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Peace through tourism: Critical reflections on the intersections between peace, justice, sustainable development and tourism

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Abstract

United Nations Sustainable Development Goal 16 focuses on fostering inclusive, just and peaceful societies to ensure sustainable development. This can be an important catalyst to sustainable tourism and draws needed attention to the value of peace through tourism thinking. We might ask by what means could we address structural injustices in tourism and additionally harness tourism for greater inclusivity, justice and sustainability? Peace through tourism analyses could benefit from engagement with peace studies thinking on peace with justice, issues of violence, frameworks for fostering positive peace, peace pedagogies and critical literacies in non-violence. Additionally, this article argues tourism must be understood in its wider context and the contribution it may make to both causing and countering structural injustices. We briefly explore emerging thinking on ecocide and decolonisation in order to illuminate the need for a greater engagement in multi-logical, multi-layered and critical thinking in tourism studies. By furthering the peace tourism agenda, this work underscores the need to frame tourism in terms of peace and justice concerns. It also supports recent claims that tourism must be assessed and addressed in its wider structural context. This is a critical and timely discussion as global tourism struggles through multiple crises and challenges.

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... It is recognised that tourism has the potential to contribute to more sociologically and ecologically just forms of development (Higgins--Desbiolles, 2018a), through promoting peace (Farmaki, 2017;Higgins-Desbiolles, Blanchard, & Urbain, 2021), fairly distributing the benefits between communities and individuals (Jamal, 2019;Rastegar, Zarezadeh, & Gretzel, 2021), increasing self-esteem and capabilities of indigenous groups (Camargo & Vázquez-Maguirre, 2021;Harbor & Hunt, 2021), involving community and empowering women (Mkono, Rastegar, & Ruhanen, 2021;Tajeddini, Walle, & Denisa, 2017), conserving the natural environment and nonhuman animals (Belicia & Islam, 2018), and securing justice to build a positive future (Higgins--Desbiolles, 2008). However, so far, such ambitious aims have not translated into tourism practice. ...
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Tourism has the potential to contribute to world peace, and through appropriate management, to address current realities such as globalization, migration, conflicts, prejudices and poverty. By providing a range of international perspectives and case studies, this book discusses the interrelation between peace, conflict resolution and tourism, the role of industry and the role of the individual, and tourism as a catalyst for change and development. Exploring the ideas that there is more to peace than the absence of war and that there is more to tourism than economic interests, this book is the first of its kind and an essential resource for researchers, students and policymakers in tourism and related subjects.
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The objectives of this book are threefold: (i) to identify and learn from examples of a positive relationship between tourism and peace; (ii) to make available the output of and to stimulate further academic research and scholarship focused on the tourism and peace proposition; and (iii) to move on from the original question of whether tourism contributes to peace, to finding ways in which tourism can be managed and conducted to meet the peace objective. The conceptual and theoretical foundations are laid in chapters 1-3. The tourism encounter theme is taken up in chapters 4-8. Chapters 9-15 extend the discussion into the area of conflict resolution.
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This was a requested chapter by the editors. The chapter presents the narrative of the rise of tourism post 1995 in Northern Ireland and the emergence of both a developing supply base of political tourism attractions and a demand for this emergent niche market. The chapter explores the opportunity of the development of this niche from the viewpoint of industry personnel and asks the tough questions over the extent of interest in its development, the position that communities take on this type of opportunity and what lessons can Northern Ireland share with other destinations that have a similar turbulent past they are slowly emerging from. The chapter stresses the educational role that this type of tourism offers as well as the opportunity it can play towards peace and reconciliation.
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This paper critically explores decolonial theory and its relevance for tourism studies. We suggest that while postcolonial and related critical theoretical perspectives furthered understandings of the consequences of colonisation, such critical theorising has not provided an epistemological perspective of tourism which legitimises the cosmologies of, and actively empowers, traditionally marginalised groupings. We review published tourism research which adopts critical and postcolonial perspectives, and argue that while these have been valuable in terms of exposing the existence and effects of dominant discourses and practices in tourism, their emancipatory objectives are limited because tourism knowledge is still predominantly colonial. Epistemological decolonisation is thus presented as a more radical project which can provide an ‘other’ way of thinking, being and knowing about tourism.
