Article

The Roles of Stress, Coping, and Parental Support in Adolescent Psychological Well-Being in the Context of COVID-19: A Daily-Diary Study

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Abstract

Background: COVID-19 has introduced novel stressors into American adolescents’ lives. Studies have shown that adolescents adopt an array of coping mechanisms and social supports when contending with stress. It is unclear, though, which strategies are most effective in mitigating daily pandemic-related stress, as few micro-longitudinal studies have explored adolescents’ daily affect during COVID-19. Parental support may also be a critical component of adolescents’ pandemic-related coping, as adolescents’ peer networks have been limited by public health measures. Methods: This longitudinal study examined links between stress, coping, parental support, and affect across 14 consecutive days and 6,216 assessments from a national sample of adolescents(N=444; Mage=15.0; 60% female; 44% Black, 39% White, 9% Latinx, 6% Asian American, 2% Native American) during school closures and state-mandated stay-at-home orders between April 8 and April 21, 2021. Results: Adolescents’ health and financial stress predicted increases in same-day (health stress’ effect size = .16; financial stress’ effect size = .11) and next-day negative affect (health stress’ effect size = .05; financial stress’ effect size = .08). Adolescents’ secondary control engagement coping predicted increases in same-day (effect size = .10) and next-day (effect size = .04) positive affect and moderated the link between health stress and negative affect. Parental social support predicted increases in same-day (effect size = .26) and next-day (effect size = .06) positive affect and decreases in same-day (effect size = -.17) negative affect and moderated the link between financial stress and negative affect. Limitations: Results are indicative of conditions at the immediate onset of COVID-19 and should be interpreted as such. Conclusions: Findings provide information as to how health providers and parents can help adolescents mitigate the impact of COVID-19-related health and economic stressors on their psychological well-being. It remains critical to monitor the psychosocial impact of the pandemic on adolescents’ affect while continuing to identify personal and environmental protective factors for reducing harm and maximizing resilience.

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... Other daily diary studies that have included contextual factors such as employment and working from home conditions provide a more complex snapshot of familial influences. In a study which included a 15-day period during the early phase of the pandemic, researchers found that youth with parents who had experienced job loss reported greater increases in parent-child conflict, as well as decreases in self-reported positive affect and increases in negative affect (Wang, Toro, et al., 2021). Parents' working from home status predicted increases in parental warmth, which in turn predicted increases in child positive affect and decreases in child negative affect. ...
... As expected, levels of parent-adolescent conflict were higher among low-income families who were more likely to work in hourly and essential service sector jobs, and more vulnerable to job loss, infection, and financial stress during the pandemic (Perry-Jenkins et al., 2020). According to the authors, factors related to working from home such as financial stability, job security, professional autonomy, and schedule flexibility may buffer parents against psychological distress and negative parenting behaviors (Perry-Jenkins et al., 2020; Wang, Toro, et al., 2021). Importantly, the burden of COVID has not been equal, and families who are socio-economically disadvantaged have found themselves at greater risk for parent-child conflict and poor mental health outcomes. ...
... However, the school suspension has challenged this bifurcation because students need to have high levels of socioemotional well-being to be adaptive during sustained home-based online learning without face-to-face social support from friends and teachers (Durna and Kosterelioglu, 2021;Allen et al., 2022). The knowledge gleaned from research on students' socioemotional well-being during the school suspension can inform the design of school-based support programs that enhance students' self-efficacy, cognitive-emotional selfregulation, and ability to cope with anxiety (Anderson et al., 2021;Hatzichristou et al., 2021;Lorenzo et al., 2021;Wang et al., 2021). ...
... Mactavish et al. (2021) reported that student-perceived social support from family and friends was related to less severe post-traumatic stress symptoms and it attenuated the increase in psychological distress in Ontario. Wang et al. (2021) found that adolescents who received more parental social support had higher levels of positive affect and lower levels of negative affect in the United States. Liu et al. (2021) reported that higher levels of parental academic involvement and lower levels of parent-child communication was associated with higher levels of middle school student depression during the pandemic in China. ...
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Contextualized in the prolonged period of COVID-19-related school suspension in Hong Kong, the present study unravels relationships among socioeconomic status (SES), parental involvement, and learning outcomes for a matched sample of 186 primary and 932 secondary school students and their parents who participated in the eCitizen Education 360 survey. Three-step latent profile analysis (LPA) revealed different types of parental involvement at home and in school. For the primary school sample, students’ SES did not predict membership in the parental involvement typology, but students whose parents provided more home monitoring and support had the highest level of online self-efficacy. As for the secondary student sample, students whose parents provided more home monitoring and support tended to have access to more home learning resources. Students whose parents provided home monitoring and support had the highest levels of online self-efficacy, acquisition of digital skills, and cognitive-emotional regulation, and were the least worried about school resumption. The study underscores complex patterns of parental involvement and identifies effective parental involvement practices that contribute to students’ home online learning during the school suspension.
... The present results verified the conclusion made by Wu et al. (2016) regarding a correlation between family structure and psychological well-being. The association further supports that parental support from both parents increases psychological well-being (Wang et al., 2021), and living with a one-parent family structure is linked with undesirable psychological well-being (Martiny et al., 2021). Aside from being models of wellness, they are the ones who provide the support that can stimulate growth, develop interpersonal skills, and generate a sense of purpose (Gomez-Lopez et al., 2019). ...
... Aside from being models of wellness, they are the ones who provide the support that can stimulate growth, develop interpersonal skills, and generate a sense of purpose (Gomez-Lopez et al., 2019). How students feel valued and accepted are some things evident from supportive households so that their evaluation of self becomes positive (Wang et al., 2021). Beri and Dorji (2021) also strengthened the parental support of both parents, and caring adults become a source of inspiration that improves well-being. ...
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This descriptive-correlational study assesses the psycho-spiritual well-being of junior high school students at Catholic Schools in Central Philippines. Also, it determines the relationship between the said constructs, and at the same, their association between the variables of sex, family structure, birth order, religious affiliation, and church involvement. The data are gathered using Ryff's Psychological Well-being and Ellison and Paloutzian's Spiritual Well-being Scale. The findings reveal moderate levels of psychological and spiritual well-being among the respondents. Point biserial shows that a significant relationship existed between the demographics of family structure and psychological well-being and between church involvement and psychological well-being. Rank biserial shows, on the other hand, that there is a significant relationship between family structure and spiritual well-being and between church involvement and spiritual well-being. Also, Spearman Rank Correlation results indicated that there is a relationship between psychological well-being and spiritual well-being.
... Schlaf-und Konzentrationsprobleme, die in der vorliegenden Studie erfasst wurden, können zudem die schulischen Leistungen der Jugendlichen beeinträchtigen (Pate et al., 2017;Polderman et al., SCHUTZFAKTOR FAMILIE IN DER COVID-19-PANDEMIE 10 2010;Wolfson & Carskadon, 2003), die im Distance Learning der Schulen in Europa während der Pandemie ohnehin litten (Engzell et al., 2021). Unsere Studie liefert einen weiteren Hinweis auf die Schutzfunktion eines unterstützenden familiären Umfelds (Li et al., 2021;Wang et al., 2021 (Bebiroglu et al., 2013;Boele et al., 2019;Eisenberg et al., 2014). Dies kann sich auch auf das Verhalten in der Pandemie auswirken: Es zeigte sich in anderen Studien, dass empathische Sorge um andere die Motivation für das Tragen einer Maske, die Einhaltung sozialer Distanzregeln sowie die Maßnahmenakzeptanz erhöhten (Liekefett & Becker, 2021;Oosterhoff et al., 2020;Pfattheicher et al., 2020). ...
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Zusammenfassung. Theoretischer Hintergrund: Die Familie stellt in Krisen einen zentralen Schutzfaktor für Jugendliche dar. Fragestellung: Diese Studie untersuchte die Zusammenhänge zwischen familiärer Unterstützung, der Sorge um die Gesundheit anderer und der psychischen Belastung von Jugendlichen. Methode: Daten einer Online-Studie zum Ende des 1. Lockdowns 2020 in Österreich und der Schweiz wurden mittels eines Strukturgleichungsmodells analysiert. Ergebnisse: Familiäre Unterstützung hing positiv mit der Sorge um die Gesundheit anderer und negativ mit psychischer Belastung zusammen. Die Schweizer Jugendlichen berichteten höhere Sorge um die Gesundheit anderer sowie eine geringere psychische Belastung. Diskussion und Schlussfolgerung: Die familiäre Unterstützung spielt eine wichtige Rolle im Befinden und Erleben von Jugendlichen während der Pandemie.
... Specifically, individuals more focused on prevention experienced worse well-being, but only if they had fewer social interactions or perceived themselves as receiving less social support from their friends and family. These findings are aligned with the stress-buffering hypothesis (Cohen & Wills, 1985) and converge with other studies conducted during the pandemic (e.g., Bu et al., 2020;Szkody et al., 2020;Wang et al., 2021). In other words, prevention focus might be most effective in threatening contexts when individuals are able to safeguard their health, but, at the same time, rely on the support of others to keep their course of action. ...
