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Rosa Damascene Mill. (Rose): A versatile herb in cosmetology



With the improvement of economic status and the desire for beauty, the interest in health and skin care is increasing. For these demands, since ages medicinal plants are in vogue. A variety of plants, cosmetics and foods with novel bioactive ingredients for skin care and beauty are under constant research and development. Skin is influenced by various factors such as Ultraviolet rays, stress, hormones and aging which together lead skin to lose elasticity, changes in pigmentation and wrinkle formation. Many medicinal plants have proven effects in skin care and beauty treatment. From this list of medicinal plants, one which is famous for its beauty, flavor and fragrance is Rosa damascene. Rosa damascene has many therapeutic action and postulated pharmacological studies such as anti-arthritic, anti-microbial, cardio protective, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, analgesic, immune-modulator, gastro-protective, and skin ameliorative effect. Research in the field of Cosmetology has proven the effect of Rosa damascene in rehydrating skin, reducing scars and stretches, acne management, lowering skin pigmentation, delaying wrinkling and is recommended as a skin vitalizing agent. In this review, the morphology, chemical constituents, and some pharmacological activity are discussed.
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Review article
Rosa Damascene Mill. (Rose): A versatile herb in cosmetology
Yasmeen Ahmed1, S.Shakir Jamil2, Ayshah Hashimi1, Mantasha Binth Siraj1, Umar Jahangir3
1MD Scholars, 2Professor, 3Assistant Professor, Department of Moalajat, School of Unani Medicine Education and Research,
Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi, India
With the improvement of economic status and the desire for beauty, the interest in health and skin care is
increasing. For these demands, since ages medicinal plants are in vogue. A variety of plants, cosmetics
and foods with novel bioactive ingredients for skin care and beauty are under constant research and
development. Skin is influenced by various factors such as Ultra-violet rays, stress, hormones and aging
which together lead skin to lose elasticity, changes in pigmentation and wrinkle formation. Many
medicinal plants have proven effects in skin care and beauty treatment. From this list of medicinal plants,
one which is famous for its beauty, flavor and fragrance is Rosa damascene.
Rosa damascene has many therapeutic action and postulated pharmacological studies such as anti-
arthritic, anti-microbial, cardio protective, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, analgesic, immune-modulator,
gastro-protective, and skin ameliorative effect. Research in the field of Cosmetology has proven the effect
of Rosa damascene in rehydrating skin, reducing scars and stretches, acne management, lowering skin
pigmentation, delaying wrinkling and is recommended as a skin vitalizing agent. In this review, the
morphology, chemical constituents, and some pharmacological activity are discussed.
Keyword: Skin, cosmetic, Rosa damascene, morphology, chemical constituents
Natural beauty is a blessing and sign of healthy life for any
individual. And every human being urge to maintain it as a state
of eternal youth. The history of application of cosmetic
products is present from since centuries. Several documents of
literature showed the use of castor oil as protective balm,
beeswax as a skin cream, rose water, olive oil, belladonna
alkaloids (atropine of Atropa belladonna L.) as a pupil dilator
and so on (Dorni, et al., 2017) But as the time passed, and
advances in medical field to understand better scientific skin
physiology, a revolution in personal care products occurred and
the cosmetics industries started research on natural herbal
Plants are richest source of antioxidant activity because
they survive in environment rich in harm full sun rays such as
ultra violet radiation. And until now , many innovative
personal care products with pharmacological actions are
available on the counter like anti-hyperpigmentation, anti-aging,
anti –inflammatory, anti- carcinogenic, anti-allergic,
moisturizing, pro-collagen, Sun protection factor (SPF) creams
Some medicinal plants which have cosmetics property are
Santalum album, Aloe barbadensis, Curcuma longa, Crocus
sativus, Azadiracta indica and Rosa damascene etc.
Rosa damascene is a paramount medicinal drug and has
several pharmacological and therapeutic action such as
antipyretic, antiseptic, antiemetic, anti-obstructive, analgesic,
digestive, stomachic, liver tonic, cardiac tonic, brain tonic,
general tonic, desiccant, detergent, demulcent, palpitation,
headache, constipation, mouth ulcers etc. (Hakeem M, 2011)
(Ghani , 1921) (Anonymous, 1972) (Ibn-e-Baitar, 1987).
Flower of Rosa damascene medicinally used in various disease
such as stomach pain, epistaxis, itching on skin, throat infection,
pain in gums, uterus, eyes, ear, and rectum and so on.
Rosa damascene is a small shrub, 1-1.8 m high, and a wide
number of species are cultivated in gardens. This plant is found
throughout the world in India, Azerbhaijan, Kasan, Faras etc
(Quraishi, et al., 2019)
Taxonomical Classification
Kingdom Plantae
Subkingdom Tracheobionta
Superdivision Spermatophyta
Division Magnoliophyta
Class Magnoliopsida
Subclass Rosidae
Order Rosales
Family Rosaceae
Genus Rosa L.
