Article

Decolonizing the Map: Recentering Indigenous Mappings

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

For over five centuries, cartographic map-making has played a pivotal role as a political technology of empire-building, settler colonialism, and the dispossession of Indigenous lands. Yet Indigenous peoples themselves have long engaged in their own mapping practices to share ancestral knowledge, challenge colonial rule, and reclaim Indigenous “place-worlds.” Although there is now a sizable body of scholarly literature on the mapping of empire, this special issue on “Decolonizing the Map” aims to recenter Indigenous mappings and decolonial cartographies as spatial practices of world-making. In this introductory article, we provide an overview of the theory and praxis of decolonial mapping and outline the key themes of the contributions to the present special issue. Drawing upon insights from this edited collection, we conclude that decolonial mapping requires a recentering of Indigenous geographical knowledge, respect for Indigenous protocols, and the active participation of Indigenous peoples in the mapping process itself if the project of decolonizing the map is to truly move beyond the colonial cartographic frame.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... Place names provide a window into the layered histories and meanings of places (Brasher et al., 2017;Freire, 1987;Oliveira, 2009;Rose-Redwood et al., 2020). In this study, we explore the degree to which place names perpetuate settler colonial myths, including white supremacy, by looking at the pervasiveness of and spatial patterns in place names and their meanings. ...
... Language is one of the most important means by which humans announce and demonstrate values (Freire, 1987;Rose-Redwood et al., 2020). Like statues and monuments, place names are cultural symbols that can embody or erase Indigenous knowledges. ...
... Inspiration Point) communicate non-neutral choices to ignore the history of settler colonial violence, obscure the fact that landscapes were and are Indigenous spaces, and accept the continued invisibility of marginalized people (Barnd, 2017;Brasher et al., 2017). Thus, for Indigenous peoples, a settler place name may represent colonization and a history of exclusion from their homelands, such that restoring Indigenous place names is often understood as a small (even symbolic) step towards justice and restoring powers of self-determination ( Figure 1; Hegyi, 2018;Oliveira, 2009;Rose-Redwood et al., 2020). ...
Article
Full-text available
Ecologists, outdoor professionals and the public work and play in lands with complex histories. Part of decolonizing our professional and recreational practices is to expose settler colonial biases and recognize the histories of colonized lands and the peoples who have stewarded these lands for millennia prior to colonization. To provide a quantitative example of settler colonial biases in a familiar context, we examined the origins of over 2,200 place names in 16 national parks in the United States (US; 26% of the parks). Through iterative thematic analysis of place name origins and meanings, we constructed a decision tree for classifying place names according to emergent categories, which enabled the quantification and spatial analysis of place name meanings. All national parks examined have place names that tacitly endorse racist or, more specifically, anti‐Indigenous ideologies, thus perpetuating settler colonialism and white supremacy at the system scale for future generations. Looking east to west across the US, the proportion of place names per national park that appropriated Indigenous names increased in parallel with the westward expansion and evolution of US settler colonialism. This examination of place names, name origins and their consequences is an opportunity to make everyday complicity in systemic oppression more visible and to more actively advance decolonizing practices for land and language. Read the free Plain Language Summary for this article on the Journal blog. Read the free Plain Language Summary for this article on the Journal blog.
... Our positioning in the world affects how we know the world, and our knowledge of the world affects how we act in the world (Qin, 2018). This positioning is geographical, cultural, temporal. ...
Article
The Pearl River Delta in South China is today associated with one of the world's largest megaregions. Even though scholarship often treats the Pearl River Delta as a natural region and unit for analysis, this area has only recently been regionalised. This paper undertakes a critical rewriting and remapping of the Pearl River Delta's history, starting in precolonial times in which the Chinese population saw the area as composed of islands and waterways, moving through the period when colonial powers saw the area as a pathway up from the colonial island enclaves of Hong Kong and Macao and into China's interior, and ending in the Reform and Opening Up era when the modern Chinese state has implemented a succession of planning-oriented conceptions of the region. As the area has moved conceptually from a world of islands to a delta and now to the Greater Bay Area, perceptions about what the area means have changed as well. From a position in urban island studies and critical reflexivity, this paper troubles taken-for-granted colonial, technocratic, and governmental visions and regionalisations, focusing on how physical and cultural geographies develop in tandem. The notion of the interstitial island is used to help understand how the Pearl River Delta's island geography has influenced the area's conceptual development.
