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Prevention and Control of Food Spoilage: An Overview (Review Article)

International Journal of Pharmacy and Biological Sciences-IJPBSTM (2021) 11 (1): 124-130
Online ISSN: 2230-7605, Print ISSN: 2321-3272
Review Article | Biological Sciences | OA Journal | MCI Approved | Index Copernicus
DOI: Megha Sherawat* et al or
Prevention and Control of Food Spoilage:
An Overview
Megha Sherawat*1, Ravi Kant Rahi2, Varsha Gupta3, Deepesh
Neelam4 and Devki Sain5
1Under Graduate Student, 2Assistant Professor, 3Associate Professor & Head,
4Assistant Professor, 5Assistant Professor, Department of Microbiology,
JECRC University, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India.
Received: 18 Oct 2020 / Accepted: 16 Nov 2020/ Published online: 01 Jan 2021
*Corresponding Author Email:
We all know about food spoilage which is a very common thing nowadays. In this review,
we will explore the main spore-forming microorganisms that involved in the spoilage of
various food products. Food products are very rich in nutrient, that why most of the
microbes are able to grow in it and cause food poisoning in the humans. There are several
microbes that contaminate the food product like fungi, bacteria, yeast and insects. We
know about food spoilage and it is also a threat to human health in all over the world.
When we talk about food products, first is bakery products that are commonly used in
everyday life in the world. But we know that these products are spoiled by the bacteria
species. There are several factors that causes the food spoilage such as temperature, pH,
culinary practices, physicochemical characteristics etc. The yeast population has high
concentration in fresh fruits and vegetables rather than other food products. It is the raw
material that contaminates the food at the time of manufacturing. It is the main mode
where contamination occurs in the food products. And it releases the lytic enzymes
(lipase, proteases) and utilizes herbal acid.
Contamination; Food spoilage; Human health; pH; Temperature.
Food preservative additives are natural or synthetic
substances which degrades the microbes that causes
the microbial growth and enzymes activity in food
(Ribes et al., 2018). The current overview about the
use of natural agents for preservation are isolated
from some plants and microorganisms as they help
in the preservation and longtime stored food
products from the spoilage(Sharif et al.,2017).
Nowadays all the food industries and Laboratories
are using additive natural compounds in the food
product to preserve the food for long time and make
it healthy for human health (Hernabdez et al., 2018).
And the research is also focused to develop the safe
food product and innovation that meets the
consumer acceptable synthetic preservative.
(Ekpenyong et al. 2017) for this, new techniques and
applications for natural products have been used.
International Journal of Pharmacy and Biological Sciences Megha Sherawat* et al or
ISSN: 2230-7605 (Online); ISSN: 2321-3272 (Print)
Int J Pharm Biol Sci.
In these techniques, it uses essential oils which are
obtained from the plants that have potential to
prevent the food from spoilage. In these oils mostly
used oil is Cymbopogon citrates (lemongrass) .It is
essential in food preservation (Ekpenyoung et al.,
2017). We also consider coriander herb as it is widely
used in medicines, pharmacy, and food industry.
Coriander is also used to prevent food from spoilage.
It does anti-microbial activity against the fungi,
bacteria, and yeast (Silva et al., 2017).
Spices: Spices are also used as preservatives; they
are that part of plant which are used in the
preservation and medicines due to their properties.
Spices that are used in preservation are cumin, clove
seeds and cinnamon, they have more antioxidant
and antimicrobial properties due to their main
compound as compared to others (Liu et al., 2017).
These spices have been potential to prevent food
products from contamination. It provides the
beneficial effect like antioxidant activity levels that
compatible to regular chemical compounds used in
the products (Elizebath et al., 2017).
Herbs: The term "Herb" is referred as leaf or spice,
which belongs to sources of plant which used for
prevention and treatment of its properties. It have
the high bioactivity properties (Kurup and Deotale,
2020).Herbs are used for food and medicinal
purposes form many centuries. Nowadays many
secondary compound are produced by the plants
which used in the field of industry (inhibit foodborne
bacteria) and medical (Leja and Katarzyna, 2016).
There have various properties associated with
products like anti- inflammatory, antioxidants and
gluco-regulatory that potential to treat common
health problems. Eg. (Phenolic compound) which
extract from green leaves of plant (Paterio and
Dominguez, 2020).
There are several methods that are used in
preventing food from contamination. Researchers
are totally focused on techniques and methods to
prevent contamination of that food products which
are used in everyday life (Ekpenyong et al., 2017).
Classification of food preservation and processing
methods are shown in Fig. 1.
International Journal of Pharmacy and Biological Sciences Megha Sherawat* et al or
ISSN: 2230-7605 (Online); ISSN: 2321-3272 (Print)
Int J Pharm Biol Sci.
