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Summary. Alien and UFO encounters (AUEs) have been a well-known part of human culture for centuries, but we are still unsure of their nature. Some studies suggest that in some such encounters, these phenomena could be related to dissociative REM sleep states, like lucid dreams (LDs), sleep paralysis (SP), and out-of-body experiences (OBEs). The present research focuses on the hypothesis that if some of AUEs are indeed the products of REM sleep, then they could be deliberately emulated by LD practitioners. Therefore, this experiment could help to explain the mystery of AUEs. To check our hypothesis, we implemented an online resource through which we instructed a group of 152 volunteers to try to emulate AUEs via LDs. The volunteers made these attempts at home, and their reports were verified and analyzed by the researchers. Of the volunteers, 114 (75%) were able to experience AUEs after one or more attempts. The results indicate that 61% of participants encountered alien-like creatures, 28% encountered UFOs, and 24% experienced fear or SP. Regarding the successful cases, 20% were close to reality in terms of the absence of paradoxical dreamlike events. AUEs can be emulated willfully and can be perceived as being very close to reality. In theory, random people might spontaneously encounter AUEs during REM sleep and confuse the events with reality. This study helps to explain at least some AUEs that arise at bedtime. This study can be used to examine—and even emulate—other paranormal, religious, or mystical encounters, thus helping us to understand our culture and the human brain better
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International Journal of Dream Research Volume XX, No. X (2021) 1
Emulating alien and UFO encounters in REM sleep
1. Introduction
There are around 1×1024 known stars in the universe (Ma-
rov, 2015), with 1.6 planets per star in our Milky Way galaxy
alone (Cassan et al., 2012). Based on these numbers, Ste-
phen Hawking suggested that it is impossible for extrater-
restrial life not to exist (1998). However, we have not found
any yet, which leads to so-called the Fermi paradox (Hart,
1975). People have believed in extraterrestrial civilizations
for centuries (de Fontenelle, 1990). Mass media and books
depict that aliens visit our planet on ying saucers or UFOs
and have been doing so for a long time (Richardson, 2001).
It is a popular belief that these aliens even sometimes con-
tact people and abduct victims for different purposes (Ap-
pelle, 1995). Claims of such cases became widespread in
the 1960s (Clark, 1997), but instances of these claims can
be found as far back as the late 19th century (Colvin, 2004).
Many famous people (including Elvis Presley, John Lennon,
Robbie Williams, and Mick Jagger) have declared experi-
encing this kind of contact with extraterrestrial beings (Pa-
checo, 2019). Despite the popularity of the alien abduction
phenomenon, there is no proper explanation for it, which
begs the question, ‘Is it a psychological phenomenon, ac-
tual cases, or both?’
Approximately half of the stories about alien and UFO
encounters (AUEs) involve sleep, dreams, relaxation, and
sleep paralysis (SP) (Bastereld, 2005; Stockton, 2018).
Therefore, almost all AUE studies suggest that this phenom-
enon could be closely correlated to SP, which occurs when
REM sleep atonia become present during wakefulness (Da-
roff, 1991). When SP occurs, unpleasant and incomprehen-
sible hallucinations often also occur. Therefore, people who
experience SP might seek out nonmedical explanations,
including those that tap into supernatural beliefs (Sharpless
and Doghramji, 2015; Terrillon & Marques-Bonham, 2001).
This explains why SP is related to a considerable fraction
of AUE reports. For example, Blackmore and Cox (2000)
surveyed 12 ‘alien abductees’ and found that they encoun-
tered SP more often than two control groups. Other studies
directly associate SP with AUEs, either using specic exam-
ples (McNally & Clancy, 2005; Siddiqui, Qureshi, & Ghamdi,
2018) or a general approach (Holden & French, 2002).
In this study, we consider SP as a part of the umbrella
term phase state (PS) or phase. The concept of PS also in-
cludes lucid dreams (LDs), out-of-body experiences, false
awakenings, and all other possible dissociative REM sleep
phenomena (Raduga, 2004). Mostly, PS studies have ex-
plored LDs (i.e., dreams in which one is aware of the sur-
rounding unreality of the situation and can inuence its plot)
(LaBerge, 1985). Although LDs can happen during non-REM
sleep (Dane & Van de Caslte, 1984; Mota-Rolim et al., 2015;
Stumbrys & Erlacher, 2012), the phenomenon takes place
during REM sleep much more often. LDs differ from normal
dreams due to higher activity in the prefrontal cortex with
a frequency of 40 Hz (Voss et al., 2009). Although the neu-
robiology underlying LDs still needs to be studied (Baird,
Mota-Rolim, & Dresler, 2019), some research shows its po-
tential practical applications (Mota-Rolim & Araujo, 2013) in
Emulating alien and UFO encounters
in REM sleep
Michael Raduga, Andrey Shashkov, & Zhanna Zhunusova
Phase Research Center, Moscow, Russian Federation
Corresponding address:
Michael Raduga, Phase Research Center. Moscow, Russian
Submitted for publication: February 2021
Accepted for publication: April 2021
published online: July 2, 2021
Summary. Alien and UFO encounters (AUEs) have been a well-known part of human culture for centuries, but we are
still unsure of their nature. Some studies suggest that in some such encounters, these phenomena could be related to
dissociative REM sleep states, like lucid dreams (LDs), sleep paralysis (SP), and out-of-body experiences (OBEs). The
present research focuses on the hypothesis that if some of AUEs are indeed the products of REM sleep, then they could
be deliberately emulated by LD practitioners. Therefore, this experiment could help to explain the mystery of AUEs. To
check our hypothesis, we implemented an online resource through which we instructed a group of 152 volunteers to try
to emulate AUEs via LDs. The volunteers made these attempts at home, and their reports were veried and analyzed by
the researchers. Of the volunteers, 114 (75%) were able to experience AUEs after one or more attempts. The results in-
dicate that 61% of participants encountered alien-like creatures, 28% encountered UFOs, and 24% experienced fear or
SP. Regarding the successful cases, 20% were close to reality in terms of the absence of paradoxical dreamlike events.
