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The Effect of Depression, Stress and Burnout on Sleeping Disorder among the Working Adults

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Today's generation spends about a third of their adult lives at work, and issues like overwork, job insecurity, and disappointment with one's own performance are common sources of stress for many. A large number of people, especially working adults, who have a high risk for developing work stress and complex social responsibility, are having trouble sleeping. Therefore, the purpose of this study aimed to investigate the effect of depression, stress, and burnout on sleeping disorders among working adults. It coincides with a summary of the literature, then carries on to the methodology, results, discussion, and conclusion. A quantitative research design was chosen for this study to assess the effect of depression, stress, and burnout on sleeping disorders. The purposive sampling method which is known as convenience sampling was applied to select the participants. A total number of 200 participants of Peninsular Malaysia aged between 20 to 40 years old participated in the study. The survey method was used to collect data online using a Google Form document. Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) was used in analyzing the data obtained from the respondents. The results were organized into groups and explained. The study results are found that there is a significant effect of depression, stress, and burnout on sleeping disorders among working adults. Whereas this study has also found that there is no significant difference in sleeping disorders based on gender among the working adults through T-test and simple linear regression. The recommendations are the study should consist of a larger sample of participants over a longer period of time. It would be to the advantage of the researcher to conduct the study for a minimum of three to four months for the data collection and questionnaires should be revised to make them simpler and more comprehensive. It can be concluded that there was a significant effect of depression, stress, and burnout on sleeping disorders among working adults. Whereas this study has also found that there was no significant difference in sleeping disorders based on gender among the working adults.
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CUeJAR Volume 3 | Issue 1 | 2021
City University eJournal of Academic Research (CUeJAR)
e-ISSN : 2682-910X
CUeJAR Homepage: https://www.city.edu.my/CUeJAR
OPEN
ACCESS
Copyright © City University Press.
CUeJAR
Received: 9th November 2020
Revised: 14th March 2021
Accepted: 30th March 2021
The Effect of Depression, Stress and Burnout on Sleeping Disorder among the
Working Adults
Jashwini Kumar, Asong Joseph, Surianti Lajuma, Nabilla Waheda Hashim, Siti
Kamalia Sabri
Faculty of Education and Liberal Studies, City University, Malaysia
(jashwini.kumar97@gmail.com, asong.joseph@city.edu.my, surianti.lajuma@city.edu.my,
nabilla.hashim@city.edu.my, kamalia.sabri@city.edu.my)
Abstract
Introduction: Today's generation spends about a third of their adult lives at work, and
issues like overwork, job insecurity, and disappointment with one's own performance are
common sources of stress for many. A large number of people, especially working adults,
who have a high risk for developing work stress and complex social responsibility, are
having trouble in sleeping. Therefore, the purpose of this study aimed to investigate the
effect of depression, stress and burnout on sleeping disorder among the working adults. It
coincides with a summary of the literature, then carries on to the methodology, results,
discussion, and conclusion.
Methodology: A quantitative research design was chosen for this study to assess the effect
of depression, stress and burnout on sleeping disorder. Purposive sampling method which
is known as convenience sampling was applied to select the participants. A total number
of 200 participants of Peninsular Malaysia aged between 20 to 40 years old participated
in the study. Survey method was used to collect data through online using a Google Form
document. Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) was used in analyzing the
data obtained from the respondents.
Result and Discussion: The results were organized into groups and explained. The study
results are found that there is a significant effect of depression, stress and burnout on
sleeping disorder among the working adults. Whereas this study has also found that there
is no significant difference of sleeping disorder based on gender among the working
adults through T-test and a simple linear regression.
Conclusion and Recommendation: The recommendations are the study should consist of
a larger sample of participants over a longer period of time. It would be to the advantage
of the researcher to conduct the study for a minimum of three to four months for the data
collection and questionnaires should be revised to make them simpler and more
comprehensive. It can be concluded that there was a significant effect of depression, stress
and burnout on sleeping disorder among the working adults. Whereas this study have also
found that there was no significant difference of sleeping disorder based on gender among
the working adults.