Fig.1 Classification of food preservation and processing methods (Sadat & Uddan, 2017)
2.1 Physical Methods
There are several physical methods uses to control
the spoilage of food. Growth and multiplication of
microbes are influence by temperature, radiation,
water activity and air (Zentralbl, 1985).
2.1.1 Canning:-
It is the most common and widely used method for
prevention of food spoilage. This method involves
some easy steps for sterilization of food for
packaging. For this air tight containers (plastic,
glassware, and stainless metal) are used. Then after
this air tight seal the containers to prevent food from
contamination, after that heat treatment is given to
kill the bacteria and spores do not grow in the
containers. Then immediately the containers are
cooled down at 38oC temperature it reduces the
effect of heat on flavour, texture and quality of
products. (Ramesh, 2007). This principle is also
applied in another method that is, drying. Drying is
the process by which so much water is extracted
from the products that reduce the humidity present
in the product and not allow the microbes to grow
(Niakousari and Grenier, 2018).
2.1.2 Drying:-
Drying is the dehydration process in which
water/moisture present in the product is reduced. As
moisture is one of the reasons due to which microbes
grow in food products. So drying is widely used for
moisture reduction (Sharif et al., 2017). One
traditional form of dried food is quanta; it is the
sliced meat which hung in the air for dry (Niakousari
and Grenier, 2018).
2.1.3 Fermentation:-
Fermentation is the process in which oxidation of
carbohydrates takes place that produces the acid and
alcohol. It is the most widely and old method used
for preservation of food. Some foods products are
preserved by fermentation process like vinegar, milk
products, in drinks beer, wines and pickles are also
preserved by fermentation (acid solution, or
vinegar)( Sharif et al., 2017).
2.2 Chemical Methods
International Journal of Pharmacy and Biological Sciences Megha Sherawat* et al or
ISSN: 2230-7605 (Online); ISSN: 2321-3272 (Print)
Int J Pharm Biol Sci.
Chemical method has been classifying chemical
incorporation into the food preservation and
additives purpose. In traditional method of
preservation some household substances like sugar,
salt, and spices, wood-smoke are used.
2.2.1 Sugaring:-
Sugaring is the process in which sugar is used for
preservation of food. It works similar to the salt in
the removal of moisture. About 65% concentration
of sugar solution is used as preserving agent in the
food products. When concentration of solution is
lower than microbes can easily grow in the food.
Some of the rare microbes can grow and survive at
such concentration of 20-25% of sugar solution
which leads to food spoilage (Rawat, 2015).
2.2.2 Salting:-
Salting is the addition of salt into food for
preservation. The growth of microbes is inhibited by
the salt, because it effects on the water drawn out
from the bacterial cell, which ultimately leads to the
cell death.
2.2.3 Smoking:-
It is the oldest method used to improve and preserve
the quality of food products. It is most commonly
used in the preservation of fish and meat products
(Jay, 2000).
It partially preserves the food by drying food surface
as it removes the moisture present on the surface.
But at present time it is not considered as a valuable
method for preservation unlike salting or drying
2.2.4 By chemical compounds: -
Benzoic acid: Benzoic acid is an aromatic carboxylic
acid, it is naturally found in (plant and animal) tissues
(Olmo et al., 2017). It is the first chemical acid which
is used in the food preservation method which is
approved by FDA in 2000 (Chipley, 2005). It has a
wide range of benzoic compounds are present like
(benzyol peroxide, alkyl ester, benzoic salts) and its
used as antifungal and antimicrobial preserve
method (Olmo et al., 2017). Benzoic acid also use in
the beauty products and medicines as chemical
prevention (Chipley, 2005).
Nisin: It is the natural compound is use in the many
food dairy and meat products. It inactive the bacteria
pathogen like (Gram positive and Listeria
monocytogenes) microbes (Gharsallaoni, 2016). The
structure of nisin is made up of 34 amino acid
residues, used in the food products as antimicrobial
activity (Krivotova, 2016). It is mostly used in the
cheese factory to control the growth of Clostridium
spp. (Nazia et al., 2017).
Sulphites: Sulphites (Sulphur dioxide) is the part that
use to preserve wine with other chemical compound
is active and capable for performing antioxidant and
antiseptic activity(Picariello 2020).It is the additive
compound that use to controlled the spoilage in the
food .It is the primary use natural compound(Irwin et
al., 2017). Sulphites that is used in the form of
sodium dioxide and sodium sulphite. It commonly
used in the candies and jams (Maniha et al., 2020). It
is used in the dry fruits, vegetables and pickles
(Chatterjee and Abraham, 2018).
