ChapterPDF Available

The wall of Santo Domingo and Documentation of the Construction Projects by the Antonelli Family. A research project for the study of the construction features of Dominican military architecture

Authors:
©
2021
by
Andrea Canepari
Ali
rights reserved
No
part
of
this
book may be used
or reproduced in any manner whatsoever
without written permission.
Printed and bound
in
Italy
by
Grafiche Antiga spa
Crocetta del Montello (Treviso) - I
First edition
ISBN 978-0-916101-10-7
Published
by
SaintJoseph's University Press
5600 City Avenue
Philadelphia,
PA
19131
U.S.A.
www.sjupress.com
SaintJoseph's University is a
member
of
the
Association
of
University Presses.
Cover
Inside
the
dome
of
the
National
Palace designed
by
the
Italian
engineer
Guido
D'Alessandro.
©
Thiago
Da
Cuhna
Project Editor
Roberta
Fusaro Canepari
Spanish texts coordination
José
Chez
Checo
CopyEditor
Andrea
Campana
Design and layout
Marianna Antiga
Cinzia
Mozer
Translation
David Auerbach
'
EDITED
BY
ANDREA
CANEPARI
THE
I~A
LIAN
L
E(i~l~
_CY
IN
rI,
HE
DO
MINICAN
REPUBLI
C
Hist
ory
Arch
itecture
Ec
onomi
es
Society
SaintJoseph's University Press
Contents
THE ITALIAN LEGACY
IN
THE
DOMINIC
AN
REPUBLIC
Histor
y,
Ar
c
hi
tec
t
ure,
Economics
and
Society
Foreword
Luis Abinader
President
of
the
Dominican
Republic
Prefa
ce
Rev. Joseph
F.
Chorpenning
O.S.F.S.,
S.
T.L.,
Ph.D.,
Editoria!
Director,
Saint]oseph's
University
Press
Acknowledgm
ents
Preliminary Remarks
Luigi
Di
Maio
Minister
of
Foreign
Affairs
and
International
Cooperation
of
Italy
Carmen Heredia de Guerrero
Minister
of
Culture
ofthe
Dominican
Republic
.
Dario Franceschini
Minister
of
Cultural
Heritage
and
Activities ofltaly .
Carolina Mejia
.
11
. 13
... 14
17
18
. .
....
20
Mayor ofthe National District
of
Santo
Domingo
21
Luca Sabbatucci
Director
Generai
for
Global
Affairs
of
the
Italian Ministry
of
Foreign
Affairs
and
International
Cooperation
. . . .. .. 22
J osé Chez Checo
President
of
the
Dominican Academy
of
History
. 23
Antonella Cavallari
Secretary
General
of
IILA
(Italo-Latin
American
International Organization) .
Introduction
Andrea Canepari
Ambassador
of
Italy
to
the
Dominican
Republic
24
27
~IIlSTORY
GENERAL SUBJECTS
1.
The
Italian Presence
in
Santo Domingo,
1492-1900
Frank
Moya
Pons
..
2 . Italian Immigration to Santo Domingo and to the Southern
and Eastern Regions
of
the Dominican Republic
Antonio].
Guerra
Stinchez
..
3.
The
Italian Presence
in
the Cibao Region and
in
Santiago de los Caballeros
Edwin
Espinal
Henuindez .
COLUMBUS
AND
THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY
4.
Christopher Columbus: A Man between
Two
Worlds
Gabriella
Airaldi ..
ECCLESIASTICAL IDSTORY
5. Alessandro Geraldini vs. Rodrigo de Figueroa: The Dominican Church,
the
Encomenderos,
and the Issue oflndigenous Peoples
Edoardo
D'
Angelo
.
6.
From the Mediterranean
to
the Atlantic. The
Itinerarium
ad
regiones
sub
Equinoctiali
plaga
constitutas (Itinerary)
of
Alessandro Geraldini d'Amelia
Edoardo
D'Angelo
and
Rosa
Manfredonia
.
7.
Homily Given
to
Commemorate the Quincentennial
of
the Arrivai
ofthe
First Resident Bishop ofSanto Domingo, Monsignor Alessandro Geraldini.
Basilica Cathedral
ofSanta
Maria la Menor (First Cathedral
ofthe
Americas), September
17
,
20
19
Monsignor
Francisco
Ozoria
.
