ArticlePDF Available

Assessment of training needs of poultry farmers in Zaria local government area of Kaduna State, Nigeria

Authors:

Abstract and Figures

This study assessed the training needs of poultry farmers in Zaria Local Government Area of Kaduna State, Nigeria. The study specifically described the socioeconomic characteristics of poultry farmers, identified the training needs by poultry farmers, identified the institutional support enjoyed by poultry farmers, and identified farmers' constraints to poultry production. One-hundred and fifty (150) poultry farmers were used as sample for this study. Interview schedule was used to collect relevant data. Descriptive statistics was used to analyze the data collected. Result obtained shows that farmer have high level of education. Also, proper record keeping was the major training need by poultry farmers while new agricultural technology ranked as the major institutional support enjoyed by the farmers. High cost of input was the major constraints to poultry production in the study area. This paper concluded that poultry farmers need training on adequate record keeping. It recommended agricultural institutions such as government, private organizations and NGOs should support farmers through intensive training and retraining especially on identified areas of needs in order to increase their productivity.
Content may be subject to copyright.
1
ADAN J. Agric. 2021, 2 (1): 1-12
© Association of Deans of Agriculture in Nigeria Universities (ADAN)
ISSN 2736-0385
Assessment of training needs of poultry farmers in Zaria local
government area of Kaduna State, Nigeria
1Issa, F. O., 1Kagbu, J. H., 1Mani, J. R. and 2Maccido, M. A.
1National Agricultural Extension and Research Liaison Services, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria
2Department of Vocational and Technical Education, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria
Corresponding: issafola@gmail.com Phone Number: +2348033339312
Abstract
This study assessed the training needs of poultry farmers in Zaria Local Government Area of Kaduna State,
Nigeria. The study specifically described the socio-economic characteristics of poultry farmers, identified the
training needs by poultry farmers, identified the institutional support enjoyed by poultry farmers, and identified
farmers’ constraints to poultry production. One-hundred and fifty (150) poultry farmers were used as sample for
this study. Interview schedule was used to collect relevant data. Descriptive statistics was used to analyze the
data collected. Result obtained shows that farmer have high level of education. Also, proper record keeping was
the major training need by poultry farmers while new agricultural technology ranked as the major institutional
support enjoyed by the farmers. High cost of input was the major constraints to poultry production in the study
area. This paper concluded that poultry farmers need training on adequate record keeping. It recommended
agricultural institutions such as government, private organizations and NGOs should support farmers through
intensive training and re-training especially on identified areas of needs in order to increase their productivity.
Keywords: Training needs, poultry production, training, improved poultry production technology
Introduction
Nigeria‟s livestock profile from World
Bank (2017) revealed that, the livestock sub-
sector has been growing at a rate of 12.7%,
higher than agricultural growth rate of 6.8%
annually. The subsector is vital to the socio-
economic development and key for nutritional
security, providing 36.5 percent of the proteins
consumed by the populace in Nigeria. Majority
of Nigerian livestock owners are the rural
poor, and a significant proportion of the urban
poor as well, and evidence indicate that
livestock development would positively
contribute to poverty alleviation. Despite the
large herd size, apart from eggs, livestock
subsector‟s production does not meet the
current need (Emokaro and Eweka, 2015). The
difference between domestic demand and
supply is projected to widen in future (World
Bank, 2017). Nigeria currently imports more
than 70% of its poultry and 25% of its beef
requirement to meet its domestic demand. The
Northern region has the largest population of
livestock in the country, about 90% of the
country‟s cattle population and 70% of
country‟s the sheep and goat population
(World Bank, 2017). On the other hand,
poultry is distributed across Nigeria with
greater concentration in the southwest and
southeast Nigeria. FMARD (2017) estimated
the number of poultry in Nigeria at 180
million. While the large commercial holdings
are expanding, it is predicted an exponential
rise in demand for poultry meat (FAO, 2019).
The national demand is of around
1.5 million tonnes of poultry meat and
4 million tonnes of eggs per year (FAO, 2019).
Poultry is reared in Nigeria for economic
2
and social purpose (Eze and Adeyemi, 2012;
Iwena, 2012). The production of egg and
chicken bird occupies a prime position for
improving animal protein consumption of both
rural and urban households which are carried
out by person refers to as poultry farmers. The
poultry section of livestock subsector is
important and rapidly growing as one of the
most commercialized agricultural industry in
Nigeria due to its ability to retain its value
chain and high investment returns (Abubakar
and Ibrahim, 2019).
Poultry farmers require training to improve
their productivity to be able to carry out their
business. According to Dhaka et al. (2017)
training referred to as the acquisition of skills
by a person to gain expertise to be able to
perform on act expertly. Training is the
process of acquiring specific skills to perform
a job better (Issa et al., 2011). In business
dictionary, training is referred to an ability and
capacity obtained through deliberate systemic
and sustained effort to smoothly and
adaptively carryout complex activities or job
function involving ideas (cognitive training)
things, (technical training) and / or people
(interpersonal). Ajayi (2015) defined training
as the abilities to carry out a task with pre-
determined result often within a given amount
of time energy or both. A person who has more
training must behave differently from a person
who has less of it or does not have it at all.
Knowledge is essential for proper utilization of
genetic stock, available resources, economic
information and scientific poultry husbandry
practices by the farmers to develop their
business successfully and is ultimately linked
with the increased socio-economic status
(Sharma, 2010). In relevance to this study,
training are those abilities required to carry out
a task by a poultry farmer to succeed
economically especially in the phase of rising
demand for poultry products. Thus, this study
assessed the training needs of poultry farmers
in Zaria Local Government of Kaduna state,
Nigeria.
Training Needs of Poultry Farmers
Owona et al. (2010) defined training needs
as skill, knowledge and attitude an individual
requires in order to overcome problems as well
as to avoid creating problem situation. This
definition indicates that training is an essential
resource, which will direct knowledge and skill
towards enhanced production (Adesoji et al.,
2006). Identifying training needs often remains
the responsibility of outside training operators.