AUEs can be emulated willfully and can be perceived as being very close to reality. In theory, random people might spon-
taneously encounter AUEs during REM sleep and confuse the events with reality. This study helps to explain at least
some AUEs that arise at bedtime. This study can be used to examine—and even emulate—other paranormal, religious,
or mystical encounters, thus helping us to understand our culture and the human brain better.
Keywords: lucid dreams, out-of-body experiences, alien visitation, alien abductions, UFO, consciousness, REM sleep,
phase state.
Emulating alien and UFO encounters in REM sleep
International Journal of Dream Research Volume XX, No. X (2021)2
training motor skills (Schädlich, 2018; Stumbrys, Erlacher,
& Schredl, 2016), solving chronic pain (Zappaterra, Jim,
& Pangarkar, 2013), eliminating nightmares (Zadra & Phil,
1997), and problem solving (Stumbrys, Erlacher, Schmidt,
2011; Schmidt, Stumbrys & Erlacher, 2014).
A PS that begins immediately upon awakening or falling
asleep can easily be confused with out-of-body experienc-
es (Levitan et al., 1999; Mahowald & Schenck, 2005; Radu-
ga, 2014). The primary features of LDs, such as conscious-
ness and REM sleep, are similar not only to SP (Dresler et
al., 2012; Terzaghi et al., 2012; Voss et al., 2009) but also
out-of-body experiences (LaBerge et al., 1988; Nelson et
al., 2007) and false awakenings (Barrett, 1991). These states
are similar, and their appearance in people’s lives is highly
correlated. It has been reported that 88% of humans have
experienced at least one type of PS at least once, with 43%
of people experiencing PSs fairly often (Raduga, Kuyava, &
Sevcenko, 2020).
Gackenbach and LaBerge were the rst to point out a
possible correlation between LDs and AUEs (1988). This
idea was supported by Green (1990) and another of Gack-
enbach’s articles (1989). The AUE phenomenon is not only
familiar to PS practitioners in theory, but they even use the
alien abduction technique to induce PSs. This means that
many PS practitioners are fully aware of the correlation be-
tween AUEs and PSs, as they use ‘aliens’ for their goals. To
use this technique, one needs to imagine that ‘aliens’ hold
one’s legs and pull their body from their bed, which could
cause dissociation during subwaking states, especially
upon awakening (Raduga, 2014).
However, familiarity with AUEs among PS enthusiasts
does not explain how AUEs happen to the general popula-
tion. If people do not fabricate AUE stories, these experi-
ences could be very vivid in terms of perceptions because
people separate them from ordinary dreams and the imagi-
nation. This perception quality could be another sign of PS.
For example, in one study, 139 volunteers were asked to
induce PS and then imagine themselves being in the real
world. As a result, 13% achieved hyper-real sensations
that overcame their usual perceptions during wakefulness
(Raduga, Zhunusova & Shashkov, 2020). In another simi-
lar study, 14% of volunteers (N = 118) achieved the same
outcome by spinning while in a PS (Raduga, Shashkov &
Zhunusova, 2020).
Considering the above facts, at least some bedtime AUEs
could be a form of PS. Though previous articles have shown
this to be possible only in theory, this idea has been dem-
onstrated in an unpublished pilot study. In that study, 20
volunteers (70% males) with good sleep who were mostly
inexperienced with PSs were gathered in Los Angeles, CA,
for three consecutive days. They were instructed to enter a
PS and, if successful, to try to encounter aliens or UFOs.
During the next two weeks, seven volunteers were able
not only to induce PS but to achieve a total of 10 AUEs
(Raduga, 2011). However, this experiment included a small
sample and lacked detailed data. We decided to solve these
problems by repeating similar research on a larger scale.
The central hypothesis of our study was that AUEs could
be emulated through PSs (i.e., states of REM sleep with
consciousness), and those reports could be closer to real-
ity in terms of absence of paradoxical events besides AUE
itself. If this is true, such spontaneous experiences get more
chances to be confused with reality. We invited almost ten
times more volunteers than were included in the pilot study.
All of them were familiar with PSs, and they were given plen-
ty of time to accomplish the task.
As has been discussed, SP and the fear associated with
it are quite common in AUE reports of any kind. So, if AUE
is a product of mixing sleep stages with reality (and if it
could be reproduced by one’s will), we should often see SP
in successful reports. Therefore, our secondary hypothesis
was that SP would be mentioned in successful AUE reports
more often than in unsuccessful reports.
Possible PS and AUE correlations have been discussed
in previous scholarly articles, but these were based solely
on theoretical suggestions. The present research explores
a similar correlation using an experimental technique. Al-
though the goal of the study is to show a possible correla-
tion between AUEs and PS and not to derive any specic
gures, its results could provide useful knowledge about
AUE phenomenon in general, reviling its mechanisms. Also,
it will provide insights into PS nature. Furthermore, and
most importantly, it will help us to better understand human
culture, because AUE is frequent in numerous books, mov-
ies, and even in different religious cults.
2. Methods
2.1. Research resource
This study was conducted from February 2, 2019, to April
18, 2020, in the form of a eld experiment. The Project Eli-
jah website, which unites hundreds of PS practitioners from
around the world, was used as the primary tool for collect-
ing data. Project Elijah continually conducts various tests
related to PSs and reports the results, which promotes the
gathering of statistical data. This online resource became
available on November 29, 2018, and is available in Eng-
lish ( and Russian ( The present
study was conducted using the Russian version.
2.2. Volunteers
This study involved 152 volunteers, 41% of whom stated
that they had experienced 100 or more PSs in their lifes-
pan. After registering at Project Elijah, volunteers agreed to
provide their personal data, including their contact informa-
tion and photos. According to ethical and legal standards,
through an online form, all volunteers provided their con-
sent to take part in the studies and assume responsibility for
any adverse consequences resulting from completing the
assignments. Also, because PSs comprise a little-studied
area and because participants performed the tasks unsu-
pervised, all volunteers conrmed that they had no physi-
ological or psychological issues that could be affected by
PS. Also, practitioners under 18 years old were prohibited
from participating in the study. No material rewards were
provided to any volunteers. Since the study was accom-
plished by an independent research team which has no in-
stitutional review board and the study itself was a voluntary,
it has no ethical approval.