8. Italian Clergy and the Catholic Church: Biographical Summaries
]osé
Luis
Stiez,
SJ
.
9.
Ricardo Pittini: Roman Catholic Archbishop
ofSanto
Domingo (1935-1961)
Michael
R.
Hall.
.
POLITICAL IDSTORY
10. Duarte and Mazzini
Emilio
Rodriguez
Demorizi
11.
Juan
Bautista Cambiaso (1820-
1886),
Founder
of
the Dominican Navy
and First Adrniral
of
the Republic
Juan
Daniel
Balcticer
..
..
41
.
51
.
73
.
101
109
.
117
12
7
. .
..
131
137
143
. .
145
12. Francisco Gregorio Billini, President and
Author
Roberto
Cassa
..
13. Diplomatic Relations
between
Italy and
the
Dominican Republic
PARTONE. Notes
fora
Chronology: 1844-2017
Mu-Kien
Adriana
Sang
Ben
PART
TWO. Diplomatic Relations in the Present: 2017-2020
Andrea
Canepari
.
14. Contemporary Italian-Dominican Relations
Michael
Kryzanek .
15.
Juan
Bautista ("Chicho") Vicini Burgos
Bernardo
Vega
.
16.
The
Provisional
Govemment
ofJuan
Bautista Vicini
Alejandro
Paulino
Ramos
17. Amadeo Barletta
Bernardo
Vega
.
18.
Antonio
Imbert
Barrera Rescued: Italian Families Serving
the
Nation
Antonio].
Guerra
Sanchez .
19
.
The
Choice
of
Freedom: Ilio Capozzi and
the
1965
Aprii Revolution
Giancarlo
Summa
20. Origins
of
the
Strong Relations
between
Italy
and
the
Dominican Republic (Testimonial)
Vietar Manuel Grimaldi
Céspedes
.
:,0, ARCHITECTURE
COLONIAL ARCHITECTURE
21.
Portò
Firenze
al
Nuovo
Mondo:
The
Viceregal Palace
ofDiego
Columbus in Santo Domingo (1511-1512)
Julia
Vicioso
.
22.
The
Walls
ofSanto
Domingo and Documentation
ofthe
Construction Projects
by
the Antonelli Fatnily
Sandro
Parrinello
.
23.
The
Funerary
Monument
to
Alessandro Geraldini
at
the
Cathedral
of
Santo Domingo
Virginia
Flores
Sasso
..
.
155
.
163
173
201
. 209
..
211
213
217
...
221
227
. . .
235
. .
239
.
251
24
.
The
Italian Influences
on
the Catedral Primada de América
Esteban
Prieto
Vicioso
.
MODERN ARCHITECTURE
25.
The
Italian Engineer Guido D'Alessandro Lombardi
and
the
Construction
of
the Dominican N ational Palace
Emilio
]osé
Brea
Garcia
26.
The
Dome
ofthe
Dominican National Palace and Guido D'Alessandro Lombardi
]esu.s
D'Alessandro
..
27.
The
Italian Training
ofModem
Dominican Architects, 1950 -2019
Gustavo
Luis
Moré
..
28. Altos de Chav6n: A Mediterranean Village Nestled
in
the Caribbean
Alba
Mizoocky
Mota
Lopez
.
29.
The
Influence
ofthe
Porto Rotondo Marina
on
the Casa de Campo Marina, La Romana
Diego
Fenuindez
..
LITERATURE
AND
THE
ARTS
30. Marcio Veloz Maggiolo: A Writer ofltalian Descent at the Very Heart
ofDominican
Literature
Danilo
Manera
.
31. Italy and Literature (Testimonial)
Manuel
Salvador
Gautier
..
32. Italy's Influence
on
Dominican Art
Jeannette
Miller ..
33. Italian Sculptors
in
the Dominican Republic
Myrna
Guerrero
Villalona
.
34.
The
Italian Legacy
in
Dominican Music and Culture
Bianca
Delgado
Malagon
35.
The
Dominican Audiovisual Approach to the Italian Film Experience
Fé!ix
Manuel
Lora
ECONOMICS
AND
SCIENCE
36
. Italian lnvestment
in
the
Modem
Dominican Economy
Arturo
Martinez
Moya
..