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Objective: Past research suggests that having a stronger ability to regulate feelings and behaviors can help individuals cope during stressful events, but little is known about why and when this might be the case. We examined if being more focused on prevention (i.e., health security motives) impacted personal well-being during the COVID-19 pandemic. We also examined possible underlying mechanisms for this effect, and whether perceived social support buffered it.Design: We conducted a pre-registered longitudinal study over one month (N = 1,269).Main outcome measures: Regulatory focus, worry for health (T1), adherence to preventive measures (T2, two weeks after T1), loneliness, negative and positive affect, frequency of social interactions, and perceived social support (T3, two weeks after T2).Results: Prevention scores (T1) increased the adherence to health behaviors (T2), which then predicted negative affect (T3). Exploratory results further showed that prevention scores predicted more loneliness and more negative affect (T3), but only for individuals with fewer social interactions and less perceived social support.Conclusions: Security motives in threatening times can be a double edge sword, with benefits for health behaviors and negative consequences for personal well-being. Having a strong social network during these times appears to alleviate these consequences.
... Additionally, since this study is focused on short-term processes, whether time affect the relationship between mother-teen interactions and adolescents' self-esteem is not tested. However, it is worth noticing that this research was conducted during COVID-19 epidemic, during which period teenagers' mental health is greatly threatened by pandemic and family shows especially importance to teenagers' well-being (Wang et al., 2021). Therefore, this study focused on whether personal features and environmental characteristics moderate the daily relationships between maternal warmth, parent-teen conflict and self-esteem. ...
Article
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Self-esteem is associated with adaptive adolescent outcomes but tends to decline in adolescence. Parent-teen warmth has been linked to concurrent increases in adolescents’ self-esteem while adolescents’ conflict with parents is detrimental to their self-esteem in cross-sectional or longitudinal studies. However, it is unknown how adolescents experience of maternal warmth and conflict with mothers are correlated with their daily self-esteem, and whether these associations vary in adolescents’ gender, age and family subjective socioeconomic status (SES) from the perspective of Process-Person-Context-Time (PPCT) theory. To address this gap, 293 adolescents (Mage = 13.88 years, SD = .62) were recruited from a school, reporting their daily experience of maternal warmth, conflict with mothers and self-esteem by answering checklists for up to 7 days. Multilevel analysis showed that adolescents reported significantly higher self-esteem on days they experienced more warmth or less conflict with mothers than usual. Moreover, maternal warmth was linked to next-day self-esteem positively, yet mother-teen conflict not shown this spill-over effect. Gender, age and subjective SES did not moderate all the daily associations among mother-teen warmth, conflict and self-esteem. Findings suggest that mother-teen interactions play both protective and detrimental role in adolescents’ daily self-image and that “good” interaction goes a longer way than “bad” one.
... Researchers have identified specific coping strategies that are efficacious in moderating adolescents' emotional responses to pandemic-related stressors 10,11 and COVID-19 specifically. 12 In particular, meaning-making activities (eg, problem-solving) 13 and exercise 14 have been linked with stress reduction and enhanced positive affect, even in the context of disaster. 11,15 For example, some adolescents have engaged in problem-focused coping by seeking out information about COVID-19, while others have used exercise as a form of distraction and adaptation. 2 Problem-focused coping-a form of cognitive reappraisal-involves gaining or reevaluating one's knowledge as a strategy to deal with stressful situations. ...
Article
Background and Objectives: This intensive longitudinal study investigated (a) the extent to which engaging in social distancing predicted adolescents’ same- and next-day stress and positive affect and (b) whether COVID-19-related knowledge and exercise moderated these links during statewide stay-at-home orders that mandated schools and nonessential businesses to close during the coronavirus pandemic. Methods: Over the course of 28 days at the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, a nationwide sample of 349 adolescents (Mean age = 15.0; 40% male; 44% Black, 39% White, 9% Latinx, 6% Asian American, 2% Native American) completed daily surveys about their social distancing behaviors, knowledge about the coronavirus, and exercise habits. Analysis was conducted on a total of 9,372 assessments using longitudinal multilevel modeling approaches. Results: Daily engagement in social distancing predicted increases in adolescents’ stress and decreases in their positive affect. Practical knowledge about COVID-19 and daily exercise moderated these links. Specifically, practical knowledge and exercise weakened the positive link between social distancing and stress as well as the negative link between social distancing and positive affect. Conclusions: Adolescents’ practical knowledge and exercise have the potential to buffer against the adverse effects of social distancing on stress and positive affect. However, it is critical for healthcare providers to recognize that youth are experiencing significant stress due to the disruption of developmentally normal patterns of social interaction. Pediatricians should focus on explaining the rationale behind social distancing while encouraging exercise as an adaptive coping mechanism that has benefits for psychological well-being.
... Schlaf-und Konzentrationsprobleme, die in der vorliegenden Studie erfasst wurden, können zudem die SCHUTZFAKTOR FAMILIE IN DER COVID-19-PANDEMIE 10 schulischen Leistungen der Jugendlichen beeinträchtigen (Pate et al., 2017;Polderman et al., 2010;Wolfson & Carskadon, 2003), die im Distance Learning der Schulen in Europa während der Pandemie ohnehin litten (Engzell et al., 2021). Unsere Studie liefert einen weiteren Hinweis auf die Schutzfunktion eines unterstützenden familiären Umfelds (Li et al., 2021;Wang et al., 2021). Belastung in der vorliegenden Studie weist darauf hin, dass die Sorge um die Gesundheit anderer auch psychisch belastend sein kann, was langfristig wiederum die Solidarität reduzieren könnte (Thomas et al., 2018). ...
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Theoretical background: The COVID-19 pandemic led to widespread limitations in adolescents’ daily life, inclusive school closures, and thus to negative effects on their mental health in German-speaking countries from spring 2020 onwards. Objective: This study examined the associations between family support, psychological distress, and concern for others’ health as an aspect of solidarity among adolescents in Austria and Switzerland. We expected positive associations between family support and adolescents' reported concern for others’ health and negative associations between family support and psychological distress. We further explored whether the two national samples differed on these aspects. Method: Adolescents (N = 458) aged 14 to 18 years from Austria (n = 158) and Switzerland (n = 300) completed an online survey in April and May 2020 on the three constructs "Concern for other's health", "Psychological distress", and "Family support". Statistical analyses were conducted using structural equation modeling. Results: We found measurement invariance between the two samples with respect to all assessed constructs. As hypothesized, family support was positively related to concern for others’ health and negatively related to psychological distress in both countries. Swiss adolescents reported higher concern for others’ health and lower psychological distress as compared to the Austrian sample. Discussion and Conclusion: The results feed into the theory of family resilience suggesting that family support plays a crucial role in adolescents’ well-being during a crisis like the COVID-19 pandemic. Family support may also be related to adolescents’ solidarity. However, the variance explained in our study was small indicating that other protective factors should be considered as well. Keywords: COVID-19, adolescents, family support, solidarity, stress.
... The widespread impacts of school closures, social isolation and loneliness during the pandemic are contributing to further increases in adolescent depression and anxiety (Loades et al., 2020;Orben et al., 2020;Hertz and Barrios, 2021). The pandemic has also increased family relationship stressors (Donker et al., 2021) and financial stressors (Wang et al., 2021). For adolescents with existing mental health issues, the pandemic resulted in increased daily stressors (Kudinova et al., 2021). ...
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Adolescent mental health is a growing public health issue, with 30% of teens reporting increased stress and 20% of adolescents suffering from depression. Given the scarcity and lack of scalability of mental health services available, the use of self-administered, evidence-based technologies to support adolescent mental health is both timely and imperative. We conducted a mixed-methods pilot study with 31 adolescents ages 14–19 (m = 17.97) to explore the self-administration of a nature-based virtual reality tool. Participant use of the VR environment ranged from 1 to 10 sessions (m = 6.6) at home over a 2-week period while reporting their daily stress and mood levels. All participants completed all of the study protocols, indicating our protocol was feasible and the VR environment engaging. Post-study interviews indicated that most participants found the VR tool to be relaxing and helpful with stress. The themes of Calm Down, Relaxation, and Escape emerged to articulate the participants’ experiences using the VR environment. Additionally, participants provided rich data regarding their preferences and activity in the VR environment as well as its effect on their emotional states. Although the sample size was insufficient to determine the impact on depression, we found a significant reduction in momentary stress as a result of using the VR tool. These preliminary data inform our own virtual reality environment design, but also provide evidence of the potential for self-administered virtual reality as a promising tool to support adolescent mental health.
... 78,79 In a study of American adolescents conducted during school closures due to the COVID-19 pandemic, "secondary engagement" coping mechanisms, such as gratitude, were associated with persistent positive emotions. 80,81 Taken together, the results of this and previous studies suggest that gratitude employed during the COVID-19 pandemic can buffer the negative effects of disasters, improving adolescents' mood and restoring a sense of control. 82 Encouraging adolescents to use gratitude during the pandemic may help prevent psychological conditions such as depression. ...