3.1 Pasteurization
Nowadays, people demand to consume the natural
food products, for this pasteurization is the
traditional techniques that use for kill the microbes
(Yu et al., 2020). But traditional pasteurization is
reduce the quality of food that’s why now scientists
is used the new techniques non thermal
pasteurization for maintain the food quality and
nutrition value (Hung et al., 2017). The high pressure
pasteurize techniques is used for inhibit the activity
of microbes and kill it. The FDA and USDA has
approved that this techniques is good for food
processing (Wang et al., 2016). HPP is widely used
techniques in the food industry such as dairy
product, packed fruits and vegetables and also meat
products (Huang et al., 2017). Peoples demand that
e commerce food safety is risk, for that FSMA is
approved, the packing pasteurizing and microwave
pasteurization to reduce the risk of spoilage (Tang
and Hag et al., 2018). It increased the life shelf of
product to stored for long time .It maintain the
quality ,flavor and texture of food(Khan et al. 2017).
3.2 Irradiation
Irradiation is first used in Germany in 1958,
irradiation studied for food safety and public health
(Kontchma et al., 2018). It is the feasible technique
for safety food for long time, reduce the growth of
pathogen and eliminate the spoilage from the food
(Elias, 2018). There are three types of radiation is
used but commonly use radiation is Gamma rays
(Konthechma et al., 2018). Nowadays Gamma
irradiation is more effective in kill the red flour beetle
(Sileem et al., 2019). It is the non-thermal emerged
techniques for making the safe food and maintain
the nutrition value (Odueke et al., 2016). This
technique is more efficient for give health food
products for consumer (Nishihira, 2020). This is the
worldwide techniques for decontamination and
disinfection of food product; there are two species
which come in food poison (E.coli and Listeria
monocytogenes in food product (Pineta et al., 2017).
In some of cases it used in freezing and fresh
products also for long shelf life. (Pedreschi and
Maniotti-celis, 2020).
3.3 Hurdle Technology
International Journal of Pharmacy and Biological Sciences Megha Sherawat* et al or
ISSN: 2230-7605 (Online); ISSN: 2321-3272 (Print)
Int J Pharm Biol Sci.
Hurdle technique is used in industry for the
production of safe food and maintains the quality,
nutrition levels; it is very effective technique for
preservation of foods (Singh and Shalini, 2016). It is
the chemical treatment to kill the pathogen of
bacteria in the food products (Francois and Ngnitcho,
2017). This is the combination of mild technique, it
means bio-preservation and modern air packing to
reduce the spoilage .there are 7 species that treated
with this technique (Wiernaze and Cornet, 2017). At
the current time, it is more applied technique for
prevention of food from spoilage (Gueuro and
Ferrario, 2017). It help in the inhibit the species
Salmonella typhinerium that grow in the coconut
water (Nino et al., 2018). This method is killing the
different pathogen at same time .It highly effective in
bio-films, rather than other single chemical
disinfectant (Geruro 2017).
3.4 Bio-preservation
This is the technique which is used to increase the
time period of food by natural products or controlled
antimicrobial activity. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are
the special organism that used for this purpose
(Singh, 2018). LAB is generally used for bio-
preservation purpose, it produce some substances
like organic acid, hydrogen peroxide, acetone, which
inhibited the spoilage microbes (Hammami and
Ismail, 2019). There are some bio-preservation are
used like fermentation, salts, sugars, and herbs for
food preservation (Jhandai et al., 2019).
Fermentation is used as bio-preservation technique
in food spoilage, to safe the food by chemical
compound (Grizani and Bulshi, 2020). This method is
very attractive and effective for preservation of food
(Akbar and Anal, 2016). Peoples highly interest in
quality of food and make chemical free and healthy
food product (Grizani and Bulushi, 2020).
4.1 Bioactive food packaging
It is a new technique is used for the prevention of
food from food-spoilage microorganisms. For this
used active extracts from agro-industrial sub
products (Almond shells, and grape pomace) with
antioxidant activity that developed for antimicrobial
benefits to bioactive packaging. It is used against
food pathogenic bacteria like E.coli, and Salmonella
spp. (Moreira & Gullón et al.2016).
4.2 Metabolomics
It is generally a hypothesis generating tool that used
for various analytical equipment’s to analyze as
various metabolites in a given biological sample. It
has been successfully applied to different areas of
food science. It is used to study the metabolism of
food pathogens and spoilage microorganisms in food
products (Pinu 2016).
In Recent years, the new technologies are developed
and use of natural products is increases for
prevention of food spoilage in the food products. At
that time mostly techniques are innovated to
decreases the rate of spoilage in the products. Many
chemicals are used to inhibit the growth of food
spoilage. Food is the one of the basic component that
necessary for the human. A wide variety of
techniques have been developed by scientist to give
the healthy life to the consumer. A wide range of
modern and advanced techniques and continuing
researchers will give effort and should continue
applied tools to check the all activity of food
problems and ensuring the brand and consumer
protection. So, looking ahead scientists will focused
on more rapid authenticity tools that easily screening
in the field of science. More natural resources are
used to target the non-target multi amylase platform
across the foods.