... Rose-Redwood and colleagues (2020) call for the decolonization of the map, for instance the re-centering of indigenous mapping and indigenous geographical knowledge, respecting the full participation of indigenous rightsholders in map-making and indigenous communities' protocols on how to collaborate in a respectful way. This would also reflect the deep and rich history of Indigenous mapping involving ancestral, anticolonial and decolonial Indigenous cartographic traditions (Lucchesi 2018), a theme echoed repeatedly in other writing (Lewis 1998;Pearce & Louis 2008;Louis et al. 2012;Louis & Kahele 2017;Rose-Redwood et al. 2020). ...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper, we explore the methodical, methodological, epistemological and outreach potential – and related challenges – of cartographic storytelling in ethnographic research, based on the online portal Life of BAM. Our extensive literature review highlights the need for deep self-reflection in the cartographic production of manifold realities and the way in which visualised stories can be co-produced by local people and researchers. It also describes cartography’s conceptual turns and its role in anthropology and ethnography. As an outreach tool, the Life of BAM portal conveys knowledge about social and infrastructural configurations in the greater area of the Baikal-Amur Mainline (BAM) and Amur-Yakutsk Mainline (AYaM) railroads in Eastern Siberia, through a series of lay-language and visualised ‘episodes’ built into the ArcGIS StoryMaps online tool. Interlinking qualitative and quantitative data in the cartographic visualisation of manifold realities can trigger better comprehension of complex matters, through multimodal forms of representing stories in space. Cartographic storytelling, as a means of knowledge and science communication, supports – in our case – civil society, education, heritage work and policy making, and is a way of making local concerns more tangible for state officials and corporate actors. By engaging with cartographic storytelling and building the Life of BAM portal, we affirm that a reflective attitude towards the multiplicity of stories’ ontologies in narration, collection, comprehension and representation is of key importance if we want to do justice to a decolonial approach towards Indigenous and non-Indigenous people and research partners in the field.
... We are trained to make such claims -such claims quickly become accepted evidence for our claims that we know what is going on with maps. But really, as the recent (but still resisted) calls to challenge the essentialism of cartographic knowledge, and indeed the move to decolonise the map, have rightly demonstrated, we only ever know maps from certain subject positions (see, for example, the ongoing work of the Anti-Eviction Mapping Project, 1 David Garcia aka @mapmakerdavid, 2 and Rose- Redwood et al., 2020). Our knowledge about maps should never claim to be universal. ...
Article
Full-text available
This brief commentary responds to Tania Rossetto and Laura Lo Presti’s (2021) thought-provoking article ‘Reimagining the national map’ by offering three points for reflection. Firstly, it highlights the scholarly value of embracing their notion of the carto-sphere as a mode of enquiry into cartography, maps, and mapping practices. Secondly, it draws attention to the theoretical and empirical questions that arise when we embrace the plurality of cartographic knowledges. Thirdly, it raises some ethical considerations to think through if and when making this shift.
... An understanding of African American traditions of counter-mapping is about more than simply inserting the Black experience into our dominant ideas about cartography or even resistant mapping. As Rose-Redwood et al. (2020) warn, the political efficacy of counter-mapping has limits and can have the unintended effect of reproducing erasures and inequalities when its cartographic content and protocols do not affirm and center the lived resistant experiences and place-based knowledge production of colonized groups. Of critical importance is that Black resistance has "produced its own spatial production and called for its own spatial representation," and we must acknowledge the wide range of appropriated and indigenous ways in which African Americans have mapped a path toward freedom (Kelley 2020, 3-4). ...
Article
Full-text available
Responding to recent work in critical cartographic studies and Black Geographies, the purpose of this paper is to offer a conceptual framework and a set of evocative cartographic engagements that can inform geography as it recovers the seldom discussed history of counter-mapping within the African American Freedom Struggle. Black resistant cartographies stretch what constitutes a map, the political work performed by maps, and the practices, spaces, and political-affective dimensions of mapping. We offer an extended illustration of the conventional and unconventional mapping behind USA anti-lynching campaigns of the late 19th and early 20th centuries, highlighting the knowledge production practices of the NAACP and the Tuskegee Institute’s Monroe Work, and the embodied counter-mapping of journalist/activist Ida B. Wells. Recognizing that civil rights struggles are long, always unfolding, and relationally tied over time and space, we link this look from the past to contemporary, ongoing resistant cartographical practices as scholars/activists continue to challenge racialized violence and advance transitional justice, including the noted memory-work of the Equal Justice Initiative. An understanding of African American traditions of counter-mapping is about more than simply inserting the Black experience into our dominant ideas about cartography or even resistant mapping. Black geographies has much to teach cartography and geographers about what people of color engaged in antiracist struggles define as geographic knowledge and mapping practices on their own terms—hopefully provoking a broader and more inclusive definition of the discipline itself.
Article
Māori land data produced through colonial systems of dispossession lack interoperability, preventing kin‐based communities from tracking their land. Our novel approach to repatriate and harmonise historic land data traces the history of the 45,500 acre Opuatia Block allocated to hapū Ngāti Tiipa in 1866, following the confiscation of 1.2 million acres of Waikato land. Ngāti Tiipa resisted Crown and settler pressures for 30 years, but 80% of Opuatia was alienated within a decade. We discuss the devastation of ‘judicial raupatu’ and the implications of this work for hapū data sovereignty and wider international efforts to achieve Indigenous data sovereignty.