Article
Objective: This study was performed to identify factors associated with depression and anxiety among Korean adolescents during the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study of 1,898 Korean adolescents (55.2% male, 44.8% female) ranging in age from 12 to 17 years (mean±standard deviaion age, 15.4±2.6 years). Depression and anxiety were defined as a Patient Health Questionnaire-9 score ≥10 and Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 score ≥10, respectively. Other questionnaires included sociodemographic data, psychosocial stresses, and experiences in association with COVID-19. Psychiatric scales included Gratitude Questionnaire-6, Perceived Stress Scale-10, and UCLA Loneliness Scale-3. Results: The prevalence rates of depressive and anxiety symptoms among participants were 13.8% and 21.0%, respectively. Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed that female sex, fear of COVID-19 infection, low gratitude were risk factors for depression. Fear of COVID-19 infection, increased TV watching time, and academic-related stress were risk factors for anxiety. Conclusion: Depression and anxiety were prevalent during the pandemic in Korean adolescents, and were associated with fear of COVID-19 infection. Providing appropriate information on COVID-19, helping adolescents manage academic-related stress and maintain daily life patterns, and implementing interventions to foster gratitude are important for preventing depression and anxiety in Korean adolescents.
... The work-life balance enhances performance, productivity, maintain congenial industrial relations, decreases employee health care costs, enables better talent management (MSG, 2020) A longitudinal study examined the association among stress, coping, parental support in the context of psychological well-being using a sample of 444 adolescents inclusive of male and female, Black/African American, White/Europen American, Latinx, Asian American, and Native American stay-athome during the covid-19 pandemic. The results reported negative effects of stress during pandemics on adolescents and with enhanced psychological wellbeing with parental support (Wang et al., 2021). Li et al., (2021) evaluated the psychological well-being and factors associated with post-traumatic stress disorder among front-line nurses during the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic using a predictive study design. ...
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The researchers present the findings of an empirical study on occupational stress, and its effect on work-life balance and psychological well-being of the E-Commerce Industry employees around Hyderabad, who are using Metro Rail transport to reach the workplace and back home. The study was carried out when the Covid-19 pandemic second wave is at its peak. The Metro Rail journey provides a platform for each commuter to learn new habits continuously, like newspaper reading, improving communication skills, etc. It is also evident from the survey that they build the relationship on a day-to-day basis during their journey time, which helps them to form diversified networking that enables them to understand and empathize with others and the situations. The data was gathered using a research instrument, a structured undisguised questionnaire with 37 statements representing three components of the study – occupational stress, work-life balance, and psychological well-being. The occupational stress and work-life balance were measured using a five-point Likert-type scale. The responses on psychological well-being were gathered using a scale developed by Ryff and Keyes 1995, a seven-point scale. The data gathered this seven-point scale transformed to a five-point scale using the linear transformation method for ease of data analysis.
... The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has had a detrimental effect on mental health worldwide (World Health Organization, 2021a, 2021c. It has had serious and widespread social impacts-lasting for longer than a year-even on individuals uninfected by the virus, due to restrictions imposed on people's lifestyles, the need to exercise self-restraint, the experience of lockdown and social isolation, and the fear of COVID-19 (Torales et al., 2020;Vinkers et al., 2020;Wang et al., 2021;Wu et al., 2021aWu et al., , 2021b. For example, Wu et al. (2021a) found that people in locked-down cities exhibited higher levels of generalized anxiety disorder symptoms than those in non-lockeddown cities. ...
Article
Background The current study examined how psychological resilience acted as a buffer against mental health deterioration during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. We conducted an online survey in four countries (Japan, Malaysia, China, and the U.S.) to examine how psychological resilience functions toward the maintenance of mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods We collected data from 1583 citizens from four countries via an online survey between October 14 and November 2, 2020. We gathered demographic data and measured mental distress (depression, anxiety, and stress) and fear of COVID-19. Data on sense of control, ego-resilience, grit, self-compassion, and resilience indicators were also collected. Results Sense of control was negatively associated with mental distress in all four countries. Self-compassion was negatively associated with mental distress in the samples from Japan, China, and the U.S. We also found an interaction effect for sense of control: the lower the sense of control, the stronger the deterioration of mental distress when the fear of COVID-19 was high. Limitations This study's cross-sectional design precludes causal inferences. Further, lack of data from people who were actually infected with the virus limits comparisons of people who were and were not infected. Finally, as this study only compared data from four countries, comparisons with more countries are needed. Conclusions A sense of control and self-compassion may help buffer against mental health deterioration during the COVID-19 pandemic. Sense of control was consistently associated with mental health across cultures.
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Young adulthood is a critical developmental life stage and a period of enhanced vulnerability to stress. In 2020, young adults in Northern California were faced with a series of unforeseen, collective stressors: the COVID-19 pandemic, extreme wildfires, social tension associated with the murder of George Floyd, and a contentious election that culminated in an attack on the nation’s capital. In a natural experiment, we compared the psychosocial development of 415 young adults across 8 monthly assessment waves during 2020 to a control cohort (n = 465) who completed the same assessment protocol in 2019, prior to the onset of stressors. Results of latent growth curve models indicated that the 2020 cohort had less adaptive trajectories of affective well-being and lower levels and less adaptive trajectories of social functioning, suggesting detrimental effects of cumulative, collective stressors on the socio-emotional development of young adults.
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The researchers present the findings of an empirical study on occupational stress, and its effect on work-life balance and psychological well-being of the E-Commerce Industry employees around Hyderabad, who are using Metro Rail transport to reach the workplace and back home. The study was carried out when the Covid-19 pandemic second wave is at its peak. The Metro Rail journey provides a platform for each commuter to learn new habits continuously, like newspaper reading, improving communication skills, etc. It is also evident from the survey that they build the relationship on a day-today basis during their journey time, which helps them to form diversified networking that enables them to understand and empathize with others and the situations. The data was gathered using a research instrument, a structured undisguised questionnaire with 37 statements representing three components of the study-occupational stress, work-life balance, and psychological well-being. The occupational stress and work-life balance were measured using a five-point Likert-type scale. The responses on psychological well-being were gathered using a scale developed by Ryff and Keyes 1995, a seven-point scale. The data gathered this seven-point scale transformed to a five-point scale using the linear transformation method for ease of data analysis. A multivariate Generalized Linear Model which allows more than one dependent variable was used for data analysis. The study was subjected to find whether the E-Commerce industry employees who use the metro rail services to reach the workplace and back home experience what level of stress-low, moderate, or high levels, and its influence on their work-life balance and psychological well-being. Psychological well-being is further measured on six sub-scales, environmental mastery, autonomy, self-acceptance, personal growth, positive relations and purpose of life. The overall Cronbach alpha statistic value for all the study variables is 0.86, work-life balance 0.68, psychological LEADING MINIMAL STRESS, WORK-LIFE BALANCE, AND PSYCHOLOGICAL WELL-BEING: 1176 well-being 0.84, and occupational stress 0.62 indicating the research instrument maintained its internal consistency and reliability. Statistically significant differences were observed on occupational stress, age and gender influencing the metro commuter's work-life balance, and some psychological well-being factors.
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With the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, several limitations and stressful changes have been introduced in adolescent’s daily life. Particularly, Italian teenagers were the first among western populations to experience fears of infection, home confinement, and social restrictions due to a long lockdown period (10 weeks). This study explores the role of coping strategies (task-oriented, emotion-oriented, and avoidance coping) and meta-beliefs about worry as vulnerability factors associated with adolescents’ anxiety. A community sample of adolescents (N = 284, aged 16–18 y.o.) answered questionnaires assessing anxiety symptoms (RCMAS-2), meta-cognitive beliefs and processes about worry (MCQ-C), and coping strategies (CISS). Results show that 37% of participants report clinically elevated anxiety. Emotion-centered coping predicted higher anxiety, whereas task-centered coping resulted associated with decreased anxiety. Cognitive monitoring about their own worry contributes, but to a lesser extent, to higher levels of anxiety. The implications for the intervention are discussed, especially the need to enhance the coping skills of adolescents and mitigate the stress of the COVID-19 pandemic, which could last for a long time.
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The present study aimed to broaden the knowledge about the personal and parental factors associated with teenagers' efforts to actively engage in the developmental task of vocational preparation. We investigated the associations between parental career-related behaviors (i.e., parental support, interference, and lack of engagement), adolescents' career exploration, and the moderating role of dispositional optimism. Our sample was formed by 441 Romanian teenagers (58 % males, M = 14.17, SD = 1.05). The results suggested that adolescents experiencing a low level of parental support reported a low level of career exploration, regardless of the level of dispositional optimism. Conversely, when the level of parental support was high, participants reported a higher level of career exploration when they also reported a high level of dispositional optimism. We discuss the importance of examining individual characteristics in conjunction with ecological factors related to adolescents' environments when understanding career exploration.