It is therefore, characterized by their analysis
of the situation (often external) and by the
objectives that they are pursuing (often
sectorial, almost always determined by their
institutional requirements or personal
ambitions).
Training is very important for any business
or enterprises to be successful in achieving
desired goal (Okwoche et al., 2015). Soyemi
(2014) speculated that poultry farmers who
lack training may not be useful to himself and
society. Sonaiya (2011) expressed the need for
proper training on management skills and
marketing strategies while planning poultry
establishment. Newman (2011) emphasized
that the main objective of training farmers is to
maximize the annual net income sustained
over a long time, and enhanced turnover/
return on investment which facilitates
improvement in the standard of living of the
farmers.
Training enables farmers to achieve their
objectives in relation to his farm and family in
a more organize manner. Also, training enables
a careful examination of the existing resources
and their best allocation; enhances farmers‟
decision-making ability; enhances farmers‟
identification of input and credit needs, as well
as estimating future cost and returns.
Sharma (2010) and Sonaiya (2011)
identified four (4) different parts of training
needs in poultry production. They are
planning, management, health, marketing and
ADAN J. Agric. 2021, 2 (1)
3
processing for the production to be effective.
Planning training needs by poultry farmers:
Corral and Reardon (2010) defined planning as
a deliberate attempt by an individual to arrange
and document activities in order, before
implementing them. The farmer considers
certain factors such as farmland and its
topography, the animal to be reared, available
resources and facilities, and marketing demand
for the livestock to be produced in his
planning. According to Newman (2011),
planning should include decision to go into the
business, analysis of strength and weakness in
relation to the business, selection of product/
services, assessment of potential market share,
business selection, preparation of financial,
production, and marketing plans. In the
opinion of Nworgu (2006) asserted that farm
business financial success usually begins with
the business planning.
Management training needs by poultry
farmers: Nworgu (2006) stated that
management in poultry production usually
refers to the husbandry practice or production
techniques that help to maximize the efficiency
of production. Management practice(s) are
very essential to optimize production. Sharma
(2010), in his contribution, stated the basic
management practice in deep litter system
should include provision of sufficient
ventilation for birds, provision of good litter
materials, keeping appropriate population
while keeping the litters dry all the time.
Health maintenance training needs by poultry
farmers: Boice (2005) viewed health in
poultry production as presented with the
following rules: provide a balance diet and
make sure the feed is free from molds and
chemical contaminant (that is pickle grain),
keep the litter dry. Coccidiosis (an intestinal
infection) and worms become a problem with
wet litter; provide comfortable environment
(temperature between 10 and 32 degree
Celsius), clean out feeder and drinker
regularly. Health maintenance and adequate
sanitary measure can help in preventing
diseases. The author further stated that sick
birds can show one or a combination of the
following symptoms: off-feed; general
inactivity; drop in egg production; diarrhea;
loss of condition; nassal/oculars and/or oral
discharge; sudden death. Dhaka et al. (2017)
emphasized quarantine, hygiene and use of
preventive vaccination/medication programs
including use of suitable monitoring program
as important steps on health maintenance skill
in poultry production.
Marketing training need by poultry farmers:
Chicken birds are reared and sold in market
when mature. Marketing can be viewed as an
event usually held at regular intervals, at which
people meet for the purpose of buying and
selling merchandise. Sharma (2010),
marketing involves activities associated with
the flow of goods and services from the
producer (production) to the consumers.
Marketing of poultry product as stated by
Iwena (2012) requires specialized skills and
professional handling of products to maintain
quality for foreign trade.
The demand for poultry product has
increased in Zaria Local Government area of
Kaduna state as a result of growing population,
socialization, alteration in consumption pattern
and value preference. Therefore, the present
supply of poultry (meat and egg) could not
meet the demand of the people. This situation
has led to scarcity of the poultry product in
Zaria Local Government area of Kaduna State,
while the limited qualities available now
become very expensive and not affordable by
low-income Earners. This situation calls for
concerted effort to increase poultry production.
It is not clear if poultry farmers have the
required training to engender efficiency in
production. The Researchers therefore,
Issa, F. O., Kagbu, J. H., Mani, J. R. and Maccido, M. A.
4
believed that if poultry farmers are properly
trained on needs in specific areas of
preference, productivity will be enhanced to
provide sustainable livelihood and contribute
meaningfully to economic growth. To our
knowledge, no study has investigated the
training needs of poultry farmers in Zaria
Local Government Area of Kaduna State,
Nigeria. This underscores the need for this
research.
Objectives of the Study
The main objective of the study was to
assess the training needs of poultry Farmers in
Zaria Local Government area of Kaduna state,
Nigeria. The specific objectives were to:
i. describe the socio-economic
characteristics of the poultry farmers;
ii. identify the training needs by poultry
farmers;
iii. identify the institutional supports enjoyed
by poultry farmers, and
iv. identify the constraints to poultry
production.
Methodology
The study made use of descriptive survey
research design. The research work was
conducted in Zaria Local Government area of
Kaduna state. The population of Kaduna was
at 760,084 as of the 2006 Nigerian Census.
Rapid urbanization over the past decade has
created an increasingly large population, now
estimated to be around 1.3million. Zaria is a
major city in Kaduna State in northern Nigeria,
as well as being a Local Government Area.
Formerly known as Zazzau, it was one of the
original seven Hausa city-states. Zaria‟s
economy is known for cultivation of staple
food such as guinea corn and millet etc. Cash
crops grown include cotton, groundnuts and
tobacco.
The population of the study was 155
poultry farmers. This list was generated
through a reconnaissance survey conducted to
determine the sample frame. Total sampling
was used. However, only 150 farmers could be
reached for data collection. Data was collected
using validated interview schedule
administered to farmers who were visited in
their homes/farms. Descriptive statistics was
used to analyze data collected for this study.