Keywords: Depression, Stress, Burnout, Sleeping Disorder, Working Adults, Mental Health.
CUeJAR Volume 3 | Issue 1 | 2021
Kumar et al., 2021 69
1.0 Introduction
Malaysia is a modern developing country that has progressed to become an
industrialized nation (Hossain, et al., 2020). Malaysia's progress in various areas
for event in terms of economics has resulted in inclinations as well as drawbacks
for citizens, affecting their way of life significantly (Hossain, et al., 2019).
Everyone believes that they must adapt to this situation, regardless of how long
they will survive. The amount and quality of sleep a person gets has a significant
impact on cognitive performance, motor function, mental health, and long-term
physical health. It coincides with a summary of the literature, then carries on to the
methodology, results, discussion, and conclusion.
Nowadays' generations, particularly working adults, have a mindset that they
must compete and compare themselves to others in order to achieve a better
quality of life. Their curiosity leads them to investigate a variety of topics and to
do their best to make the most of the resources available to them so that they can
achieve their objectives. Furthermore, their dedication in their professional lives
may expose them to a variety of issues, such as excessive workload, career
uncertainty, job insecurity, and dissatisfaction with their own performance, which
can lead to stress, depression, and burnout, as well as a loss of direction.
Workplace stress is common and necessary, but when it becomes excessive, it can
cause physical illness and mental disturbances such as insomnia (Kapur &
Radhika, 2018).
Insomnia, the most common sleep disorder, affects a large number of working
adults. They would have handled with its symptoms such as difficulty falling
asleep or waking up frequently during the night and having difficulty returning to
sleep, waking up too early in the morning, and feeling exhausted upon waking up
at one point in their lives. According to studies, hectic and stressed lifestyles, as
well as the proliferation of electronic goods, are all factors that contribute to
insomnia. Insomnia's short-term effects may seem minor, but it has long-term
effects on the brain. Insomnia can cause physical and mental health problems, as
well as an increased risk of death. Insomnia is integrally linked to mental health,
according to the British Mental Health Foundation. According to the study, people
who suffer from chronic insomnia are more likely to experience fatigue,
irritability, and difficulty concentrating. Getting enough good sleep is important
for our mental, physical, and emotional well-being. Our mood is affected, we can't
concentrate, and we can't pay attention if we don't get enough sleep. Sleep also
aids in the growth and progression of infants and adolescents. “Inadequate sleep is
linked to increased passionate reactivity and emotional disturbance, which can lead
to more serious mental health issues and disorders in the long run” (Kasmiah
Mustapha, 2018).
2 Literature review
The literature review of this research discusses on i) the related theories:
Hopelessness Theory of Depression, Transactional Theory of Stress and Coping
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Depression, Stress, Burnout, and Sleeping Disorder
70
and A Multidimensional Theory of Burnout. Apart from that, the literature review
is followed by few past studies which are ii) The Effect of Depression on Sleeping
Disorder, iii) The Effect of Stress on Sleeping Disorder and iv) The Effect of
Burnout on Sleeping Disorder.
2.1 The related theories: Hopelessness Theory of Depression, Transactional
Theory of Stress and
Coping and a Multidimensional Theory of Burnout.
Hopelessness Theory of Depression, Transactional Theory of Stress and Coping
and A Multidimensional Theory of Burnout provide some possible explanations
for the link between depression, stress, and burnout on sleeping disorders and
identity recognition in working adults. The hopelessness theory of depression is to
determine if the combination between negative cognitive types and negative life
experiences leads to a feeling of hopelessness. This hopelessness, in turn, was
thought to be sufficient in and of itself to induce depression.