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This encyclopedia entry provides a brief history of the ways in which researchers have defined, conceptualized, and measured stress and provides recommended definitions and conceptualizations of stress for use in research and practice with children and adolescents. The entry also describes some of the most prevalent types of stressors experienced by young people and common effects of stress exposure. Both mental health and other types of outcomes, such as physical health and learning outcomes, are described. Finally, this entry summarizes what researchers have discovered about the processes through which stressors affect children and adolescents, as well as potential factors that might protect young people from the negative effects of stress.
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The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in social isolation, grief, and loss among many adolescents. As the pandemic continues to impact individuals and communities across the globe, it is critical to address the psychological well-being of youths. More studies are needed to understand the effective ways adolescents cope with pandemic-related psychological distress. In this study, 146 students from 1 high school in a U.S. midwestern state completed an adapted version of Kidcope, a widely used coping instrument in disaster research, and measures were taken on generalized distress and COVID-19-related worries. Findings indicated that most students experienced COVID-19-related fears and general emotional distress. Additionally, we found that disengagement coping strategies were associated with lower general distress (p ≤ 0.05) and COVID-19 worries (p ≤ 0.10). Active coping was not associated with general distress and COVID-19 worries. Overall, our findings highlight the need to develop tailored interventions targeting youth coping strategies to reduce and prevent emotional distress and amplify healthy coping skills as the pandemic persists.
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Purpose: Adolescents are at risk for violating COVID-19 social distancing measures due to salient developmental needs for autonomy and relatedness. This intensive longitudinal study investigated the initiation and sustainment of adolescents’ daily social distancing behaviors. Methods: Focus group and daily-diary approaches were used to collect 6,216 assessments from a nationwide American adolescent sample (n=444; Mage=15.1; 40% male; 42% Black, 40% White, 10% Latinx, 6% Asian American, 2% Native American) over the course of 14 days at the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. Results: When adolescents were motivated by preventing others from getting sick, they were more likely to engage in social distancing (same-day: B=.50, SE=.09, 95% CI [.32, .68] p<.001; next-day: B=.49, SE=.09, 95% CI [.31, .67] p<.001). Daily social support from friends (same-day: B=.04, SE =.02, 95% CI [.01, .08] p<.05; next-day: B=.08, SE=.02, 95% CI [.05, .12] p<.001), connectedness with friends via technology (same-day: B=.23, SE=.04, 95% CI [.14, .32] p<.001; next-day: B=.12, SE=.05, 95% CI [.03, .21] p<.001), and practical knowledge about ways to prevent contracting and transmitting COVID-19 (same-day: B=.12, SE=.02, 95% CI [.08, .17] p<.001; next-day: B=.05, SE=.02, 95% CI [.01, .10] p< .05) positively predicted adolescents’ same- and next-day engagement in social distancing. Conclusions: Adolescents who were motivated by the desire to protect others were more likely to engage in social distancing. In addition, adolescents who learned about preventative health behaviors for mitigating COVID-19, received peer support, and remained virtually connected with friends were more likely to engage in daily social distancing at the onset of the pandemic.
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The COVID-19 pandemic has considerably impacted many people’s lives. This study examined changes in subjective wellbeing between December 2019 and May 2020, and how stress appraisals and coping strategies relate to individual differences and changes in subjective wellbeing during the early stages of the pandemic. Data were collected at four time points from 979 individuals in Germany. Results showed that, on average, life satisfaction, positive affect, and negative affect did not change significantly between December 2019 and March 2020, but decreased between March and May 2020. Across the latter timespan, individual differences in life satisfaction were positively related to controllability appraisals, active coping, and positive reframing, and negatively related to threat and centrality appraisals and planning. Positive affect was positively related to challenge and controllable-by-self appraisals, active coping, using emotional support, and religion, and negatively related to threat appraisal and humor. Negative affect was positively related to threat and centrality appraisals, denial, substance use, and self-blame, and negatively related to controllability appraisals and emotional support. Contrary to expectations, the effects of stress appraisals and coping strategies on changes in subjective wellbeing were small and mostly non-significant. These findings imply that the COVID-19 pandemic represents not only a major medical and economic crisis, but also has a psychological dimension, as it can be associated with declines in key facets of people’s subjective wellbeing. Psychological practitioners should address potential declines in subjective wellbeing with their clients and attempt to enhance clients’ general capability to use functional stress appraisals and effective coping strategies.
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The COVID-19 pandemic poses an acute threat to the well-being of children and families due to challenges related to social disruption such as financial insecurity, caregiving burden, and confinement-related stress (e.g., crowding, changes to structure, and routine). The consequences of these difficulties are likely to be longstanding, in part because of the ways in which contextual risk permeates the structures and processes of family systems. The current article draws from pertinent literature across topic areas of acute crises and long-term, cumulative risk to illustrate the multitude of ways in which the well-being of children and families may be at risk during COVID-19. The presented conceptual framework is based on systemic models of human development and family functioning and links social disruption due to COVID-19 to child adjustment through a cascading process involving caregiver well-being and family processes (i.e., organization, communication, and beliefs). An illustration of the centrality of family processes in buffering against risk in the context of COVID-19, as well as promoting resilience through shared family beliefs and close relationships, is provided. Finally, clinical and research implications are discussed. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).
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Background: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is profoundly affecting life around the globe. Isolation, contact restrictions and economic shutdown impose a complete change to the psychosocial environment in affected countries. These measures have the potential to threaten the mental health of children and adolescents significantly. Even though the current crisis can bring with it opportunities for personal growth and family cohesion, disadvantages may outweigh these benefits. Anxiety, lack of peer contact and reduced opportunities for stress regulation are main concerns. Another main threat is an increased risk for parental mental illness, domestic violence and child maltreatment. Especially for children and adolescents with special needs or disadvantages, such as disabilities, trauma experiences, already existing mental health problems, migrant background and low socioeconomic status, this may be a particularly challenging time. To maintain regular and emergency child and adolescent psychiatric treatment during the pandemic is a major challenge but is necessary for limiting long-term consequences for the mental health of children and adolescents. Urgent research questions comprise understanding the mental health effects of social distancing and economic pressure, identifying risk and resilience factors, and preventing long-term consequences, including-but not restricted to-child maltreatment. The efficacy of telepsychiatry is another highly relevant issue is to evaluate the efficacy of telehealth and perfect its applications to child and adolescent psychiatry. Conclusion: There are numerous mental health threats associated with the current pandemic and subsequent restrictions. Child and adolescent psychiatrists must ensure continuity of care during all phases of the pandemic. COVID-19-associated mental health risks will disproportionately hit children and adolescents who are already disadvantaged and marginalized. Research is needed to assess the implications of policies enacted to contain the pandemic on mental health of children and adolescents, and to estimate the risk/benefit ratio of measures such as home schooling, in order to be better prepared for future developments.
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Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has disrupted virtually every aspect of daily living, engendering forced isolation and social distance, economic hardship, fears of contracting a potentially lethal illness and feelings of helplessness and hopelessness. Unfortunately, there is no formula or operating manual for how to cope with the current global pandemic. previous research has documented an array of responses to mass crises or disasters, including chronic anxiety and posttraumatic stress as well as resilience and recovery. much can be learned from this research about how people have coped in the past in order to identify strategies that may be particularly effective in managing distress and cultivating resilience during these perilous times. we delineate multiple coping strategies (e.g., behavioral activation, acceptance-based coping, mindfulness practice, loving-kindness practices) geared to decrease stress and promote resilience and recovery. These strategies may be especially effective because they help individuals make meaning, build distress tolerance, increase social support, foster a view of our deep human interconnectedness, and take goal-directed value-driven actions in midst of the COVID-19 pandemic.
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Background: Since December 2019, when coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) emerged in Wuhan city and rapidly spread throughout China, data have been needed on the clinical characteristics of the affected patients. Methods: We extracted data regarding 1099 patients with laboratory-confirmed Covid-19 from 552 hospitals in 30 provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities in China through January 29, 2020. The primary composite end point was admission to an intensive care unit (ICU), the use of mechanical ventilation, or death. Results: The median age of the patients was 47 years; 41.9% of the patients were female. The primary composite end point occurred in 67 patients (6.1%), including 5.0% who were admitted to the ICU, 2.3% who underwent invasive mechanical ventilation, and 1.4% who died. Only 1.9% of the patients had a history of direct contact with wildlife. Among nonresidents of Wuhan, 72.3% had contact with residents of Wuhan, including 31.3% who had visited the city. The most common symptoms were fever (43.8% on admission and 88.7% during hospitalization) and cough (67.8%). Diarrhea was uncommon (3.8%). The median incubation period was 4 days (interquartile range, 2 to 7). On admission, ground-glass opacity was the most common radiologic finding on chest computed tomography (CT) (56.4%). No radiographic or CT abnormality was found in 157 of 877 patients (17.9%) with nonsevere disease and in 5 of 173 patients (2.9%) with severe disease. Lymphocytopenia was present in 83.2% of the patients on admission. Conclusions: During the first 2 months of the current outbreak, Covid-19 spread rapidly throughout China and caused varying degrees of illness. Patients often presented without fever, and many did not have abnormal radiologic findings. (Funded by the National Health Commission of China and others.).