2.3. Experimental task
According to the task instructions, the volunteers had to
induce PS by any method of their choosing (1) and then
try to nd or summon aliens or UFOs (2). Regardless of
whether an AUE occurred, the volunteers had to memorize
all the events (3). After attempting to complete the task in at
International Journal of Dream Research Volume XX, No. X (2021) 3
Emulating alien and UFO encounters in REM sleep
least one PS, the volunteers had to report their experiences
(whether an AUE occurred or not) on the Project Elijah web-
site as soon as possible (4). Participants needed to describe
their experiences in detail, including the method of PS in-
duction, the task itself, and how the PS ended.
The volunteers could try the task one or more times and
were to provide a report only for the most signicant case.
They could attempt to perform the task anywhere from one
day to 14 months after the experiment began, depending on
their access, which was granted based on their completion
of previous experiments for the project.
After receiving the reports, the Project Elijah team checked
them for compliance with the instructions. If practitioners’
reports were accepted, they gained access to the subse-
quent studies. If reports were not accepted, volunteers were
asked to repeat the assignment or to clarify some details.
The volunteers did not have access to each other’s reports
because allowing such access could have affected the
quality of the results.
2.4. Statistical analysis
The narrative reports were digitalized, and these nal data
were analyzed by contingency tables and Chi-square tests
in JASP (Version 0.11.1). The analysis included all criteria
and their pairings: AUE general status, AUE detailed status,
fear and SP, paradoxical status (realness of the events), gen-
der, number of PS experiences, PS induction method, and
PS ending type. The level of signicance was set at alpha =
.05, and Bonferroni corrections were employed as post-hoc
tests. Where appropriate, non-applicable data (n/a) were
excluded from the tables during the analysis. Paradoxical
status was classied via subjective estimations: minimum
amount or absence of paradoxical or dream-like events and
objects in PS. If a report could look close to reality, besides
PS inducing actions and AUE manifestation, it was counted
as probable to be mixed up with reality in everyday life con-
Volunteers were divided into categories based on the
number of PSs experienced in their lifetimes: <4, 4-10, 11-
30, 31-100, 101-500, > 500, n/a (other or unclear options).
PS entries were also grouped according to the following
simplied classication of PS methods (Raduga, 2004;
Raduga, 2020): indirect (upon awakening), direct (with-
out sleep, upon falling asleep, or immediately after falling
asleep), ld (becoming conscious in a dream plot), n/a (other
or unclear options). Finally, PS endings were divided into the
following categories: fake (false awakening), outer (awaken-
ing because of external sounds or irritations), force (awak-
ening against one’s will), self (deliberate awakening), dream
(falling asleep), n/a (other or unclear options).
3. Results
Reports from 152 volunteers (54% males) were accepted;
one report was submitted per person. Of the reports, 114
(75%) contained descriptions of successful AUEs. The data
show that 23 volunteers (20% of AUE cases and 15% over-
all) achieved relatively realistic experiences that contained
less-paradoxical dreamlike events. Abridged versions of the
reports can be found in Appendix 2.
Of the volunteers, 3% experienced SP, all of whom suc-
cessfully achieved an AUE. Also, of the 17% of the volun-
teers who experienced fear, only one person did not achieve
an AUE. The χ²-test results show a statistically signicant re-
lationship between AUE and SP/fear, χ² (1, N = 152) = 8.406,
p = .004. Furthermore, the post-hoc test results showed sig-
nicant relationships for the AUE and SP/fear pair (pbonferroni
< .001) and the non-AUE and SP/fear pair (pbonferroni < .001).
These data are depicted in Table 1.
SP was experienced in less-paradoxical AUEs by 13% of
the volunteers, whereas only 2% of the volunteers experi-
enced SP in more paradoxical AUEs. The χ²-test showed a
statistically signicant relationship between AUE paradoxi-
cal status and SP, χ² (1, N = 114) = 5.150, p = .023. Post-
hoc tests showed signicant relationships in the AUE less-
paradoxical status and SP pair (pbonferroni < .001) and in the
AUE more paradoxical status and SP pair (pbonferroni < .001).
All cases with both SP and fear were accompanied by less-
paradoxical AUEs. These data are depicted in Table 2.
Other details for successful AUE cases are as follows: For
61%, ‘aliens’ looked as expected from ction movies and
books; for 4%, ‘aliens’ were invisible, but the volunteers
somehow knew it was them; for 19%, ‘aliens’ looked like
ordinary people, but the volunteers somehow knew it was
them; for 39%, only visual contact with ‘aliens’ was experi-
enced; 26% managed to talk with ‘aliens’ but did not have
any physical contact with them; 11% encountered physical
contact with ‘aliens’ but did not talk to them; 12% talked to
‘aliens’ and had physical contact with them; 28% encoun-
tered UFOs; 10% were inside a UFO at some point; and 3%
ew on a UFO. These data are depicted in Table 3.
The χ²-test analysis did not show any statistically signi-
cant differences between general or detailed AUE status
and gender, PS induction method, practitioners’ experi-
ence, and PS ending type.
Table 1. Fear and/or Sleep Paralysis Distribution of AUE
Fear and/or
(N = 114,
56 f, 58 m)
(N = 38,
24 f, 14 m)
(N = 152,
80 f, 72 m)
Appearance 27 (24%) 1 (3%) 30 (22%)
Absence 87 (76%) 37 (97%) 77 (55%)
Note. AUE = alien and UFO encounters.
Table 2. Sleep Paralysis Distribution of Successful AUE.
AUE paradoxical status
(N = 91,
45 f, 46 m)
(N = 23,
11 f, 12 m)
(N = 114,
56 f, 58 m)
Appearance 2 (2%) 3 (13%) 30 (22%)
Absence 89 (98%) 20 (87%) 77 (55%)
Note. AUE = alien and UFO encounters; Improbable = AUE that had more
paradoxical dreamlike events; Probable = AUE that had less-paradoxical
dreamlike events.
Emulating alien and UFO encounters in REM sleep
International Journal of Dream Research Volume XX, No. X (2021)4
4. Discussion
Due to the similarity between AUE and PS phenomena, we
hypothesized that they could have the same neurophysio-
logical nature. This could be true, at least for cases in which
AUE starts from one’s bed. To test this idea, we asked PS
practitioners to willfully attempt to emulate AUEs. The out-
comes of this study could improve the general understand-
ing of some supernatural parts of human culture.