This previous demonstration of depression was based in part on the
observation that people who had been regularly subjected to uncontrollable shocks
would finally attempt to flee when this alternative was made open to them
(Overmier & Seligman, 1967; Seligman & Maier, 1967). In summary, this theory
states that prolonged exposure to uncontrollable and aversive common stimuli
eventually leads to the belief that the aversive condition is inevitable, and a sense
of helplessness about the situation develops. As a result of this helplessness,
depression grows. This model had flaws in that it couldn't explain why some
people were overwhelmed when confronted with an uncontrollable stressor while
others didn't (Abramson, Seligman, & Teasdale, 1978; Liu et al.; 2015).
Abramson and colleagues (1978) used acknowledgement theory to discuss this
problem in what was originally referred to as a reformulation of the theory of
learned helplessness. They suggested that individuals' causal attributions created in
response to a traumatic life event influence their likelihood of being depressed
(Alkathiri et al., 2019). Individuals form causal attributions along three different
dimensions: interior to exterior, consistent to unstable, and global to national,
according to the theory. According to this reformulated hypothesis, people who
attribute a traumatic experience to internal, stable, or global causes are more likely
to develop depression. This theory will predict, for example, that a person who has
a disagreement with a friend is more likely to become depressed if they perceive
the incident as a manifestation of their weak interpersonal ability, which they
accept will never improve, and which will negatively affect all of their other social
experiences, such as global. Separately, the person is less likely to become
depressed if they assign the same occurrence to an acquaintance's irritability, such
as outside, which is brought on by having a bad day that is unpredictable and
agrees that this is distinct from their other social intuitive, such as specific (Liu et
al, 2015).
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Kumar et al., 2021 71
The use of hopelessness theory of depression in this study is to evaluate the
susceptibility to stress-related sleep disruption, which is sleep reactivity, as well as
the propensity to make negative attributions around stressful activities, such as
negative cognitive appearance, and how these factors lead to a sleeping disorder
and depression. According to this theory, knowing the link between a sleeping
disorder and depression will help us spot risks often, get the right diagnosis, and
heal more fully if we are experiencing both (Liu et al, 2015).
The transactional theory of stress and adaptation was developed as a
replacement metatheoretical prepare method from the past behavioral premises of
stress as a boost or reaction, as put forward and generated at first from historic
conceptualizations of stress. According to the transactional theory of stress and
coping, stress is caused by a series of transactions between an individual, their
environment, and their circumstances (Lazarus & Folkman, 1984), and the
outcome of these transactions can cause quantifiable severe and persistent mental
and substantial distress (Hellhammer, Wust, & Kudielka, 2009).
These exchanges are fuelled by appraisals and coping, which include
perceptions of value, danger or harm, and adaptability (Benight & Bandura, 2004;
Carver et al., 1989). Applying the cognitive appraisal and coping aspects of the
transactional theory of stress and coping to intercede the relationship between
trauma-affected individuals' stress experiences and outcomes creates a
demonstration foundation on which potential approaches can be explored (Dana,
2019; Alsaadi, et al., 2019; Alkathiri et al., 2019).
Despite the fact, Lazarus recognizes certain common situations as sources of
stress for different people, he emphasizes that people and groups of people differ
in their vulnerability to and powerlessness in the face of 16 certain events, as well
as in their perception and response to certain events. Lazarus validate is taking into
account the cognitive forms that interfere between stimulus and response, as well
as the factors that affect these processes, in order to translate the diversity of
people who are experiencing similar stressful events (Biggs et al., 2017; Goh et al.,
2010; Gharama, et al., 2020a, 2020b; Badran & Khalifa, 2016).
One advantage of this theory of stress on this study was that it accommodated
individual differences in evaluation, while the single continuum theory did not.