Article
Full-text available
The universalist ambition of the 17 Sustainable Development Goal (SDGs) and 169 targets as a global plan of action for people, planet, prosperity and peacebuilding deserves analytical scrutiny from multiple angles. While the SDGs are largely heralded as a paradigm shift compared to their predecessor Millennial Development Goals (MDGs), we argue that four fundamental dynamics undermine or severely hamper SDGs as a game changer to address the deep-running sustainability challenges facing the planet. Free download till April 28: https://authors.elsevier.com/a/1ej7C3pILaAFx
Article
The ongoing expansion of renewable energies entails major spatial reconfigurations with social, environmental, and political dimensions. These emerging geographies are, however, in the process of taking shape, as their early configurations are still open to democratic intervention and contestation. While a recent line of research highlights the prominent role that maps are playing in directing such processes, the potential effects of countermapping on these evolving geographies have not yet been explored. In this article, we present a countermapping initiative promoting a dialogue between critical geography, political ecology, and environmental justice. Our work is the result of an alliance between Geocomunes—a collective of activist cartographers based in Mexico—and the EjAtlas—a global collaborative project tracking cases of grassroots mobilizations against environmental injustices. We take the case of Mexico's low-carbon development strategy to dissect the spatial expansion of wind and solar mega-projects at both national and regional scales. Our project consists of a series of databases and maps aimed to “fill” the spaces and relations otherwise “emptied” by the state's cartographic tools designed to promote investments in the sector. When presenting our results, we highlight how renewable energy projects in Mexico have so far juxtaposed with local territories, peoples, and resources, in ways that trigger instances of environmental injustice on the ground. We close this article by discussing the role of critical cartography and countermapping in building alternative political–economic projects for the energy transition.
Article
Dans sa décision de principe sur les droits de chasse des Métis rendue à la suite de l’affaire R. c. Powley, la Cour suprême du Canada recourt au concept de mainmise effective pour marquer les limites de la période à considérer afin de déterminer si des pratiques particulières (p. ex., la chasse) font partie intégrante du mode de vie des Métis. Si ces pratiques n’ont pas été explicitement abolies par l’État avant 1982, alors elles font partie aujourd’hui des droits ancestraux des Métis et à ce titre, elles sont protégées par la Constitution. Déterminer la date de la mainmise effective de l’État est un problème empirique qui exige des recherches historiques approfondies. Devant les revendications de la Couronne quant à sa souveraineté et à l’extinction de droits autochtones, diverses activités peuvent servir de critères quant à l’établissement de la mainmise effective sur les régions pionnières (p. ex., les recensements). Des documents historiques montrent que des activités de topométrie et de cartographie ont matérialisé les efforts du gouvernement fédéral pour acquérir des connaissances géographiques. En ce qui concerne la nécessité constante de clarifier les droits ancestraux des Métis, la valeur des sources cartographiques historiques comme moyen de reconstruire la lente évolution des connaissances géographiques de l’État est illustrée par l’exemple de la région d’Ile-à-la-Crosse. La cartographie historique, par conséquent, peut contribuer à clarifier les droits des Métis.
Article
The map of the nation may be considered a power tool that persists in reproducing exclusive forms of nationalism in response to migration crises. Yet, in this article, we argue that in an era marked by new, rampant rhetoric regarding nationalism, maps are surprisingly among the few spaces left to cultivate progressive imaginaries of cultural diversity and migration as intrinsic, positive features of national experiences. Discussing critical readings of national mappings, we encourage a dialogue between map studies and nation and nationalism studies through the lens of everyday cartographic nationhood. Taking Italy as a context of analysis, the paper considers subject-centred refabrications of national maps (IncarNations), alien phenomenologies of national cartographic objects (AlieNations), and transformative creative cartographies of migrant nations (ContamiNations) to promote an alternative understanding of the national map as a sensitive tool of pluralism in multicultural societies.