4.1. Hypotheses conrmation
Our central hypothesis stated that the PS practitioners
would achieve AUE in REM sleep and it could be close to re-
ality in terms of absence of paradoxical events. It appeared
that the task was relatively simple for the volunteers, and,
as a result, about three-quarters of them were successful in
general. Although most of the volunteers succeeded, most
of their reports were too paradoxical in terms of similarity to
possible real AUEs in wakefulness. In any event, we gath-
ered reports that could be subjectively considered as being
relatively similar to real AUEs.
Our secondary hypothesis was that SP would be more
prevalent in successful AUE reports than in unsuccessful
reports. There were only a few cases of SP, but they all con-
tained an AUE. There were more cases of fear, only one of
which did not also contain an AUE. Moreover, SP was more
common in these cases, especially when a less-paradoxical
AUE was involved. These secondary results add credibility
to the primary goal of the study, as the obtained AUE re-
ports looked even more similar to ‘actual’ reports.
Therefore, our primary hypothesis has been conrmed: It
appears that bedtime alien and UFO encounters (as well as
alien abductions) can be emulated based on one’s will and
deliberate actions. However, we do not know the specic
probability of this occurring because the present research
focused on the concept in general. However, now it has
been shown to be possible in practice rather than only in
4.2. Mechanisms underlying AUE
We still do not know precisely how the PS space works or
how it emulates sensations, which are sometimes hyper viv-
id. We know how to control PSs and to translocate and nd
objects in them only in practice (Raduga, 2014). The volun-
teers who took part in our study used these techniques to
nd ‘aliens’ in PSs. For example, they could summon them
or focus on nding them around corners. Sometimes, when
PS scenes started from one’s bed, it was enough for the
practitioner to merely imagine aliens in the room before get-
ting up and opening their eyes. Perhaps the same algorithm
plays a central role in AUE phenomena when people spon-
taneously encounter PS.
For example, after getting up from the bed during false
awakenings, (which are very common) (Raduga, Kuyava, &
Sevcenko, 2020), a person could occasionally think about
an AUE or recall it. This is especially likely if this person had
an interest in UFOs or other supernatural phenomena. As
for the PS space, it could be a signal to emulate this expec-
tation exactly as our volunteers did. If AUE in a spontaneous
PS starts upon falling asleep or/and ends up by awakening,
theoretically it could be hard to explain all the events by
some sort of dreams, because no paradoxical dreams were
observed before or after. The only difference here is that the
PS practitioners who took part in this study were fully aware
of the actual situation, whereas ordinary people might not
be. The same thing could happen after encountering SP or
out-of-body sensations, as these phenomena have a similar
physiological basis.
Because sensations can be very real and because AUEs
can be unpleasant, even PS practitioners experience fear
and paralysis. If understanding the situation did not help
these practitioners, then it would not be surprising for or-
dinary people to experience shock due to such events. As
such, they could consider AUEs as real experiences, as this
might be the only explanation they can conceive.
4.3. Discussing AUE phenomenon
The most important outcome of the study is the idea that
most or some ‘actual’ AUE reports could simply be another
type of PS because AUEs and PSs can be reproduced in
very similar ways.
Considering that most of the human population has ex-
perienced a PS in one form or another, it is no surprise that
PS plots sometimes mimic irrational or mystical expecta-
tions. This is reasonable, as most of the people do not have
enough knowledge to separate vivid dream experiences
Table 3. Features of Successful AUE.
AUE paradoxical status
Features Improbable
(N = 91,
45 f, 46 m)
(N = 23,
11 f, 12 m)
(N = 114,
56 f, 58 m)
2 (2%) 3 (13%) 5 (4%)
Fear 19 (21%) 6 (26%) 25 (22%)
Sleep paraly-
sis and fear
0 (0%) 3 (13%) 3 (3%)
Sleep paraly-
sis or fear
21 (23%) 6 (26%) 27 (24%)
54 (59%) 16 (70%) 70 (61%)
3 (3%) 1 (4%) 4 (4%)
19 (21%) 3 (13%) 22 (19%)
Only visual
34 (37%) 10 (43%) 44 (39%)
Talking 36 (40%) 8 (35%) 44 (39%)
Touching 20 (22%) 7 (30%) 27 (24%)
Talking and
10 (11%) 4 (17%) 14 (12%)
29 (32%) 3 (13%) 32 (28%)
Inside UFO 12 (11%) 0 (0%) 12 (11%)
Fly on UFO 3 (3%) 0 (0%) 3 (3%)
Note: AUE = alien and UFO encounters; Improbable = AUE that had more
paradoxical dreamlike events; Probable = AUE that had less-paradoxical
dreamlike events.
International Journal of Dream Research Volume XX, No. X (2021) 5
Emulating alien and UFO encounters in REM sleep
from reality. Billions of people encounter PSs, and most of
them are familiar with AUEs from movies, mass media, and
books. Therefore, it seems very reasonable to assume that
these two factors sometimes come together and mislead
Surely, some AUE reports are fabricated, but it is likely
that some of them are real, especially if we consider the
results of the present study. This means that some actu-
al ‘abductees’ did not make up their stories; they simply
lacked rational knowledge because it is relatively unpopular
in culture. Therefore, our ndings might indicate that bed-
time AUEs are a side effect of insufcient education sys-
tems, especially in psychological, psychophysiological, and
philosophical directions. AUE maybe a direct consequence
of the fact that PS in different forms is frequent among gen-
eral population (literally billions of people encounter it), but
there is still not enough information about it.
4.4. Conclusions and Directions for Future Studies
The results of the present study show that bedtime AUEs
can be deliberately emulated during REM sleep and can
mimic reality. As such, ordinary people might spontaneous-
ly enter PSs, unintentionally have an AUE, and confuse it
with reality. This might be the case every time an AUE starts
during sleep or while in a state of relaxation. Extraterrestrial
civilizations, if they exist, better escape seeing us from bed-
rooms, for not being confused with dreams.