To measure the training needs of poultry
farmers, nine (9) training needs were listed on
a 4-point Likert-type scale of „not required‟,
„somehow required‟, „required‟, and „highly
required‟ and assigned weight of 1, 2, 3 and 4
respectively. The weighted sum for each
source was obtained by multiplying the point
scale by the number of respondents in each
point scale. Further, the weighted mean score
was obtained by dividing the weighted sum
(for each source) by the total number of
respondents. Any source with a mean score of
equal or above the cut-off mean of 2.5 was
regarded as required and any mean of lower
than 2.5 was regarded as not required.
To measure the institutional supports
enjoyed by poultry farmers, thirteen (13)
supports were listed on a 4-point Likert-type
scale of „not enjoyed‟, „somehow enjoyed‟,
„enjoyed‟, and „much enjoyed‟ and assigned
weight value of 1, 2, 3, and 4 respectively. The
weighted sum for each support was obtained
by multiplying the point scale by the number
of respondents in each point scale. Thereafter,
the weighted mean score was obtained by
dividing the weighted sum (for each support)
by the total number of respondents. Any
support with a mean score of equal or above
the cut-off mean of 2.5 was regarded as
enjoyed while any mean of lower than 2.5 was
perceived as not enjoyed.
In the same vein, eleven (11) constraints
were listed to measure the seriousness of the
constraints to poultry production by poultry
farmers. The constraints were listed on a 4-
point Likert-type scale of „not serious‟,
„somehow serious‟, „serious‟, and „very
serious‟, and assigned weight value of 1, 2, 3,
ADAN J. Agric. 2021, 2 (1)
5
and 4, respectively. The weighted sum for each
constraint was obtained by multiplying the
point scale by the number of respondents in
each point scale. Thereafter, the weighted
mean score was obtained by dividing the
weighted sum (for each constraint) by the total
number of respondents. Any constraint with a
mean score of equal or above the cut-off mean
of 3.0 was regarded as major while any mean
of lower than 3.0 was regarded as minor.
Results and Discussion
Socio-Economic Characteristics of the
Respondents
Table 1 shows that the mean age of poultry
farmers was 48 years. This implies that the
younger ones were less involved in village
poultry production, a characteristic feature of
the nonchalant attitude of youth especially in
developing countries. However, there could be
some other inherent factors (such as
inadequate skill) debarring them from taking to
poultry production as a business. This usually
leads to underutilization of resources and
hence poverty and poor livelihood in rural
Africa. Evidence from a study conducted by
Suleiman at al. (2017) showed that about
53.3% of poultry farmer in Lagos State,
Nigeria were above 50 years of age.
Results in Table 1 also show that 72.0% of
the respondents were female while 28.0% were
male. This indicate that poultry production is
dominated by female, which may be attributed
to the importance women attached to the
wellbeing of household and need for income
generating activities Soyemi (2014). Tsojon et
al. (2016) stated that the higher participation of
female in poultry production could be
attributed to factors such as lack of time by
men. Emokaro and Eweka (2015), however,
found that poultry farming is dominated by
males in Edo State, Nigeria.
Half (50.0%) of the respondents had
tertiary education. This implies that majority of
poultry farmers were educated. The high
percentage of respondents with formal
education may be due to the location of the
study area in which educational facilities are
easily accessible. Suleiman et al (2017) found
similar result. Saleh (2017), who found similar
result, reported that educated farmers are more
innovative and knowledgeable; therefore,
education is expected to have positive
association with training needs. Babatunde and
Qaim (2010) stated that education is an
important factor in assessment training needs
by poultry farmers. Exposure to formal
education can be regard as vehicle for
increasing knowledge about new farming
ideas, that is, farmers with some forms of
education would know better how to seek
information on improved systems of poultry
production. However, Elum, Etowa and Chujor
(2017) lamented high level of illiteracy among
livestock farmers in Rivers State, Nigeria.
Also, the majority (78%) were married
while only 22% are single. This implies that
poultry production is dominated by married
farmers especially women. This finding is in
line with the study by Suleiman et al (2017)
that the majority of poultry farmers in Kaduna
State were married.
Furthermore, 64% of poultry producers
reared boilers while only (22%) reared layers.
This implies that most of the respondent are
good in boiler production while very few are
into other breeds. This might be due to
preference for meat, yet it could be due to the
low capital required for establishment as cost
of cages (which is important for egg
production) can be avoided. In line with this
finding, Sonaiya (2011) reported that meat
production is the major purpose of poultry
farmers.
Issa, F. O., Kagbu, J. H., Mani, J. R. and Maccido, M. A.
6
Table 1: Distribution of poultry farmers’ socio-economic characteristics
Variables
Frequency
%
Mean
Age (years)
48
26-35
21
14.0
36-45
33
22.0
Above 45
96
64.0
Sex
Male
42
28.0
Female
108
72.0
Educational qualification
Tertiary education
75
50.0
Secondary education
33
22.0
Primary education
27
18.0
Qur'anic education
15
10.0
Marital status
Married
117
78.0
Single
33
22.0
Breed type
Boilers
96
64.0
Layers
33
24.0
Others
21
14.0
Annual Income ()
101,000
100,000- 150,000
33
46.0
50,000 - 100,000.
96
34.0
150,000 and above
21
19.0
Farming Experience (years)
1-10
33
22.0
11-20
96
64.0
Above 20
21
14.0
Household size
8
1-5
51
34.0
6-10
81
54.0
Above 10
18
12.0
Extension visit
Once in 2 weeks
13
8.7
Once in a month
44
29.3
Occasionally
21
14.0
Never
72
48.0
Source: Field Survey, 2019
Moreover, 46% of the poultry farmers earn
₦100,000 - ₦150, 000, while only 19% of the
them earn above ₦150,000. This indicate that
poultry production was dominated by middle
income earners. This may be due to the type of
breed reared and high cost of production that is
involves in poultry production. According to
Sonaiya (2011), poultry keeping is an
important source of income. The income from
the production may seem small, but can be
important for the household as they often can
decide upon the use of the money generate.