.. . 259
__
. 267
. 283
291
. 305
311
317
.
..
325
. . 329
. . 341
.359
375
381
37
.
The
Dominican-Italian Chamber
ofCommerce
Celso
Marranzini
38. Science and Environmental Protection
in
Agricultural Development:
Dr. Raffaele Ciferri's Contributions
in
the Dominican Republic
Raymundo
Gonztilez
.
39.
The
Italian Contribution to Mining Development
in
the Dominican Republic
Renzo
Seravalle
.
40. Frank Rainieri Marranzini: Creator
of
Dreams
Mu-Kien
Adriana
Sang
Ben
.
.;o.,
JOURNALISM ,
LA
W
AND
SOCIETY
41. ItalianJoumalists
Antonio
Lluberes,
SJ
.
42. Chief Justice Milton Ray Guevara
on
Italy's Contributions
to Dominican Constitutional Law (Summary
of
remarks by the Chief Justice
ofthe
Constirutional
Court
ofthe
Dominican Republic at a conference held
on
October
25,
2018)
Wenceslao
Vega
Boyrie
.
43
. Angiolino Vicini Trabucco (1880-1961)-An Immigrant
Who
Never Forgot His Homeland (Testimonial)
Guillenno
Rodriguez
Vicini
.
44. A BriefHistory
of
the Casa de Italia, !ne.
in
Santo Domingo
Renzo
Seravalle
and
Rolando
Forestieri
.
45
.
The
Bonarelli Farnily.
The
Flavors
ofltaly
in
the Dominican Republic
397
403
429
433
453
.
463
. . 467
473
Mu-Kien
Adriana
Sang
Ben
481
46. Considerations
on
the Relationship between the Dominican Republic and Italy (Testimonial)
Vietar
(Ito)
Bison6
Haza . 487
47. Foreign and Commercia! Policy
ofthe
Dominican Republic
in
the Context
of
Covid-19 (Excerpt
of
remarks by His Excellency Roberto Alvarez,
Minister
of
Poreign Affairs
ofthe
Dominican Republic,
at
a conference held
on
September
22,
2020)
Roberto
À.lvarez
. . .
491
The
Authors. 497
Indexes
of
names and places . . 513
1
CHAPITR
22
Domingo a
nd
The Walis
o~
Docu
me
;-
t2
.
by
the
Ar
::o-
-~=
,-
he
Con
stru
ction
Projects
-?=nily
Aresea
rch
pro
_:.-::.
features
of
D
o-r:1
· c2.
By
Sandro
Parrinello
e
stu
dy
of
the
co
nstruction
mili
tary
archit
ecture
DJCAr
Ocpanmrnt
of
Cl'\il
E.-,gtnttr.ng
.md
A.rchir.ca:urc
of
the
Uni
versi.y
of
P.via
he Antonelli family' s contnbution
to
defining the construetion charaeteristics
of
the Spanish forti·
fications in the
Ne:w
World
is
qui te well known.
As
Italian military engineers at the service
of
the
Sparush Crown, the Antonellis planned a range offortresses in the Caribbean
to
defend the colonies
agamst the threat
of
pirates.
This
planning decisively characterized the development
of
the urban
systems and infrastruetures that guided the colonization process in the Americas. However, despite these his-
torical considerations, rhere
is
nor a lor ofinformation available regarding the specific contnbution thar Battis•
ta Antonelli, the
most
notable figure in this process, made in establishing the fortifications ofSanto Domingo.
Often when retracing rhe defensive perimerer
of
major cities, such
as
Panama City, Cartagena, Porto•
bello, Veracruz, San Juan,
or
Ha
vana, the
work
of
the Iralian military engineer coincided with the definition
of
significant morphologies
that
characterized the entire urban setting and
not
just
the defensive areas.
The
image
that
rhe city presented
to
those
who
arrived did nor depend on the composition
of
these walls and
batterie• alone. Instead, rhe design
of
rhe enclosure and rhe urban boundaries themselves were conneeted
in a crucial way
to
the composition
of
the
internal design
of
the streets and plazas. These were generally
positioned on a regular grid that in their orientation itself found a more comfortable arrangement with
regard
to
the climatic conditions and needs for communication and contro! directly depending
on
the de-
fense system. In addition
to
these aspecrs, one must add a necessary knowledge and generai
command
of
the terrain, the slopes, and the qualities
of
the soil on which rhe city was built. The consrruction features
rclated to fortificarions depended on these aspects, though in generai, the entire sysrem
of
infrastructures
that the city needed did so
as
well.