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This paper explores the processes affecting tourism development following a major political conflict in Bosnia and Herzegovina (B&H). The adopted critical theory analytical approach resulted in the identification of phoenix tourism, conceptualised as a distinctive period in post-conflict tourism development. Instead of locating tourism in the context of economic enhancement, tourism is located in the context of social renewal of the destination and its people. Although post-conflict tourism is usually conceptualised under dark tourism scholarship, phoenix tourism is not proposed as a type of tourism, but as a role given to tourism in a process through which conflict issues develop into a new heritage.
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Numerous claims have been made for tourism’s efficacy as a force for peace. This paper evaluates these arguments in the context of an attempt to use tourism as a confidence building measure. Findings from ethnographic research in a village tourism project in Cyprus are compared with other conflict cases. Contrasting an anthropological approach with the psychological models most commonly referred to in the tourism and peace literature, the paper argues the need to address the wider structural factors determining the strength of civil society, in particular, the functioning of reciprocity, if tourism is to drive the peace dividend, rather than just profit from it.
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While ecotourism has many positive attributes, perhaps the most interesting is its potential to foster transformations in ecological consciousness that some view as vital to achieving more sustainable human–environmental relationships. Frequently, indigenous peoples and their cultures have been associated with ecotourism because of the ‘strong bond between indigenous cultures and the natural environment’ [Zeppel, H. (2006). Indigenous ecotourism: Sustainable development and management. Wallingford, UK: CABI.]. In fact, there are numerous examples from around the world of indigenous communities using the opportunity that ecotourism provides to educate non-indigenous people about indigenous values and lifeways in the hopes of overturning the destructive nature of the Western environmental paradigm. This article offers a critical perspective on the capacity of indigenous ecotourism to foster more sustainable lifeways by transforming the ecological consciousness of participants and stakeholders in ecotourism. This is timely as non-indigenous academic Fennell [(2008). Ecotourism and the myth of indigenous stewardship. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 16(2), 129–149] has recently presented a controversial analysis of the ‘myth of indigenous stewardship’. This paper focuses on the writings of indigenous experts to explore these complex issues. In addition to this conceptual analysis, this article offers a brief case study of Camp Coorong in South Australia, which demonstrates that some indigenous communities are using ecotourism to teach indigenous values in the hope of fostering transformations in consciousness.
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Humankind is currently witnessing, and shaping, the most significant and rapid paradigm shift in human history – a paradigm shift of major demographic, economic, ecological, and geo-political dimensions. For the first time in human history – we are faced not with just one crisis – but a confluence of several crises; crises that are not related to a single tribe or community – a single nation – or a single region of the world – but are each global in scale. To meet the challenges of these global crises will require an equally historic paradigm shift; a paradigm shift with a strong environmental ethic that restores ecological balance and integrity to our failing ecosystems, and that addresses the critical issue of climate change; a paradigm shift toward an economic system that brings about an end to poverty – and a paradigm that brings an end to war as a means to solving conflict, as it is only through a global family in harmony and peace with itself, that we can solve the unprecedented global issues facing our one common home, planet earth – and our one common future as a global family. The travel and tourism industry has, and will continue to play a vital and leading role toward this paradigm shift, and as the world’s largest industry involving virtually every nation in the world – will be the central pillar of a Peace through Commerce movement. The dramatic growth of tourism in the past 60 years is one of the most remarkable economic and social phenomena of our time. The industry has grown from a total of 25 million international arrivals in 1950 to a projected 1 billion international arrivals in 2010, and a further projection to 1.6 billion by 2020. Beginning with the emergence of “Ecotourism” in the late 1980’s, there are an increasing number of tourism market segments which fall within a broad category that can be called “Peace Tourism,” and classified within a framework that includes peace within ourselves, peace with others, peace with nature, peace with past generations, peace with future generations, and peace with our Creator. Since its birth in 1986, the International Institute for Peace through Tourism (IIPT) has been promoting these values of tourism together with its vision of Travel and Tourism as the world’s first “Global Peace Industry” – an industry that promotes and supports the belief that every traveler is potentially an “Ambassador for Peace.” This “higher purpose of tourism” includes the key role of tourism in promoting international understanding and collaboration among nations; environmental protection and preservation of biodiversity; enhancing cultures and valuing heritage; contributing to sustainable development and poverty reduction; and healing wounds of conflict.