Also, the majority (64%) of the poultry
farmers had between 11-20 years‟ experience
in poultry rearing. While 14% had above 20
years of experience. This result implies that
ADAN J. Agric. 2021, 2 (1)
7
most of the poultry farmers had high
experience in poultry rearing. The farmers‟
years of poultry experience are expected to
serve as a guide to know the appropriate
training needs by poultry farmers in the study
area. Poultry production experiences may also
lead to increased production efficiency and
may likely result into better understanding of
poultry management.
The mean household size of the poultry
farmers was 8 persons. This implies that
poultry farmers have large household.
Olawepo (2010) opined that family size forms
the main source of labour supply. Farmers with
large family size will probably have less need
for hired labour.
Also, most (48%) of poultry farmers were
never visited by extension agents. Extension
Agent is very important to assist farmer meets
his/her occupational needs. They help in
creating awareness, highlight on the benefit of
improve technology and enlighten farmers on
the source of input for sustainable use of
technologies. Similar to this result, Olumide-
Oyaniyi and Ajayi (2019) found that none
(100%) of the broiler chicken farmers in Osun
State ever had contact with extension agent,
while Saleh (2017) found low extension
contact among farmers in Northern Nigeria.
Training Needs of Poultry Farmers
Results in Table 2 revealed the poultry
farmers‟ training needs in poultry farming
business in the study area. Major areas of
training needs identified by the farmers were
proper record keeping ( =3.04), appropriate
stocking density ( =3.01), appropriate
application of vaccine ( =3.01), and produce
marketing ( =2.92). The weighted mean of
3.04 obtained indicates that poultry farmers
lack good knowledge and skill to properly
keep record. This could be due to the
technicalities involved in designing different
records such as production, feed, sales and
input records. However, it could also be due to
lackadaisical attitudes of the farmers.
Olumide-Oyaniyi and Ajayi (2019) also found
that broiler chicken farmers highly need
training in poultry management. Ajayi (2015),
described record keeping as the process of
obtaining control over the use of money, goods
and services throughout the production
process.
Appropriate stocking rate and appropriate
application of vaccine/medication to birds was
ranked as the second and third major training
needs by poultry farmers. The mean of 3.01
obtained indicates that poultry farmers
required training on both stocking rate and
application of vaccine/ medication to the
poultry. No doubt, that application of vaccine
requires some level of professionalism which
requires some level of training for farmers to
be able to choose appropriate drug for specific
ailment and to apply it in the right dosage.
Inappropriate stocking rate can mar the poultry
business due to attendant consequences of over
or under-stocking. While over-stocking can
result in chocking, mortality and spread of
diseased as well as encourage vices such as
cannibalism; under-stocking results in waste of
resources with attendant consequence on
income generated. In line with Razzaq et al.
(2011), Dhaka et al. (2017), appropriate
stocking rate and appropriate application of
vaccine/medication are major management
issues that poultry farmers should have good
knowledge. In a similar vein, Okeoghene
(2013) found low competence in feed
formulation among poultry attendants in Delta
State, Nigeria, while Kaur et al. (2017) and
Kumari et al. (2015) found medium knowledge
about dairy farming among women dairy
farmers.
Issa, F. O., Kagbu, J. H., Mani, J. R. and Maccido, M. A.
8
Table 2: Distribution of Training Needs Required by Poultry Farmers
HR
R
SR
NR
Weighted
Sum
Weighted
Mean
Rank
75 (50)
60 (40)
15 (10)
0 (0)
510
3.04
1st
90 (60)
15 (10)
15 (10)
30 (20)
465
3.01
2nd
75 (50)
45 (30)
15 (10)
0 (0)
465
3.01
3rd
42 (28)
84 (56)
9 (6)
0 (0)
438
2.92
4th
30 (20)
75 (50)
30 (20)
15 (10)
420
2.08
5th
15 (10)
30 (20)
90 (60)
15 (10)
345
2.03
6th
25 (18)
36 (24)
42 (28)
45 (30)
345
2.03
7th
0 (0)
30 (20)
105 (70)
15 (10)
315
2.01
8th
9 (6)
39 (26)
12 (8)
90 (60)
267
1.78
9th
Source: Field Survey, 2019
Figures in parenthesis are percentages
NR=Not required, SR=Somehow required, R= required, HR=Highly required
Institutional Supports Enjoyed by Poultry
Farmers
Result in Table 3 revealed the institutional
support enjoyed by poultry farmers. The
overall mean of 1.63 obtained revealed that
poultry farmers do not enjoy institutional
supports as expected. Access to new
agricultural technology in poultry was the only
institutional support enjoyed (Mean=2.60).
This result could be due to the proximity of the
study area to the National Animal Production
Research Institute (NAPRI) in Shika which is
the only research institute with national
mandate for livestock (poultry inclusive).
Sonaiya (2011) opined that in order to improve
poultry production and rural livelihood, new
package of technology should be made
available to farmers through efficient training.
Ease (2007) found that the importance or
the services of financial institutions in support
of poultry farmers is not felt. This could be due
to lack awareness of such facilities by the
farmers or the high interest rate and/or
collateral required. According to Sharma
(2010), Prabakran (2007), institutional support
is any kind of help that farmer got from
different area or people to enhance the
productivity of the farm and these supports are
gotten by different agricultural agencies such
as agricultural bank, government, extension
workers, non-governmental organizations,
association of farmers, friend and family. Very
often, institutional support is a direct support
to the farmers‟ investment Iwena (2012).
Sharma (2010) stated that the Ministry of
Agriculture, Forestry and rural development as
a governmental body of Nigeria is responsible
for defining and implementing policy for
agriculture in the widest sense. Agricultural
bank and other banks provide acquisition
center for farmer and gives out loans and credit
to farmer (Soyemi, 2014). Olawepo (2010)
explained the central bank of Nigeria
collaborated with agricultural bank and others
to provide farmer with finance and other
services. Babatunde and Qaim (2010) state that
the function of agricultural bank the provision
of loans to individual farmers, cooperative
societies, limited liability companies, State and
Federal Government agencies; financing direct
investment in the equity capital of major
agricultural and agro-allied industrial ventures;
providing guarantees for viable agricultural
and agro-allied ventures to enable them raise
financing either locally or from abroad;
provision of finance for the marketing of
ADAN J. Agric. 2021, 2 (1)
9
produce for both the domestic and
international markets; financing of agro-allied
projects including tractor hiring operations and
agro-processing.
