cs-4 treatment also decreased airway responsiveness and ameliorated the scratching behavior in capsaicin-challenged rats. It also reduced plasma IgE levels, as well as IgE and eosinophil peroxidase levels, in the bronchoalveolar fluid. Cs-4 treatment completely suppressed the increases in IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 levels in rat lung tissue. In conclusion, our results suggest that Cs-4 has the potential to alleviate immune hypersensitivity reactions in allergic rhinitis and asthma.
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This paper originally proposes a wireless multisensor module with illuminance, temperature, relative humidity (RH) and carbon dioxide (CO2) sensors in an aseptic jar incubator for a solid-state fermentation (SSF) of Cordyceps militaris culture. The light intensity, ambient temperature, RH and CO2 are the critical cultivation factors of C. militaris. First, these sensors are integrated in a multisensor platform which is installed inside a lid and covered with a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) membrane of class H14 for sterilization of bacteria and viruses. The observations of sensors are then transmitted by a wireless XBee network where the slave sensor node is fixed at the top of jar lid and the master radio node receives data and uploads to an on-site monitoring node. The acquired information is further transmitted to an iCloud database and displayed in a web-based monitoring system. The results illustrate the proposed wireless multisensor module was validated with sufficient accuracy, reliable confidence and well-tolerance for C. militaris cultivation biotechnology under aseptic conditions.
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This study was performed to investigate the effects of taste-related compounds and antioxidatve profiles of retorted samgyetang made from fresh and dried Cordyceps militaris (C. militaris) mushrooms. A total of 48 carcasses were prepared from commercial broilers (CB; Ross, 4 weeks old) and randomly distributed into eight different treatments. Each treatment group consisted of 6 chicken carcasses made with the addition of broth in different condition and concentration of C. militaris mushrooms. The addition concentration was based on the broth volume (v/w) under either fresh or dried conditions ranging from 0% as a control to 1%, 2%, and 3% of C. militaris mushrooms. C. militaris mushrooms contributed to an improvement of meat tenderness and the antioxidative profile that led to a greater suppression of lipid oxidation. The addition of C. militaris mushrooms at 2% could also enrich the flavor and taste-related compounds, particularly the increase in 5'-AMP and umami-related free amino acid compounds, L-aspartic acid and L-glutamic acid. Different addition forms of C. militaris mushrooms, particularly fresh or dried mushrooms, had only small effects on bioactive compounds, where the dried addition could possibly enrich samgyetang broth with higher cordycepin and adenosine contents than the fresh addition. Besides, the addition of C. militaris mushrooms in the dried form could also contribute to a higher antioxidative profile. Eventually, the addition of C. militaris mushrooms with a minimum addition of 2% contributed to an improvement of meat quality, antioxidative profile and flavor improvement of samgyetang.
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This study investigated the adjuvant effects for anticancer and antifatigue of the combination of Cordyceps militaris extract with sorafenib. The 5 extracts of C militaris were obtained through hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, butanol, and water and were evaluated for anticancer growth activity. Among these extracts, ethyl acetate extract of C militaris showed the best tumor growth inhibitory activity and the adjuvant effects in combination with sorafenib. As a result of biochemical analysis with serum, the combination of ethyl acetate extract of C militaris with sorafenib showed the adjuvant effects both improving hepatic function and relieving cancer-related fatigue. In addition, ¹ H-nuclear magnetic resonance–based metabolic profiling in liver tissues showed that the change of metabolism by ethyl acetate extract of C militaris with sorafenib was related with serum fatigue biomarkers. Therefore, the combination strategy such as ethyl acetate extraction of C militaris with sorafenib constitutes a promising therapeutic strategy in hepatocellular carcinoma, via the inhibition of cancer growth, the enhancement of liver function, as well as the alleviation of cancer-related fatigue.
