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Abstract

ABSTRACT Groping drugs are common in Ayurveda. Throughout Ayurveda classics, we find many references for the grouping of drugs. This is done based on their utility. Aacharya Sushruta used ganas based on the name of the first drug, Charaka used desaimani based on their karma. We could find various other common examples in mishragana like trikatu, trigata, chaturgata, panchakola, shadushana. Ashtavarga is one among them. It was in practice since the origin of Ayurved. Nowadays the identity and availability of these drugs are questionable. Since some of these drugs are not available, in Nighantu Kala our Aacharya has given suitable substitutes for them. This is an attempt to evaluate the substitutes told by Bhavamishra and those used in recent practice. KEYWORDS: Ashtavarga, Bhavaprakasha Nighantu.
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SCRUTINY OF SUBSTITUENTS OF ASHTAVARGA DRAVYAS: RELEVANCE,
OBTAINABILITY, AND EFFICACY
Dr. Sreenath R.*1 and Dr. Satej Banne2
1Final Year PG Scholar, Department of Dravyaguna Vigyana, Parul Institute of Ayurved, Parul University, At Post.
Limda, Tal. Waghodia, Dist. Vadodara 391 760, Gujarat, India.
2Associate Professor, Ph.D., Department of Dravyaguna Vigyana, Parul Institute of Ayurved, Parul University, At Post.
Limda, Tal. Waghodia, Dist. Vadodara 391760, Gujarat, India.
Article Received on 21/05/2021 Article Revised on 11/06/2021 Article Accepted on 01/07/2021
INTRODUCTION
Ashtavarga is formed out of two words, Ashta which
means eight, and Varga which means Group.[1] That is a
group of eight drugs. These drugs are commonly found
around the Himalayan ranges. Charaka Samhita has
references of using Ashtavarga dravya. Agnivesha has
mentioned the use of 5 Ashtavarga drugs in the making
of Chyavanaprash which is an important Ayurveda
formulation.[2]
Ashtavarga drugs are[3]
1. Jeevaka
2. Rishabhaka
3. Meda
4. Mahameda
5. Kakoli
6. Kshirakakoli
7. Rddhi
8. Vriddhi
Table No: 1: The properties of Ashtavarga are.[4]
Rasa
Madhura
Guna
Guru
Veerya
Seeta
Karma
Brihmana, Sukrala
Rogaghnatha
Bhagnasanthanakruth (heals fracture), Kamabala (increase sexual desire), Bala
vardhana (Increase strength), Trit (Thirst), Daha (Burning Sensation), Jwara (Pyrexia)
Doshaghnatha
Vata, Pitta, Rakta Vikaras
Table No. 2: Substitutes as per Bhavaprakash.[5]
Sl no
Drugs
Botanical name
Substitute
Botanical name
1.
Jeevaka
Microstylis wallichii Lindl
Vidarikanda
Pueraria tuberosa
DC
2.
Rishabhaka
Microstylis musifera Ridley
3.
Meda
Polygonatum verticillatum Linn
Satavari
Asparagus racemosus
Wild
4.
Mahameda
Polygonatum cirrhifolium Royle
5.
Kakoli
Rosea procera Wall
Fritillaria roylei Hook.f.
Ashvagandha
Withania somnifera
Dunal
6.
Ksirakakoli
Nomocharis oxypetala Royle
Lilium polyphyllum D.Don
Review Article
ISSN 2394-3211
EJPMR
EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL
AND MEDICAL RESEARCH
www.ejpmr.com
ejpmr, 2021,8(7), 763-765
ABSTRACT
Groping drugs are common in Ayurveda. Throughout Ayurveda classics, we find many references for the grouping
of drugs. This is done based on their utility. Aacharya Sushruta used ganas based on the name of the first drug,
Charaka used desaimani based on their karma. We could find various other common examples in mishragana like
trikatu, trigata, chaturgata, panchakola, shadushana. Ashtavarga is one among them. It was in practice since the
origin of Ayurved. Nowadays the identity and availability of these drugs are questionable. Since some of these
drugs are not available, in Nighantu Kala our Aacharya has given suitable substitutes for them. This is an attempt
to evaluate the substitutes told by Bhavamishra and those used in recent practice.
KEYWORDS: Ashtavarga, Bhavaprakasha Nighantu.
*Corresponding Author: Dr. Sreenath R.
Final Year PG Scholar, Department of Dravyaguna Vigyana, Parul Institute of Ayurved, Parul University, At Post. Limda, Tal. Waghodia, Dist.
Vadodara 391 760, Gujarat, India.
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7.
Rddhi
Habenaria intermedia D.Don
Varahikanda
Dioscorea bulbifera
Linn
Dioscorea sativa Linn
8.
Vrddhi
Habernaria species
Table No. 3: Properties of Ashtavarga and its Substitutes as per Bhavaprakash.
No.
Drug
Substitute
Properties
1.