All listed author(s) are thankful to JECRC University
for providing the related support to compile this
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The demand for safe, high-quality food has greatly increased, in recent times. As traditional thermal pasteurization can significantly impact the nutritional value and the color of fresh food, an increasing number of nonthermal pasteurization technologies have attracted attention. The bactericidal effect of high-pressure carbon dioxide has been known for many years, and its effect on food-related enzymes has been studied. This novel technology has many merits, owing to its use of relatively low pressures and temperatures, which make it a potentially valuable future method for nonthermal pasteurization. For example, the inactivation of polyphenol oxidase can be achieved with relatively low temperature and pressure, and this can contribute to food quality and better preserve nutrients, such as vitamin C. However, this novel technology has yet to be developed on an industrial scale due to insufficient test data. In order to support the further development of this application, on an industrial scale, we have reviewed the existing information on high-pressure carbon dioxide pasteurization technology. We include its bactericidal effects and its influence on food quality. We also pave the way for future studies, by highlighting key areas.
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Part of sulfur dioxide used to preserve wine reacts with several wine compounds and it is not anymore active and capable of performing its antioxidant and antiseptic functions. In this work, with the aim to decrease the amount of SO2-bound to acetaldehyde, the use of chitosan in pre and post fermentative phases during the production of Aglianico red wine was investigated. Two winemaking batches, one made of 100% of healthy grapes and one composed of 50% healthy grapes and 50% berries damaged by acid rot, were considered. Results highlight that the use of chitosan just after the end of the fermentation allowed a lower production of SO2-bound to acetaldehyde in finished wines. Furthermore, when chitosan was used in post-fermentative phases, a higher content of polymeric pigments and a lower content of tannins reactive towards proteins was observed. All these effects were less evident when partially acid rot contaminated grapes were used.
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High pressure processing (HPP) or the cold pasteurization of foods offers a viable and practical alternative to thermal processing by allowing food to pasteurize at room temperature. When using high pressure processing, microorganisms are destroyed, but covalent bonds do not break and the effect on processed food is minimal. In addition, the positive effect consists of the avoidance of excessive thermal treatments and chemical preservatives. Food products can be HPP in a batch system or a semi-continuous process. This article provides an overview of current technology status.
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Biopreservatives are commonly used in food products to satisfy the increasing demand of consumers with increasing advancement in food and technology. The foods with chemical preservatives are now being neglected by the people and they prefer products which are generally recognized as safe (GRAS). Thus, as a result food industry is using naturally produced preservatives to increase the shelf life of product without any new technology. The most commonly used bio-preservatives are bacteriocins, essential oils, herbs and spices, vinegar, fermentation and sugar and salt. They exhibit growth inhibition of various microorganisms when added at different concentrations so as to preserve food products. These preservatives have been tested under laboratory conditions to know their apt use. This review provides an overview of the importance of bio-preservatives as per the increasing demand of consumers.
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The present study was carried out to investigate the effect of different doses of gamma irradiation (0, 50,100,500 and 1000 Gy) on the mortality percentage of both of larvae and adult stages of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum Herbst. (Coleoptera- Tenebrionidae). Also, the effect of gamma irradiation on both of the Quinones secretion and the microflora associated with the pest stages was investigated. The results showed that the incremental of adult and larval mortality percentages were significant (P <0.05) affected by an increment of gamma irradiation dose. The results of Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry patterns exhibited a strong inhibitory effect of irradiation on Quinones secreted by both stages. The used doses succeed in reducing the count of microflora were associated with both larval and adult stages. This reduction reached zero for fungi and bacteria isolated from the surface at the dose 1000 Gy. Obtained data suggested that the irradiation of red flour beetles with 1000 Gy is a promising tool for the control of this destructive pest and prevent its harmful effects associated with its infestation.
Seafood is highly perishable, presenting a rapid loss of its quality soon after capture. Temperature is the critical parameter that impacts on seafood shelf-life reduction, allowing the growth of foodborne pathogens and spoilage microorganisms. In recent years, the search by additional methods of preserving seafood has increased, able to ensure quality and safety. Several natural preservatives have highlighted and gained considerable attention from the scientific community, consumers, industry, and health sectors as a method with broad action antimicrobial and generally economical. Natural preservatives, from different sources, have been widely studied, such as chitosan from animal sources, essential oils, and plant extracts from a plant source, lactic acid bacteria, and bacteriocins from microbiological sources and organic acid from different sources, all with great potential for use in seafood systems. This review focuses on the natural preservatives studied in seafood matrices, their forms of application, concentrations usually employed, their mechanisms of action, factors that interfere in their use and the synergistic effect of the interactions among the natural preservatives, with a focus for maintenance of quality and ensure of food safety.