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Ascomycete Cordyceps fungi such as C. militaris, C. cicadae, and C. guangdongensis have been mass produced on artificial media either as food supplements or health additives while the byproducts of culture substrates are largely used as animal feed. The safety concerns associated with the daily consumption of Cordyceps fungi or related products are still being debated. On the one hand, the known compounds from these fungi such as adenosine analogs cordycepin and pentostatin have demonstrated different beneficial or pharmaceutical activities but also dose-dependent cytotoxicities, neurological toxicities and or toxicological effects in humans and animals. On the other hand, the possibility of mycotoxin production by Cordyceps fungi has not been completely ruled out. In contrast to a few metabolites identified, an array of biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs) are encoded in each genome of these fungi with the potential to produce a plethora of as yet unknown secondary metabolites. Conservation analysis of BGCs suggests that mycotoxin analogs of PR-toxin and trichothecenes might be produced by Cordyceps fungi. Future elucidation of the compounds produced by these functionally unknown BGCs, and in-depth assessments of metabolite bioactivity and chemical safety, will not only facilitate the safe use of Cordyceps fungi as human food or alternative medicine, but will also benefit the use of mass production byproducts as animal feed. To corroborate the long record of use as a traditional medicine, future efforts will also benefit the exploration of Cordyceps fungi for pharmaceutical purposes.
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Truffles, the symbiotic hypogeous edible fungi, have been worldwide regarded as a great delicacy because of their unique flavor and high nutritional value. By identifying their bioactive components such as phenolics, terpenoids, polysaccharides, anandamide, fatty acids, and ergosterols, researchers have paid attention to their biological activi- ties including antitumor, antioxidant, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and hepatoprotective activities. In addition, numerous factors have been investigating that can affect the quality and productivity of truffles to overcome their difficulty in culturing and preserving. To provide the information for their potential applications in medicine as well as in functional food, this review summarizes the relevant literature about the biochemical composition, aromatic and nutritional benefits, and biological properties of truffles. Besides, various factors affecting their productivity and qual- ity as well as the preservation methods are also highlighted.
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Cordycepsis a rare naturally occurring entomopathogenic fungus usually found at high altitudes on the Himalayan plateau and a well-known medicinal mushroom in traditional Chinese medicine. Cordyceps contains various bioactive components, out of which, cordycepin is considered most vital, due to its utmost therapeutic as well as nutraceutical potential. Moreover, the structure similarity of cordycepin with adenosine makes it an important bioactive component, with difference of only hydroxyl group, lacking in the 30 position of its ribose moiety. Cordycepin is known for various nutraceutical and therapeutic potential, such as anti-diabetic, anti-hyperlipidemia, anti-fungal, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, antioxidant, anti-aging, anticancer, antiviral, hepato-protective, hypo-sexuality, cardiovascular diseases, antimalarial, anti-osteoporotic, anti-arthritic, cosmeceutical etc. which makes it a most valuable medicinal mushroom for helping in maintaining good health. In this review, effort has been made to bring altogether the possible wide range of cordycepin’s nutraceutical potential along with its pharmacological actions and possible mechanism. Additionally, it also summarizes the details of cordycepin based nutraceuticals predominantly available in the market with expected global value. Moreover, this review will attract the attention of food scientists, nutritionists, pharmaceutical and food industries to improve the use of bioactive molecule cordycepin for nutraceutical purposes with commercialization to aid and promote healthy lifestyle, wellness and wellbeing
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Purpose: Cordycepin, a natural product isolated from the fungus Cordyceps militaris, is a potential candidate for breast cancer therapy. However, due to its structural similarity with adenosine, cordycepin is rapidly metabolized into an inactive form in the body, hindering its development as a therapeutic agent. In the present study, we have prepared cordycepin as nanoparticles in poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) and compared their cellular uptake, cytotoxicity and hemolytic potential with free cordycepin. Materials and methods: Cordycepin-loaded PLGA nanoparticles (CPNPs) were prepared by the double-emulsion solvent evaporation method. Physico-chemical characterization of the nanoparticles was done by zetasizer, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and reverse-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) analyses. Cellular uptake and cytotoxicity of CPNPs and free drug were tested in human breast cancer cells (MCF7). Hemolytic potential of both of these forms was evaluated in rat red blood cells (RBCs). Results: Physico-chemical characterization revealed that CPNPs were spherical in shape, possessed a size range of 179-246 nm, and released the encapsulated drug sustainably over a period of 10 days. CPNPs exhibited a high level of cellular uptake and cytotoxicity than the free drug in MCF-7 cells. While CPNPs were not toxic to rat RBCs even at high concentrations, free cordycepin induced hemolysis of these cells at relatively low concentration. Conclusion: Our results reveal that delivery as CPNPs could enhance the clinical efficacy of cordycepin substantially.