Jivaka &
Rishabhaka
Vidarikanda[6]
Rasa: Madhura
Guna: Guru, Sheeta
Verya: Seeta
Karma: Sukrala, Brihmana Rasayan
Rogaghnatha: Pitta, Asra, Pavana, Daha Vikaras
2.
Meda &
Mahameda
Satavari[7]
Rasa: Madhura
Guna: Guru
Veerya: Seeta
Karma: Stanya, Brihmana, sukrala, Vrushya
Rogaghnatha: Vata, Pitta, Rakta vikaras
3.
Kakoli &
Ksheerakakoli
Ashwagandha[8]
Rasa: Madhura, Tikta, Kashaya
Guna: Guru,
Veerya: Seeta
Karma: Bruhmana, Balya, Rasayana, Atisukrala
Rogaghnata: Shotha, Jwara, Switra, Daha, Vata, Rakta and
Pitta Vikaras
4.
Rddhi & Vrddhi
Varahikanda[9]
Rasa: Madhura, Tikta
Guna: Guru
Verya: Seeta
Karma: Sukrala, Garbhada, Vrushya, Swarya, varnya,
Rasayana, Tridoshajith, Bruhmana
Rogaghnatha: Kushta, Prameha, Murcha, Kshatakasa, Krimi,
Rakta and Pitta vikaras
Table No. 4: Some of the commonly used Substitutes.
Sl no
Drugs
Botanical name
Substitute[10]
Botanical name
1.
Jeevaka
Microstylis wallichii Lindl
Guduchi
Tinospora
cordifolia Willd[11]
2.
Rishabhaka
Microstylis musifera Ridley
Vamsalochan
Bambusa
aurundinacea Retz.
Willd[12]
3.
Meda
Polygonatum verticillatum Linn
Salama misri
Orchis latifolia
Linn[13]
4.
Mahameda
Polygonatum cirrhifolium Royle
Prasarini
Paederia foetida
Linn[14]
5.
Kakoli
Rosea procera Wall
Fritillaria roylei Hook.f.
Kali musali
Curciligo
orchioides
Gaertn[15]
6.
Ksirakakoli
Nomocharis oxypetala Royle
Lilium polyphyllum D.Don
Sweta musli
Asparagus
adscendens
Roxb[16]
7.
Rddhi
Habenaria intermedia D.Don
Bala bija
Sida cordifolia
Linn[17]
8.
Vrddhi
Habernaria species
Mahabala,
Sida rhombifolia
Linn[18]
DISCUSSION
Ashtavarga dravyas are used from the time of Aacharya
Agnivesha and it is mentioned in Charaka Samhita. With
time availability of these drugs has diminished or the
identification of original Ashtavarga drugs became
difficult. This might have lead Aacharya Bhavamishra to
mention the Ashtavarga and its substitute in
Bhavaprakasha Nighantu. Some of the recent vaidyas
have started using other drugs instead of those
prathinidhi dravyas told by Bhavaprakasha. Substituting
a drug is based on its properties. So if two drugs are
having almost the same properties its substitution can be
done based on vaidyas Yukti.
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Is it ok to uses these substitutes?
When we compare the properties of substitute drugs with
that of Ashtavarga, they are madhura rasa (sweet), guru
guna (heavy), and seeta veerya (cold potency). While
considering the karma of Ashtavrga which is bruhmana
and sukrala, all the four substitute drugs are bruhnman
(Roborant) and sukrala. When considering the
rogaghnatha they are divided among the drugs. Some are
jwaragha, dahaghan, and trutshna nigrahana, while others
are effective in increasing Kambala and sandana karma.
In doshaghnatha, all the drugs are effective against Vata,
rakta, and pitta vikaras. So while considering the
Ayurveda properties of substitute drugs, they are
common with Ashtavarga. Hence these substitutes can be
used in place Ashtavarga.
CONCLUSION
The substitution of drugs is not a new topic. Since Vedic
Kala, it was in practice. In Vedic Kala the plants used for
yagnas (prayer) were substituted if it’s not available.
When we do substitution on medicinal plants, we should
be concerned about the properties of the plant. Nowadays
we have the facility to test the chemical constituents
present in each plant. So before substituting any plant a
proper pharmacognostic and analytical study can be
done.
REFERENCES
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ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
Medicinal properties and uses of Salabmisri (Orchis latifolia Linn): A literary review
Medicinal properties and uses of Salabmisri (Orchis latifolia Linn): A literary review, Aisha Anjum A, The Journal of Phytopharmacology, 2019; 8(1): 18-20. Published: 26-02-2019
  • Bhavamishra Bhavaprakasha Of
Bhavaprakasha of Bhavamishra, Volume 1, Commentary by Dr. Bulusu Sitaram, Chaukhambha Orientalia, Varanasi, ISBN: 978-81-7637-259-6, Reprint edition, 2015; 276.