Content uploaded by Nazim Nikiforov

Author content

All content in this area was uploaded by Nazim Nikiforov on Jul 06, 2021

Content may be subject to copyright.

A preview of the PDF is not available

Данное исследование посвящено определению концентраций
шестивалентного хрома (Cr6+) в реке Ишим в окрестностях города
Петропавловска, Казахстан. В течение 2020 года были отобраны пробы воды и
изучены на наличие концентраций шестивалентного хрома посредством
атомно-абсорбционной спектрометрии. Исследование показало, что
среднегодовая концентрация шестивалентного хрома в реке Ишим в
окрестностях города Петропавловска составила 21,5 мкг/л.

Content uploaded by Nazim Nikiforov

Author content

All content in this area was uploaded by Nazim Nikiforov on Jul 06, 2021

Content may be subject to copyright.

A preview of the PDF is not available

ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.

The goal of this paper is to investigate theoretically the possible directions of some specified methods for the alternative roundabouts effectiveness modeling and optimization. The out-coming criteria have an economical interpretation. Those are the objective functionals of the alternative roundabouts effectiveness as the profit gained in the course of the traffic flow changes in the view of the integral form. This is modeled taking into consideration the transport infrastructure functioning elements such as the traffic flow of a capacity model. It takes into account two major components of the transportation services which are the alternative roundabouts business’ incomes and expenses relating to the roundabouts transportation worthiness support. The prototypic approach is that one from the aircraft airworthiness support measures models. Corresponding managerial influences with respect to environmental, safety, utility, and other issues, as well as probable impacts, are modeled with the construction of the relevant under-integral expressions, equations, and appropriate coefficients and parameters of the mathematical models. The achieved theoretical results, on the basis of the Euler-Lagrange equation and accepted assumptions, have been checked for the sufficiency of the objective functional maximum presence at the “point” with the use of the conducted computer simulation. The necessary diagrams are plotted in order to illustrate the theoretical contemplations and speculations, as well as to check the correctness of the applied mathematical derivations and visualize the models’ preciseness and abilities. The theoretically constructed mathematical models have a significance of the prognostic values applicability required at the alternative roundabouts effectiveness modeling and optimization ensuring their design progress and evolutions.

The paper considers theoretical explanation and construction of some mathematical models of a transportation mean operational process in reference to maintenance optimal periodicity. The important finding is that the objectively existing engineering transportation means maintenance optimal periodicity is determined in the different from the probabilistic methods way. There is a scientifically proven explanation for the mentioned above periodicity optimization with the help of the specially introduced hybrid-optional effectiveness functions distribution. The developed doctrine uses the entropy paradigm conditional extremization approach. This contribution allows obtaining the wanted optimal periodicities sidestepping the related states probabilities determination and their further extremization. The essential breakthrough of the developed doctrine is that the optional objective effectiveness functions, in such a case, are the corresponding combinations of the intensities of the studied system’s possible transitions from state to state, which relates with the set of the considered operational options. Corresponding limit solutions for the zero-to-zero ratio indeterminate forms are analyzed. Theoretical speculations are illustrated with the example calculation experiments. The necessary diagrams are plotted.

Context. The problem of the determination of the optimal value of the augmentation coefficient of a proportional governor includedinto an inertness-less linear object control system on the basis of a synthesized model is solved. The object of the presented study is theoptimal control process.Objective. The goal of the work is a creation of a method for a problematic situation of the optimum definition, evaluation, anddetermination solving at the control system.Method. A rough model of the phenomenon, and simplified dependence of optimal controlling trajectory upon the cost, of control inan inertness-less linear controlling system equipped with a proportional governor are proposed. The accuracy of the behavior of theinvestigated linear object of control has been chosen in the given consideration as an initial target value which needs to be minimized. The method of the model building with regards to an expenditures principle is offered. It provides taking into account the cost of controllingprocess. It allows finding the optimal controlling value on the multi-optional basis. There applied a certain analogue to the subjectiveentropy maximum principle of the subjective analysis in order to obtain a specific optimal distributions for the objective value in the viewof the composed functional. The method of the uncertainty degree of the options extremization is improved by a continuous optional valueintroduction that allows forming the value distribution density. The optional synthesized model of the control process is built.Results. The developed theoretical models allow obtaining, and have been implemented in, finding the hybrid optional density as anoptimal solution of a variational problem with two independent variables, which maximal value is the sought optimal controlling pathdelivering minimum to the integrated expenses pertaining with the process.Conclusions. The numerical experiments on the proposed methods studying in the problem of optimization are conducted. Thediscovered dependencies are substantiated as a result of these experiments. Their use in practice makes it possible, and is recommended, to carryout optimal control in the described systems. The prospects for further research may include creations of models for the optimal control trajectories findings on conditions involving rates of the considered values varying and in probabilistic, stochastic, undeterminedproblem settings.