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As probiotics, fungi enhance animal health and are suitable animal feed additives. In addition to brewing fungi, there are also edible and medicinal fungi. Common fungi utilized in feeding programs include Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Aspergillus oryzae, Pleurotus spp., Antrodia cinnamomea, and Cordyceps militaris. These fungi are rich in glucans, polysaccharides, polyphenols, triterpenes, ergosterol, adenosine, and laccases. These functional components play important roles in antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-obesity, and immune system regulation. As such, fungal feed additives could be of potential use when breeding livestock. In previous studies, fungal feed additives enhanced body weight and egg production in poultry and improved the feed conversion rate. Several mycotoxins can be produced by hazardous fungi but fortunately, the cell walls constituents and enzymes of fungal probiotics can also act to decrease the toxicity of mycotoxins. Overall, fungal feed additives are of value, but their safety and usage must be studied further, including cost-benefit economic analyses.
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Suillus granulatus is a valuable wild edible mushroom with a strong umami taste. Different grades of S. granulatus were dried by different methods, including natural air drying (ND), hot air drying (HAD), vacuum drying (VD), and freeze drying (FD). Results showed that VD samples of all grades had the highest equivalent umami concentration (EUC) value (p < 0.05). The second grade of ND samples showed the highest EUC value (p < 0.05). The first grade of HAD samples showed the highest EUC value (p < 0.05). The third grade of FD samples showed the highest EUC value (p < 0.05). The third grade of VD samples had a higher EUC value than the other grades of samples dried by VD. Electronic tongue results indicated no significant differences between samples of all grades dried by all methods. Thus, umami taste components are affected by drying method and grade. VD is an appropriate drying method for all sample grades. ND, HAD, and FD are suitable for second-, first-, and third-grade samples, respectively.
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The entomopathogenic fungus Ophiocordyceps sinensis is one of the best known and most precious medicines and health food in China. The blastospores-hyphae (dimorphism) transition of this fungus in host hemolymph is critical for the virulence and the mummification of host larvae. To regulate this transition, the effects of inoculum density and fifteen chemicals including fungal nutrients, fungal metabolites, quorum-sensing molecules (QSMs) and insect hormones on the dimorphism in O. sinensis were investigated in vitro. The blastospores tended to exhibit budding growth when inoculated at 107 blastospores per mL, and hyphal growth at concentrations lower than 106 blastospores per mL. At 105 blastospores per mL, the percentage of hyphal formation decreased with the addition of filtered spent medium containing 107 blastospores per mL, indicating the quorum-sensing effect. Blastospores-hyphae transition in this fungus by fifteen chemicals was varied from no response to dimorphic reversion. The addition of N-acetylglucosamine at three concentrations significantly stimulated hyphal formation while inhibiting budding growth. For the first time, insect hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone was found to be involved in the hyphal formation in fungi. These results open new possibilities to regulate the dimorphism, which would be beneficial for the cultivation of the Chinese cordyceps.
