ArticlePDF Available

Exploring Children's Career Planning Through Career Guidance Activities: A Case Study

Authors:

Abstract and Figures

Researchers should widen their exploration of career planning through career guidance activities among children. Studies and researches have been done linked to career planning from childhood will have an impact on their career choices in future. This study aimed to explore the impact of career planning by children through their career guidance activities. This study is conducted on 12-year-old children who have issues with their career planning process. The findings show that there are four themes that have been successfully identified, namely the understanding of career, sources of career information disclosure, career choice and understanding of employment through parents’ occupation.
Content may be subject to copyright.
International Journal of Academic Research in Progressive Education and
Development
Vol. 10, No. 2, 2021, E-ISSN: 2226-6348 © 2021 HRMARS
754
Full Terms & Conditions of access and use can be found at
http://hrmars.com/index.php/pages/detail/publication-ethics
Exploring Children’s Career Planning Through Career
Guidance Activities: A Case Study
Mohammad Hazim Amir Nordin, Hong Chee Seng
To Link this Article: http://dx.doi.org/10.6007/IJARPED/v10-i2/10071 DOI:10.6007/IJARPED/v10-i2/10071
Received: 01 April 2021, Revised: 26 April 2021, Accepted: 18 May 2021
Published Online: 21 June 2021
In-Text Citation: (Nordin & Seng, 2021)
To Cite this Article: Nordin, M. H. A., & Seng, H. C. (2021). Exploring Children’s Career Planning Through Career
Guidance Activities: A Case Study. International Journal of Academic Research in Progressive Education and
Development, 10(2), 754765.
Copyright: © 2021 The Author(s)
Published by Human Resource Management Academic Research Society (www.hrmars.com)
This article is published under the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY 4.0) license. Anyone may reproduce, distribute,
translate and create derivative works of this article (for both commercial and non-commercial purposes), subject to full
attribution to the original publication and authors. The full terms of this license may be seen
at: http://creativecommons.org/licences/by/4.0/legalcode
Vol. 10(2) 2021, Pg. 754 - 765
http://hrmars.com/index.php/pages/detail/IJARPED
JOURNAL HOMEPAGE
International Journal of Academic Research in Progressive Education and
Development
Vol. 10, No. 2, 2021, E-ISSN: 2226-6348 © 2021 HRMARS
755
Exploring Children’s Career Planning Through
Career Guidance Activities: A Case Study
Mohammad Hazim Amir Nordin
Faculty of Education and Human Development Sultan Idris Education University Malaysia
Hong Chee Seng
Faculty of Education and Human Development Sultan Idris Education University Malaysia
Abstract
Researchers should widen their exploration of career planning through career guidance activities
among children. Studies and researches have been done linked to career planning from childhood
will have an impact on their career choices in future. This study aimed to explore the impact of
career planning by children through their career guidance activities. This study is conducted on
12-year-old children who have issues with their career planning process. The findings show that
there are four themes that have been successfully identified, namely the understanding of
career, sources of career information disclosure, career choice and understanding of
employment through parents’ occupation.
Keywords: Exploration, Children, Career, Guidance, Planning
Introduction
In general, career planning is an individual process in making self -assessment, evaluation of
career opportunities and action planning correlated to their career objectives. All in one, the
starting point in this career selection process is to start since one is still a child and is in school.
The process of planning and choosing the right career is able to determine the pattern of a
person's life in the future and it will have an impact on the well-being of their lives.
Children’s Career Guidance
Career guidance to children refers to a process given systematically and continuously in order to
form competencies and attitudes towards career planning, higher levels of learning (flow
breakdown), adaption to the environment or any progress towards planning, selection and
career. Kashefpakdal, Rehill & Hughes (2018) explained that career development is a maturation
process towards life management, learning and world of employment. The process of children's
career guidance is more focused on early career exposures that can be developed through
knowledge and skills; integrated through teaching and learning or through non-academic
International Journal of Academic Research in Progressive Education and
Development
Vol. 10, No. 2, 2021, E-ISSN: 2226-6348 © 2021 HRMARS
756
programs such as career counselling, clubs and associations or entrepreneurship programs,
leadership programs and etc. Therefore, career planning is seen as an important thing for
children because it can not only help increases their motivation to achieve what desires them the
most and ambitions, but with the existence of career planning, it can provide early awareness to
children to make their own career choices and further strategies for their life goals.
Figure 1: Scope of child career guidance application.