The "modem-style" fortified struetures are characterized by the geometrica! designs that
confera
polyg-
onal shape to the masonry; anricipating a slope in the curtain
of
walls
is
sufficient
to
offset the attacks from
the new artillery weapons which had only recently appeared on the battlefields. While theories related to
these modcls are attributed to the great theoreticians
of
the Italian Renaissance and can be dated back to the
mid-fifteenth century, it was nonetheless during the sixteenth century that these considerations found more
extcnsive circulation and the most fruitful experimentation. Wich
che
discovery ofche Americas, the appear-
ancc
of
the battlefields changed.
The
defenses along the coasts that Spain was testing in the Mediterranean to
protect itself from the threat ofbarbaric Corsair attacks found
in
the overseas territories a more extensive field
for expcrimentation and innovation. During the years following rhe arrivai in the Americas,
che
art
of
warfare
changcd, introducing possibilities for artillery in the trenches and powerful cannons that could destroy
che
thin, medieval style walls. Compared to attacks by land, these sysrems did
not
take a long time to achieve rhe
samc cffcct on the ships accommodating these fire systems onboard. The large new warships held numerous
' I
'
24
0 H IE
ITA
I.IAN ! EGACY IN ·1 IIE O
OM
!N l C
AN
[U
.PUBLIC
cannons, and these
were
the
main threats for
other
transport ships and for the ports that contained
the
as-
tounding
riches
of
the
Americas that needed
to
be kept secure.
During
the
periods immed.iately following, and through a process that would continue
throughout
the
entire
si.xteenth century,
the
evolution
of
rnilitary strategies saw changes in ballistics and offensive models in
generai
due
to
attack practices
that
favored a quicker system
of
movement, as such reducing the size
of
the
weapons,
the
range, and
most
importantly for
our
considerations the trajectory
of
the cannon projectiles.
The
trajectory
of
the
cannonball depended
on
the
range. Therefore, the slope
of
the curtains
of
walls was
calculated
from
the
point
where
fìre was opened. Based
on
the
modem
sryles,
the
footprint
of
the
walls had
to
be
as perpend.icular as possible
to
the
fìring
of
the
cannon, which
when
perforating the surface
of
the
curtain
penetrated
the
masonry
to
then
wane
in force and be absorbed
by
the density
of
the
walls
full
of
inert materiai.
The
transformations
under
which
the Antonelli family operated nevertheless involved a fìtst phase, in
which
it
was
necessary
to
adapt the med.ieval style defensive systems to
the
new
features associated
with
mod-
lma
ge
s
of
the Ozama
Fortr
cc_,s,
the
pr
in
ci
pal
fort1fied monu
me
nt
of Sdnt o Domingo
and the only medie
va]
,;ty
i-_
forrr
:,,;
in
th
e
Arrui
,,
l
1ke
n
tog::L:"(•r
:.h
the
,
1c.li.1.-:eN
'
)WC
r batt
ery.
C
:--11,.,
r
,...,,.
the
tow
er
anrl
·
'-
· h
·1y
tra
ce
ti"',
...
J
,n
of
th
e
rJ<-t
·r /Stem
<1
1
on·
1 ourse
of
t'K'
r
..
z<1m,
R1
ve
r,
d1•.r~·
1,
1 the main
f,-.:1tu1
rs
J1
the
tw
o
mnrr ,·nt,;
in
hi
story
th
a~
rcpresent
th
e
proc.e~s
of
colonizatio n
and forti ficat ion
of
the city.
1::i
Sandro P
.1r
ri
nello
Op
ening page:
View
of
the Torre del
Homenaje,
orThe
T
ower
of
Homage,
from the lower battery.
In particular, the
space
in
front
of
the battery
is
now
separateci
from the city and the
river by a more recent
curtain
of
walls. built
at
the beginning
of
the
la
st century
to
afford
great
er
rnonumentality
to
the capital's
rn
ilit
ary systern.