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Background and objectives: Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is characterized by the vasoconstriction and abnormally proliferative vascular cells. The available allopathic treatment options for PH are still not able to cure the disease. Alternative medicine is becoming popular and drawing the attention of the general public and scientific communities. The entomogenous fungus Yarsagumba (Cordyceps sinensis) and its biologically active ingredient cordycepin may represent the therapeutic option for this incurable disease, owing to their anti-inflammatory, vasodilatory and anti-oxidative effects. Methods: In this study, we investigated whether Yarsagumba extract and cordycepin possess anti-proliferative and vasorelaxant properties in the context of PH, using 5-bromo-2’-deoxyuridine assay and isolated mice lungs, respectively. Results: Our results revealed that Yarsagumba extract and its bioactive compound cordycepin significantly attenuated the proliferation of human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells derived from donor and PH subjects. In isolated murine lungs, only Yarsagumba extract, but not cordycepin, resulted in vasodilatation, indicating the probable existence of other bioactive metabolites present in Yarsagumba that may be responsible for this outcome. Conclusion: Future comprehensive in vivo and in vitro research is crucially needed to discover the profound mechanistic insights with regard to this promising therapeutic potency of Yarsagumba extract and to provide further evidence as to whether it can be used as a strategy for the treatment of PH.
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Background The element selenium (Se) acts as a double-edged sword for humans and animals by being a nutrient at trace level and a toxin at elevated concentrations. It is needed for the biosynthesis of selenoenzymes and selenoproteins which mediate an array of activities such as antioxidant defense, detoxification, immunomodulation, carcinogenesis prevention, thyroid functioning, and sperm motility and maturation. Because of their culinary, nutritional, and health benefits, the demand for mushroom cultivation is increasing in India. The mushrooms are enriched with proteins, phenolics, antioxidants, vitamins, and microelements. Most of the edible and cultivated mushrooms show an array of biological properties. However, they are Se deficient, and it mandates the cultivation of Se-fortified edible mushrooms. Aim of work This review focuses on Se forms, distribution, dietary importance, mushroom cultivation, need of Se-enriched mushrooms, enrichment methods, nutritional and antioxidant significance, and anticancer activity of Se-biofortified mushrooms. Methodology and results Se-enriched mushrooms are produced by cultivation on substrates enriched with either inorganic or organic forms of Se and Se-hyperaccumulated agricultural residues. Edible mushrooms accumulate Se from substrate into selenoproteins and selenoenzymes as selenomethionine and selenocysteine, the organic and most bioavailable forms of Se. Without affecting the biological efficiency, the enrichment process enhances the total protein and total phenolic content and bioaccessibility of trace elements. The antioxidant action was higher for Se-fortified mushrooms in terms of total phenolics, total antioxidant, 1, 1-diphenyl-dipicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging, metal chelating, and lipid peroxidation inhibition activities in comparison with unfortified mushrooms. Also, Se-enriched mushrooms are known to retard chemically induced mammary tumors and proliferation of lung cancer cell lines. Conclusions Se-biofortified mushrooms act as potential functional food, nutraceutical, and diet supplements. Dietary intake of Se-fortified mushrooms aids in treatment and prevention of various conditions such as HIV infection, cancer, aging, cardiovascular, neurodegenerative and immunological diseases. The cultivation of Se-enriched mushrooms leads to sustainable empowerment of marginal, landless farmers; rural women; unemployed youth; and self-help groups. However, the technology development for Se enrichment is needed for commercial scale production. Other studies on volatile Se compound release during cultivation, safe disposal of spent compost, and Se leaching into ground water are warranted. The impact of cooking and traditional preservation methods on Se availability from mushroom meal to humans has to be evaluated.
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Background: Diabetic complications seriously endanger the health of most diabetic patients around the world. Most chemical hypoglycemic agents have adverse effects and are unable to improve the progression of diabetic complications. In recent years, a number of medicinal herbs have become increasingly popular for the treatment of diabetic complications due to their relative safety. Polysaccharides extracted from medicinal herbs with multiple pharmacological activities and low toxicity have been reported to be useful in the treatment of diabetic complications. Methods: Primary studies with keywords including polysaccharide and diabetic complications were retrieved from the Web of Science and NCBI databases and were read and analyzed. Results: Mushroom polysaccharides were proven to have positive effects on diabetic complications. Conclusions: We studied the effects of mushroom polysaccharides on hyperglycemia and as adjuvant therapies for diabetic complications and summarized the applications and limitations of mushroom polysaccharides to better understand their application for the treatment of diabetic complications.