According to this transactional model, stress is defined as a mental reaction to a
situation or stimulus in which a person assesses the situation or stressor as being
beyond their capabilities or resources (Alkhateri et al., 2019). Stressors that are
assessed as having the potential for personal development, achievement of goals,
or rewards will be classified as “challenges,” whereas stressors that are assessed as
having no potential for personal growth, achievement of objectives, or rewards
will be classified as “hindrances” (Selye, 1982). Cavanaugh, Boswell, Roehling,
and Boudreau (2000) discovered that job overload, time constraints, and level of
obligation can be classified as threats and organizational stressors, respectively
(Newness, 2011).
The multidimensional theory of burnout enables entities to formulate
appropriate interventional methods based on the three measurements, ensuring that
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the problem of burnout is attempted while also developing critical parameters for
assessing effectiveness. The three-component model developed by Susan Jackson
is the most commonly used organizational description and comparison degree in
burnout 17 research (Maslach & Jackson, 1981 & 1986). Burnout is a
psychological condition characterized by passionate fatigue, depersonalization,
and a reduction in personal achievement that may occur in people who interact
with others in a number of capacities.
Emotional fatigue is characterized by feelings of being overextended and
emotionally drained. Depersonalization is a negative, empathetic, or overly
withdrawn reaction to other people who are often the beneficiaries of one's
assistance or treatment. Reduced individual achievement refers to a reduction in
one's feelings of satisfaction and accomplishment at work. The variables
considered so far away are more strongly related to emotional exhaustion than the
other two elements, according to burnout studies (Shirom, 2003; Bianchi et.al;
2014).
Firstly, burnout is characterized by fatigue, which is the most visible symptom
of this complex disease. When people claim they are burned out, they are generally
referring to the fatigue that comes with it. Fatigue is the most comprehensive and
thoroughly examined of the three perspectives on burnout. Depersonalization, on
the other hand, is an effort to create a barrier between oneself and benefit
recipients by successfully ignoring the characteristics that distinguish them from
other people. Thirdly, the relationship between inefficacy and the other two
perspectives of burnout is a little more complicated. It tends to be a work of either
fatigue, negativity, or a mixture of the two in a few cases. A work environment
characterized by constant, overwhelming demands that lead to fatigue or negative
feedback is likely to erode one's sense of effectiveness (Bianchi et.al; 2014).
The use of the multidimensional theory of burnout in this study is to consider
the link between burnout and a sleeping disorder. The majority of working adults
reported high levels of stress and satisfaction at work. In either case, employees
who reported high job pressure and met burnout requirements had a serious
relationship with a sleeping disorder. These findings support previous evidence of
a connection between burnout and a sleeping disorder, but the directionality of the
link is uncertain. It's most likely a circle, with mental exhaustion and feelings of
inadequacy disrupting sleep, which decreases motivation and impairs focus at
work (Bianchi et.al; 2014).
2.1.1 The Effect of Depression on Sleeping Disorder
A research which is related to this study shows that sleeping disorder is a
subjective experience of difficulty initiating or sustaining sleep, such as DIS and
DMS separately, collectively known as Darken or non-restorative sleep (NRS).
According to epidemiological research, 20 to 35 percent of the general population
has a sleeping problem, with 10 to 20% having clinically basic insomnia
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Kumar et al., 2021 73
syndrome. Prevalence of sleeping disorders has been attributed to assessments of
poor physical and mental health. (Li et al., 2016).
In addition, insomnia and depression are also serious health issues. Insomnia
has been linked to a higher risk of depression, according to research. The first
proof of modifiable risk factors for depression also contains a very clear
suggestion for the fundamental prevention. Several observational studies have
looked at whether or not a sleeping condition raises the risk of depression. In 2011,
Baglioni et al. conducted a meta-analysis to investigate the connection between a
sleeping disorder and the likelihood of depression. The findings revealed that a
sleeping disorder has a 2.60 chance of predicting depression, with a 95%
confidence interval of 2.60. Since then, a slew of new observational studies have
appeared, all of which had broad sample sizes and long follow-up periods.