Furthermore, Eze and Adeyemi (2012)
explained that cooperatives society of farmer
and NGOs provide an institutional arm for
farmers to be organized and work as a unified
group. This entails sharing of common
resources, such as land, water, tillage and other
services. It also facilitates planning with
similar production to grow in order to benefit
from economies of scale through bulk inputs
purchase and group marketing. Agricultural
association of farmers and NGOs are essential
for farmers, as they serve to link them with
authorities (the Department of Agriculture, and
other stakeholders), resources, and
information, and provide them with the
capacity development needed to improve their
productivity (Sonaiya (2011). But in the view
of Adepoju and Ajetomobi (2011) farmer's
association and NGOs plays a vital role in
providing support for farmer such as provision
of free agricultural facilities, supply of capital
and loan for farmer, provision of feed to
farmer, creation of workshops and training,
organization of agricultural activities.
Table 3: Distribution of Institutional Supports Enjoyed by Poultry Farmers
Institutional support enjoyed by
poultry farmers
ME
E
SE
NE
Weighted
Score
Mean
Rank
Access to new agricultural technology
57 (38)
72 (48)
21 (14)
0 (0)
390
2.60
1st
Provision of feeds
60 (40)
45 (30)
105 (70)
9 (0)
285
1.90
2nd
Training
90 (60)
45 (30)
15 (10)
0 (0)
280
1.87
3rd
Provision of vaccine
45 (60)
45 (30)
15 (10)
0 (0)
273
1.82
4th
Market information
39 (30)
60 (40)
15 (10)
30 (30)
240
1.60
5th
Credit loan from family/friends
39 (26)
48 (32)
33 (22)
30 (20)
238
1.59
6th
Provision of advisory services
45 (26)
48 (32)
33 (22)
30 (20)
228
1.52
7th
Source of capital from leaders
30 (30)
30 (20)
60 (40)
15 (10)
226
1.51
8th
Provision of Start-up capital
30 (20)
45 (40)
30 (20)
45 (20)
225
1.50
9th
Administration of vaccine
30 (20)
45 (30)
30 (20)
45 (30)
219
1.46
10th
Input subsidy
12 (8)
36 (24)
15 (10)
87 (58)
193
1.29
11th
Provision of formal credit facilities
6 (4)
21 (14)
18 (12)
105 (70)
190
1.27
12th
Provision of power/energy
0 (0)
18 (12)
6 (4)
126 (84)
192
1.28
13th
Source: Field Survey, 2019
Figures in parenthesis are percentages
NE=Not enjoyed, SE=Somehow enjoyed, E=Enjoyed, ME=Much enjoyed
Overall Mean=1.63 (Decision: Not enjoyed)
Constraints to Poultry Production
Result in Table 4 revealed that the high
cost of inputs (Mean=3.42), inadequate credit
facilities (Mean=3.22) and poor power supply
(Mean=3.04) were the major constraints
encountered by the poultry farmers which
affects their productivity. Razzaq et al (2011),
Suliman et al. (2017) found high cost of inputs
as a major constraint of poultry farmers in
Faisalabad and Nigeria, respectively. This may
be one of the reasons majority of the poultry
farmers were producing at small scale level.
Newman (2011) opined that access to credit
gives famers a greater economic role in
decision making.
Inadequate credit facilities ranked as the
second most severe constraint encountered by
Issa, F. O., Kagbu, J. H., Mani, J. R. and Maccido, M. A.
10
the poultry farmers. The mean 3.22 indicate
that most of respondent are constrained by
inadequate credit facilities leading to poor
production, management and low income.
Ukudoh and Oluwafemi (2009), described
agricultural credit facilities as the process of
obtaining control over the use of money, goods
and services in the present in exchange for a
promise to repay at a future date.
Poor power supply ranked third amongst
the constraints to poultry production. This
result corroborates the findings by Sharma
(2010) who found inappropriate farm
technology, poor power and energy supply as
other major constraints.
Table 4: Distribution of Constraints to Poultry Production
Constraints to poultry production
VS
S
SS
NS
Weighted
Sum
Weighted
Mean
High cost of inputs
78 (52)
57 (38)
15 (10)
0 (0)
513
3.24
Inadequate credit facilities
72 (48)
45 (30)
27 (18)
6 (4)
483
3.22
Poor power supply
75 (50)
60 (40)
15 (10)
0 (0)
510
3.05
Inadequate extensions agent
60 (40)
75 (50)
15 (10)
0 (0)
525
3.04
Poor skills in crossbreeding
90 (40)
15 (50)
15 (10)
30 (20)
345
3.01
Prevalence of parasites
12 (8)
30 (20)
33 (38)
30 (34)
366
2.44
High cost of transportation due to bad
roads
9 (6)
60 (40)
21 (14)
60 (40)
318
2.12
Poor brooding facilities and skill
30 (20)
60 (40)
30 (20)
30 (20)
390
2.06
Inadequate farm technology
27 (18)
30 (20)
18 (12)
75 (50)
309
2.06
Scarcity of input
12 (8)
36 (24)
15 (10)
87 (58)
267
1.78
Adulteration of agrochemical
6 (4)
21 (14)
18 (12)
105 (70)
228
1.52
Source: Field Survey, 2019
Figures in parenthesis are percentages
NS=Not serious, SS=Somehow serious, S= serious, VS=Very serious
Conclusion and Recommendations
Poultry farmers in the study area lacks
adequate training required to ensure efficient
and profitable poultry business. Also, the level
of institutional support for poultry business is
low. Hence, efficient poultry production is
unrealistic due to myriads of constraints.