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It is well established that stressful life events (e.g., family bereavements or moving to a new country) are damaging to psychological health and well‐being. Indeed, social relationships are often noted as an important factor that can influence well‐being and buffer the negative effects of stress. However, the quality and source of these relationships, particularly for adolescents, are often overlooked. Using the Growing Up in Ireland Survey, a population‐based study of 13‐year‐old Irish adolescents (N = 7,525; 51.1% female), the current study examines the quality of both parent and peer relationships as potential mechanisms explaining the association between stressful life events and psychological well‐being indices in adolescents. As expected, results showed that stressful life events negatively impacted the psychological well‐being of adolescents. Parallel mediation analyses indicated that both parent and peer relationship quality mediated this association. Further exploratory analyses found that for girls, greater numbers of stressful life events were associated with poorer quality relationships with both their parents and peers, and in turn, these were linked to lower levels of psychological well‐being. For boys, this effect was only evident for parental relationship quality, but not peers. The implication of these findings for adolescent's psychological well‐being, particularly for girls, are discussed. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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Unpredictability within the family environment has been consistently linked to anxiety and depressive symptomology in early adulthood. The current investigation sought to examine how individual and family factors may serve to protect college students from the potentially detrimental effects of growing up with family chaos. A multi-dimensional survey, including measures assessing family unpredictability, coping behavior, anxiety, and depressive symptoms, was administered to 260 (68% female) undergraduate college students. A series of regression models found mediating and moderating effects: the relationship between family unpredictability and psychological distress was explained in part by less family closeness, and this was especially true among students who engaged in more emotion-focused coping. Individuals who used less emotion-focused coping did not appear to suffer from psychological distress associated with family unpredictability. Conversely, task-focused coping did not moderate the association between family unpredictability and psychological distress; yet, individuals who used more task-focused coping, in general, experienced less distress. These findings could be used to inform intervention efforts targeted at improving parenting and caregiving practices as well as the development of campus programs aimed at improving students’ coping strategies.
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In this meta-analytic and narrative review, we examine several overarching issues related to the study of coping, emotion regulation, and internalizing and externalizing symptoms of psychopathology in childhood and adolescence, including the conceptualization and measurement of these constructs. We report a quantitative meta-analysis of 212 studies (N = 80,850 participants) that measured the associations between coping and emotion regulation with symptoms of internalizing and externalizing psychopathology. Within the meta-analysis we address the association of broad domains of coping and emotion regulation (e.g., total coping, emotion regulation), intermediate factors of coping and emotion regulation (e.g., primary control coping, secondary control coping), and specific coping and emotion regulation strategies (e.g., emotional expression, cognitive reappraisal) with internalizing and externalizing symptoms. For cross-sectional studies, which made up the majority of studies included, we examine 3 potential moderators: age, measure quality, and single versus multiple informants. Finally, we separately consider findings from longitudinal studies as these provide stronger tests of the effects. After accounting for publication bias, findings indicate that the broad domain of emotion regulation and adaptive coping and the factors of primary control coping and secondary control coping are related to lower levels of symptoms of psychopathology. Further, the domain of maladaptive coping, the factor of disengagement coping, and the strategies of emotional suppression, avoidance, and denial are related to higher levels of symptoms of psychopathology. Finally, we offer a critique of the current state of the field and outline an agenda for future research. (PsycINFO Database Record
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Purpose: Forming secure friendship attachments during adolescence are important for mental health; few, however, have specifically examined the ways in which the transitions in attachment during adolescence may influence future mental health outcomes among African Americans. Methods: The present study examines how transitions in attachment in adolescence predicted changes in depression symptoms from late adolescents through adulthood in an African-American sample. We used growth curve modeling to examine the association between transitions in friendship attachment and changes in depression symptoms in adulthood. Results: At age 16 years, 346 (64.0%) adolescents reported secure attachment with 195 (36.0%) reporting either avoidant or resistant attachment. At age 17 years, 340 (62.9%) reported secure attachment and 201 (37.2%) reported avoidant or resistant attachment. The largest percentage of participants (46.2%) reported stable-secure attachment across the two time points. Results of the growth model indicated that adolescents who reported a stable-secure attachment style had lower levels of depression symptoms during adulthood than those individuals who transitioned from secure-to-insecure, from insecure-to-secure, or were in the stable-insecure group. Interestingly enough, individuals in both the attachment transition groups had a faster declining rate of depression symptoms over time compared to the two stability groups. Conclusions: Data support existing research showing an association between transitions in attachment during adolescence and depression through adulthood. Furthermore, these study findings suggest there may be protective features associated with transitioning between attachment styles during adolescence on later depression, compared to African Americans who remain stable in their attachment style.
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Guided by the motivational theory of coping (Skinner and Zimmer-Gembeck in Ann Rev Psychol 58:119–144. doi:10.1146/annurev.psych.58.110405.085705, 2007), we investigated children’s anticipated coping with three different stressful events (bullying, parental argument, parent–child verbal conflict), and examined whether their reliance on challenge coping responses versus threat coping responses could be accounted for by emotional reactions (including feelings of sadness, anger and fear), perceived controllability, and orientation or interest in the stressor. In addition, we examined parents’ reports of their children’s temperamental traits as correlates of coping. In random order followed by a positive stimulus, children (N = 206, age 8–12 years) watched each of the three stressful events, and reported their emotions, perceived control, orientation and coping after each one. As anticipated, results indicated that controllability was associated with more challenge coping (a composite of adaptive/approach coping responses such as problem solving and support seeking) and less threat coping (a composite of maladaptive/withdrawal coping responses such as helplessness and escape). In general, feelings of sadness were more strongly associated with challenge coping, whereas fear and anger especially related to more threat coping. Greater orientation towards the stressor was particularly predictive of more challenge coping, but also was associated with more threat coping in response to parent stressors. These associations were significant, even after controlling for temperament (negative reactivity, task persistence, withdrawal, and activity), which was generally unrelated to children’s coping. Other combinations of coping responses were also examined.
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The death of a parent or sibling (family bereavement) is associated with mental health problems in approximately, 25 % of the affected children. However, it is still unknown whether mental health problems of family-bereaved adolescents are predicted by pre-existing mental health problems, pre-loss family functioning, or multiple bereavements. In this study, a prospective longitudinal assessment of change in mental health following bereavement was done in a large representative sample from the ‘Tracking Adolescents Individual Lives Survey’ (TRAILS). This is a four-wave prospective cohort study of Dutch adolescents (n = 2230) of whom 131 (5.9 %) had experienced family bereavement at the last wave (T4). Family-bereaved adolescents reported more internalizing problems, within 2 years after family bereavement, compared to the non-bereaved peers, while taking into account the level of internalizing problems before the bereavement. A clinically relevant finding was that 22 % new cases were found in family-bereaved, in comparison to 5.5 % new cases in non-bereaved. Low SES predicted more internalizing problems in family-bereaved but not in non-bereaved adolescents. Family functioning, reported by the adolescent, did not predict mental health problems within 2 years. Multiple family bereavements predicted fewer externalizing problems. In conclusion, internalizing problems increase in adolescents after family bereavement in comparison to non-bereaved and these can be predicted by pre-loss factors. Awareness among professionals regarding the risks for aggravation of mental health problems after family loss is needed. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00787-015-0695-3) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
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Disasters and terrorism present significant and often overwhelming challenges for children and families worldwide. Individual, family, and social factors influence disaster reactions and the diverse ways in which children cope. This article links conceptualizations of stress and coping to empirical knowledge of children's disaster reactions, identifies limitations in our current understanding, and suggests areas for future study of disaster coping. Coping strategies, developmental trajectories influencing coping, and the interplay between parent and child coping represent critical areas for advancing the field and for informing programs and services that benefit children's preparedness and foster resilience in the face of mass trauma.
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Despite rising interest on the concept of societal resilience and its measurement, little has been done to provide operational indicators. Importantly, an evidence-based approach to assess the suitability of indicators remains unexplored. Furthermore few approaches that exist do not investigate indicators of psychological resilience, which is emerging as an important component of societal resilience to disasters. Disasters are events which overwhelm local capacities, often producing human losses, injury and damage to the affected communities. As climate hazards and disasters are likely to increase in the coming decades, strengthening the capacity of societies to withstand these shocks and recover quickly is vital. In this review, we search the Web of Knowledge to summarize the evidence on indicators of psychological resilience to disasters and provided a qualitative assessment of six selected studies. We find that an evidence-based approach using features from systematic reviews is useful to compile, select and assess the evidence and elucidate robust indicators. We conclude that strong social support received after a disaster is associated with an increased psychological resilience whereas a female gender is connected with a decrease in the likelihood of a resilient outcome. These results are consistent across disaster settings and cultures and are representative of approximately 13 million disaster-exposed civilians of adult age. An approach such as this that collects and evaluates evidence will allow indicators of resilience to be much more revealing and useful in the future. They will provide a robust basis to prioritize indicators to act upon through intersectoral policies and post-disaster public health interventions.