Book
Full-text available
O presente livro é um desdobramento do I Seminário Geografa e giro descolonial: experiências, pensamentos e horizontes de renovação do pensamento crítico realizado em novembro de 2014 na Universidade Federal Fluminense-UFF. Tal seminário foi organizado pelos grupos de pesquisa NETAJ/UFF (Núcleo de Estudos Sobre Territórios, Ações Coletivas e Justiça) e NEGRA/FFPUERJ (Núcleo de Estudo e Pesquisa em Geografa Regional da África e da Diáspora) com apoio do Programa de Pós-Graduação em Geografia da Universidade Federal Fluminense –POSGEO-UFF. O seminário teve como objetivo reunir um conjunto de pesquisadores(as) que, em sua maioria, foram ou são alunos(as) ou professores(as) do Programa de Pós-Graduação em Geografia da Universidade Federal Fluminense – UFF e que vêm desenvolvendo pesquisas que se orientam por uma perspectiva epistêmica, ética e política, alinhados com ou inspirados no chamado pensamento descolonial latino-americano. O livro que o leitor tem em mãos é o resultado desse rico, profundo e desafiante esforço coletivo para se estabelecer um diálogo mais efetivo entre a geografia brasileira e o pensamento descolonial latino-americano. Os textos fazem uma crítica a colonialidade do saber e ao eurocentrismo como narrativa colonial do mundo que subalterniza saberes, culturas, grupos, povos e territórios. Afirmam a necessidade de uma descolonização que valorize outras racionalidades, outras epistemes, outras formas de saber, viver e existir oriundas das experiências de re-existências dos grupos subalternizados. Trata-se de um pequeno passo em uma longa caminhada ainda a ser percorrida para a construção de uma “biblioteca descolonial” a partir da geografia produzida em nosso país. Esperamos que tal obra cumpra o papel de fomentar e ampliar o interesse e os debates entre os geógrafos(as) sobre os temas e questões aqui tratadas.
Article
Full-text available
In this paper, we describe and reflect upon our journey through Indigenous online mapping in Canada. This journey has been planned according to an academic goal: assessing the potential of online cartography for decolonial purposes. To reach this goal, we have followed methodological directions provided by Indigenous scholar Linda Tuhiwai Smith to review 18 Indigenous web-mapping sites across Canada. Supported by a series of ten interviews, this content analysis enabled us to sketch some of the contours of contemporary Indigenous cartography. On one hand, Indigenous communities largely control the data that are shared on these websites. They also partially control the way these data are represented through the mobilization of digital storytelling technologies that are better aligned with Indigenous ways of envisioning relationships to places than conventional maps. On the other hand, they do not have much control over the technological aspects of these projects, for which they remain heavily dependent on non-Indigenous partners. Throughout this journey, we noticed that women’s voices remained marginal in most of these mapping projects, but we also identified evidence supporting the idea that these voices are starting to play a vital role in the on-going effort of decolonizing mapping processes.
Article
Full-text available
In this response to Natalie Oswin’s provocation, ‘An other geography’, we consider how we might work against settler narratives and structures from our situated positions in the discipline and in a specific academic institution in the US South. Following Diné student Majerle Lister, we ask what it would mean to consider giving the land back: what does that entail? The academic institutions we inhabit were built to insure white futurity, on fictive histories. Can they be retrofitted in the present to enable the futurity of Indigenous people and theorizations? Can we turn our discipline’s history of erasure inside out, to center the land, people, and practices that were both crucial to and absent from it except as shadowy and metaphorical presences? We draw on our own teaching, and from scholarship in Indigenous and Black Studies, to consider what it might look like to return land and reconfigure relations among those who have been cast aside by white patriarchal settler structures, but in incommensurate ways.
Article
Full-text available
The marginalization, sidelining, erasure and dismissal of ‘othered’ people and epistemologies persist within the discipline of geography today. In the present article, I discuss this fact as a source of harm for many individuals, a result of centuries of white supremacist heteropatriarchal grounding and a failure of the collective critical geographical imagination. A new turn is underway, however, one that turns away from the mainstream of the discipline and toward each ‘other’. Solidarities across modes of difference are building in scholarship that inhabits an epistemological elsewhere, and these can and must be harnessed in this time of serious threats to academic freedom and social justice.
Article
Full-text available
Geographers have long reflected on our discipline's colonial history. Both Indigenous and non‐Indigenous geographers have discussed ways of engaging Indigenous geographies and sought new ways of opening and expanding spaces for Indigenous peoples and Indigenous ways of knowing and being in our discipline. Like many social scientists, geographers name and frame this work in different ways; of late, decolonizing concepts and practices are increasingly deployed. As documented by especially Indigenous scholars, however, the discipline has yet to achieve much semblance of decolonization. This paper takes as a starting point that, despite good intentions, efforts at decolonizing geography are inherently limited because colonization continues to structure the field of geography and the academy more broadly. We begin by placing ourselves in conversations about Indigenous geographies and colonial violence, using this placement as a jumping off point for discussing ways geographers past and present approach decolonization. We pay particular attention to ways theories and articulations about decolonization may be falling short. Second, we offer a critical analysis of decolonization in relation to settler colonial power, including theories and praxes of engaging Indigeneity and Indigenous peoples and places. We discuss Indigenous geographies, what they mean, and to whom they have those meanings. We then turn to Indigenous knowledges and Indigenous ways of being and living in the world, problematizing how within more purely conceptual realms and often by non‐Indigenous peoples and geographers, these can be uncoupled or disconnected from ways decolonization is circulated and lived. We conclude with cautions and suggestions, based especially on provocations of Indigenous scholars, about ways geographers might unsettle our work in ongoing efforts toward decolonizing our discipline.