Figure 1 explains scope that can be applied during the process of children's career
guidance; an early exposure to the career, career skills that can be learned, social and emotional
management and contextual learning. For children, thinking about a career is a long-term plan
because of the age factor, there are still a long way for them to reach the working age. However,
it is not a barrier for them to recognize and understand jobs field available based on the socio -
environment or outside their environment. The initial exposure that can be given to children is
to identify types of jobs, understand field of work, exposed to role of the job in the community,
or gain experience directly or indirectly in any field of work. In coaching process, approaches that
can be used are gamification, competitions, interview their chosen career icons, role-playing
activities, acting and others. This early exposure is able to shape children’s inclinations and
interests towards the choice of a career as an ambition. Meaning that the influence of the
environment through this early exposure does not limit children’s career choices based on people
who are significant to themselves alone.
Next, career skills that can be learned. For example, entrepreneurial skills, leadership
skills, problem solving skills, communication skills and other skills that are considered necessary.
All of these job skills are also an early exposure in preparing children towards the process of their
career planning and selection. Child's attitude can be formed so that it can be an encouragement
and motivation to children in achieving their ambitions. Approaches that can be used to transmit
children’s early knowledge and experience are through activities suggested such as experimental
learning activities and project-based activities. In addition, exposure to social and emotional
management is also an important element in career guidance. This is because, social
Early exposure to
career
Career skills that can
be learned
Social and emotional
management
Contextual learning
International Journal of Academic Research in Progressive Education and
Development
Vol. 10, No. 2, 2021, E-ISSN: 2226-6348 © 2021 HRMARS
757
management is a method for children to learn and master their socialization skills and at the
same time make them understand how social structures and systems work. As for emotional
management, it aims to help children to make good judgments and be selective on their career
planning. This to ensure they are able to prepare their emotions in good condition and under
control if what has been planned is unachievable. It can be seen the implications for children are
so that they can train themselves rational and positive thinking in achieving their ambitions.
Contextual learning refers to programs or activities conducted either in teaching and learning or
non-academically where students are given direct exposure and experience through series of
sharing with successful individuals in their careers. This will enable children to see the world of
work in their own scope. The experience and knowledge shared can be used as a guidance in the
career planning and selection process.
Children’s Career Planning
Career planning is a process a person goes through to determine a lifelong work plan. Career
planning also refers to the assessment of abilities and interests, take into consideration of career
choices and opportunities, formulating career goals and practical planning of development
activities. Career planning is also a process of a person choosing their career goals and trying to
achieve those goals (Brown, 2003; Wether & Davis, 1996). Findings show that orderly, effective
career planning and management is important for an individual. This is because, the main
emphasis in this process is goal setting which shows that the individual has a clear vision of the
future and provides a satisfying target in performing the task (Greenhaus, Callanan & Kaplan
(1995). Career planning is one of the phases that need to be passed in life towards maturity and
it is a process to increase the chances of getting a job that fits one’s career goals (Kosine & Lewis,
2008). Career planning phase is different for each individual. This phase shows some personal
factors that constantly change the experience of an individual.
These personal factors in turn will have an impact on the formation of individual career
interests whether it is successful or unsuccessful in making one’s future career plans
systematically. One out many personal factors of career planning for children is personality.
Differences in personality structure cause a person to form certain needs that can only be met
through job choices (Teevan, 1954). One of the major studies on personality is the division on
personality dimensions by Barrick & Mount, (1993) namely the Big Five. They have studied the
relationship between personality dimensions which has been divided into five main dimensions.
The first five main dimensions are extrovert (extraversion) which includes social, talkative
and assertive. Next, agreeableness it is a good attitude, cooperation and trust. Third,
conscientiousness which is responsible, dependent, persistent and achievement oriented.
Fourth, emotional stability and last but not least is openness to experience, which is imaginative,
artistically sensitive and intellectual. The personality inventory introduced by a local researcher,
the Sidek Personality Test (Noah, 2001), is a combination of western researchers who focus their
research on aspects of career interests, namely John L. Holland. What is interesting about this
Sidek Personality Test is that it has broken down or divided the large personality dimensions in
the Big Five into smaller traits. The fifteen personality traits are aggressive, analytical,
International Journal of Academic Research in Progressive Education and
Development
Vol. 10, No. 2, 2021, E-ISSN: 2226-6348 © 2021 HRMARS
758
autonomous, lean, extrovert, intellectual, introvert, diversity, resilience, self-criticism,
controlling, helping, supportive, structural and achievement.