The goal of this paper is to investigate the possible directions of some specified methods for aeronautical and aerospace material and structure effectiveness modeling and optimization. Multioptionality hybrid function uncertainty conditional optimization doctrine application is supposed to be implemented for a degrading failure problem optimal solution determination. The optimal solution is assumed to deliver the maximum value to the probability of damage but not the failure state of the studied material behavior. The principal supposition is that there should be some certain objectively existing value extremized in the conditions of the hybrid optional function uncertainty. There is a scientific proof for the choice of a good maintenance optimal periodicity method that fits the customer’s needs, taking into account the effectiveness functions pertaining to the options. The described doctrine allows obtaining the objectively existing optimal values not with the help of a probabilistic but rather with a multioptimal concept. The subjective entropy maximum principle is the other paradigm concept involved in the considered problem solution, which is an equivalent for the uncertainty conditional optimization at the optimal hybrid function distribution determination. By applying simplified, however possible, models and expressions for effectiveness, plausible results are obtained and illustrated in diagrams visualizing the situation and allowing for the selection of a good choice. The ideas of the required material method choice optimization with respect to only two simple parameters, nevertheless, develop numerous particular combinations. Moreover, an increase in the number of parameters and further complication of the problem setting will not change the principle of the problem solution.

Increased traffic volumes worldwide are con- tributing to amphibian declines, and measures to reduce the occurrence of road kills are needed. One possible measure is the construction of underpasses through which animals can pass under roads, but little is known about whether amphibians will choose tunnels if given a choice or about their preferences for different tunnel types. We tested the preferences of three anuran species for two kinds of concrete amphibian tunnels currently used in France. One was a tunnel lined with soil, the other a bare concrete pipe. The animals could use the tunnels or bypass them over a grassy area. Water frogs Rana esculenta and common toads Bufo bufo showed a preference for the tunnels, whereas agile frogs Rana dalmatina avoided them. Among the individuals that chose either of the tunnels, all species showed a signifi- cant preference for the tunnel lined with soil. These results indicate that species differ in their preferences and in their likelihood of using underpasses when given a choice. This highlights the fact that there is no unique solution to the problem, and underpasses are only one of the possible mitigation measures that need to be assessed.

It is made an attempt to evaluate the operational applicability expedience in case of three discrete alternatives, types of aircraft: traditional aircraft, unmanned air vehicle with avgas and electric motion propulsion having one common continuous alternative. With the use of the subjective entropy maximum principle, proposed by Professor V.A. Kasianov (National Aviation University, Kyiv, Ukraine) it is obtained the common continuous alternative preferences distribution density which together with the preferences distribution for the discrete alternatives allows making the optimal choice of the available aircraft type. Theoretical speculations are illustrated with the example calculation experiments. The necessary diagrams are plotted.

Highways and railways are sources of road mortality that threaten wildlife populations. They also have the potential to undermine ecological processes through the fragmentation of wildlife populations, restriction of wildlife movements, and the disruption of gene flow and metapopulation dynamics. A variety of techniques have been used to mitigate the impacts of transportation systems on wildlife movements. Factors influencing the effectiveness of these structures include: placement, size, openness, light, moisture, hydrology, temperature, noise, human disturbance, substrates, and the nature of the approaches and fencing systems. Important issues and challenges include: 1) fostering greater appreciation of the problems caused by highways and railways, 2) conducting landscape analyses to identify "connectivity zones", 3) enlisting transportation engineers to help solve technical problems, 4) monitoring of mitigation techniques, and 5) information sharing. In particular it is important not just to monitor wildlife use of crossing structures but also to develop and implement monitoring techniques that are sufficient for evaluating mitigation success. Impacts of Highways and Railways on Wildlife As long linear features on the landscape, railways, roads and highways have impacts on wildlife and wildlife habitat that are disproportionate to the area of land that they occupy. These elements of transportation infrastructure impact wildlife in a variety of ways. 1. Direct loss of habitat. 2. Degradation of habitat quality. Storm water discharges, air emissions and exotic plants can degrade habitats ranging up to several hundred feet from railways and highways. 3. Habitat fragmentation. Railways and highways dissect contiguous habitat patches resulting in smaller patch sizes and higher edge to interior ratios. 4. Road avoidance. Some wildlife species avoid areas adjacent to highways due to noise and human activity associated with roads. 5. Increased human exploitation. Roads and highways increase human access for hunting and poaching. This may reduce wildlife populations in areas adjacent to roads and highways and contributes to road avoidance. 6. Road mortality leading to loss of populations. 7. Reduced access to vital habitats. Railways and highways reduce access to vital habitats for a variety of wildlife species. Examples include: • Summer and winter ranges for ungulates • Access to mineral licks • Amphibian wetland breeding sites • Upland nesting habitat for turtles • Snake hibernacula 8. Population fragmentation. Railways and highways create barriers to movement that subdivide animal populations. Smaller populations are more vulnerable to genetic changes due to genetic drift and inbreeding depression, and extinction due to chance events. 9. Disruption of processes that maintain regional populations. Based on metapopulation theory, regional populations may persist in the face of local extinctions because the movement of individual animals among populations: a) supplement declining populations, b) maintain gene exchange, and c) re-colonize habitats after local population extinctions. By disrupting animal movements among populations, railways and highways undermine these processes that are vital for the long-term viability of regional wildlife populations. For additional summaries of highway and railway effects on wildlife, including effects of habitat fragmentation, see Andrews (1990), Bennett (1991), and De Santo and Smith (1993).