To explore the hypothesis more, it would be useful to com-
pare massive databases of AUE and dream reports. Also it
could be interesting to instruct people with AUE to have PS
as well and even emulate their stories in there. In this case,
we would compare PS and AUE reports from the same
Other bedtime religious, paranormal, or mystical encoun-
ters could be explained in the same way that at least some
bedtime AUEs were explained in this study. Some of these
occurrences could be emulated in the same way in future
research. Our ndings aid the general understanding of the
human brain, especially regarding the sleep process and its
connection to consciousness. Therefore, our results help
some irrational parts of our culture to become more reason-
able and understandable.
The authors are grateful to all of the Project Elijah support-
ers and participants. We appreciate their contribution to our
research. The authors would especially like to thank Rinat
Muslimov, Vladimir Agafonov, and Vladislav Aksyuchits for
providing great support.
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Emulating alien and UFO encounters in REM sleep
Appendix. Less-paradoxical AUE reports with skipped PS entries, PS endings, and those not related to the primary topic details.
Translated from Russian.
Report #3, February 18, 2019 (Female)
I went to the living room, imagining that they were there, but they were not there. Then, I went out onto the porch and
began going down to the street, with clear certainty that they were there. I opened the doors (I opened it with purpose
but didn’t go through), and, yes, a group of three little people stood in my yard. Only on the large lawn on the left, where
the playground is located in real life, there was a ying saucer. I felt no fear, only interest. Little men with smooth skin of
blue color, human height, with non-standard large heads and huge, bulging eyes of black color. Their arms were long.
Their ngers were also elongated, four ngers on each hand. I went up, and the phrase ‘Don’t be afraid; we are friends’
appeared in my head, which I clearly heard, considering it to be telepathy. Only one being contacted me – apparently, he
was their ‘leading specialist.’ The rest (two) stood behind and did not come up. The alien came up and scanned me with
some object that looked like a roulette for walking dogs, but from inside it came a ray of bright blue light. I watched with
interest while rubbing my hands and blowing into my palms. After that, he took my left hand and brought a long glass rod
to the inner bend of my elbow (I didn’t feel anything, but a red liquid that reminded me of blood appeared in the rod). By
the way, the skin of his hand was rather cold. I bit my lip and tongue. Next to the other two was a small hairless dog who
bounced merrily. Her skin was lilac (marvelously). After all the procedures, I was invited to the ship with a gesture of a
long hand (I still thought about what aliens I had brought up). As soon as I approached him, I was blinded by a very bright
light, like from a searchlight. My vision was gone, and I felt dizzy and light. I tried to cope with this condition but failed.
Report #14, May 9, 2019 (Male)
I began to listen, wanting to hear aliens outside the door. Almost immediately, I began to hear their unnatural grunts. I
didn’t imagine their appearance since it would be interesting to see what my brain would make up for me. With the con-
dence that by opening the door, I would see the aliens there, I immediately did it. A shock was waiting for me outside
the door! All the walls of the hall were in some kind of greenery from which hung either a dark green web or algae. In
the center, there was a round table in the form of a super-technological lens, inside of which one could see the ickering
of ornaments (apparently their writing). Two azure-colored organisms stood on two sides of the lens. Each one had one
huge oval eye, arranged vertically. They had no limbs; they were only pulsating bodies that levitated 5 cm above the oor.
Both aliens gazed at me as they kept making sounds, which I heard even outside the door. After 8-10 seconds, a lot of
thin tentacles reached me from the body of one of them. It was very creepy. Nevertheless, I grabbed several of them with
both hands, immediately sensing an electric shock. From this, my vision darkened, and I was in a state of sleep paralysis
with subsequent awakening.
Report #15, May 12, 2019 (Female)
Having made a deepening, I went through the corridor to the front door. Opening a thin gap, I put my hand into it and
pulled out a green man who was two meters tall. At rst, it was an amorphous creature that turned into an alien in front
of my eyes. I put my hand back and pulled out a second one that looked like the rst, but it had a long tentacle, slippery
and disgusting. I invited them to the kitchen to drink tea. As I went into the kitchen, I was thrown back into the body.
Report #37, September 19, 2019 (Female)
I thought I should look for them. I went outside looking around, and then I saw that three aliens were coming to my house.
I saw them pretty easily. They were taller than the fence, about three meters tall. I was terried. They looked creepy:
gray, thin, and tall with big eyes, and they walked smoothly, as if they were ying. Everything around was also gray, some
ominous, twilight. As I approached them, I was overcome by an animalistic fear. I turned away, trying to calm myself, but
then I realized this was a phase, and I wasn’t scared. I turned and saw that everything had become bright, and instead
of the creepy aliens, there were green and not scary people. I walked over, starting to touch and stroke them. They were
so ebony to the touch, like scaly, rough skin. On the head, for some reason, they had a yellow stripe. They tried to talk
to me, but I did not understand them.
Report #41, October 7, 2019 (Male)
I had materialized three green humanoids in the same location as the plot on one of the oors of the clinic. The three sat
in a circle facing me in a lotus position. They didn’t react to me in any way. I tried to get in touch with them – no reaction.
So they sat, without saying anything, in abeyance.
Report #56, December 4, 2019 (Male)
I am on the second oor of a country house. I want to see aliens. I look out the window and see a yellow ball. I want to
enter it. However, everything is fading, and I wake up.
Report #57, December 7, 2019 (Male)
I deepened the phase a little and, imagining that extraterrestrial beings were waiting for me in the room, went into the
room. There was nobody there. Then I imagined more vividly that they were in the kitchen. I heard sounds coming from
there, took courage, and entered. My wife stood there and washed the dishes, and on the stove, there were pieces of
bacon being fried in oil (although we are both vegetarians). But I did not give up, and, in order to better convince myself,
Emulating alien and UFO encounters in REM sleep
International Journal of Dream Research Volume XX, No. X (2021)8
I asked my wife to come up to me and said that there were aliens behind the front door. Together, we went to the door. I
looked through the peephole, saw only some blurry shadows and heard a sound. I opened the front door; it hit someone.
I felt a little scared, but I looked behind it and saw two women – my mother and her sister. Why them, I don’t have a
clue. Frustrated, I began just to call for aliens aloud, as if I was trying to meet a specic person, but having not achieved
success, I stopped it and started doing other things … Having made a deepening, I decided to try again. I ran out onto
the staircase and went to the door leading to the shared balcony. I imagined the spacecraft ying up to him, illuminat-
ing everything with bright light, and aliens emerged from it. Focusing on this image, I went out onto the balcony, but I
saw there, from nowhere, an iron staircase leading down, which someone was going down, looking like quite a man in a
blue jacket. I called him several times, but he did not reply. Having focused all my attention on him, I was able to better
examine the details and go a little deeper despite the fact that the character was far away. In the end, he turned his head.