The next factor is interest. Interest propensity is important in career planning because
individuals which involved in a particular occupation tend to like or dislike certain things in the
occupation and this is what distinguishes them from other individuals in other occupational
groups as well as the general public (Shertzer & Stone, 1981). According to Strong, (1955) a
person's interest changes quite a lot between the age of fifteen and twenty years old where they
become more stable and does not change much. Most of the changes that occur upon maturity
will decrease at the age of twenty years old and become more systematic based on interest
inventory data. Super (1980), has made four interpretations on the term of interest.
Super Interpretation can be summarized as follows. Firstly, individuals who can expressed
verbally towards an object, task or occupation. The person can state thing that they like or dislikes
and indifference towards their occupations. The second manifested interest is the involvement
in occupation. Objective of the manifestation on interest is studied to avoid the subjective state
of a statement. The third interest refers to interest that measured by objective testing and which
differs from inventory based on subjectively self-estimation. It is assumed that interest in a job is
often demonstrated through action and it should result in a collection of relevant information
and the fourth is an inventory of interests, which refers to the evaluation of one’s main choices
of various occupations.
The next factor is talent. A person’s performance in a career field is influenced by a
combination of various special talents or abilities. Each job has different needs in terms of specific
talents. The requirements in terms of quality and competencies required in a job are also
different. Any type of job usually requires some competency and identified as an early
requirement (Shertzer & Stone, 1981). A person’s talent influences the level of work one’s may
achieve, the training one’s may enter and the quality of work one’s able to do. However, one’s
talent has no equal affinity with all of these possibilities. As noted earlier, special talents are more
related to success in training than to success in job performance. This is probably because success
in job performance is based on a broader set of expectations and criteria than success in training.
According to Super (1957), humans differ in terms of abilities, interests and personalities.
Therefore, they are eligible to enter various types of jobs. This is because, every job has a specific
pattern that can accommodate a wide variety of people in each job.
In fact, motivation is also one of the contributing factors to the career selection process.
Each individual has different aspirations, backgrounds and different experiences (Walker, 1980).
This can be seen in terms of individual personalities that can be formed through interaction with
different environments. Based on the research that has been done by Edger Schein (Walker,
1980) there are five motivational differences that influence an individual’s career planning.
Among them is management competence. The career goal for managers is to shape the quality
of interpersonal, analytical and emotional competence of employees. Individuals who use this
motivation have a goal to encourage others.
International Journal of Academic Research in Progressive Education and
Development
Vol. 10, No. 2, 2021, E-ISSN: 2226-6348 © 2021 HRMARS
759
Next to technical or functional competence i.e. motivation for technical function is the
continuous development of technical talent. These individuals will not stress on the aspect of self
-development in the field of management. One out of the others is safety where individuals who
prioritize this motivation are very concerned about a stable work situation. Usually they will see
themselves as close or well-integrated with the organization. Next is creativity where creative
individuals will always try to explore or they will create something to get outcomes from the
achievement of their goals. While the latter is autonomy and fortune where it refers to
individuals who love freedom and have the desire to work free from organizational barriers and
restrictions. This causes individuals tend to be leaders and self-employed.
Figure 2. Barrick and Mount Children’s career planning factors, Seng (2020).
Children’s Career Planning Process
There are four stages of the career planning process through the career and academic
planning model (academic career plan model); to know, explore, plan and carry out planning
(Evers, 2017). Knowing refers to self -awareness where the individual needs to make an
assessment of self-interests and strengths, make self -reflection and goal setting, understand and
have knowledge of financial and resource management aspects, master academic skills and
preparatory skills and lastly understand types of behavior and master career preparation skills.
Exploring aspect is to explore the activities and learning syllabus at a higher level, explore the
world of careers and the needs of the market, make comparisons on career skills training at the
Pesonal factors
Personality
Extrovert
Approving attitude
Persistence
Emotional stability
Interest
Talent
Motivation
Managing efficiency
Technical/functional
competence
Safety
Creativity
International Journal of Academic Research in Progressive Education and
Development
Vol. 10, No. 2, 2021, E-ISSN: 2226-6348 © 2021 HRMARS
760
secondary school level. The next aspect is planning where individuals are required to master
planning skills, started planning at the lower secondary, upper secondary and university levels.
Finally is career management which is to run a planning plan, keep the plan updated with new
information, attend seminars and mentoring programs.