Article
Full-text available
Our goal in this article is to remind readers what is unsettling about decolonization. Decolonization brings about the repatriation of Indigenous land and life; it is not a metaphor for other things we want to do to improve our societies and schools. The easy adoption of decolonizing discourse by educational advocacy and scholarship, evidenced by the increasing number of calls to “decolonize our schools,” or use “decolonizing methods,” or, “decolonize student thinking”, turns decolonization into a metaphor. As important as their goals may be, social justice, critical methodologies, or approaches that decenter settler perspectives have objectives that may be incommensurable with decolonization. Because settler colonialism is built upon an entangled triad structure of settler-native-slave, the decolonial desires of white, non-white, immigrant, postcolonial, and oppressed people, can similarly be entangled in resettlement, reoccupation, and reinhabitation that actually further settler colonialism. The metaphorization of decolonization makes possible a set of evasions, or “settler moves to innocence”, that problematically attempt to reconcile settler guilt and complicity, and rescue settler futurity. In this article, we analyze multiple settler moves towards innocence in order to forward “an ethic of incommensurability” that recognizes what is distinct and what is sovereign for project(s) of decolonization in relation to human and civil rights based social justice projects. We also point to unsettling themes within transnational/Third World decolonizations, abolition, and critical space-place pedagogies, which challenge the coalescence of social justice endeavors, making room for more meaningful potential alliances.
Article
Full-text available
This is a paper about child-welfare regulations, policies, and practices as they impact Indigenous families and communities. I take as my starting point that child welfare, and geographies of Indigenous homes and families, are under-scrutinized ontologies worthy of more investigation especially by geographers interested in understanding neo settler-colonial power - and how to unsettle it. I track historical logics of state intervention into Indigenous families through to the present day, reviewing the empirics of child removals and state interventions into contemporary Indigenous families in British Columbia, Canada. Curtailing the state's ongoing disruption of Aboriginal families and communities, I conclude, requires understanding child welfare ontologically, as historically contiguous with other colonial projects, and as premised in great part on ungrounded logics of common sense' that (re)produce Indigenous families and communities as rarified and othered geographies in constant need of intervention.
Article
Full-text available
As Indigenous academics researching and participating with various mapping initiatives, we have began to perceive that while many Indigenous communities have a long history of using Western cartographic techniques, including GIS, in their efforts to establish land claims, map culturally important sites and protect community resources, they were not critically aware of the science with which they are engaged. We have established our goal to assist and encourage the development of a critical literacy in cartography within Indigenous communities. We use the term literacy not to imply an ability to read and write, rather we are engaging the part of the word's etymology which recognizes having competence in a system of knowledge. Western cartography is a complex knowledge system with a long history, much of its last 500 years being involved in furthering the colonial exploits of European crowns. Using the work of Paulo Freire (2000) on critical consciousness as a foundation, we have taken this concept a step further to describe a critical cartographic literacy which recognizes that as J. B. Harley states, "[m]aps are never value-free images ... [c]artography can be 'a form of knowledge and a form of power' (1988)." Our article explores our development of a critical cartographic consciousness in order to aid Indigenous communities in how they engage with one of the most prevalent informational technologies currently in use in many of these communities' modern cartography/GIS. © Jay T. Johnson, Renee Pualani Louis and Albertus Hadi Pramono, 2006.
Article
Full-text available
This article grapples with the seeming paradox in the notion of representing cartographic boundaries for an indigenous community whose core social relationships are embedded in a moral ethos of borderless kin networks. While ethnographic maps of the Coast Salish people (southwest British Columbia and northwest Washington) have traditionally represented territories as discretely bounded, continuous regions, contemporary land claims maps submitted by Coast Salish political leaders reveal a nest of overlapping and interlocking lines. The paper argues that delineating territories based strictly on land use and occupancy does not take into account broader relationships between people and place. Property, language, residence and identity are categories also appropriate to Coast Salish territorial boundaries, while ideas and practices of kin, travel, descent and sharing make boundaries permeable. The paper considers the boundary lines created by Coast Salish leaders within the context of land claims, which potentially, have the power to transform Coast Salish social and political relations.
Article
Full-text available
In an era of postcolonialism and postcolonization, Indigenous struggles continue. Within ‘settler societies’ issues of dispossession—particularly of lands—remain largely unresolved. As part of the discipline of geography's active movement away from its colonizing project, this introduction to this special edition of Geografiska Annaler B seeks to (re)focus a disciplinary lens, and (re)open a dialogue—and potential research trajectory - about ‘indigenous geographies’. As the papers in this special issue demonstrate, new cultural geographies have begun a process of re-engagement with issues of indigeniety through careful, sensitive, inclusive, representative and emancipatory research projects.
Chapter
Updated encyclopedia entry on Critical Cartography, first written in 2009.