The concrete
wa11.
rather deteriorateci
and ruined in spi te
of
its historization.
today seerns to be
bo
th an obstacle far
the
ut
ilization
of
the
colonia! walls
as
well
as
an opportunity to
define the residuai
spaces th
at
could be
used
as
exhibition
or
tourist areas.
comp
leting th e
rnuseum experience
of
the Ozarna Fortress
complex.
© Sandro Parrinello
orawing
of
the
Colonia! City by the
military
engineer
Battista
Antonelli.
The
two plans
for
development
of
the
defensive
wa
ll
stand
out:
the
first and larger
one
toward
the
we
st.
requested by the
residents
of
the
city,
and
the
second
which
redu
c
es
t
he
extension
of the fortified
perim
e
ter
by
Battista
Antonell
i.
©
Sandr
o
Parri
n
ello
TIIE
WALLS
OF
SA
NTO
DO
MI
NGO
ANO
DOC I 2 J
UMENTA
TI
ON OFTHECONSTRUCTION P
ROJECTS
BYTHEANTONELLI FAMI
LY
4
ern-style defense. In particular,
the
engineer
who
worked
and experimented in
the
field
was
asked
to
ensure
that
those composite models
of
a
geometrie
narure
were
suffi-
ciently effective
to
be
both
economically sustainable
and
modem
. This was necessary
to
prevent
the
city
and
the
port
from
being
excessively exposed
and
threatened,
and
for
the
citizens
not
to
feel endangered,
thereby
feeling
at
liberty
to
carry
out
commerciai activities
and
to
invest
their
resources
and
money.
As
such, Antonelli
needed
to
moclify
and
redesign
the
defensive systems from
the
first
settlements
built
along
the
island' s shores, in
rum
developing
an
orgarùc appara-
rus
that
took
into
account
the
design
of
new
complexes
or
the
restoration
of
the
fortresses already
present
to
in-
clude
more
effective batteries, bulwarks,
and
defensive
perimeters.
However,
if
one
excludes
the
irnposing for-
tresses
that
likely represent
the
most
considerable contribution
of
this planning effort
led
by
the
Italian
en-
gineer,
there
are
not
many
remnants
of
Antonelli's
work
in
the
Americas
that
enable
usto
completely
and
readily define his language
or
engage in srudies
of
a geometrie narure from
which
it is possible
to
deduce
the
theories applied
to
his defensive models.
It is
irnportant
to
note
that
the
foundation
of
Santo
Domingo
is characterized
by
two
elements:
the
pres-
ence
of
the
Ozama
River
and
the
composition
of
the
shores, banks, and coasts
along
the
river.
The
first settle-
ment
on
the
western
shore
ofthe
river,
near
the
current
Chapel
ofOur
Lady
ofthe
Rosary,
built
at
the
end
of
the
fifteenth cenrury (1496-1498),
was
seriously damaged
by
a hurricane
and
quickly rebuilt
in
1502
along
the
western
shore
of
the
river,
where
the
Colorùal City (Cuidad Colorùal)
is
still located today.
Along
the
entire
perimeter
of
the
urban
layout, cliffs create a narural defensive curtain
that
does
not
permit
direct
access
to
the
river
or
to
the
sea.
Thanks
to
this composition
and
the narural defense outline,
the
walls
of
the
city
were
conceived from
the
start as
an
accessory to the natural defense system.
The
irùtial walls
that
made
up
the perimeter
of
the
Domirùcan capitai
were
likely
composed
of
a series
of
rnixed strucrures, including segments
made
from
wood
alternating
with
elements
of
stone
masonry
.
This
barrier stili maintained a strucrural composition
that
was characteristic
of
the
defensive
strucrures
created
for
small
urban
areas,
or
in any
event
those
oflesser
relevance in
the
late medieval style,
which
was
contempora-
neous
with
the
Ozama
Fortress.
The
defensive
perimeter
of
Santo Domingo built irnmediately after
the
arrivai
of
the
Sparùards
was
almost
assuredly
not
updated
or
irnproved during
the
successive years
due
to
the
loss
of
commerciai
interest
in
the
is-
land,
motivated
by
the
Iarge investrnents
that
were
being funneled into
the
cities
and
territory
of
nearby
Cuba.