As for children, career planning process does not involve direct career choice as what
happens to adults. Children’s need for family planning involves planning in academics and their
early exposure towards what type of career interests them the most. This academic and career
development provides space and opportunities for children to make self-exploration, career
exploration and form mastery of career development and planning skills. While at primary or
lower secondary school level, children are able to develop career potential and talents through
the formation of attitudes and habits in a productive way of learning. They can also increase their
self-confidence and at the same time give them prospect to learn in decision making. In child
career development model (Super, 1990) there are nine concepts highlighted as shown in the
figure below.
Figure 3. Child career development model (Super, 1990).
Through nine concepts introduced by Super 1990 in figure 3, curiosity refers to a child’s
exploratory power to study, learn and wonder. Exploration is the act of gathering information
about the environment and meeting the satisfaction needs of exploration. Children explore their
environment, home, school and etc. Next, the information which children are capable of having
awareness and realize the importance of career-related information. While icon is a role model,
an individual who has a significant relationship with children in providing them exposure to the
world of career and the concept of personality. Interest, on the other hand, refers to things that
child is interested in or not interested in. Next, the locus of control where it occurs to children
gradually. Time perspective refers to a child’s ability to see the past, present and future in terms
Curiosity
Exploration
Information
Icon
Interest
Locus of
control
Time
perspective
Self-concept
Planning
International Journal of Academic Research in Progressive Education and
Development
Vol. 10, No. 2, 2021, E-ISSN: 2226-6348 © 2021 HRMARS
761
of future career planning. In addition, the concept of self in the nine concepts shows the
individual dimension in exploring a particular situation or certain circumstances. Finally, planning
which is clear planning and to help children in making their decisions.
Figure 4. Children’s career planning process.
Figure 4 explains some of the career planning processes that can be applied to children.
The first is to value self-worth. Children are guided to recognize their self-worth that leads
towards appropriate career choice. Next, identify their self-ability. Children are guided to identify
their own strengths and weaknesses so that they can make a connection with the type of career
chosen by them. Besides that, children are also will be guided to pick out skills they owned or
mastered because the tendency of interest in career choice is based on the skills they have. The
next step is students are guided to spot their career category and point out factors of their career
selection based on their skills and abilities. This is to ensure their career choice is applicable and
does not burden the child. Lastly is to make an appraisal through processing the experiences and
perspectives of children and adults.
Value self-
worth
Identify self-
ability
Pick out skills
you owned
Spot your
career
category
Point out
factors of
career
selection
Appraisal
International Journal of Academic Research in Progressive Education and
Development
Vol. 10, No. 2, 2021, E-ISSN: 2226-6348 © 2021 HRMARS
762
Sample of Study
Sample study consisted of a 12-year-old boy, currently attending a government school in Kuala
Lumpur and experiencing issues in his career planning process. Participant is a student who come
from modest socio-economic demographics, Malay ethnic and candidate of an excellent student
in his school.
Findings and Discussion of Study
The researcher was able to conclude that there are four main themes that can be found through
discussion and comparison between participant’s dialogue transcription and his structured
coding book.
Figure 5. Superordinate themes of career awareness, four main themes of the study.
Researchers found that career awareness was the first element in influencing children’s
early career planning followed by themes that included career understanding, sources of career
information disclosure, career choice and understanding of parental employment. These side of
elements are also among the contributing factors for students get to know career world and
begin to make their career choices through their imagination. Next, the importance of career
planning is a second major theme which students begin to expose towards the awareness
gathering early carrier planning experience in reality. Therefore, steps in career planning are
third superordinate theme found when there are similarities in the implementation of
respondents’ respective strategies to succeed in their initial career planning. Finally, the
researchers were also able to identify fourth superordinate theme which he also faced some
trials in career planning and there are variances in handling their challenges in real world.
Researchers are also able to pinpoint the perspectives of study participants by showing
the concept of career as their job option in the future and a dream that can be achieved. For
example, study participants stated that: “Uh… to me the word career means… what career will I
choose in the future. Uh… work”. But on the other hand, the knowledge of participants about
popular jobs nowadays is very limited. Lack of exposure to the latest career trends in its
environment is one of the reasons why. Through interviews, researchers also have the
opportunity to explore participant’s disclosure information of career. He has collected career
information through observations based on his daily life where he obtains information related to
his family members’ career and observes their work routines. Thus, it can be seen that the
participant is able to access information better on type of work which is related to his life through
his parents or input that is conveyed indirectly from the media.