Furthermore, the previous analysis was performed because a subgroup evaluation
was done with participants of different ages. With changes in definitions of
depression and the implementation of changes, or shifts in samples from distinct
genders, follow-up words, and geographic regions, the rates and risk factors for
depression may change (Li et al., 2016).
2.1.2 The Effect of Stress on Sleeping Disorder
Several precise investigations show that working adults are affecting by stress and
through sleeping problems. For instance, a literature on stress and sleep articulates
that it is as vast as it is rich, and its thorough analysis warrants its own study. They
use this section to provide a general overview of the stresssleep relationship as a
backdrop for a more detailed study of sleep reactivity. Insomnia is a common sleep
disorder brought on by stress. According to current figures, 10-30% of adults
suffer from insomnia (Kalmbach, Anderson & Drake, 2018)
Lack of sleep and insomnia are linked to emotions; recent research has shown
that stress, depression, and anxiety have detrimental effects on sleep (Baglioni,
Spiegelhalder, Lombardo, & Riemann, 2010; Cho et al., 2013; Gallagher, Phillips,
& Carroll, 2010; Okun, Tolge, & Hallway, 2014). Emotion and sleep tend to have
a close relationship, which is being increasingly recognized as an important
research field. Recent studies have documented a number of sleep processes in an
attempt to understand its behavioral complexities and advance beyond psychotic
portrayals, seeking to understand the ways that contribute to good sleep quality
(Kalmbach, Anderson & Drake, 2018).
2.1.3 The Effect of Burnout on Sleeping Disorder
The evidence from recent research on burnout have concentrated on a single word-
related category, mainly for service-related professions such as teachers,
correctional officers, hotel employees, tenants, or nurses (Khalifa, 2019, 2020).
Furthermore, clinical burnout appears to be extremely common among restorative
students and practicing physicians, with rates ranging from 25% to 60%. People in
these occupations are often subject to night shifts and have experiences with
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74
students, patients, and families. Embriaco et al. identified three factors linked to
night work in the event of burnout: the amount of night shifts each month, the
length of time after the last non-working week, and the occurrence of one night
shift a few times as late as the day of the outline 24 (Embriaco et al., 2007).
Expanding research has found a connection between the occurrence of burnout
syndrome and the prevalence of previous sleep disorders, which may lead to
prolonged exhaustion and hampered recovery. According to previous research,
people who are burnt out have lower sleep quality. Women with a high burnout
score record more sleepiness, poor sleep quality, and visit awakenings than those
with a low burnout score. Furthermore, a consistent correlation between burnout
and a sleeping disorder has been discovered. The results of self-report research on
sleep are indivisibly linked to objective displays like polysomnography (PSG). In a
study of young people with high burnout scores, polysomnographic sleep
measurements showed more arousals and sleep fragmentation, more wake time
and stage-1 rest, lower sleep performance, less slow wave sleep and rapid eye
movement sleep, and a lower control density in non-rapid eye movement sleep.
2.1.4 Sleep Disorder in Malaysia
The latest Sleep Survey, 2018 by Am Life International Sdn Bhd (Amlife), the first
of its kind globally, reported that nine out of ten Malaysians suffer from one or
more sleep issues. In terms of the most common sleep issues, 46 percent said they
wake up in the middle of the night, while 32 percent said they feel exhausted and
unrested in the morning. Many people, 31%, and claim they are sleepy during the
day. In reality, 66 percent of those polled said they deal with such problems at
least once a week. According to the survey, the average Malaysian sleeps 6.3 hours
per night, despite the fact that seven to nine hours of sleep is recommended. The
survey found that four out of ten people sleep for more than 30 minutes, despite
the fact that the average sleep time is 10 to 20 minutes.