Article
In recent years, ‘intellectual decolonisation’ has become so popular in the Global North that we can now speak of there being a ‘decolonial bandwagon’. This article identifies some of the common limitations that can be found in this growing field of intellectual decolonisation. First and foremost, it is suggested that intellectual decolonisation in the Global North may be characterised by Northerncentrism due to the way in which decolonial scholarship may ignore decolonial scholars from the Global South. In order to address this ‘decolonisation without decolonising’, this article offers an alternative genealogy of intellectual decolonisation by discussing some of the most important yet neglected decolonial theory from the Global South. Thereafter, five other common limitations which may appear in discussions about intellectual decolonisation are identified, which are: reducing intellectual decolonisation to a simple task; essentialising and appropriating the Global South; overlooking the multifaceted nature of marginalisation in academia; nativism; and tokenism. The objective of this article is to highlight common limitations which may be present in discussions about intellectual decolonisation so as to provide a warning that some manifestations of intellectual decolonisation may not only be inadequate but may even reinscribe coloniality.
Article
This paper highlights works created by Indigenous cartographers throughout history and reflects on the ways in which they engage ideas of space, nation, territory, and relationships to land, as well as resist colonial occupation and epistemologies. In this sense, it also asserts the technological and theoretical interventions Indigenous cartographers have contributed, and continue to contribute, to the fields of cartography and geography. Lastly, this paper makes the argument that an increase in cartographic training in Indigenous communities is necessary in ongoing efforts to document indigenous histories and cultures, as well as efforts to strengthen tribal sovereignty and mobilize towards restorative justice.
Article
This paper builds on scholarship within life course studies, particularly notions of pathway analysis, to demonstrate how such analysis can be combined with cartography in order to be applied to studies of missing and murdered indigenous women, as a means to better understand the geographies of violence they live and die in. In this sense, this work utilizes the theoretical underpinnings of pathways analysis but transforms it into an indigenized tool for narration and analysis, by linking the pathways studied with relationships to land, colonialism, and intergenerational violence. By telling the narratives of the women studied in this paper in this way, this paper demonstrates that the binaries that are frequently applied to missing and murdered indigenous women create popular knowledge on this violence that is not necessarily reflective of reality, and that when we look beyond or between these binaries, different patterns and sites of violence emerge.
Chapter
Throughout five years of collaboration, the authors have been building a language for decolonial geographies. They understand decolonial geographies to be a diverse and interconnected landscape grounded in the particularities of each place. This chapter focuses on the spatial weavings of decolonial geographies as they take form on stolen and occupied Indigenous lands and waters. It theorises decolonial geographies as a constellation in formation. The chapter traces this language from Nishnaabeg scholar, activist and artist Leanne Betasamosake Simpson's work on constellations of co‐resistance, while the author's spatial framing stems from bringing Indigenous geographies into dialogue with the geneologies of Black geographies envisioned by Katherine McKittrick and Clyde Woods (2007). The chapter also situates decolonial geographies within embodied theories and praxes of liberation to elucidate the connective fabric of various decolonial struggles. It elaborates on constellations in formation, as embodied in the present, to envision radical spatial visions of the future.
Article
A short and direct introduction sets out the context for this special section. After a brief sketch of each of the commentary pieces and how they fit together, the key question will then be posed: how are geographers now inserting themselves into these ongoing dynamics, and which particular aspects of the present moment are geography academics well-placed to address?
Article
The naming of places is one of the primary ways in which the spatial imaginaries of colonialism have been entrenched within the spaces of everyday life in settler-colonial societies. Consequently, the reclaiming of Indigenous toponymies has become a key strategy for decolonizing space and place in the neocolonial present, thereby revalorizing place-based Indigenous ontologies and challenging the neocolonial state's assertions of authority over geographical naming practices. This article examines the efforts of Indigenous peoples in WSÁNEĆ and Lekwungen Territories to reclaim their "storyscapes" through the renaming of PKOLS, a mountain known by the settler society as Mount Douglas in Saanich, British Columbia. In doing so, this study highlights how the reassertion of Indigenous ontologies of place challenges the white supremacist logic embedded in the commemorative landscapes of settler colonialism as part of the broader struggle for Indigenous self-determination. The article also draws attention to how institutions of higher education are themselves implicated in the legitimation of settler-colonial spatial imaginaries and calls upon scholars and activists to move beyond a politics of recognition, which reinforces the authority of the settlercolonial state, by decentering the heroics of settler political agency in the struggle for decolonization both on and off university campuses.