Career understanding
Sources of
career
information
disclosure
Career choice Understanding
of parental
employment
International Journal of Academic Research in Progressive Education and
Development
Vol. 10, No. 2, 2021, E-ISSN: 2226-6348 © 2021 HRMARS
763
In line with his existing career knowledge, he is also able to make career choices at an
early stage of his career development. It is proven when he has expressed his desire I want to
become a lawyer” during his interviews. This show that children are starting to build career
awareness fundamentally. Factors influencing the career choice of participant can also be
detected from media, self-interest, parental advice based on their career experience, and his
ambitions since childhood. Participant had advocacy as a lawyer through drama viewing. He
tends to make his own career exploration through the various aspects. In addition, interview
indicators indicated that participant lacks of his understanding towards the importance of career
planning or the opposite. The statement of the study findings can be explained by his stands
towards career planning. However, his lack of understanding towards the importance of career
planning clearly can be seen through his response when he shook his head as a sign of
misunderstanding after researchers asked about the topic.
Researchers also discovered that participant adhere to his self-principle; not easily to
give up and strive to achieve his life goals. Having a clear direction and high self-confidence is a
driving factor in career planning. It can be seen through the interview "You have to work hard,
then you will earn it." "It gave me a lesson to uh..try and we will get what we want”. Furthermore,
parents’ characteristic plays a dominant role in giving influence and encouragement to
participants in doing his career planning. In his early stages, he is lacked of understanding in
knowing the purpose and steps in designing his career. He usually receives a lot of mental and
physical support from his parents. This can be seen through his sharing during the interview
“Umm, my mom is a teacher, so she has been educating me since childhood and she has told me
to achieve something, we have to work for it”. For further action in his implementation of career
planning, participant will set the academic path to his dream secondary school or follows his
career figures’ step who achieve success in life and it can be seen through his interviews with
researchers “My target is to get 6 A’s and I want to enter MRSM ”.
Conclusion
In the nutshell, it is proven that career planning process does not only occur during the early
stages of adolescence. It also should be applied to children so that the process of planning their
career happened well in the future. In addition, other than taking responsibility for academic
learning and personal development, career planning is also one of the obstacles that children
face; considering the early selection of suitable career would give big impact on the development
of a person's life long journey. Further research can be done to explore more about children
career planning and career decision.
Authors Contribution
Mohammad Hazim Amir Nordin and Hong Chee Seng contributed to the development of the
contextual, theoretical and study design. Hong Chee Seng performed the data analysis whilst
Mohammad Hazim Amir Nordin drafted the manuscript and made the critical revisions in the
study. Authors had discussed the results, implications, literature and approved the final version
of the manuscript for submission.
International Journal of Academic Research in Progressive Education and
Development
Vol. 10, No. 2, 2021, E-ISSN: 2226-6348 © 2021 HRMARS
764
Acknowledgement
Acknowledgement to Associate Prof. Dr. Noraini Ismail and Dr. Pau Kee from Faculty of Education
and Human Development Sultan Idris Education University for the splendid advice and also Mrs.
Noraitah Marusin and Mrs Adila Arifah Abdul Hadi for the valuable discussion and opinion in this
study.
Corresponding Author
Mohammad Hazim Amir Nordin
Faculty of Education and Human Development, Sultan Idris Education University, Malaysia.
Email: mohammad_hazim@yahoo.com
Reference
Barrick, M. R., & Mount, M. K. (1993). Autonomy as a moderator of the relationships between
the big five personality dimensions and job performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78,
111-118.
Brown, D. (2003). Career information, career counselling, and career development (8th ed.).
Boston: Pearson Education.
Evers, T. (2017). Implementing academic and career planning. USA: Wisconsin Department of
Public Instruction.
Greenhaus, J. H., Callanan, G. A., & Kaplan, E. (1995). The role of goal setting in
Career management. International Journal of Management. 7(5). 3-12.
Kashefpakdal, E., Rehill, J., & Hughes, D. (2018). What work? career-related learning in primary
school. United Kingdom: Career & Enterprise Company.
Kosine, N. R., & Lewis, M. V. (2008). Growth and exploration: Career development theory and
program of study. Career and Technical Education Research. 33(3), 227-243.
Seng, H. C. (2020). Fenomenologi tentang pengalaman awal murid tahun enam dalammembuat
perancangan kerjaya. [Unpublished Master’s Thesis]. Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris.
Shertzer, B., & Stone, S. C. (1981). Fundamentals of guidance (4th ed.). Boston: Houghton
Mifflin.
Noah, S. M. (2001). Perkembangan kerjaya teori dan praktis. Serdang: Universiti Putra
Malaysia.
Strong, E. K. (1955). Vocational interests 18 years after college. Minneapolis: University of
Minnesota Press.