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In this study, the bioemulsifying potential of exopolysaccharide produced by an indigenous species of Aureobasidium pullulans RYLF10 has been determined and various factors affecting the emulsification activity has been evaluated. The emulsification activity was determined with 8 different vegetable oils (olive, soybean, sesame, sunflower, coconut, mustard, groundnut and almond oil) which are mainly used for various food purposes. The result obtained revealed the emulsification activity (%EA) of the test EPS was quite fair with all the vegetable oils used in the study. However, it was found maximum (56%) with olive oil at the concentration of 1.5% and was very much comparable with the emulsification activity of gum Arabic, the standard emulsifier. Therefore, the olive oil was used for studies related to various factors affecting the emulsification activity of the test emulsifier. The emulsion formed was found to be oil in water (o/w) type which possessed remarkable temperature, pH and salt for 24 hours. Droplet size analysis of the test emulsifier revealed to possess monomodal type of size distribution with droplet size of 105 µm which was responsible for stabilizing the emulsion. The result obtained suggest that the emulsion of the test EPS with olive oil can potentially be used in various food applications where olive oil is used.
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Critical care medicine is a medical specialty engaging the diagnosis and treatment of critically ill patients who have or are likely to have life-threatening organ failure. Sepsis, a life-threatening condition that arises when the body responds to infection, is currently the major cause of death in intensive care units (ICU). Although progress has been made in understanding the pathophysiology of sepsis, many drawbacks in sepsis treatment remains unresolved. For example, antimicrobial resistance, controversial of glucocorticoids use, prolonged duration of ICU care and the subsequent high cost of the treatment. Recent years have witnessed a growing trend of applying traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in sepsis management. The TCM application emphasizes use of herbal formulation to balance immune responses to infection, which include clearing heat and toxin, promoting blood circulation and removing its stasis, enhancing gastrointestinal function, and strengthening body resistance. In this paper, we will provide an overview of the current status of Chinese herbal formulations, single herbs, and isolated compounds, as an add-on therapy to the standard Western treatment in the sepsis management. With the current trajectory of worldwide pandemic eruption of newly identified Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19), the adjuvant TCM therapy can be used in the ICU to treat critically ill patients infected with the novel coronavirus.
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Mushrooms are ubiquitous in nature. Even though humankind has been consuming mushrooms for ages, their medicinal and nutraceutical properties are not used to its fullest potential in the present market. Edible mushrooms are not only a cheap and nutritious option to mitigate malnutrition, but they also produce effective biomass. Submerged fermentation (SmF) is not only a cost-effective method to produce biomass along with exquisite bioactive metabolites but it also reduces the chances of contamination and the time of production. Therefore, this study unveils the bioactive metabolites being produced by mushrooms. Moreover, it also showcases the recent advances in the areas of bio-active compounds and their judicious implementations in daily life and pharmaceutical industries. Moreover, there is a distinct lack in utilizing the potential benefits of bioactive compounds from mushroom unless in vivo and in vitro studies are demonstrated.
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In the study, the β-glucan content, the primary structure and the antioxidant capacity of polysaccharides in Cordyceps militaris cultivated with different initial growth pH were evaluated. Meanwhile, the mechanism of β-glucan biosynthesis was investigated by RNA-Seq. Based on the results, C. militaris growing at an initial growth pH of 5–7 (CMsA) was distinguished from C. militaris growing at an initial growth pH of 8–9 (CMsB) and their unigenes showed the comparable expression. The mean of β-glucan content of CMsB group was 32.7% (w/w), 10% higher than that of CMsA. The results of RNA-seq showed 1088 differentially expressed genes between CMsA and CMsB groups. Furthermore, oxidative phosphorylation-related Gene ontology terms were up-regulated in CMsB groups. In addition, the results of structural analysis (FTIR spectrum, monosaccharide composition, periodate oxidation) and bioactivity evaluation speculated that C. militaris polysaccharides possessed higher β-(1 → 6)-glucan content and antioxidant activities in CMsB groups.