Due to these conclusions, this study strongly
recommends the following:
i. Extension efforts should be geared
towards encouraging farmers to sponsor
training workshops and seminars by
inviting resource persons to address their
areas of poultry production training
needs.
ii. Programs such as e-wallet whereby
mobile phone is used to make up for the
shortage of workforce in the extension
service delivery should be re-introduced
to ensure adequate supply of inputs to
poultry farmers.
References
Abubakar, I. F. and Ibrahim, U. B. (2019). A
macroeconomic analysis of
agricultural sector in Nigeria.
Advanced Journal of Social Sciences,
5(1), 18-25.
Ajayi A.O. (2015). Identification of training
needs of women farmers in Oyo State.
Unpublished M.Sc Thesis. Department
of Agricultural Extension and Rural
Development, Obafemi Awolowo
University, Ile-Ife.
ADAN J. Agric. 2021, 2 (1)
11
Babatunde, R. O. and Qaim, M. (2010). Impact
of offfarm income on food security
and nutrition in Nigeria. Food Policy,
35(4): 303311.
Boice, A. (2005). Better Building Blocks.
Advancing Philanthropy, 50:1619
Corral, L. and Reardon, T. (2010). Rural non-
farm incomes in Nicaragua. World
Development, 29(3):427442.
Dhaka, B. L., Bairwa, R.K., Meena, N.L.,
Meena, G.S., Chayal, K. and Nagar,
B.L. (2017). Training needs
assessment of women farmers on
livestock production management in
Bundi District of Rajasthan, India. Int.
J. Curr. Microbiol. App. Sci, 6(6):
796-803
Elum, Z. A., Etowa, E. B. and Chujor S.
(2017). Profitability of goat marketing
in Port Harcourt metropolis, Rivers
state, Nigeria. International Journal of
Agriculture and Biosciences, 6(2): 85-
91.
Emokaro, C. O. and Eweka, K. I. (2015). A
Comparative Analysis of profitability
of broiler production systems in Urban
Areas of Edo State, Nigeria. J. Appl.
Sci. Environ. Manage. Dec., 19(4):
627-631.
Eze, S. O. and Adeyemi H. R. Y, (2012). Work
skill improvement needs in women
farming in bitter leaf production from
sustainable income in Abakaliki,
Nigeria. Int. J. Sci. Nat. 3(4): 810-814.
FAO (2019). The future of livestock in
Nigeria: Opportunities and challenges
in the face of uncertainty. Rome.
FMARD (2017). Animal population data.
Federal Ministry of Agriculture and
Rural Development, Abuja.
Issa, F. O., Ilu, I. Y. & Akolade, G. O. (2011).
Effects of training on adoption of
improved agricultural technologies by
crop farmers in Lagos State, Nigeria.
Nigerian Journal of Farm
Management,12(1): 62 67.
Iwena, A.O. (2012). Essential of agricultural
science for senior secondary schools.
Ibadan: University Press PLC.
Kaur, S., Verma, H.K., Singh, J., Dash, S. K.
and Kansal, S. K. (2017). Knowledge
level of women dairy farmers about
various farming practices in border
area of Punjab. Journal of Animal
Research: 7(6), 1051-1059.
Kumari, S., Sethi, N., Malik, J. S. and Yogi, V.
(2015). Need assessment of women
dairy farmers. Advances in Social
Research, 1(1): 35-42.
Newman, S (2011). Opening remarks at the
30th World Veterinary Congress
(WVC2011), Cape-Town International
Convention Centre (CTICC), South
Africa, October.
Nworgu, R. (2006). Statistics sector
development and implications for rural
poverty alleviation in India. Statistics
Res. Rural Develop.,19(2): 13-23.
Okeoghene, E. S. (2013). Competency level
and training needs of poultry (layers)
farm attendants in Delta State, Nigeria.
Journal of Natural Sciences Research,
3(14), 21-29.
Okudoh, M and Oluwafemi, R.A (2009).
Effects of village poultry production
on rural poverty alleviation in Okada
Town. Ovia Northeast of Edo State.
Unpublished BSc Project. 60pp.
Okwoche, V.A; Abu, O. and Hon, F.A (2015).
Analysis of training needs by livestock
farmers in Benue State, Nigeria.
European Journal of Research in
Social Sciences, 3(2), 55-60.
Olawepo, R. A. (2010). Determining rural
farmers‟ income: A rural Nigeria
experience. Journal of African Studies
and Development, 2(4): 99108.
Olumide-Oyaniyi, M. O. and Ajayi, A. O.
(2019). Determinants of training needs
of youths in broiler chicken production
Issa, F. O., Kagbu, J. H., Mani, J. R. and Maccido, M. A.
12
in Osun State, Nigeria and
implications for extension workers.
Journal of Agricultural Science,
2(xxx): 103116.
Owona N. P. A., Nyaka N. A., Ehabe E. E.,
Chambon-Poveda B. and Bruneau J.
(2010). Assessment of training needs
of rubber farmers in the South-west
region of Cameroon. African Journal
of Agricultural Research, 5(17), 2326-
2331
Prabakran, R.C. (2007). Good practice in
planning and management of
integrated commercial poultry.
Retrieved on 06/08/17 from
http://www.as.sedu.com/./poultry-
729aspx
Razzaq, A., Ali, T., Saghir, A., Arshad, S. and
Cheema, A. (2011). Training needs
assessment of poultry farmers in
Tehsil Faisalabad. The Journal of
Animal & Plant Sciences, 21(3): 629-
631.
Saleh, M. K. (2017). Socio-economic
characteristics of dairy cattle farmers
in Northern Nigeria. Proceedings of
the 22nd Annual Conference of the
Agricultural Extension Society of
Nigeria held in University of Port
Harcourt, River State, Nigeria between
23rd and 26th April. 266-276.
Sharma, B. (2010). Poultry production,
management and bio-security
measures. The J. Agric. Environmental
11: 120-125.
Sonaiya, N. (2011). Entrepreneurship
development of hill women through
dairy. Proceeding of International
Symposium on “Livestock production
systems for sustainable food security
and livelihoods in mountain areas”
organized by G.B. Pant University of
Agriculture & Technology, Pantnagar,
Dec. 30-31, Pantnagar, Uttarakhand,
Souvenir, pp: 100-120.