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The objective of this study was to investigate how Norwegian children on holiday in Southeast Asia coped when the tsunami hit December 26, 2004. The goal is to understand more about children and adolescents' immediate coping strategies when faced with a life-threatening situation. Acquiring more knowledge on coping strategies at different points in the recovery process can be useful for gaining insight to the relationship between coping and psychological adjustment. Semi-structured interviews of 56 children aged 6–18 years (36 girls and 20 boys) were conducted in their homes approximately 10 months after the tsunami. The interviews were analysed using qualitative methods. Two primary coping strategies were described and labelled as self-soothing thoughts and behavioural strategies. Self-soothing thoughts were divided into five categories: positive thinking; avoidant thinking; rational thoughts; and thoughts on parental competencies and parental protection. Behavioural strategies were divided into six categories: attachment seeking behaviour; distraction behaviour; helping others; seeking information and comfort; and talking. The children's coping responses point to the developmental aspects of coping and how children are dependent upon adults for guidance and protection. In addition, very few youth reported using problem-focused coping strategies that are normally thought of as helpful in the aftermath of trauma, whereas strategies often thought of as not so helpful such as distraction and avoidance, was more predominant. It may be that helpful immediate coping strategies are different from long-term coping strategies, and that coping strategies differ according to the degree of perceived control of the situation.
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In this chapter, we describe the major developments in the field of resilience since its inception more than 40 years ago. The chapter is organized in four sections, the first one presenting a brief history of work on resilience. The second section is devoted to elucidating critical features of research on this construct, highlighting three sets of issues: definitions and operationalization of the two constructs at its core, protective and vulnerability factors; distinctions between the construct of resilience and related constructs, such as competence and ego resiliency; and differences between resilience research and related fields, including risk research, prevention science, and positive psychology. The third section of the chapter is focused on major findings on vulnerability and protective factors. These are discussed not only in terms of the specific factors found to modify risk within three broad categories--attributes of the family, community, and child--but also in terms of factors that exert strong effects across many risk conditions and those more idiosyncratic to specific risk contexts. The final section includes a summary of extant evidence in the field along with major considerations for future work on resilience across the life span. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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It is often said that timing is everything. The process model of emotion regulation has taken this aphorism to heart, suggesting that down-regulating emotions before they are "up and running" is always easier than down-regulating emotions once they have gathered force (i.e., generic timing hypothesis). But does timing (i.e., emotion intensity) matter equally for all forms of regulation? In this article, the authors offer an alternative process-specific timing hypothesis, in which emotion-generative and emotion-regulatory processes compete at either earlier or later stages of information processing. Regulation strategies that target early processing stages require minimal effort. Therefore, their efficacy should be relatively unaffected by emotion intensity. By contrast, regulation strategies that target later processing stages require effort that is proportional to the intensity of the emotional response. Therefore, their efficacy should be determined by the relative strength of regulatory versus emotional processes. Implications of this revised conception are considered.
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Developmental psychopathology offers an integrative framework for conceptualizing the course of development during adolescence, with particular relevance for understanding continuity and the emergence of psychopathology during this and subsequent developmental periods. In this article, the utility of a developmental psychopathology perspective for informing the design of research, prevention, and intervention is highlighted. Interdisciplinary, organizational models of development, emphasizing the dynamic relations between the developing individual and internal and external contexts, are discussed. Examination of boundaries between abnormal and normal development during adolescence offers important vantage points for articulating diversity in the developmental course during this period. Conceptualizing divergence and convergence in developmental pathways, continuity and discontinuity in development, and the transactions of risk and protective processes leading to maladaptation, psychopathology, and resilience are highlighted.
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In diary studies, people provide frequent reports on the events and experiences of their daily lives. These reports capture the particulars of experience in a way that is not possible using traditional designs. We review the types of research questions that diary methods are best equipped to answer, the main designs that can be used, current technology for obtaining diary reports, and appropriate data analysis strategies. Major recent developments include the use of electronic forms of data collection and multilevel models in data analysis. We identify several areas of research opportunities: 1. in technology, combining electronic diary reports with collateral measures such as ambulatory heart rate; 2. in measurement, switching from measures based on between-person differences to those based on within-person changes; and 3. in research questions, using diaries to (a) explain why people differ in variability rather than mean level, (b) study change processes during major events and transitions, and (c) study interpersonal processes using dyadic and group diary methods.
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Research on coping during childhood and adolescence is distinguished by its focus on how children deal with actual stressors in real-life contexts. Despite burgeoning literatures within age groups, studies on developmental differences and changes have proven difficult to integrate. Two recent advances promise progress toward a developmental framework. First, dual-process models that conceptualize coping as "regulation under stress" establish links to the development of emotional, attentional, and behavioral self-regulation and suggest constitutional underpinnings and social factors that shape coping development. Second, analyses of the functions of higher-order coping families allow identification of corresponding lower-order ways of coping that, despite their differences, are developmentally graded members of the same family. This emerging framework was used to integrate 44 studies reporting age differences or changes in coping from infancy through adolescence. Together, these advances outline a systems perspective in which, as regulatory subsystems are integrated, general mechanisms of coping accumulate developmentally, suggesting multiple directions for future research.
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The study of resilience has two core characteristics: it is fundamentally applied in nature, seeking to use scientific knowledge to maximize well-being among those at risk, and it draws on expertise from diverse scientific disciplines. Recent advances in biological processes have confirmed the profound deleterious effects of harsh caregiving environments, thereby underscoring the importance of early interventions. What remains to be established at this time is the degree to which insights on particular biological processes (e.g., involving specific brain regions, genes, or hormones) will be applied in the near future to achieve substantial reductions in mental health disparities. Aside from biology, resilience developmental researchers would do well to draw upon relevant evidence from other behavioral sciences as well, notably anthropology as well as family, counseling, and social psychology. Scientists working with adults and with children must remain vigilant to the advances and missteps in each others' work, always ensuring caution in conveying messages about the "innateness" of resilience or its prevalence across different subgroups. Our future research agenda must prioritize reducing abuse and neglect in close relationships; deriving the "critical ingredients" in effective interventions and going to scale with these; working collaboratively to refine theory on the construct; and responsibly, proactively disseminating what we have learned about the nature, limits, and antecedents of resilient adaptation across diverse at-risk groups.
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Objective COVID-19 has presented threats to adolescents’ psychosocial well-being, especially for those from economically disadvantaged backgrounds. This longitudinal study aimed to identify which social (i.e., family conflict, parental social support, peer social support), emotional (i.e., COVID-19 health-related stress), and physical (i.e., sleep quality, food security) factors influence adolescents’ same- and next-day affect and misconduct and whether these factors functioned differently by adolescents’ economic status. Method Daily-diary approaches were used to collect 12,033 assessments over 29 days from a nationwide sample of American adolescents (n =546; Mage = 15.0; 40% male; 43% Black, 37% White, 10% Latinx, 8% Asian American, and 3% Native American; 61% low-income) at the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. Results Peer support, parent support, and sleep quality operated as promotive factors, whereas parent-child conflict and COVID-19 health-related stress operated as risk factors. Although these links were consistent for adolescents irrespective of economic status, low-income adolescents experienced more conflict with parents, more COVID-19 health-related stress, less peer support, and lower sleep quality than higher-income adolescents. Food insecurity was connected to decreased same- and next-day negative affect for low-income adolescents only. Low-income adolescents also displayed greater negative affect in response to increased daily health-related stress relative to higher-income adolescents. Conclusion These results highlight the role of proximal processes in shaping adolescent adjustment and delineate key factors influencing youth psychosocial well-being in the context of COVID-19. By understanding adolescents’ responses to stressors at the onset of the pandemic, practitioners and healthcare providers can make evidence-based decisions regarding clinical treatment and intervention planning for youth most at risk for developmental maladjustment.
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Interest in resilience is surging in research, policy and practice as threats from disasters rise and humanity confronts a global pandemic. This commentary highlights the importance of defining resilience for portability across system levels and disciplines in order to integrate knowledge and prepare adequately for the challenges posed to children and youth by multisystem disasters. A scalable definition of resilience is recommended: The capacity of a dynamic system to adapt successfully to challenges that threaten the function, survival or development of the system. Major determinants of adaptation among young people in the context of disaster are highlighted, including variations in adversity exposure dose, developmental timing, individual differences and the socio‐ecological systems of children's lives that can be mobilised in response. Adaptation of children in disasters depends on the resilience of interconnected systems, including families, schools, communities and policy sectors. Implications of a multisystem perspective for disaster risk reduction and preparedness are discussed with a focus on nurturing the resilience of children and their societies for challenges in the near term and long into the future.