These
walls, similar
to
other
urban
centers,
were
probably
nor
very
high
but
instead
thin
with
a
vertical
curtain.
These
afforded space for
new
low
and thick walls
that
were
foremost
designed
based
on
geometrie
configurations such
that
they
were
capable
of
resisting and deflecting cannons
placed
on
the
warships
for
the
defense
of
the
sea, and potential attacks and incursions
that
could
occur
on
land,
although
with
more
difficul-
ty
.
These
new
defensive installations constantly modified
the
design,
the
form,
and
the
appearance
of
many
Italian, European,
and
Centrai American cities.
The
city
with
its fortresses
had
to
seem
unreachable
to
discour-
age pirates,
and
it
needed
to
represent
the
power
of
the
empire
.
The
defense
of
the
coasts was characterized
by
the
development
of
a
contro
I
network
made
up
of
fortress-
es, towers,
and
batteries
that
stored
the
artillery necessary
to
thwart
incursions
by
pirates
or
enemies.
As
such,
the
military
engineer
before desigrùng
the
pian for a defensive system
needed
to
pay
considerable
attention
nor only
to
the
topography
of
the land
but
also
the
seabed,
drawing
the
bathymetric
curves
and
everything
24
21
THE
ITALIAN LEGACY IN THE DOMINICAN REPUBIJC
necessary
to
detennine
which
natural defenses could
be
used and as such best capitalize
on
the various offen-
sive
sttategies
that
the
defense system needed to resist.
During
the
many
trips
that
Battista Antonelli made
to
the Americas, he
mor
e than once
had
to forego visit-
ing
the
island,
in
spite
of
the
Royal
Warrant
from King Philip Il, issued in
1586.
In said decree, the King ordered
Battista
to
explore
the
coasts
to
build
new
forttesses
or
to pian improvement
of
those already existing. Santo
Domingo
was
included
among
the
places indicated
by
the King,
but
Antonelli only reached the island
on
Aprii
25, 1589,
along
with
the
engineer
Tejada,
three
years after the siege by Sir Francis Drake.
The
capitai already
had
the
Ozama
Forttess,
and
there was a pian to construct
some
walls to fortify the
city' s
perimeter
in
a
modem
fashion.
However,
the capitai
had
already lost a great dea!
of
its politica! impor-
tance
and
its
commerciai
prosperity,
and
the enclosure planned for the
new
walls in addition to being
weak
and
ineffective
was
also
rather
far from the
urban
center.
Whoever
had created it certainly believed that the
city
would
continue
its
growth
at
the
same
pace as during the early sixteenth century. It was, however, a
prediction
that
would
not
materialize. Antonelli created a
new
pian for the walls, bringing
them
closer to the
city
and
adding
alternative bulwarks along their entire length, with the addition
of
fortresses to improve the
precision
and
distribution
of
the
bulwarks and the cannons.
The
new
and
lower
defensive wall included a small extemal trench, associated
with
ground
motion
that
minirnized
the
presence
of
the
batteries which amplified the scenic effect
of
the bulwarks.
The
outer
system
was
adomed
with
watchtowers
and
included a series ofbulwarks that
were
equipped for shooting and fortified
doors.
Only
some
features
of
these sttuctures
remain
today, visible within the
urban
layout
of
Santo Domin-
~c
tiv
iti
es
related
to
:~
e ass ess
rnent
and
,ocu
ment
ation
by
"
re
s
ea
rch
group
::>rn
th
e
University
of
'.:-v13
a
nd
UNPHU
-
ivc
rsida
d
NacionaJ
.:-dr
o
He
nriquez
:
•:-~
a._ t
he
objective
of
n1ch
is
the study of
thc:
co
lo
nial
defense
,-;
1~tcm
of
Santo
Domi
ng
o.
In
particular
1
rr
,
r1
ges
are s
hown
of
·
the wo
rksho
p
created
on
th e no rtheast
oulline
of
the city.
©
San
dro Pa
rrine
ll
o
-
Jmage
of
the
Bulwark
of
the Jnvincible
during
the documentation
activity canried
out
by
means
of
laser
scanner
technology. The
Bulwar1<,
Jocated
at
the
point where the course
of
the
river
narrows
.
is
one
of
the
most
important in ali
of
the
fortified perimeter
and probably
one
of
the portions
of
the defensive girdle
depending directly
on
Antonelli's pian.