“Six out of ten Malaysians said that leading an unhealthy lifestyle and
spending too much time on their phones have made it difficult for them to fall and
stay asleep,” according to the study. Furthermore, 52% claim they can't sleep
because of stress, anxiety, or depression, while 26% blame it on environmental
factors. As a consequence, the top five effects of sleep disorders include headaches
(40%), exhaustion (37%), difficulty thinking or focusing (37%), shoulder or neck
pain (33%), and attitude and mood swings (33%). The study also aimed to
highlight participants' knowledge of sleep health and discovered that while the
majority of Malaysians agree that it is important to seek help when coping with a
sleeping condition, 40% claim they are unsure of how to do so (Syahirah Syed
Jaafar, 2018).
The term "sleep quality" isn't well defined. Sleep quality, on the other hand, is
described by the National Sleep Foundation (2017) as one's satisfaction with the
sleep encounter, coordination perspectives of sleep start, sleep maintenance, sleep
quantity, and refreshment upon arousal. According to Smith, Robinson, and Segal
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Kumar et al., 2021 75
(2017), while sleep needs differ by person, most people need at least seven hours
of sleep per night to work at their best. People whose jobs cause them to work late
at night or early in the morning are mostly affected by shift work disorder.
Sleeping during the day and working at night can throw off a person's circadian
rhythms, which regulate their sleep-wake cycle based on natural light and darkness
cycles (Ting & Yusoff, 2018).
2.2 CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK OF THE STUDY
Figure 1: Conceptual Framework of the Study
3 Methods
This research was focusing on the effect of depression, stress and burnout on
sleeping disorder among the working adults. This study aimed to investigate the
prevalence of stress, burnout, and depression in working adult population and to
examine the associated socioeconomic factors. This could be very appropriate for a
few working adults, particularly those who are experiencing major depression,
stress, or burnout in their lives. The findings of this study can be applied to
working adults in Peninsular Malaysia effectively. The evidence that the
instrument used in this study has a higher score in the center of internal accuracy
and the reliability of test and retest supports the fact that it focuses on a detailed
and reliable pattern.
3.1 Data collection, sampling and procedures
This study applied a quantitative research design which used a set of questionnaire.
A total number of 200 participants of Peninsular Malaysia aged between 20 to 40
years old participated in the study. Survey method was used to collect data through
online using a Google Form document. Statistical Package for the Social Sciences
(SPSS) was used to analyze the data obtained from the respondents. The data
analysis for this research consists of descriptive and inferential data. The
descriptive analysis used in this study to analyze participant’s demographical
background. Whereas, the inferential analysis is used a simple linear regression to
measure the effect of depression, stress and burnout (IV) on sleeping disorder
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Depression, Stress, Burnout, and Sleeping Disorder
76
(DV). Then, T-test is used to measure the difference of sleeping disorder based on
gender.
4. Data analysis and Results
4.1 Demographic Profile - Frequency Tables
The participants in this study were chosen by using a purposive sampling method.
The researcher used purposive sampling which was known as convenience
sampling. Convenience sampling can be describe as focusing on certain aspects
such as availability and willingness of respondent when selecting them (Ilker
Etikan, 2016). This study applied Krejcie and Morgan (1970) sample size
calculation. According to Krejcie and Morgan (1970), the participants in this study
should be 335, however, because this study was conducted in a very short time and
this study managed to get 200 participants. The samples for the present study were
comprised of working adults from the range of 20 to 40 years old. In terms of the
various demographic details, there were no limits to responding to the survey. The
demographic of the participants is shown in Table 1.
Table 1: Summary of Demographic Profile of the Respondents
Variables
Frequency (N = 200)
Age
20-25 years
26-30 years
31-35 years
36-40 years
73
55
31
41
Gender
Male
Female
100
100
Ethnicity
Malay
Chinese
Indian
Others
67
29
90
14
Occupation
Worker
Student
Unemployed
138
48
14
Job Sector
Government
Private
Self-employed
Students
33
93
38
36
From the results of this research, a total of 200 participants were selected to be
used as samples. Among them 73 (36.5%) of the participants were 20-25 years old,
55 (27.5%) of the participants were 26-30 years old; 31 (15.5%) of the participants
were 31-35 years old; and 41 (20.5%) of the participants were 36-40 years old. As
for their gender, 100 (50%) of their participants were male; and 100 (50%) of the
participants were female. As for their ethnic group, 67 (33.5%) of the participants
were Malay; 29 (14.5%) of the participants were Chinese; 90 (45%) of the
participants were Indian; and 14 (7%) of the participants were under the other
ethnic group. As for their occupation status, 138 (69%) of the participants were
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Kumar et al., 2021 77
worker; 48 (24%) of the participants were students; and 14 (7%) of the participants
was chosen as being unemployed.