He turned out to be an Asian; he looked Japanese. I went down to him and asked if he was an alien. He shook his head
afrmatively and said that he was not supposed to talk to me and that, in general, he did not see me but only heard me.
On this nonsense, it was all over.
Report #61, December 16, 2019 (Female)
I move to another room with the thought that there will be aliens. It’s dark in the room. On the sofa, there is a girl who
looks like my sister. I ask her, ‘Are you an alien?’ She replies, “No.” Then, I go to the kitchen, again with the thought
that there will be aliens. I go in, and there is nobody there. I think we should try again. I go out and go in again with the
intention that there will be aliens. I see two baggy creatures sitting at a table on chairs. It seems as if they are inside
with something loose, two times smaller than a human. I ask them, ‘Are you aliens?’ The bigger one replied, ‘Yes.’ I was
delighted, looking at them. The aliens looked like bags of bright colors, similar to a bag of washing powder, with hands
sticking out from the sides. There are eyes and a mouth, but it seems there are no legs. They sat and did nothing; they
just looked at me. I came closer and asked the rst one what his name was. He answered me, but, unfortunately, I didn’t
remember. I went to the second one. To check, I asked again if he was an alien, and he also answered afrmatively. I also
asked his name and also did not remember it. They spoke quietly, so it was necessary to approach each and bend down
to hear them. The voices were male, low, and very beautiful. I asked which planet they are from. They answered that they
were from Deviarty. I asked again several times to be sure, and they repeated the same thing several times, thinking that
I was dumb and didn’t get it right the rst time.
Report #62, December 16, 2019 (Male)
I thought that people were usually abducted from bed, so I did not get up and was in no hurry. I closed my eyes and
was dragged somewhere by ight while lying down as if I were pulling a beam like in lms. I lost the feeling of touching
the bed. I thought that now it would drag me through the walls, and it happened. But gradually, the fear intensied, and,
knowing my imagination, I was afraid that aliens might be waiting for me. Having own only a bit, I did not reach the end
and woke up again falsely. Opening my eyes, I again saw the outline of my dark room, and then a white silhouette began
to approach from another room. It was a humanoid, as if in a silver suit. I didn’t see the face, that is, with the same suc-
cess it could be a man, but since I expected an alien, I thought it was an alien. The clarity of the phase was quite low, at
60%. He came to me, then left again like in the reverse record and did this several times. I was already terribly uneasy. I
closed my eyes to get rid of this. Then he cried out, I opened my eyes, and he was already opening my chest and doing
something inside with tools. I was completely scared, and in my head, there was only one thought – to nish the phase
as soon as possible; it was terrible. At this moment, I was stuck in paralysis, I oundered, tried to move, but failed. As a
result, I woke up and couldn’t fall asleep for a long time.
Report #73, January 6, 2020 (Female)
I saw an alien who was looking for me. It had the proportions of a person with an elongated head and gray skin, large
eyes, and no nose. Aggressively minded, I remembered that this was a dream, but I could not get out of the plot of the
dream out of fear. She tried to get through the window and couldn’t do it. I hid behind a chair. He came to me, I remem-
Report #75, January 8, 2020 (Male)
I appeared in a large meeting room. There was no light, but the rows of armchairs were briey visible. I sat in one of them,
and a light appeared. Aliens were sitting in the hall; there were 8-10 of them. I got up and went to look at everyone. They
all looked like people but with different skin colors. One was blue; one was gray. There was one with charcoal black skin.
Report #78, January 16, 2020 (Male)
A spot appeared on the wall, and it transformed into a y. I tuned into aliens and sent it a mental signal. It knocked out
its legs in my direction, and, after jumping onto the bed, it turned into a spider standing on its hind legs, ready to jump.
Having felt fear and dislike, I decided to open my eyes. It was difcult to do, and the laughing spider in the dissolving
haze of sleep jumped on a coin soaring nearby and soared up to the ceiling. Then came the understanding that this was
the image of the UFO subconscious for me. Clutching at the remnants of sensations, I immediately dived back into sleep
before I had time to wake up to the end and felt vibrations. I got out of my body like a haze and began to look for this
strange UFO under the ceiling in the hope of inating it even more, but my wife said that I should not strain my eyes, and
for a second, I thought that I stood in reality waking her.
International Journal of Dream Research Volume XX, No. X (2021) 9
Emulating alien and UFO encounters in REM sleep
Report #80, January 19, 2020 (Female)
I ran to the door and around the corner along the corridor, shouting, ‘Aliens! Where are the aliens? I urgently need aliens!’
She herself imagined that they would appear around the corner. Around the corner, blocking the exit to the street, there
was a group of sprites of a completely human nature. ‘You,’ I say, ‘aliens?’ Some denied it, but one who stood at the door
admitted, ‘Yes, I’m an alien.’I look at him. Tall (approximately 1 m 90 cm). His face is round, his eyes slanting a little – not
like a Chinese person, but somehow unfamiliar. The neck is perhaps a little long for a man, and the shoulders are too
round. The rest of the appearance is human. Gray eyes, dark hair, skin color closer to dark. A brown leather jacket with
knitted inserts and a hint of a uniform.
Further such dialogue:
– Where are you from?
– Alpha Centauri.
– But why did they immediately come up with Alpha Centauri? Couldn’t they come up with nothing more original? He
shrugs his shoulders. ‘Well, how are you doing there on Alpha Centauri?’
– Yes, as usual.
– And who are you? What do you do?
– War pilot.
– It’s at home, but here?
– Same.
– Bomber?
– The ghter.
I tried to gure out why they needed ghters and asked what they were doing (with humanity) here, and most importantly,
what humanity was doing in response. Maybe I didn’t know something, but either I couldn’t formulate the question or
he didn’t reply.