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A review of valorization of oyster mushroom species and waste generated in the mushroom cultivation is presented, with a focus on the cultivation and valorization techniques, conditions, current research status and particularly the hazard mitigation and value-added recovery of the waste mushroom substrate (WMS) - an abundant waste in mushroom cultivation industry. Based on the studies reviewed, the production rate of the present mushroom industry is inadequate to meet market demands. There is a need for the development of new mushroom cultivation methods that can guarantee an increase in mushroom productivity and quality (nutritional and medicinal properties). This review shows that the cylindrical baglog cultivation method is more advantageous compared with the wood tray cultivation method to improve the mushroom yield and cost efficiency. Approximately 5 kg of potentially hazardous WMS (spreading diseases in mushroom farm) is generated for production of 1 kg of mushroom. This encourages various valorization of WMS for use in agricultural and energy conversion applications, mainly as biocompost, plant growing media, and bioenergy. The use of WMS as biofertilizer has shown desirable performance compared to conventional chemical fertilizer, whilst the use of WMS as energy feedstock could produce cleaner bioenergy sources compared to conventional fuels.
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Mushroom is an excellent source of nutrition, tonic, medicine and dietary food items being produced and consumed all over the world. Mushrooms are rich in crude fibre, protein, vitamins, minerals, contain low fat, calories and no starch. They provide carbohydrates of high quality enhancing the human health. Mushrooms are considered as substitute for meat and its nutritional value is comparable to several vegetables. It is now considered as an important activity for recycling of agro-waste to provide better nutrition and medicinal attributes to the vegetarian population. Mushroom growing is a potential activity to convert waste into best nutritional food with high protein conversion efficiency. The world production of mushroom is about 40 million tones contributed by China, USA, The Netherlands, Poland, Spain, France, Italy, Ireland, Canada and UK. India hardly produce 0.18 million tons of mushroom. There have been lot of technological advancements in methods of mushroom spawn production and quick methods of composting for button mushroom. Production technologies of oyster and shiitake have been changed from log to bag cultivation and cropping of shiitake is reduced from 3.0 to 1.5 months. Changes in production technology and diversification have led to exponential growth of mushroom production world over by doubling or tripling the farmers income within a year. Biofortification or value addition of mushroom is becoming very common to enhance quality and shelf life. Thus, mushroom cultivation has witnessed a tremendous growth. It has proved as potential source for employment generation, food, nutrition and medicine security in tribal dominating rural India.
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The bio-residues of Pleurotus ostreatus, Agrocybe cylindracea, and Pleurotus eryingii were studied as sustainable sources of ergosterol. Its extraction was performed by a heat-assisted extraction technique and optimised using response surface methodology. The responses were: extraction yield of the residual material (R) from the mushroom bio-residues dried weight (%), the quantification of ergosterol in the M dw (mg E/100 g M dw), and in the R (mg E/g R). The most feasible responses for industrial transference were obtained for P. ostreatus bio-residues, at the optimal conditions of 65.6 min at 30 °C and 43.7 min at 90 °C producing 43.72 mg E/g R and 290.90 mg E/100 g M dw, respectively. The model satisfactorily fitted the experimental data for all responses, thus implying a good agreement between the experimental values and those predicted by the model. The study proposes a simple and efficient method to produce an ergosterol rich extract from mushroom bio-residues.