©
Sandro
Parrinell
o
THE WALLS
OF
SANTO
DOM
IN
GO
ANO
DOCUMENTAT
ION
OFTHE CONSTRUCT
ION
PROJECTS
BYTHE
ANTONELLI
F
AMILY
1
243
go, but it is not clear what part was Antonel-
li
' s contribution and which parts were the
remainder
of
the batteri
es
and defensive
sys-
tems created during more recent eras while
capitalizing
on
the perimeter described by the
Italian engineer.
The walled girdle protected the city to
the northwest from the interior
of
the island,
to the east from the river, and to the south
from attacks by sea using the natural
roclcy
wall where it was present. The oldest military
structure erected by the Europeans and stili
visible in the Dominican Republic dates to the
first decade
of
the sixteenth century, and this
is the Ozama Fortress. The structure built at
the mouth
of
the river to defend the southeast
entry
of
the Colonia! City was constructed
upon the orders
of
the Spanish governar Frey
Nicolas de Ovando. Although it has under-
gone changes and expansions over the centuries due to its different uses, the fortress has maintained its medi-
eval features. In
1990,
it became a World Heritage Site along with the monuments from the historic Colonia!
City
of
Santo Domingo. The complex
is
situated at an elevated location, separated from the river
by
a stone
wall, and is called the
Turre
del
Homenaje,
or
The Tower ofHomage. This is due to the fact
that
the boats arriv-
ing to the port were greeted from atop its
18
meters. The crenellated structure has thick. coralline limestone
walls with loopholes: in the upper segment, it opens onco a walled garden that separates it from the
urban
area, which
is
accessed by passing through the Puerta Carlos
III
gate built in
1797
. Meanwhile, to the right
of
the tower, the lower battery was defended from above by the cannon posts, and it is currently invisible from
the river. In the
1950s,
in the style
of
the times, the complex was even further enclosed by a concrete fortifica-
tion, separating it from the Ozama River. Used
as
a prison until the end
of
the
1960s,
the fortified complex was
opened to the public in
1965,
due to its relevance
as
a monument
of
medieval architecture.
Following the course
of
the river from the fort, sections
of
walls and bulwarks from the originai Colonia!
City can be seen, which also continue along the south side along the coast. These portions cannot
be
dated
with accuracy, and it
is
possible to imagine only some
of
the changes with regard to location and reconstruc-
tion that were made aver the centuries.
When Antonelli and Tejeda arrived in
1589,
Santo Domingo had already lost some
of
its politica! and
commerciai relevance to
new
ports in the Pacific, thus rendering irrelevant the large network
of
walls built
in
anticipation
of
a fast pace
of
urban growth that nevertheless had already ceased during the first decades
of
the
sixteenth century. Antonelli overhauled the girdle
of
walls, bringing it closer to the city and adding bulwarks
along its entire length. Near the San
Gil
fortress, the outline
of
the girdle curves toward the north, extending
in alternate stretches. Among these, the Puerta de
la
Misericordia gate and the Fuerte de la Concepci6n fort
stili remain, along with traces
of
the walls that once connected them, which can be seen from the road.
The
fort faces toward the east, along the current Calle Juan !sidro Pérez, where the girdle again appears near the La
Caridad Fort ruins. A carefully planned residential design during the
1980s
allowed for keeping the
lower
part
of
the walls between the
La
Caridad and San Miguel intact. This
is
a fortified area
at
ground leve! in the shape
of
a pentagon, which has become a modem-day sports area for public use.
Following yet another interruption, the fortification again appears at the Hermitage
of
San Ant6n, with
the eponymous bulwark and a reconstruction
of
the walls that extends to the Santa Barbara Cathedral.
The
I
244
THE I
TAUAN
L
EG
ACY I N
THE
DOM
I
NI
C
AN
REPUBLIC
fortifìcation
pian
from
the
Santa Barbara Cathedral continued unti!
the
Ozama
River,
with
a
low
curtain fol-
l
owing
its course, interspersed
with
gates and
minor
forts
of
wlùch only a segment remains intact, the shape
of
wlùch
stili
remains
visible from the road. These observable portions currently enable us to discem the originai
pian
in
spite
of
the
necessary precautions resulting from changes
that
took
piace
over
the
centuries due
to
acts
of
war
and
human
and
natural
intervention.