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Botswana is promoting cultural tourism to diversify the country's nature-based tourism industry, to increase citizen participation in tourism development; and, improve rural livelihoods. The objective of this paper is to analyse tourism and cultural commodification at Goo-Moremi Village, Central Botswana, an emerging destination for cultural tourism. Conceptually, the study is informed by the debates around cultural commodification. Using both primary and secondary data sources, culture at Goo-Moremi Village and Gorge is considered sacred as ancestor worship controls the day-to-day lives of people. Ambivalence, tensions and local resistance emerge in the process of commodifying culture at Goo-Moremi village. Some local people embrace the commodification of their culture into a tourism product because of anticipated socio-economic benefits whereas others resist cultural commodification as a result of fears that it may devalue their culture and belief system.
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This paper is about tourism and change. It examines changes that have taken place in politics, policy, development, conservation, human–environmental relations, and the convergence of these areas over the past 30 years, especially during the past decade. As the result of international cooperative scholarship, some old concepts of how the world works are shown to be giving way to a new focus. It discusses how, instead of managing tourism through attempting to maintain stability, new thought guided by close obser-vations of reality, depicts a world full of uncertainty that is constantly changing and evolving, and where enhancing resilience to disturbance replaces the former focus on achieving stability. This is not a universal paradigm shift, but it is a shift nevertheless. It shows how a new world-view is gradually supplanting the old, and it suggests that this view and its leaders, cannot be ignored. The paper presents readers with seven introductory steps on the road to greater understanding of sustainable tourism in the context of complex system dynamics, in the hope of enabling a more effective transi-tion to sustainability.
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This article defends the proposal of sustainable degrowth. A starting premise is that resource and CO2 limits render further growth of the economy unsustainable. If degrowth is inevitable, the question is how it can become socially sustainable, i.e. a prosperous and stable, rather than a catastrophic, descent. Pricing mechanisms alone are unlikely to secure smooth adaptation; a full ensemble of environmental and redistributive policies is required, including - among others - policies for a basic income, reduction of working hours, environmental and consumption taxes and controls on advertising. Policies like these, that threaten to "harm" the economy, are less and less likely to be implemented within existing market economies, whose basic institutions (financial, property, political, and redistributive) depend on and mandate continuous economic growth. An intertwined cultural and political change is needed that will embrace degrowth as a positive social development and reform those institutions that make growth an imperative. Sustainable degrowth is therefore not just a structuring concept; it is a radical political project that offers a new story and a rallying slogan for a social coalition built around the aspiration to construct a society that lives better with less.
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This paper assesses the proposition that tourism has some potential to act as a mechanism for promoting international peace by examining the reactions of South Korean tourists who have visited Mt. Gumgang, a newly developed resort area in North Korea. The paper finds that the opportunity to visit the latter country had a positive impact on South Koreans and there are positive indications of an opportunity for tourism to facilitate better intergovernmental relations. From a theoretical perspective, the paper draws on the international relations literature to examine possible roles for tourism.RésuméUtilisation du tourisme pour promouvoir la paix sur la péninsule coréenne. Cet article évalue la proposition que le tourisme a un certain potentiel de servir comme mécanisme pour promouvoir la paix internationale en étudiant les réactions des touristes de Corée du Sud qui ont visité le mont Gumgang, un lieu de vacances récemment développé en Corée du Nord. L’article trouve que l’occasion de visiter ce dernier pays a eu un impact positif sur les Sud-Coréens et qu’il y a des indications positives de la possibilité que le tourisme puisse faciliter de meilleures relations intergouvernementales. D’une perspective théorique, l’article utilise la littérature des relations internationales pour examiner des rôles éventuels pour le tourisme.