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Application of the aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) on an extract/distillate from raw shiitake mushrooms revealed 32 odorants among which 3-(methylthio)propanal (cooked potato), 1-octen-3-one and 1-octen-3-ol (both mushroom-like) showed the highest flavor dilution (FD) factors. An isotope enrichment experiment with raw shiitake tissue and either 13C18-linoleic acid or 2H4-1-octen-3-ol confirmed that both, 1-octen-3-ol and 1-octen-3-one are direct degradation products of the fatty acid, but it could be proven for the first time that the ketone is not formed by an oxidation of the alcohol. After pan-frying, 42 odor active compounds appeared among which 3 hydroxy 4,5-dimethylfuran 2(5H) one (savory), 1,2,4,5 tetrathiane (burnt, sulfury), 4 hydroxy-2,5 dimethylfuran 3(2H) one (caramel-like), phenylacetic acid (honey-like), 3 (methylthio)-propanal and trans 4,5 epoxy (E) 2 decenal (metallic) showed the highest FD factors. To get a deeper insight into their aroma contribution, 19 key odorants were quantitated in the raw shiitake and twenty-one in the pan-fried mushrooms by stable isotope dilution assays, and new methods for the quantitation of four sulfur compounds were developed. A calculation of odor activity values (OAV; ratio of concentration to odor threshold) showed that 1-octen-3-one was by far the most important odorant in raw shiitake. During pan-frying, in particular four aroma compounds were significantly increased, i.e., 4 hydroxy-2,5 dimethylfuran 3(2H) one, dimethyl trisulfide, 1,2,4,5 tetrathiane and 1,2,3,5,6-pentathiepane. The overall aroma profile of pan-fried shiitake could very good be mimicked by an aroma recombinate consisting of 15 reference aroma compounds in the concentrations determined in the pan-fried mushrooms. Further results showed that the sulfur compounds were even higher in rehydrated dry shiitake as compared to the pan-fried mushrooms.
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In this study, sunflower oil containing α-tocopherol (model for oxidizable lipophilic compounds) was encapsulated using a wall material made of maltodextrin and two different extracts rich in β-glucans and proteins, obtained from the basidiomycete P. ostreatus. A mixture of maltodextrin and acacia gum was used as control wall material. The aim was to assess P. ostreatus extracts as a sustainable and healthy alternative to common emulsifiers. After the evaluation of the emulsion stability, four powders were produced by spray drying and then analysed for the particle morphology and oil droplets distribution within the solid matrix (by scanning electron microscopy), the emulsion microstructure after their dissolution in water (by laser light diffraction) and the encapsulation efficiency (by solvent extraction of surface oil). In addition, powders were analysed in terms of oil protection against oxidation by spectroscopic determination of conjugated dienes and HPLC evaluation of vitamin E. Results showed that P. ostreatus extracts provided suitable emulsifying properties both in the liquid and in the spray dried emulsions. Moreover, it allowed excellent protection of vitamin E and polyunsaturated fatty acids against oxidation. Hence, P. ostreatus extracts can be exploited as innovative emulsifier to provide physical protection to functional, oxygen sensitive lipophilic ingredients by microencapsulation.
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Peripheral nerve injury represents a huge burden to society. Following peripheral nerve injury, improved behavioral outcome may be the most important evidence of functionality of axonal regeneration after any repair strategy. Nerve-crush injury is a well-established axonotmetic model in experimental regeneration studies to investigate the impact of various pharmacological treatments. Hericium erinaceus is a temperate mushroom but is now being cultivated in tropical Malaysia. In this study, we investigated the activity of aqueous extract of H. erinaceus fresh fruitbodies in promoting functional recovery following an axonotmetic peroneal nerve injury in adult female Sprague-Dawley rats with a long-term view toward the possible use of this mushroom in the treatment of nerve injury. Functional recovery was assessed in the behavioral experiment by walking-track analysis and toe-spreading refl ex. The peroneal functional index (PFI) was determined before surgery and after surgery , as the rats showed signs of recovery. Analysis of the PFI indicated that the return of hind-limb function occurred by day 10 to 14 and by day 14 to 17 in the treated and control (nontreated) groups, respectively. Normal toe-spreading in the crushed limb was achieved by day 7 to 10 and day 12 to 17 in the treated and control group, respectively. These results suggest that daily administration of aqueous extract of H. erinaceus fresh fruitbodies has a benefi cial effect on the recovery of injured rat peroneal nerve in the early stages of regeneration. The PFI and toe-spreading refl ex improved faster in the treated group than in the nontreated group.