Report #95, January 30, 2020 (Male)
The aliens are waiting in the kitchen, I think. The doors open at night in the apartment. It is abnormally light. The handles
on the doors are visible; something is wrong. It seems something is wrong. My legs didn’t obey. I rubbed grafting on
my hands, and I went into the kitchen. At the table, three teenagers are sitting in the shade. When it became lighter, I
saw two boys looking like my sons, and a girl, my niece, with her hands and face smeared with salidol. I asked, ‘Are you
aliens?’ The girl and one boy said ‘No.’ The third answered afrmatively. I learned from him that he collects information
about everything. I said to him:
- Can you treat?
- No.
- Diagnose diseases?
- No.
- Do you know those?
- Yes.
- Can you call them?
Report #98, February 1, 2020 (Male)
I saw aliens getting up from the bed after the fall. There were three of them, from about 80 cm to a meter tall (I can only
guess their measurement based on the height of my bed – specically, the height of the bed with the mattress is equal
to the height of the alien to the shoulders). They had big ears, like the master Yoda from Star Wars. It was not possible to
examine their faces in detail, but they had no helmets or headgear. The eyes are narrow and medium size. They stayed
together in a group and said something, but I didn’t understand their speech. They behaved in a friendly manner, with
their unusual appearance. I didn’t feel fear but rather interest. Each of them had weapons: one had a stove, the second
had a stick, and the third had something like a small river trident like the ninja turtles. I even thought that their attributes
were similar to the ninja turtles, but for some reason, there were three of them, and they didn’t look like turtles (in particu-
lar, the head and lack of armor). But their skin was very like a turtle’s, wrinkled, soft, and textured. On the hands were 3
Emulating alien and UFO encounters in REM sleep
International Journal of Dream Research Volume XX, No. X (2021)10
ngers, with claws on each. I held their hands and examined them when I felt myself getting out of the phase. Also, each
of them had its own skin tone: one was bluish, the second was purple, and the third was greenish.
Report #101, February 2, 2020 (Female)
I imagined an alien in the next room. I came in and saw a yellow, wrinkled humanoid sitting in an armchair. Its height is
approximately 150-160 cm. Eyes are typical of an ‘alien.’ We went down the street. There was another man with us, who
came from nowhere. The alien worked as a blacksmith cook, and they made food from iron. He was late for work and in
a hurry.
Report #105, February 6, 2020 (Male)
I tried to imagine that there were aliens behind the door. I opened the door and saw only two yellow luminous dots on the
wall in the darkness. I tried to strengthen their presence with the help of my imagination, but it didn’t work.
Report #130, March 20, 2020 (Female)
I remembered about the aliens. I thought that it was already waiting for me in the hall, and I went there. At rst, I saw
him, but he hid in the shade.
– ‘Show yourself in the light,’ I told him, and then something jumped into the light, no larger than 15 centimeters, in a hat,
in armor, which made him plump. I started looking at him.
– ‘Hi,’ he said in a sort of childish voice.
– ‘Hi! Let me see you,’ I informed him and began to examine his face. It looked like an Asian. I didn’t have time to look
at his suit.
Report #133, March 29, 2020 (Male)
I went out into the hall and began to wait for the aliens. Then I slowly walked down the corridor to the kitchen. And sud-
denly, an alien ran out and passed me. The size is very small, about 20 centimeters, like a cat, thin and small. I turned
around, but he was gone. I went into the room and felt a rustle near the ceiling. I looked for a long time and noticed
movement along the corner of the ceiling. It also looked like aliens.
Report #139, April 3, 2020 (Female)
I clearly thought about the aliens that I want to see. For a while, nothing happened. Then, small lights began to appear
in the sky, and in the distance, a very small spaceship looking like a liner appeared. I stood on the balcony and saw three
aliens coming towards me on the left through the air. Outwardly, they looked like people, only with green skin, without
emotions, didn’t talk, without reactions. For some reason, it all made me laugh. I thought, ‘What nonsense.’ They came
up and tried to take me away with them carefully. One of them seemed very familiar to me. I tried to remember and woke
Report #142, April 7, 2020 (Male)
I walked around the apartment. I didn’t see any aliens. Then I went for a walk around the yard, and I saw other people
and things, but didn’t pay attention and went for the goal. I saw an alien in a neighboring yard and examined his behavior.
There were little creepy sensations. I hadn’t met them in the phase before. It was big. It came out, about 190 cm tall,
very muscular, his body completely white without contours, except his face. His eyes and nose were black. The eyes are
large ovals, the mouth is small, more like a human’s. The feet are dark. He came around the corner, and when he saw
me, he came to me.
Report #150, April 12, 2020 (Female)
I constantly said out loud, ‘Aliens, I am waiting for you!’ I was very worried they would leave. I was in a hurry. On the way,
I noticed a rag on the chandelier, and it moved. The vision disappeared. I tried to rotate, which helped, but not much.
There was some kind of cover on me, spinning around and spinning completely immobilized. I could only look up. Hands
were already visible.
Report #151, April 18, 2020 (Female)
Like a freeze-frame, it was as if I was there because I had to complete the task. I was immobile as I observed two hu-
manoids of medium height, pale color, undetermined sex, without clothes, deep black eyes without shine, as if they knew
your being completely. They were sitting by the kitchen window. I was at the door. For just a few seconds, we looked at
each other, and I thought that it was my imagination and woke up.
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
Full-text available
Lucid dreaming refers to the phenomenon of becoming aware of the fact that one is dreaming during ongoing sleep. Despite having been physiologically validated for decades, the neurobiology of lucid dreaming is still incompletely characterized. Here we review the neuroscientific literature on lucid dreaming, including electroencephalographic, neuroimaging, brain lesion, pharmacological and brain stimulation studies. Electroencephalographic studies of lucid dreaming are mostly underpowered and show mixed results. Neuroimaging data is scant but preliminary results suggest that prefrontal and parietal regions are involved in lucid dreaming. A focus of research is also to develop methods to induce lucid dreams. Combining training in mental set with cholinergic stimulation has shown promising results, while it remains unclear whether electrical brain stimulation could be used to induce lucid dreams. Finally, we discuss strategies to measure lucid dreaming, including best-practice procedures for the sleep laboratory. Lucid dreaming has clinical and scientific applications, and shows emerging potential as a methodology in the cognitive neuroscience of consciousness. Further research with larger sample sizes and refined methodology is needed.