Soyemi, O. D. (2014). Women farmers‟
agricultural information need and
search behaviour in North Central
Nigeria. Information and Knowledge
Management, 4(8): 39-44.
Suleiman, R., Mahmud, A. M., Oladimeji,
Y.U., Olanrewaju, T.O. & Ojeleye, O.
A. (2017). Effects of socio-economic
characteristics on the profitability of
poultry production among poultry
farmers in Kaduna State. Proceedings
of the 22nd Annual Conference of the
Agricultural Extension Society of
Nigeria, held at University of Port
Harcourt, River State, Nigeria between
23rd and 26th April. Pp 185-195.
Tsojon, J. D., Ochu A. O. and Asogwa V. C.
(2016). Skills improvement needs of
lecturers in the utilization of selected
weather instruments for instructional
delivery in tertiary institutions in
North-East Nigeria. Merit Research
Journal of Education and Review,
4(6): 085-095.
World Bank (2017). Livestock productivity
and resilience support project
(P160865). Accessed from;
http://projects.worldbank.org/P160865
?lang=en
ADAN J. Agric. 2021, 2 (1)
... Training is a critical production performance enhancement tool [69]. Among the many benefits associated with training are that: it increases proficiency in basic farm functions [70]; it improves farm management skills [65]; and it informs better resource management and decision making [71]. It is therefore crucial for relevant stakeholders to collaborate on the planning and implementation of training interventions to assist local farmers in improving their SC production systems. ...
Article
Full-text available
Smallholder scavenging chicken farmers (SCFs) are constantly faced with the challenge of improving productivity. One profound challenge is that many SCFs lack comprehensive knowledge and the skills necessary for operating an efficient production system. This study evaluated the effectiveness of the training offered to SCFs in Raymond Mhlaba Local Municipality (RMLM) on the best approach to improve scavenging chicken production. The data obtained was analysed quantitatively to assess differences in the management practices of the trained farmers before training (BT) and after training (AT). A paired sample t-test and Wilcoxon signed-rank test were used to conduct the study’s analysis. The results showed that the average flock size of the birds significantly increased post-training. There was a significant increase in the farmers’ use of supplementary feeding, local feedstuffs, artificial brooding and care of chicks, amongst other practices. These results indicate a marked improvement in their management practices post-training. Therefore, building the capacities of SCFs through training significantly improves their knowledge and skillsets. Periodic training of SCFs is recommended to keep them abreast of evolving management practices in SC production, as continual improvement in related competencies is important for enhancing local and national economic development.
Article
Full-text available
Managing the health needs of livestock contributes to reducing poverty and improving the livelihoods of smallholder and pastoralist livestock keepers globally. Animal health practitioners, producers, policymakers, and researchers all must prioritize how to mobilize limited resources. This study employed three approaches to prioritize animal health needs in East and West Africa and South Asia to identify diseases and syndromes that impact livestock keepers. The approaches were a) systematic literature review, b) a series of expert workshops, and c) a practitioner survey of veterinarians and para-veterinary professionals. The top constraints that emerged from all three approaches include endo/ ectoparasites, foot and mouth disease, brucellosis, peste des petits ruminants, Newcastle disease, and avian influenza. Expert workshops additionally identified contagious caprine pleuropneumonia, contagious bovine pleuropneumonia, mastitis, and reproductive disorders as constraints not emphasized in the literature review. Practitioner survey results additionally identified nutrition as a constraint for smallholder dairy and pastoralist small ruminant production. Experts attending the workshops agreed most constraints can be managed using existing veterinary technologies and best husbandry practices, which supports a shift away from focusing on individual diseases and new technologies towards addressing systemic challenges that limit access to veterinary services and inputs. Few research studies focused on incidence/ prevalence of disease and impact, suggesting better incorporation of socio-economic impact measures in future research would better represent the interests of livestock keepers.
Article
Full-text available
Livestock farming is the most proficient occupation in India and women play a very significant role in livestock farming practices in the country. A study was conducted on 160 women dairy farmers of 4 border districts namely Gurdaspur, Amritsar, Taran-Taran and Ferozepur of Punjab to ascertain their knowledge level about various practices related to dairy farming. A pretested structured questionnaire comprising questions on management, nutrition, breeding, health etc. was developed and same was filled during the personal interview with women farmers. Data so collected was analyzed descriptively to draw inference. The data revealed that majority (68.75%) of women has medium knowledge level on various recommended dairy farming practices, 13.75 has low and only 17.5% has high (17.50%) knowledge level. Further this knowledge was significantly (P<0.01) correlated with the number of labor employed, milk production, herd size, and education level. Study concluded that there is an emerged need to educate women on scientific dairy farming practices.
Article
Full-text available
of Weather Instruments Questionnaire " (UWIQ). Five experts validated the instrument and was trial-tested. A Cronbach Alpha reliability coefficient of 0.83 was obtained indicating that instrument was reliable to elicit information for the work. Two hundred and nineteen copies of the questionnaire were administered to the respondents by six trained research assistants in the six States of NorthEast , Nigeria. The entire questionnaire was retrieved. The data collected were analyzed using weighted mean and improvement need index (INI) to answer the 4 research questions. It was found that all the 64 skill improvement needs identified in the utilization of weather instruments were needed by Lecturers
Article
Full-text available
This study investigated the cost implications of raising broilers under the battery cage and deep litter system of poultry production. The data used in the study were obtained from a cross-sectional survey of broiler farmers in Edo State from October– December, 2013. A multi-stage sampling process was used to select the 211 respondents for this study. The data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics and profitability ratios. The study showed that the mean age of farmers that adopted the battery cage system was 48 years and 46 years for the farmers that used deep litter system. The Gross Margin analysis gave a value of ₦2,422.24 and a Net Farm Income (NFI) of ₦2,412.40 per bird for battery cage system while the deep litter system had a gross margin of ₦1,601.77 and NFI of ₦1,593.80 per bird. The profitability ratios showed Rate of Return on Investment (RRI) of about 92%, Return on Labour (RL) of ₦18.03, Return on Feed (RF)of ₦144.22 and Return Per Naira Invested (RNI) of ₦0.91 for the battery cage system as against RRI (71%), RL ( ₦30.28), RF ( ₦117.95) and RNI ( ₦0.71) for the deep litter system. This shows that both systems were profitable and viable in the study area. It was therefore concluded that farmers should be enlightened on the relative profitability/viability of the battery cage system of broiler production over the deep litter system in the study area, as a guide to future investment in the enterprise.