4.2 Results
There were four (4) hypotheses in this research that also formed the basis for
developing the questionnaire for the survey. The results from the testing of each
research hypothesis were supported by the findings and results of this study
consisting of Regression and T-test (Table 2- Table 5).
Table 2: The effect of depression on sleeping disorder among the working adults
Variable
B
95% CI
β
t
p
(Constant)
-6.310
(-12.370, -.251)
-2.054
.041
Depression
1.943
(1.734, 2.152)
.794
18.363
.000
The results of the analysis show there is a significant effect of depression on
sleeping disorder among the working adults (t (1,198) = 337.202, p < .05) with an
R2 of .630).
Table 3: The effect of stress on sleeping disorder among the working adults
Variable
B
95% CI
β
t
p
(Constant)
-18.085
(-25.208, -10.963)
-5.007
.000
Stress
1.822
(1.631, 2.014)
.801
18.810
.000
The results of the analysis show there is a significant effect of stress on sleeping
disorder among the working adults (F (1,198) = 353.828, p < .01) with an R2 of
.641).
Table 4: The effect of depression on sleeping disorder among the working adults
Variable
B
95% CI
β
t
p
(Constant)
-6.770
(-11.297, -2.242)
-2.949
.004
Burnout
.813
(.748, .877)
.871
24.914
.000
The results of the analysis show there is a significant effect of burnout on sleeping
disorder among the working adults found (F (1,198) = 620.701, p < .01) with an R2
of .758).
Table 5: The difference of sleeping disorder based on gender among the working adults
Variable
N
Mean
t
df
p
Male
100
50.1700
1.406
198
.161
Female
100
46.7900
1.406
197.431
.161
The results of the analysis show there is no significant difference of sleeping
disorder based on gender among the working adults (t (198) =1.406, p=.161).
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Depression, Stress, Burnout, and Sleeping Disorder
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5 Discussions
The study results are found that there is a significant effect of depression, stress
and burnout on sleeping disorder among the working adults. Whereas this study
has also found that there is no significant difference of sleeping disorder based on
gender among the working adults.
Based on the results obtained from this study, there is a significant effect of
depression on sleeping disorder among the working adults. Therefore, this research
shows that depression has an effect on sleeping disorders and the first hypothesis
was supported. Similar studies have shown that there is a strong association
between sleep and depression (Medina et al, 2014; Kristn et al, 2014). In fact,
insomnia, or the inability to fall and stay asleep, is one of the most common
symptoms of depression. That isn't to suggest that depression is the cause of
insomnia or other sleep issues. Lack of sleep does not cause suffering in and of
itself, but it does lead to it. Insomnia brought about by another medical condition
or personal issues may exacerbate depression. An inability to sleep for an extended
period of time is a simple indicator that someone might be depressed.
Apart from that the results has also shown that there is a significant effect of
stress on sleeping disorder among the working adults. This research shows that
stress has an effect on sleeping disorders and the second hypothesis was supported.
However, based on the findings of similar studies, it stated that too much stress can
lead to poor sleep, which can cause to mental and physical health problems, stress
in everyday life and cause to poor sleep at night (Kim et al, 2016; Timothy et al,
2018). Understanding how stress and sleep are connected is the first step toward
fixing the problem, and learning how to handle stress during the day will help us
improve our overall health and wellbeing, as well as contribute to better sleep.