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Wild-grown fruiting bodies of the basidiomycete Fomitopsis betulina (Agaricomycetes, birch bracket mushroom, = Piptoporus betulinus) in different growing stages were collected and analyzed for their beta-glucan content. It could be shown that no significant difference in beta-glucan content regarding size or location of the collected fruiting bodies could be determined, but all samples displayed high values of beta-glucan in comparison to other well-known culinary or medicinal mushroom species. Furthermore, F. betulina fruiting bodies extracted with cold sodium chloride were separated into several fractions by cross flow ultrafiltration, and glucan and protein content were analyzed. The fractions showed varying amounts of beta-glucan and very low protein contents were detected. Also, bioactivity of the fractionated extract was analyzed. None of the mushroom extract fractions induced significant cytotoxicity after 48 h of incubation at a concentration up to 1 mg/mL. Interestingly, in a scratch wound assay, the extract FbS 1, an ultrafiltrated fraction > 300 kDa, was able to block tumor cell migration by 38% compared to solvent control after 48 h of incubation at a concentration of 0.33 mg/mL. In conclusion, our results have high potential for identifying novel antitumor activities based on F. betulina.
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Background Edible mushrooms have been used as food and medicine materials for thousands of years, and the yield of cultivatable edible mushrooms has increased in recent years. The increased consumption of edible mushrooms is not only due to their nutritional value, but also to their unique taste and specific flavor. As consumer awareness of food sensory qualities increases, umami taste and aroma have become important factors affecting consumer choices. There are many factors affecting umami taste and aroma of edible mushrooms, such as cultivation conditions, species, maturity, grading, parts of mushrooms, and processing and storage methods. However, the mechanisms underlying the variations in umami taste and aroma components of different mushrooms are still unclear. Scope and approach In this review, traditional umami components, novel umami peptides, and aroma compounds are discussed, as well as the perception of umami taste and aroma. Based on a combination of human sensory evaluation and instrumental analysis, changes in the composition of these components in edible mushrooms are summarized, and the metabolic pathways and biochemical reactions involved in these changes are also discussed. Key findings and conclusions The umami taste and aroma of edible mushrooms were closely related to nucleotide metabolism, amino acid metabolism, fatty acid metabolism, and the Maillard reaction. Umami peptides and the synergy between these compounds contribute to overall umami taste. There are differences in umami taste and aroma between cultivated and wild mushrooms. The selection of processing and storage techniques is, therefore, based on the established demand for umami taste and aroma of edible mushrooms.
Article
Insulin resistance is the main cause of type 2 diabetes, fatty liver and obesity. Our previous study found mushroom polysaccharides have improved insulin resistance in vitro, but the underlying mechanisms were still unknown. Thus, we investigate the hypoglycemic effects of polysaccharides from Gomphidiaceae rutilus fruiting bodies and the mechanisms. The total polysaccharide (AGRP) and the neutral polysaccharide (AGRP-N) enhance insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in autophagy-dependent manner on high glucose and fatty acids-treated hepatic cells, but not the acidic polysaccharide (AGRP-A). Further, we elevate the oral hypoglycemic effects of polysaccharides on ob/ob mice. AGRP and AGRP-N lower blood glucose and improve insulin sensitivity. They inhibit liver lipid deposition, not only by activating AMPK to increase autophagy, but also by increasing the expressions of PPARα and CPT-1a to enhance lipolysis. Our results provide basis for the development of polysaccharides from Gomphidiaceae rutilus as hypoglycemic healthy food.