Article
Over the past forty years, recognition has become the dominant mode of negotiation and decolonization between the nation-state and Indigenous nations in North America. The term “recognition” shapes debates over Indigenous cultural distinctiveness, Indigenous rights to land and self-government, and Indigenous peoples’ right to benefit from the development of their lands and resources. In a work of critically engaged political theory, Glen Sean Coulthard challenges recognition as a method of organizing difference and identity in liberal politics, questioning the assumption that contemporary difference and past histories of destructive colonialism between the state and Indigenous peoples can be reconciled through a process of acknowledgment. Beyond this, Coulthard examines an alternative politics—one that seeks to revalue, reconstruct, and redeploy Indigenous cultural practices based on self-recognition rather than on seeking appreciation from the very agents of colonialism. Coulthard demonstrates how a “place-based” modification of Karl Marx’s theory of “primitive accumulation” throws light on Indigenous–state relations in settler-colonial contexts and how Frantz Fanon’s critique of colonial recognition shows that this relationship reproduces itself over time. This framework strengthens his exploration of the ways that the politics of recognition has come to serve the interests of settler-colonial power. In addressing the core tenets of Indigenous resistance movements, like Red Power and Idle No More, Coulthard offers fresh insights into the politics of active decolonization. © 2014 by the Regents of the University of Minnesota. All rights reserved.
Article
This special issue marks the twenty-fifth anniversary of the publication of J.B. Harley's "Deconstructing the Map" (1989), which has had a major influence in the fields of critical cartography, the history of cartography, and human geography more generally. Over the last quarter century, this essay and related works have also been widely cited by scholars from a broad range of disciplines across the social sciences and humanities, serving as a key reference for those seeking to theorize the spatial politics of maps and mapping. Through such citational practices, "Deconstructing the Map" has acquired a canonical status as one of the classics of critical cartographic theory, yet the limitations of its theoretical and methodological analyses are widely acknowledged even by Harley's strongest supporters. The contributors to this special issue discuss their own critical engagements with this foundational text as well as the extent to which Harley's work still resonates with contemporary perspectives in the field of critical cartography today. The broader aim of this collection is therefore not to further canonize Harley as the patron saint of critical cartography but rather to think through the limits of "Deconstructing the Map" to ensure that current and future theorizations of the power of mapping remain open to self-critique and new becomings.
Article
This article examines the role that place naming has played in the rescaling of the Pacific waters along the Canada/United States border as the Salish Sea. Drawing upon archival materials and a series of semi-structured interviews, we argue that the scalar framing of such waters as a delimited spatial unit was dependent upon the performative reiteration of citational practices that were employed over a period of two decades to discursively assemble these fluid multiplicities into a cartographically bounded space. Although one of the ostensible aims of this geographical designation was to acknowledge the longstanding presence of Coast Salish peoples in the region, the naming of the Salish Sea has also had the political effect of reinforcing neocolonial relations of socio-spatial dispossession by further entrenching the powers of the state as the final arbiter of geographical naming conventions. © 2015 Canadian Association of Geographers / L' Association canadienne des géographes.
Article
Cartographers have an opportunity now to make fundamental changes in the direction and scope of academic cartography. As a catalyst for change, J.B.Harley's proposal for a "postmodern' cartography is important for text-based societies like ours, but it will restrict our studies unnecessarily if taken alone. I provide a critique of postmodernist thought as applied to cartography, focusing especially on its inability to account for mapping in non-textual, non-Cartesian cultures where action and process are often crucial. Consequently, I propose a process approach to cartography as an additional basis for reorienting the field. Finally, I couple this approach with map deconstruction to interpret recent Inuit (Eskimo) toponymic mapping as part of a lengthy cross-cultural dialogue about Arctic North America. -Author
Book
This book provides an essential insight into the practices and ideas of maps and map-making. It draws on a wide range of social theorists, and theorists of maps and cartography, to show how maps and map-making have shaped the spaces in which we live.
Article
Resumo O presente trabalho discute uma proposta de produção e uso de mapas no processo de discussão da Agenda 21 para terras indígenas acreanas, envolvendo agentes agroflorestais e professores de escolas indígenas. Este grupo utiliza a Cartografia por razões diferentes e de formas não convencionais, sendo os mapas parte de sua vida e de seu trabalho. Os povos indígenas conhecem profundamente seu espaço geográfico e possuem interesse acentuado na aprendizagem e uso da linguagem cartográfica. As populações indígenas são consideradas como um grupo de usuários que possui necessidades especiais quanto a linguagem cartográfica, a qual deverá respeitar sua identidade cultural e seus valores, inclusive pelo fato de serem bilingües. A proposta de uma etnocartografia é discutida no trabalho, assim como apresentados exemplos relacionados com a construção e uso de mapas nas terras indígenas brasileiras, com especial referência às etnias atendidas pela Comissão-Pró Índio do Acre – CPI. Em Rio Branco são ministrados cursos de formação para professores e agentes agroflorestais indígenas, onde é introduzida a linguagem dos mapas, seus usos e funções, assim como desenvolvidas ações de aplicação destes recursos e das novas tecnologias de geoprocessamento. Durante os eventos realizados em 2002-2003, foi discutida e planejada a Agenda 21 das terras indígenas, com a participação de professores e agentes agroflorestais. Esta pesquisa continuou em 2004 com o projeto de mapeamento da Geografia do passado, do presente e do futuro, experiência desenvolvida durante as aulas que ocorreram no Centro de Formação da CPI, culminando em resultados a serem apresentados em 2005.