Stress may have a negative impact on our lives, including the quality of our sleep.
Moreover, the result of this research has shown that there is a significant effect
of burnout on sleeping disorder among the working adults. This study shows that
burnout has an effect on sleeping disorders and the third hypothesis was supported.
Therefore, there has been similar studies and findings indicates that, burnout can
affect our sleep and mental health (Pagnin et al, 2018; Soderstrom et al, 2012). A
few studies claim that a sleeping disorder causes burnout and not the other way
around, while others claim that the relationship is bidirectional, suggesting that a
sleeping disorder can cause burnout or burnout can cause a sleeping disorder, and
that the two problems also reinforce each other.
Finally, the last result obtained from this research based on the objectives is
there is no significant difference of sleeping disorder based on gender among the
working adults. The results of this research indicate that there is no gender
disparity in sleeping disorder and the fourth hypothesis was not supported.
However, there are few past studies indicating that such differences are not
obtained due to the concept of different ethnic groups, age groups and also social
backgrounds have different idea when it comes to sleeping disorder (Quintana et
al, 2004; Mallampalli et al, 2014). Moreover, the potential explanation for this is
that, when both genders perform, they will have the same degree of need to
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Kumar et al., 2021 79
achieve their life's goals, so a minor problem 51 can be viewed as a major failure
for them. As a result, there's a risk they will experience similar levels of
psychological distress in their everyday lives. Thus, individuals who are
experiencing high levels of psychological distress are more likely to have sleeping
issues.
6 Conclusion, Implications and Recommendations
In short, researcher would like to summarize that the study has investigated on
effect of depression, stress and burnout on sleeping disorder, it was revealed that
the finding of the current study showed a contradictory result whereby overall
there were no any gender differences on sleeping disorder. The utilization of
different target group which was working adults in the current study can be a
useful tool in order to examine how far working adults affected by sleeping
disorder since they were more prone to have stress and accompanied by other
problems. In addition to that, as stated in the result, there were no differences
shown based on gender revealed that further research needed since factor such and
depression, stress and burnout play an important role in their working life. It is
very clear that, there is a significant effect of depression on sleeping disorder
among the working adults; there is a significant effect of stress on sleeping
disorder among the working 56 adults; and there is a significant effect of burnout
on sleeping disorder among the working adults. But there is no significant
differences on sleeping disorder based on gender among the working adults.
Lastly, based on the information and recommendations suggested, other researcher
can further investigate about one’s expectations by improving on certain aspects
such as on the limitations as pointed out by current research.
Few implications have been experienced in this study. This study emphasizes
the importance of working adults becoming conscious of sleeping disorders that
are influenced by depression, stress, and burnout. Hence, this research would
contribute to another literature to the existing studies. Thus, opportunities exist for
fellow scholars to examine different study on depression, stress and burnout and its
impact on sleeping disorder among the working adults. Findings of a number of
studies on this aspect says that stress has a great impact on the working adults and
thereby affects the level of productivity as indicated by (Panigrahi et al; 2017).
Therefore, further work could extend this effort and examine to reduce the stress
level in the organization as well as to improve their performance and find out
effective interventions in working adults in public, private and non-governmental
organizations.
There are numerous recommendations to better this examination. The
contributions in this study can lead to new lines of inquiry in the area of sleeping
disorders as well as mental health among the working adults. Whereas, if studying
the issue of partial sleep disorder in the future, a more comprehensive study should
be conducted using a longitudinal design as indicated by Krejcie and Morgan
(1970). The study should consist of a larger sample of participants over a longer
period of time. It would be to the advantage of the researcher to conduct the study
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for a minimum of three to four months for the data collection. This length of time
will allow for a more consistent analysis of sleep patterns. Qualitative research
may be used to gather data from potential researchers, such as findings, textual or
visual input from books or photographs, and interviews (individual or group).
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