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Objective Disease containment of COVID-19 has necessitated widespread social isolation. We aimed to establish what is known about how loneliness and disease containment measures impact on the mental health in children and adolescents. Method For this rapid review, we searched MEDLINE, PSYCHINFO, and Web of Science for articles published between 01/01/1946 and 03/29/2020. 20% of articles were double screened using pre-defined criteria and 20% of data was double extracted for quality assurance. Results 83 articles (80 studies) met inclusion criteria. Of these, 63 studies reported on the impact of social isolation and loneliness on the mental health of previously healthy children and adolescents (n=51,576; mean age 15.3) 61 studies were observational; 18 were longitudinal and 43 cross sectional studies assessing self-reported loneliness in healthy children and adolescents. One of these studies was a retrospective investigation after a pandemic. Two studies evaluated interventions. Studies had a high risk of bias although longitudinal studies were of better methodological quality. Social isolation and loneliness increased the risk of depression, and possibly anxiety at the time loneliness was measured and between 0.25 to 9 years later. Duration of loneliness was more strongly correlated with mental health symptoms than intensity of loneliness. Conclusion Children and adolescents are probably more likely to experience high rates of depression and probably anxiety during and after enforced isolation ends. This may increase as enforced isolation continues. Clinical services should offer preventative support and early intervention where possible and be prepared for an increase in mental health problems.
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The December, 2019 coronavirus disease outbreak has seen many countries ask people who have potentially come into contact with the infection to isolate themselves at home or in a dedicated quarantine facility. Decisions on how to apply quarantine should be based on the best available evidence. We did a Review of the psychological impact of quarantine using three electronic databases. Of 3166 papers found, 24 are included in this Review. Most reviewed studies reported negative psychological effects including post-traumatic stress symptoms, confusion, and anger. Stressors included longer quarantine duration, infection fears, frustration, boredom, inadequate supplies, inadequate information, financial loss, and stigma. Some researchers have suggested long-lasting effects. In situations where quarantine is deemed necessary, officials should quarantine individuals for no longer than required, provide clear rationale for quarantine and information about protocols, and ensure sufficient supplies are provided. Appeals to altruism by reminding the public about the benefits of quarantine to wider society can be favourable.
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The construct of engagement provides a holistic lens for understanding how children interact with learning activities, with distinct behavioral, emotional-affective, and cognitive components forming a multidimensional engagement profile for each child. As the understanding of engagement and recognition of its complexity grow, a pressing need has emerged for a synthetic, coherent review that simultaneously integrates extant literature and clarifies the conceptualization of engagement, identifies its key facilitators and consequences, and proffers a theoretical framework that elaborates on how engagement functions. Using a developmental-contextual approach, this article integrates empirical and theoretical scholarship to illustrate how engagement is produced by developmental and relational processes involving transactions across multiple ecologies. The integrative model of engagement offers a comprehensive perspective on the multiple pathways-psychological, cognitive, social, and cultural-underlying the development of children's engagement. Conceptualizing engagement as a multidimensional construct shaped by interactions between an individual and the environment enriches the field's understanding of the personal, contextual, and sociocultural factors that foster or undermine engagement. This framing also enhances understanding of the psychosocial mechanisms through which learning environments influence engagement. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).
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The current study examines whether daily coping moderates the effects of daily stress on same-day mood and next-day mood among 58 Latino adolescents (Mage = 13.31; 53% male). The daily diary design capitalized on repeated measurements, boosting power to detect effects and allowing for a robust understanding of the day-to-day experiences of Latino adolescents. Hierarchical linear modeling revealed that on days when youth reported higher levels of peer and academic stress, they also reported more negative moods. However, only poverty-related stress predicted mood the following day. Engagement coping buffered the effect of poverty-related stress on next-day negative and positive mood, while disengagement exacerbated the effects of academic and peer stress. The need for interventions promoting balanced coping repertoires is discussed.
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With worries and risky behaviors becoming more prominent in adolescence, this study investigated bidirectional temporal connections between these two important adolescent concerns, that is, whether change in one concern is linked to change in the other either within the same day or during the next day. We also tested whether the coping strategy of seeking support from family and friends moderated the link between worries and risky behaviors. For 10 days, an ethnically and racially diverse sample of adolescents (N = 103; M age = 18.0) reported on 26 common worries, 18 risky behaviors, and the impact of seeking support from others. Multilevel models showed that worries and risky behaviors covaried on the same day and that worries predicted next-day risky behavior for male but not female participants. In contrast, risky behaviors did not predict next-day worries. For adolescents reporting negative experiences of support seeking, worries led to next-day risky behaviors and risky behaviors led to next-day worries. Female adolescents' positive support-seeking experiences buffered the association between risky behaviors and next-day worries. These results were significant beyond any influence of daily negative mood or depressive and anxiety symptoms. The data demonstrate that worries and risky behaviors may be situational triggers for each other and highlight the importance, from intervention perspectives, of adolescents' communication of concerns to others.
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Stress affects students in multiple ways. This article provides a conceptual overview of the direct (e.g., psychoneuroimmunological, endocrine) and indirect (health behavior) pathways through which stress affects physical health, the psychological effects of stress on mental health, and the cognitive effects of stress (e.g., attention, concentration) on academic success. We review relevant literature highlighting these links and suggest directions for future research and interventions.
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This article examines associations between the Great Recession and 4 aspects of 9-year olds' behavior-aggression (externalizing), anxiety/depression (internalizing), alcohol and drug use, and vandalism-using the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, a longitudinal birth cohort drawn from 20 U.S. cities (21%, White, 50% Black, 26% Hispanic, and 3% other race/ethnicity). The study was in the field for the 9-year follow-up right before and during the Great Recession (2007-2010; N = 3,311). Interview dates (month) were linked to the national Consumer Sentiment Index (CSI), calculated from a national probability sample drawn monthly to assess consumer confidence and uncertainty about the economy, as well as to data on local unemployment rates. Controlling for city-fixed effects and extensive controls (including prior child behavior at age 5), we find that greater uncertainty as measured by the CSI was associated with higher rates of all 4 behavior problems for boys (in both maternal and child reports). Such associations were not found for girls (all gender differences were significant). Links between the CSI and boys' behavior problems were concentrated in single-parent families and were partially explained by parenting behaviors. Local unemployment rates, in contrast, had fewer associations with children's behavior, suggesting that in the Great Recession, what was most meaningful for child behavior problems was the uncertainty about the national economy, rather than local labor markets. (PsycINFO Database Record
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Health disparities are rooted in childhood and stem from adverse early environments that damage physiologic stress-response systems. Developmental psychobiological models of the effects of chronic stress account for both the negative effects of a stress-response system calibrated to a dangerous and unpredictable environment from a health perspective, and the positive effects of such an adaptively calibrated stress response from a functional perspective. Our research suggests that the contexts that produce functionally adapted physiologic responses to stress also encourage a functionally adapted coping response—coping that can result in maladjustment in physical and mental health, but enables children to grow and develop within those contexts. In this article, I highlight the value of reframing maladaptive coping as functional adaptation to understand more completely the development of children's coping in different contexts, and the value of such a conceptual shift for coping-based theory, research, and intervention.
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This article advocates for a new focus in the area parenting science; namely, how parents help their children cope with and recover from events and conditions that threaten serious disruption to normal, healthy development. These events and conditions, organized under the rubric of developmentally challenging circumstances (DCCs), include events such as war, natural disasters, parental suicide and sexual abuse, serious personal loss that may come with the death of a family member, highly destabilizing interpersonal circumstances such as can occur when family members have serious mental health and substance abuse problems or when children witness interparental violence, and highly destabilizing social or physical circumstances, which can occur as a result of divorce, homelessness, or parental incarceration. These circumstances are at the upper end of conditions that cause stress; they are of a kind that create high levels of emotional distress and threaten long-term maladaptive reorganization of personality. The article offers a broad framework, organized around the major tasks of parenting, for systematic and integrative inquiry on what parents do to assist their children in managing DCCs and moving toward recovery. It also argues for research on the effects of these efforts.
Article
The study of depression in children and adolescents has gone through a series of contradictory formulations as theorists have attempted to understand this complex form of disorder in youngsters. Conceptualizations have ranged from the belief that depression in children was impossible due to the immaturity of ego development prior to adolescence and the concomitant inability to experience guilt (Rie, 1966) to the belief that depression in children is prevalent and may be manifested in a variety of symptoms quite divergent from those evidenced in adulthood, i. e., depressive equivalents (Cytryn & McKnew, 1972; Glaser, 1967) to the assertion that symptoms indicating depression are the same across the age span from childhood to adulthood (American Psychiatric Association, 1987; Kashani et al., 1981; Puig-Antich, 1980). Such divergence in thinking indicates that the topic of depression in childhood and adolescence is an area of active and significant theoretical and empirical inquiry.
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A child version of the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS; D. Watson et al, see record 1988-31508-001), the PANAS-C, was developed using students in Grades 4–8 ( N = 707). Item selection was based on psychometric and theoretical grounds. The resulting Negative Affect (NA) and Positive Affect (PA) scales demonstrated good convergent and discriminant validity with existing self-report measures of childhood anxiety and depression; the PANAS-C performed much like its adult namesake. Overall, the PANAS-C, like the adult PANAS, is a brief, useful measure that can be used to differentiate anxiety from depression in youngsters. As such, this instrument addresses the shortcomings of existing measures of childhood anxiety and depression. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
This paper describes the use of the risk and resilience ecological framework as an assessment and goal setting tool for social workers. A rationale for the framework is provided, along with identification of risk and protective factors across the micro, meso, and macro level systems. Goal formulation from identification of factors follow, with implications for social work interventions.
