Two perspectives – one goal: resilience research in protected mountain regions

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Protected areas (PAs) remain central to the conservation of biodiversity. Classical PAs were conceived as areas that would be set aside to maintain a natural state with minimal human influence. However, global environmental change and growing cross-scale anthropogenic influences mean that PAs can no longer be thought of as ecological islands that function independently of the broader social-ecological system in which they are located. For PAs to be resilient (and to contribute to broader social-ecological resilience), they must be able to adapt to changing social and ecological conditions over time in a way that supports the long-term persistence of populations, communities, and ecosystems of conservation concern. We extend Ostrom's social-ecological systems framework to consider the long-term persistence of PAs, as a form of land use embedded in social-ecological systems, with important cross-scale feedbacks. Most notably, we highlight the cross-scale influences and feedbacks on PAs that exist from the local to the global scale, contextualizing PAs within multi-scale social-ecological functional landscapes. Such functional landscapes are integral to understand and manage individual PAs for long-term sustainability. We illustrate our conceptual contribution with three case studies that highlight cross-scale feedbacks and social-ecological interactions in the functioning of PAs and in relation to regional resilience. Our analysis suggests that while ecological, economic, and social processes are often directly relevant to PAs at finer scales, at broader scales, the dominant processes that shape and alter PA resilience are primarily social and economic.
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Nepal's quake-driven landslide hazards Large earthquakes can trigger dangerous landslides across a wide geographic region. The 2015 M w 7.8 Gorhka earthquake near Kathmandu, Nepal, was no exception. Kargal et al. used remote observations to compile a massive catalog of triggered debris flows. The satellite-based observations came from a rapid response team assisting the disaster relief effort. Schwanghart et al. show that Kathmandu escaped the historically catastrophic landslides associated with earthquakes in 1100, 1255, and 1344 C.E. near Nepal's second largest city, Pokhara. These two studies underscore the importance of determining slope stability in mountainous, earthquake-prone regions. Science , this issue p. 10.1126/science.aac8353 ; see also p. 147
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Coupled human and natural systems (CHANS) manifest various complexities such as heterogeneity, nonlinearity, feedback, and emergence. Humans play a critical role in affecting such systems and in giving rise to various environmental consequences, which may in turn affect future human decisions and behavior. In light of complexity theory and its application in CHANS, this paper reviews various decision models used in agent based simulations of CHANS dynamics, discussing their strengths and weaknesses. This paper concludes by advocating development of more process-based decision models as well as protocols or architectures that facilitate better modeling of human decisions in various CHANS.
Future changes in climate pose significant challenges for society, not the least of which is how best to adapt to observed and potential future impacts of these changes to which the world is already committed. Adaptation is a dynamic social process: the ability of societies to adapt is determined, in part, by the ability to act collectively. This article reviews emerging perspectives on collective action and social capital and argues that insights from these areas inform the nature of adaptive capacity and normative prescriptions of policies of adaptation. Specifically, social capital is increasingly understood within economics to have public and private elements, both of which are based on trust, reputation, and reciprocal action. The public-good aspects of particular forms of social capital are pertinent elements of adaptive capacity in interacting with natural capital and in relation to the performance of institutions that cope with the risks of changes in climate. Case studies are presented of present-day collective action for coping with extremes in weather in coastal areas in Southeast Asia and of community-based coastal management in the Caribbean. These cases demonstrate the importance of social capital framing both the public and private institutions of resource management that build resilience in the face of the risks of changes in climate. These cases illustrate, by analogy, the nature of adaptation processes and collective action in adapting to future changes in climate.
Proposes a protection motivation theory that postulates the 3 crucial components of a fear appeal to be (a) the magnitude of noxiousness of a depicted event, (b) the probability of that event's occurrence, and (c) the efficacy of a protective response. Each of these communication variables initiates corresponding cognitive appraisal processes that mediate attitude change. The proposed conceptualization is a special case of a more comprehensive theoretical schema: expectancy-value theories. Several suggestions are offered for reinterpreting existing data, designing new types of empirical research, and making future studies more comparable. The principal advantages of protection motivation theory over the rival formulations of I. L. Janis and of H. Leventhal are discussed. (81 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Governing norms by which to steer traditional government functions are well established and understood; however, this is not the case for the new multi-level and collaborative approaches that characterize protected area governance. This is largely new territory that makes novel demands on governance institutions and policy. In this context, establishing and maintaining good governance across the diversity of ownership and responsibility arrangements is critical for the future effectiveness and acceptability of protected areas. Fulfilling the promise and avoiding the pitfalls inherent in contemporary protected area governance will require an understanding of what is meant by 'good governance' and development of associated mechanisms to assess performance and provide a basis for improvement. This paper's contribution lies in the guidance it provides for the hitherto under-developed area of governance quality assessment. I first present a framework that positions governance quality in relation to governance and management effectiveness. I then characterize good protected area governance according to a set of seven principles - legitimacy, transparency, accountability, inclusiveness, fairness, connectivity and resilience. Together, the framework, governance principles and related performance outcomes provide a platform for assessment of governance quality for an individual terrestrial protected area, a network of several protected areas, or a national protected area system.
Towards a Comparable Quantification of Resilience
  • G D F Hutter
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Hutter, G. & D.F. Lorenz 2018. Social Resilience. In: Fuchs, S. & T. Thaler (eds.), Vulnerability and Resilience to Natural Hazards: 190-213 Cambridge. ICIMOD 2011. Glacial lakes and glacial lake outburstfloods in Nepal. Kathmandu, Nepal. Ingrisch, J. & M. Bahn 2018. Towards a Comparable Quantification of Resilience. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 33: 251-259.
From resilience to resourcefulness
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MacKinnon, D. & K.D. Derickson 2012. From resilience to resourcefulness. Progress in Human Geography 37: 253-270.
An indicator framework for assessing livelihood resilience in the context of social-ecological dynamics
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Schulz, M. 2012. Quick and easy!? Fokusgruppen in der angewandten Sozialwissenschaft. In: Schulz, M., B. Mack & O. Renn (eds.), Fokusgruppen in der empirischen Sozialwissenschaft: Von der Konzeption bis zur Auswertung. Wiesbaden. Scoones, I. 1998. Sustainable Rural Livelihoods: A Framework for Analysis. Speranza, C.I., U. Wiesmann & S. Rist 2014. An indicator framework for assessing livelihood resilience in the context of social-ecological dynamics. Global Environmental Change 28: 109-119. Stern, P.C. 1999. A Value-Belief-Norm Theory of Support for Social Movements: The Case of Environmentalism. Human Ecology Review 6: 81-97.
Protected areas as social-ecological systems: perspectives from resilience and sociol-ecological systems theory
Der sozioökonomische Strukturwandel des inneren Ötztales (Gemeinde Sölden) -Untersuchungen über Bevölkerungsentwicklung, Arbeitskräfte und Fremdenverkehr. In: Patzelt, G. (ed.), MaB -Projekt Obergurgl: 25-114. Innsbruck. Cumming, G. & C. Allen 2017. Protected areas as social-ecological systems: perspectives from resilience and sociol-ecological systems theory. Ecological Applications 27: 1709-1717.
A conceptual analysis of livelihoods and resilience: addressing the 'insecurity of agency
  • A S Pain
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Pain, A. & S. Levine 2012. A conceptual analysis of livelihoods and resilience: addressing the 'insecurity of agency'. HPG Working Paper. Overseas Development Institute (ODI).