Super, D. E. (1957). The psychology of careers; an introduction to vocational development.
New York: Harper & Bros.
Super, D. E. (1980). A life span, life space approach to career development. Journal
of Vocational Behaviour. 16(3), 282-298.
Super, D. E. (1990). A life-span, life-space approach to career development. In D.
Brown & L. Brooks, Career choice and development: Applying contemporary theories to
practice (pp. 197261). Jossey-Bass.
Teevan, R. C. (1954). Personality correlates of undergraduate field of specialization. Journal
of Consulting Psychology, 18(3), 212214.
Walker, J. W. (1980). Human resource planning. New York: McGraw-Hill.
International Journal of Academic Research in Progressive Education and
Development
Vol. 10, No. 2, 2021, E-ISSN: 2226-6348 © 2021 HRMARS
765
Werther, J., & Davis, K. (1996). Human resources and personnel management. 5th Edition. New
York: McGraw-Hill.
... Nordin and Hong aimed to explore the impact of career coaching activities on children's CP. eir study was conducted on 12-year olds who were having problems with the CP process. e findings showed that four topics were successfully identified, namely, occupational understanding, sources of occupational information disclosure, occupational choice, and employment understanding through parental occupations [3]. Hung and others investigated the motivations that led Vietnamese students to choose to study in Taiwan. ...
Article
Full-text available
As China’s education enters a high-level stage, more and more students graduate from Chinese colleges and universities. In particular, the current employment environment is flexible and multilateral, and there are more and more opportunities to choose from. In view of this situation, this article aims to visualize the career planning (CP) path of college students, so as to help college students adapt to the environment of flexible employment. For deep learning and big data (DLBA) technology, this article proposes the LSTM-Canopy algorithm, which is added to the traditional Canopy algorithm to enhance the self-learning clustering ability of the algorithm. Also, this study applies this algorithm to the visualization system of college students’ CP path, which can effectively improve the analysis and judgment of experts on career. The experiments in this article have proved that the system can meet the normal use of 400–500 users, and the system server has successfully passed 40 load tests, and the running time is also less than 2.5s, which proves the reliability of the system.
Article
Full-text available
Super's theory of career development states that the life stages of growth and exploration are inherent to the process of acquiring knowledge of how one's interests and abilities align with the requirements of occupations. Virtually all high school students are in the exploratory stage of their career development. This article examines the implications of this stage for the choices high school students must make concerning programs of study. Evidence relative to the theory and effectiveness of interventions designed to facilitate career development is reviewed.
Chapter
Human resource planning (HRP) is necessary to support the implementation of business strategy. In the rapidly changing context of the 1990s, however, traditional approaches are yielding to more flexible forms of planning. This article describes how companies are using HRP to address the impact of change: simpler, shorter-range planning; a focus on issues; focused data analysis; and emphasis on action planning.
Article
In this study we investigated the moderating role of autonomy on the relationships between the Big Five personality dimensions and supervisor ratings of job performance. On the basis of data from 146 managers, results indicated that two dimensions of personality, Conscientiousness (r =.25) and Extraversion (r =.14), were significantly related to job performance. Consistent with our expectations, the validity of Conscientiousness and Extraversion was greater for managers in jobs high in autonomy compared with those in jobs low in autonomy. The validity of Agreeableness was also higher in high-autonomy jobs compared with low-autonomy ones, but the correlation was negative. These findings suggest that degree of autonomy in the job moderates the validity of at least some personality predictors. Implications for future research are noted.
Article
This study tried to discover whether personality factors were correlated with choice of a major in undergraduate college. The Blacky Pictures were used for obtaining personality characteristics. Chief results obtained: (1) Majors in "literature" had higher disturbance scores on Oral Eroticism than the other two groups of majors. (2) "Social sciences" group had higher disturbance scores on Oral Sadism, Oedipal Intensity, Guilt Feelings, and Anaclitic Love Object. (3) The "science" group had the lowest disturbance scores on nearly all categories.
Career information, career counselling, and career development
  • D Brown
Brown, D. (2003). Career information, career counselling, and career development (8th ed.). Boston: Pearson Education.
Implementing academic and career planning
  • T Evers
Evers, T. (2017). Implementing academic and career planning. USA: Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction.
What work? career-related learning in primary school
  • E Kashefpakdal
  • J Rehill
  • D Hughes
Kashefpakdal, E., Rehill, J., & Hughes, D. (2018). What work? career-related learning in primary school. United Kingdom: Career & Enterprise Company.