In
this
context
in
wlùch
lùstorical arclùtectural patrimony
is
even further imperiled by natural disasters
and
in
which
development
of
tourism in recent decades has
put
the very existence
of
these vestiges at risk,
as
they
are ofi:en demolished to create space for a hotel
or
the
expansion
of
a
port
infrastructure, a consideration
on
the
development
of
models
of
fortifìed arclùtecture becomes essential for research purposes. Its objective
is
the
appreciation oflùstorical arclùtectural patrimony.
lmages
of
~hree-
dime
ns
ional model s
of
the
BulNMY
of
th
e
lnvi
no
b!e
r;1e
Ozam a
Fortres
s.
ar
tt"1e
La
Concepci6n fo rt
The 3D r1odf"l5 a
re
generatcd
IJy
us
ing
Struaure tram Motion
photogrn
mme
try
crea t
eci
rhrough
the use
of
drones
during the in-situ
documentation
activities .
© Sand ro Parrinello
Laser
sc
ann
er
po
int
clou
ds
of
t
he
Bulwark
of
th
e lnvincible .
© Sa
nd
ro P
arri
nel
lo
View of the
point
cloud
of
the Bulwark
locateci
nea
r the
Hermitage
of
San
Ant6n
. Because
th
e
citizens
do not
perce
i
ve
it
as
a
monu
m
en
t,
the
site
is
in
criticai
cond
i
tion:
on
the
uppe
r
section
,
it
is
c
overed
with
weeds
, a
nd
the
outline
is
clearly
visi
b
le
of
a building that was
c
onst
ructed
u
sing
the
bul
wa
rk
as
i
ts
base
and later collapsed.
©
Sandro
Parrinell
o
THE
WALL
S or
SANTO
DOMINGO
AND
DOCUMENTATION
OF
TII
E CONSTRLICTI
ON
PROJECTS
BY
H l [
i\NTONELLI
F,
\M
I
LY
12
45
For
the
study
of
these geometrie and analytical models, drawings
not
only help
make
clear
the
features
through
descriptive
geometry
but
also allow for modeling their forms, as such elucidating construction issues
during this process as well as producing prototypes that are useful for the
documentation
and
assessment
of
architectural patrimony.
The
purpose
of
modeling in
the
history
of
research has always
been
one
of
tuming
a vision concei
ved
virtually into a "reality" by taking into consideration mathematical prototypes in
order
to establish a scientifìc
basis to explain
nature's
most
complex physical and mechanical
phenomen
a. Engineering,
understood
in
ali
of
its
most
complex forms
of
research
and
experimentation, requires
the
use
of
mathematical
and
mechanical
formulas, as well as
the
application
of
complex yet universal languages
that
are related to
the
science
of
design.
This
mandatory
communication
need
today finds
new
possibilities o f expression
within
the
digital sphere,
in
which
the
language
of
programming
reformulates
the
structural principles
of
computational models
and
for
composition
in
general.
The
recurring issue
of
"documentation"
is
understood to
be
the
need
to take ownership
of
historical-cul-
tural
patrimony
, in this specific case
that
of
architecture, and therefore
of
cultura! identity
and
culture itself. It
has therefore
demonstrated
how
these theoretical considerations and
mo
re in-depth analysis of tangible
and
246
1
TII
E
ITALIAN
LEGACY
IN
TH
E
DOMINI
C
AN
REPUBLIC
intangible
patrimony
is capable
of
explaining-through
drawing and the explanation
of
independent models
govemed
by
science-the
cultura] substrate necessary for framing a particular context.
The
technological
development
that
we
are experiencing in this age
is
conditioning the techniques
and
che applications
of
documentation
processes. But it also leads to a general process
of
reconsidering the deeper
meaning
of
knowledge
and
the multiple paradigms
that
arise from
it
when
speaking
about
a system for
the
development
,
management,
and
improvement
of
patrimony.
New
systems
of
representation
produce
new
legal expectations for digital communication, changing the objectives and constantly renewing the application
in
analytical
terms
of
cognitive needs
and
also in response
to
the
more
legal need for the computational na-
ture
of
interaction
with
these same models, which are