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In sports practice a well-established method is mental practice which is, for example, applied in elite sports to intensify practice and to offer additional practice sessions when opportunities for physical practice are limited (Erlacher, 2007). It is also used on other areas, such as surgery and music. There is a special way of mentally rehearsing movements without physical activity: in our dreams (Stumbrys, 2014). In so called lucid dreams, the dreamer is consciously aware that he or she is dreaming and can thus decide to carry out actions deliberately (Schredl & Erlacher, 2004). In a survey by Erlacher, Stumbrys, and Schredl (2011–2012) it was shown that within a German sample 9% of all athletes who had lucid dreams used the lucid dream state to practice motor skills, for most of them with a positive impact on physical performance. Furthermore, anecdotal examples and previous qualitative and quantitative research has demonstrated that practicing movements in lucid dreams is possible and could possibly even improve performance in waking life for (overview see e.g. Stumbrys, 2014). However, the effectiveness of lucid dream practice had not yet been studies in a controlled sleep laboratory setting. The aim of this investigation was to further explore the effectiveness of lucid dream practice, and to derive practical implications for athletes. A particular goal was to assess the effectiveness of lucid dream practice using signal verified lucid dreams in a sleep laboratory. Furthermore, an extensive qualitative interview study was intended to explore the potential as well as phenomenal experience and difficulties of lucid dream practice. A similar study was planned for musicians to investigate if lucid dream practice can also be applied in this area. Since a requirement for lucid dream practice is to actually achieve lucidity in the dream state, another goal of this investigation was to test two ways of lucid dream induction by external stimulation. The first chapter of this dissertation gives an introduction into mental practice, including evidence that mental practice can improve physical performance in sport and other areas, such as music education. The second chapter first provides some information on sleep and dreams, followed by characteristics and applications of lucid dreams. Chapter three addresses lucid dream induction. The attached book chapter includes a detailed description and evaluation of induction techniques and discusses research problems. Then a study on lucid dream induction through visual and tactile stimulation is presented (Paper 1). Chapter four contains the most important contributions of this investigation: After introducing lucid dream practice, a sleep laboratory study is outlined which investigated the effectiveness of lucid dream practice using a dart throwing task (Paper 2). Then an extensive qualitative study is presented in which 16 athletes were interviewed about their experiences with lucid dream practice (Paper 3), followed by a smaller pilot study in which the potential of lucid dream practice for musicians was explored (Paper 4). Finally, in the last chapter the findings of all studies are summarized and discussed, deriving implications for both sports practice and future research.
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Motor practice in lucid dreams is a form of mental rehearsal where the dreamer can consciously rehearse motor skills in the dream state while being physically asleep. A previous pilot study showed that practice in lucid dreams can improve subsequent performance. This study aimed to replicate those findings with a different task (finger-tapping) and compare the effectiveness of lucid dream practice (LDP) not only to physical but also to mental practice (MP) in wakefulness. An online experiment was completed by 68 participants within four groups: LDP group, MP group, physical practice (PP) group and control (no practice) group. Pre-test was accomplished in the evening, post-test in the next morning, while the practice was done during the night. All three practice groups significantly improved their performance from pre-test to post-test, but no significant improvements were observed for the control group. Subjective sleep quality was not affected by night practice. This study thus corroborates the previous findings that practice in lucid dreams is effective in improving performance. Its effects seem to be similar to actual PP and MP in wakefulness. Future studies should establish reliable techniques for lucid dream induction and verify the effects of LDP in sleep laboratory conditions.
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Two exploratory online experiments were carried out to investigate the interaction between dream characters and the dream ego in lucid dreams. Lucid dreamers were recruited via an Internet page ( In Experiment 1, 15 participants (26.5 ± 10.2 years; 4 female, 11 male) provided 27 dream reports in which they asked dream characters 38 times to guess a number of fingers they show with their hands behind their back and then name another number of fingers that was visible to the dream characters. In Experiment 2, 7 lucid dreamers (24.3 ± 10.5 years; 2 female, 5 male) guessed 17 different numbers written down by 12 different dream characters. In Experiment 1, the hidden-type question was answered correctly by 19 out of 29 dream characters (66%). In Experiment 2, the correct number was successfully guessed in 10 out of 14 cases (71.4%). The results indicate that there is some form of connection between the dream ego and dream characters. Although the underlying mechanisms are not clear, the findings of this pilot study show that lucid dream studies are an efficient tool to provide knowledge about the characteristics of dream characters. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
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Lucid dreams – dreams in which the dreamer is aware that is dreaming – most frequently occur during REM sleep, yet there is some evidence suggesting that lucid dreaming can occur during NREM sleep as well. By conduct- ing a sleep laboratory study on lucid dreams, we found two possible instances of lucidity during NREM sleep which are reported here. While lucid dreaming during NREM sleep seems to be much rarer and more difficult to achieve, it appears to be possible and is most likely to occur during N1 sleep, somewhat less likely during N2 sleep and yet to be observed during N3 sleep. Future studies should explore induction methods, underlying neural mechanisms and perceptual/dream content differences between REM and NREM lucid dreams. Furthermore, a consensus agreement is needed to define what is meant by lucid dreaming and create a vocabulary that is helpful in clarifying variable psychophysiological states that can support self-reflective awareness.
Chronic pain is often managed using a multidisciplinary, biopsychosocial approach. Interventions targeting the biological, psychological, and social aspects of both the patient and the pain have been demonstrated to provide objective and subjective improvement in chronic pain symptoms. The mechanism by which pain attenuation occurs after these interventions remains to be elucidated. While there is a relatively large body of empirical literature suggesting that functional and structural changes in the peripheral and central nervous systems are key in the development and maintenance of chronic pain states, less is known about changes that take place in the nervous system as a whole after biopsychosocial interventions. Using as a model the unique case of Mr. S, a patient suffering with chronic pain for 22 years who experienced a complete resolution of pain after a lucid dream following 2 years of biopsychosocial treatments, we postulate that central nervous system (CNS) reorganization (i.e., neural plasticity) serves as a possible mechanism for the therapeutic benefit of multidisciplinary treatments, and may set a neural framework for healing, in this case via a lucid dream.