Article
Indigenous methodologies are an alternative way of thinking about research processes. Although these methodologies vary according to the ways in which different Indigenous communities express their own unique knowledge systems, they do have common traits. This article argues that research on Indigenous issues should be carried out in a manner which is respectful and ethically sound from an Indigenous perspective. This naturally challenges Western research paradigms, yet it also affords opportunities to contribute to the body of knowledge about Indigenous peoples. It is further argued that providing a mechanism for Indigenous peoples to participate in and direct these research agendas ensures that their communal needs are met, and that geographers then learn how to build ethical research relationships with them. Indigenous methodologies do not privilege Indigenous researchers because of their Indigeneity, since there are many ‘insider’ views, and these are thus suitable for both Indigenous and non-Indigenous researchers. However, there is a difference between research done within an Indigenous context using Western methodologies and research done using Indigenous methodologies which integrates Indigenous voices. This paper will discuss those differences while presenting a historical context of research on Indigenous peoples, providing further insights into what Indigenous methodologies entail, and proposing ways in which the academy can create space for this discourse.
Article
The Inuit Land Use and Occupancy Project (ILUOP) presented a detailed, comprehensive, and verifiable basis for the claim that Inuit used and occupied an area in excess of 2.8 million square kilometres at the time the ILUOP was completed in the Northwest Territories and northeast Yukon. This article describes the events that led to the ILUOP being undertaken, the methods and content of the study, and some of the outcomes following completion of the project. Se tourner vers le passé et envisager l’avenir: les 35 ans du projet d’étude sur l’utilisation et l’occupation des terres par les Inuits Au terme de ce projet (Inuit Land Use and Occupancy Project – ILUOP), des preuves détaillées, complètes et démontrables ont été présentées pour soutenir les revendications de l’occupation par les Inuits sur les terres d’une superficie de plus de 2,8 millions de kilomètres carrés situées dans les Territoires du Nord-Ouest et dans le nord-est du Yukon. Cet article fait un rappel des principaux jalons qui ont marqué le lancement du projet, précise la teneur et les modalités de sa mise en œuvre et dresse un bilan des résultats obtenus.
Article
ABSTRACTSThis paper examines the politics of land and forest rights in Kalimantan (Indonesian Borneo). Forest mapping by government forestry planners allocates rights of resource use and land access according to forest types and economic objectives, only rarely recognizing indigenous occupancy rights or forest territories customarily claimed or managed by local people. As maps and official plans based on them ignore, and in some cases criminalize, traditional rights to forest, forest products, and forest land for temporary conversion to swidden agriculture, indigenous activists are using sketch maps to re-claim territories - a process that requires re-defining many traditional forest rights. The paper considers the political implications of mapping and the implications of a focus on land use rather than forest use.
Article
Utilizing a partially autobiographical format, this article considers the practice and study of race within geography. I argue that the overwhelmingly white composition of the discipline has very real implications for both individual experiences and our intellectual production and disciplinary culture. I explore these issues by drawing on my own experiences as a Chicana within geography, and by examining the extent to which one area of research, environmental justice, has engaged questions of race and the consequences of that engagement. I conclude with some general remarks on what it might take to significantly diversify geography.
Article
This is the publisher's version, also available electronically from ‘Caliber’ (http://caliber.ucpress.net/) or ‘AnthroSource’ (http://www.aaanet.org/publications/anthrosource/).
Ethno Zoning, Ethno Mapping, and Ethno-environmental Assessment: Cartographic Representations and Territorial Management in Indigenous Lands in the State of Acre
  • C Correia
  • Etnozoneamento
  • Diagnóstico Etnomapeamento
  • Etnoambiental
Edward Colston Statue: Protesters Tear Down Slave Trader Monument
  • Bbc
BBC. 2020. "Edward Colston Statue: Protesters Tear Down Slave Trader Monument." BBC News, 8 June. Available at https://www. bbc.com/news/uk-52954305.
  • Coulthard G.
Sovereignty’s Alchemy: An Analysis of v
  • J Borrows
Remapping a Place: How One Tribe's Art Reconnects Them to Their Land. Go Project Films
  • J Enote
Enote, J. 2018. Remapping a Place: How One Tribe's Art Reconnects Them to Their Land. Go Project Films. Available at https:// emergencemagazine.org/story/counter-mapping.
  • Simpson L.B.
You People Talk from Paper': Indigenous Law, Western Legalism, and the Cultural Variability of Law's Materials
  • J Stauffer
Stauffer, J. 2019. "'You People Talk from Paper': Indigenous Law, Western Legalism, and the Cultural Variability of Law's Materials." Law Text Culture 23: 40-57. Available at https://ro.uow.edu.au/ltc/ vol23/iss1/4.