Article
Full-text available
Agricultural policy changes in Cameroon had weakened technical and managerial capacities in rubber smallholdings. This study assessed the training needs of rubber farmers in the South-West region of Cameroon. A structured questionnaire was administrated to fifty respondents in Bombe-Bakundu and Mundame, two representative rubber-producing localities. The findings of the study revealed that the majority of rubber farmers had high training needs on production of planting materials (100%), tapping techniques (100%), accurate preparation of stimulant and its application (88%) and improved agricultural techniques (82%). The results showed a negative but significant relationship between the age, the level of education and socio-economic status with training needs expressed by the farmers. Relational analysis also revealed that membership to a rubber farmers' organization was found positive and significantly correlated with training needs.
Article
Full-text available
There are a lot of problems faced by poultry farmers regarding rearing, shed management, and disease management knowledge. Hence there is need to find out those areas of poultry faming in which poultry farmers needs to be educated. The study was conducted in tehsil Faisalabad, comprised of 4 towns named as Jinnah town, Madina town, Lyallpur town, and Iqbal town. There are 489 poultry farms in Faisalabad District. The owner of all such poultry farms comprised the population of the study. A simple random sample of 150 poultry farmers were selected. A validated interview schedule was prepared to collect information from the respondents. The data thus collected were analyzed. The top 9 training required areas of layer farming for establishing a poultry farm followed by treatment of CRD, maintaining distance of shed from residential area space for adult bird preparation of room before arrival of chicks, equipment cleaning treatment of food poisoning treatment of pullorum and preventive measure of pullorum. The top 9 training required areas of broiler farming are cleaning shed followed by preventive measures of coccidiosis symptoms of coccisdiosis symptoms of coryza treatment of coccidiosis treatment of coryza vaccination schedule of hydro pericardium preventive measures of gumboro and symptoms of new castle disease. Overwhelming majority agree on regular training of disease management. They also pointed out that Govt. should launch easy loaning scheme for them.
Article
Full-text available
This paper describes the earning activities of farmers in Afon district, a rural area in Kwara State, Nigeria with a view to assess factors determining rural farmers' income. 268 farmers were interviewed through questionnaire administration, and the results show that a large number of rural farmers depend on family labour, local inputs and personal instincts to earn productive incomes. The farmers' income in this study is used as a major tool for the isolation of basic factors that ought to be accorded priority in subsequent rural development policy. The findings also show that through the use of stepwise multiple regressions, four factors were found to be the main determinants of a farmer's income out of the twelve examined. These are x3(farm output/yield per ton), x4(cost of farm input and implements), x11(accessibility to credit facilities), and x8(transport cost). In all twelve cases examined four variables together account for about 84.09 % of the total variance in income of farmers within a given year. Appropriate policy recommendations are provided to improve farmers' income nation wide.
Article
While the poverty implications of off-farm income have been analyzed in different developing countries, much less is known about the impact of off-farm income on household food security and nutrition. Here, this research gap is addressed by using farm survey data from Nigeria. Econometric analyses are employed to examine the mechanisms through which off-farm income affects household calorie and micronutrient supply, dietary quality, and child anthropometry. We find that off-farm income has a positive net effect on food security and nutrition. The prevalence of child stunting, underweight, and wasting is lower in households with off-farm income than in households without. Using a structural model, we also show that off-farm income contributes to higher food production and farm income by easing capital constraints, thus improving household welfare in multiple ways.
Article
This paper examines nonfarm incomes of rural Nicaraguan households using a nationwide survey (LSMS) from 1998. The key findings are as follows. (a) Rural nonfarm income (RNFI) constitutes 41% of rural household incomes. (b) RNFI is much more important than farm wage-labor income. (c) RNFI tends to be relatively concentrated geographically and socioeconomically, toward the rural areas of the Managua zone and the Rest-of-Pacific zone, which are denser in infrastructure and population, and toward the upper income quartile of rural households. This concentration implies high entry barriers and capital requirements for rural nonfarm activity that the poor are simply not equipped to overcome. Equipping the rural poor through training and acquisition of diverse forms of capital to have a chance at the higher return nonfarm jobs would be a major step toward helping them to share the benefits of the rural nonfarm economy. (d) Self-employment (small enterprise) income in manufactures is very minor, probably due to the ease of obtaining manufactured goods from urban industries and imports. Wage employment constitutes the bulk of RNFI (despite it receiving little attention in development programs and debate). (e) Three-quarters of RNFI is in the service sector, and only one-quarter is from manufactures; that can be contrasted with the emphasis on small manufactures enterprises in rural development programs and research. (f) Education, road access, as well as access to electricity and water were found to be important to nonfarm incomes.
Profitability of goat marketing in Port Harcourt metropolis, Rivers state
  • Z A Elum
  • E B Etowa
  • S Chujor
Elum, Z. A., Etowa, E. B. and Chujor S. (2017). Profitability of goat marketing in Port Harcourt metropolis, Rivers state, Nigeria. International Journal of Agriculture and Biosciences, 6(2): 85-91.
Work skill improvement needs in women farming in bitter leaf production from sustainable income in Abakaliki
  • S O Eze
  • H R Adeyemi
Eze, S. O. and Adeyemi H. R. Y, (2012). Work skill improvement needs in women farming in bitter leaf production from sustainable income in Abakaliki, Nigeria. Int. J. Sci. Nat. 3(4): 810-814.