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This study examined the relative influence of adolescents' supportive relationships with teachers, peers, and parents on trajectories of different dimensions of school engagement from middle to high school and how these associations differed by gender and race or ethnicity. The sample consisted of 1,479 students (52% females, 56% African American). The average growth trajectories of school compliance, participation in extracurricular activities, school identification, and subjective valuing of learning decreased from 7th to 11th grades (mean ages = 12.9 years to 17.2 years). Different sources of social support were not equally important in their impact on school engagement, and the effect of these sources differed by the aspect of engagement studied. For instance, peer social support predicted adolescents' school compliance more strongly and school identification less strongly than teacher social support.
Article
Living with persistent poverty is toxic for one’s psychological health. This study examined SES, income, neighborhood disadvantage, and poverty-related stress as predictors of a wide range of psychological problems including anxiety, depression, aggression, relationship problems, physical problems, and trouble with the law. Longitudinal analyses were conducted with a low-income multiethnic sample of 98 families recruited from the greater Denver, CO metropolitan area (300 family members: 136 adults, 82 preadolescents, 82 adolescents) using hierarchical linear modeling to predict all eight ASEBA narrow band syndromes. Analyses showed that poverty-related stress was directly related to anxious/depressed symptoms and social problems and interacted with prior symptoms, contributing to worsening symptoms for delinquency, attention problems, somatic complaints, and anxious/depressed symptoms. Hollingshead SES also had direct predictive effects for certain syndromes, though these effects were in the opposite direction predicted. In contrast, lower income-to-needs predicted more problems as expected. Neighborhood disadvantage also predicted psychological syndromes. Developmental differences are discussed. Our data show that parents are not the only family members who are affected by stress from living in poverty. SES, neighborhood disadvantage and poverty-related stress take a toll on children, adolescents, and adults.
Article
This study tested the Adaptation to Poverty-related Stress Model and its proposed relations between poverty-related stress, effortful and involuntary stress responses, and symptoms of psychopathology in an ethnically diverse sample of low-income children and their parents. Prospective Hierarchical Linear Modeling analyses conducted with 98 families (300 family members: 136 adults, 82 adolescents and preadolescents, 82 school-age children) revealed that, consistent with the model, primary and secondary control coping were protective against poverty-related stress primarily for internalizing symptoms. Conversely, disengagement coping exacerbated externalizing symptoms over time. In addition, involuntary engagement stress responses exacerbated the effects of poverty-related stress for internalizing symptoms, whereas involuntary disengagement responses exacerbated externalizing symptoms. Age and gender effects were found in most models, reflecting more symptoms of both types for parents than children and higher levels of internalizing symptoms for girls.
Article
For many decades, the Middle East has been troubled with numerous long-standing armed conflicts and wars. Children and adolescents were not spared the trauma and its consequences. Exposure to traumatic events can result in mental, behavioural and emotional problems in children and adolescents. To date, this is the first paper that aims to systematically review the literature on the mental health of children and adolescents living in areas of armed conflict in the Middle East, specifically Israel, Palestine, Lebanon and Iraq. It explores factors that mediate between exposure to armed conflict and mental, behavioural and emotional problems and places them in a cultural context. Pubmed was searched and papers were identified using specific inclusion criteria. Seventy-one eligible studies were included. The main findings are that children and adolescents living in these conflict zones are exposed to high levels of traumatic experiences. Number of conflict-related traumatic experiences correlates positively with prevalence of mental, behavioural and emotional problems. Prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder in children and adolescents is estimated to be 5-8% in Israel, 23-70% in Palestine and 10-30% in Iraq (insufficient data for Lebanon). The main determining factors identified were level and type of exposure, age, gender, socio-economic adversity, social support and religiosity. These findings bring to light the pressing need to provide children and adolescents living in conflict areas with help. They are useful in designing new interventions to strengthen child and adolescent resilience in areas of conflict worldwide. Specific recommendations are included.
Article
Trauma symptoms, recovery patterns, and life stressors of children between the ages of 9 and 18 (n = 387) following Hurricane Katrina were assessed using an adapted version of the National Child Traumatic Stress Network Hurricane Assessment and Referral Tool for Children and Adolescents (National Child Traumatic Stress Network, 2005). Based on assessments 2 and 3 years after the hurricane, most children showed a decrease in posttraumatic stress and depression symptoms over time. Students were also classified into outcome trajectories of stress resistant, normal response and recovery, delayed breakdown, and breakdown without recovery (A. S. Masten & J. Obradovic, 2008). Age, gender, and life stressors were related to these recovery patterns. Overall, the findings highlight the importance of building and maintaining supportive relationships following disasters.
Article
This paper describes an alternative version of the Network of Relationships Inventory, which was designed to assess how frequently different relationships were used to fulfill the functions of three behavioral systems-attachment, caregiving, and affiliation. Psychometric and validational evidence is presented including: a) high internal consistency for all scales and composites, b) a second order factor structure of support and negative interactions for each relationship, c) moderately high stability over a one year period, d) moderate convergence among different reporters, e) theoretically meaningful differences among different relationships, f) moderate associations among different relationships, g) associations with the original Network of Relationships Inventory, and h) relations with observed interactions with mothers and friends.
Article
Developed the concept of psychological wellness and made the case that proportionally more resources should be directed to the pursuit of this goal. Five pathways to wellness are considered, implicating aspects of individual development and the impact of contexts, settings, and policies. The five pathways are: forming wholesome early attachments; acquiring age- and ability-appropriate competencies; engineering settings that promote adaptive outcomes; fostering empowerment; and acquiring skills needed to cope effectively with life stressors. Although these noncompeting pathways have differential salience at different ages and for different groups and life conditions, each is an essential element in any comprehensive social plan to advance wellness. Examples of effective programs are cited in all five areas, including recent comprehensive, long-term programs embodying multiple pathways to wellness.
Article
The development of a measure of coping and involuntary stress responses in adolescence is described. The Responses to Stress Questionnaire (RSQ) reflects a conceptual model that includes volitional coping efforts and involuntary responses to specific stressful events or specified domains of stress. The psychometric characteristics of the RSQ were examined across 4 domains of stress in 3 samples of adolescents and parent reports obtained in 2 samples. The factor structure of the RSQ was tested and replicated with an adequate degree of fit using confirmatory factor analysis across 3 stressors in 2 samples. Internal consistency and retest reliability for the 5 factors were adequate to excellent. Concurrent validity was established through correlations with another measure of coping, heart rate reactivity, and correlations of self- and parent-reports. Significant correlations with both adolescents' and parents' reports of internalizing and externalizing symptoms were consistent with hypotheses.
Article
This paper proposes common mechanisms to explain the effects of adversities and of resources that promote resilience. Adversities threaten the satisfaction of basic human needs and the acquisitions of competencies to carry out valued social roles. Adversities can also be characterized in terms of their ecological properties of occurrence in time, and place. Resilience resources at the individual, microsystem and macro levels reduce the negative effects of adversities through their effects on satisfaction of basic human needs and their effects on the occurrence of adversities. The effects of resilience resources are described as preventive, protective and promotive. Implications are presented for the development of interventions to promote resilience.
Article
Using survey data from 325 Tsunami-exposed adolescents and mothers from two villages in southern Sri Lanka, this pilot study investigated influences of Tsunami exposure and subsequent psychosocial losses on adolescent depressive and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Findings generally support the study hypotheses: disaster exposure (for example experiences of property destruction and deaths of close others) contributes to depressive and PTSD symptoms in adolescents. Findings also show that psychosocial losses associated with Tsunami exposure, such as prolonged displacement, social losses, family losses, and mental health impairment among mothers, contribute to depressive and PTSD symptoms in adolescents. Results suggest that the influence of Tsunami exposure on adolescent mental health operates partially through Tsunami-related psychosocial losses. As expected, positive mother-child relationships provide a compensatory influence on both depressive and PTSD symptoms of adolescents. In addition, high levels of depressive symptoms among mothers increases the detrimental influence of other Tsunami-related psychosocial losses on adolescent mental health. These preliminary findings suggest ways to improve ongoing recovery and reconstruction programs and assist in formulating new programs for families exposed to both the Tsunami and other natural disasters. More importantly, findings from this pilot study emphasize the urgent need for larger systematic studies focusing on mental health following disaster exposure.
On the limits of coping: interaction between stress and coping for inner-city adolescents a test of the stressbuffering effects of coping in a multiethnic sample of urban adolescents
  • N A Gonzales
  • J Y Tein
  • I N Sandler
  • R J Friedman
Gonzales, N.A., Tein, J.Y., Sandler, I.N., Friedman, R.J., 2001. On the limits of coping: interaction between stress and coping for inner-city adolescents a test of the stressbuffering effects of coping in a multiethnic sample of urban adolescents. In LIMITS OF COPING J. Adolesc. Res. 16, 372-395. Issue 4. doi:10.1177/0743558401164005.