Species Rosa
damascene Mill. (USDA, 2019)
Vernacular Name and etymology
Arabic Ward-e-Ahmer
Bengal Golap
Gujarati Moshamee Gulab
Hindi Gulab
Kannad Rojahu
Malayalam Rojapuvvu
Marathi Gulab
Persian Gul-e-Surkh
Correspondence: Ayshah Hashimi
Received Aug 06, 2019; Accepted Sep 04, 2019; Publishe d Nov 29,
©2019 by CellMed Orthocellular Medicine Pharmaceutical Association
This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC license.
Rosa Damascene Mill. (Rose): A versatile herb in cosmetology
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Punjabi Gulab
Tamil Rojapoo
Telegu Gulabi,Roja,Panniru
Urdu Gulab
French Quatre Saisons
Spanish Rosal de damasco, Rosalfino de olor
(Anonymous, 2007) (Quraishi, et al., 2019)
Figure: Rose Flower
Plant description
Rosa damascene is a climbing perennial shrub with large
hooked prickles. The stem is branched, prickly, erect and
woody. Leaves are compound, imparipinnate and petiolate.
Flowers are complete, hermaphrodite, perigynous with red,
white and pink colour (Quraishi, et al., 2019). Macroscopically,
Flowers are stalked, pinkish consist of sepals, petals and
stamens attached to pedicle with thalamus, and stalk is light
green, slender, covered with numerous prickles and hairs.
Sepals 5, free, 1.3-2.4 cm long, unequal, leaf like having
creamish green to yellowish green colour with glandular hairs.
Petals numerous, pinkish yellow, 1.5-4.2 cm long, 1.3-2.5cm
wide, smooth obviate to sub-cordate. Stamens numerous, free,
unequal, dorsifixed, dark brown, filament 0.3-0.5 cm long,
carpels free, ovary inferior, styles lateral, hairy, free and stigma
terminal (Anonymous, 2007).
Microscopic view
Sepals shows single layered epidermis on both surfaces,
numerous long, unicellular hairs, both epidermis have
mesophyll consisting of round to oval, thin walled,
parenchymatous cells and vascular bundles. Petal shows lower
epidermis papillose and without cuticle, and upper epidermis
single layered with thin striated cuticle, followed by mesophyll
consisting of oval to polygonal, elliptical, thin-walled,
parenchymatous cells, number of vascular bundles found
scattered in this zone.
Powder; light brown in colour, fragments of petal of epidermis
consisting of thin –walled, sinuous cells to form papillae,
xylem vessel with spiral thickenings long, pointed, uniseriate,
unicellular hair and stalked capitate glandular hairs
(Anonymous, 2007)
Chemical constituents
Rosa damascene contain 4-amino-furazan-3-carboxylic acid,
citronellol, 2-trifluoromethylbenzoic acid 2-octyl ester,α-Pinene,
β-Pinene, β-Myrcene, α-Terpinene, β-ocimene, undecanoic acid
isopropyl ester, 2-amino-propionic acid, N-butyl-2-decanamine,
nonadecane, β-citronellol, geraniol, nerol, geranyl acetate,
eugenol, methyleugenol, terpenes, glycosides, flavonoids, and
anthocyanins etc ( Koksa, et al., 2015) ( Hajhashem, et al.,
2010) (Verma , et al., 2011)
Astringent (Anonymous, 2007)
Parts used
Flowers, Flower buds, petals, stamens, oils and extract
(Anonymous, 2007)
3 to 5grams
Adverse Effects
Harmful for sexual power, cold and cough
Pimpinella anisum L.
Viola odorata
Products of Rosa damascene Mill.
·Rose Water
·Rose oil
·Dried Flower
·Rose Hip
(Boskabady, et al., 2011)
Traditional uses of Rosa damascene Mill.
·The decoction of flowers of Rosa damascene was
used for the strengthening of heart, eye washing as
an antiseptic, mouth wash, skin glowing, chest and
abdominal pain, menstrual problem, laxative, and
insomnia, etc
·Rose and honey mixture is used for gargling and it
is very effective for throat problems
·Paste of rose petals on face is used for pimples and
clear facial skin
·The root of rose is beneficial against hemorrhage
and diarrhea
·Rose oil with vinegar, local application is
beneficial in headache and cures insomnia
·Local application on head and its inhalation and
instillation in nose also relieves headache and act as
a relaxant
·Oral intake of its cures bilious dysentery , gastritis
and intestinal wound
·Local application is beneficial in stomatitis, oral
thrush, and blephritis
(Mahboub, 2016) (Andalib, et al., 2011) (Kirtikar , et al., 1986)
(Chopra , et al., 1958) (Dymock , et al., 1980) (Nicolov , et al.,
1976) (Baitar, 2003)
Anti-solar activity of Rosa damascene Mill.
Tabrizi, et al., done an in vitro study on Rosa damascene
extract and prepared various solvent mixtures like acetate:
ethanol, water: ethanol, and ether by maceration and soxhletion
method. The result showed that extracts can effectively absorb
UV radiation in the range of 200-400 nm .The study also
Rosa Damascene Mill. (Rose): A versatile herb in cosmetology
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subjected the plant extract with oil and water cream base and
sun protection factor (SPF) was determined and suggested that
the extract with cream base showed an effective SPF (Tabrizi ,
et al., 2003)
Anti -aging activity of Rosa damascene Mill.
Jafari, et al., performed study on Drosophilia flies and the flies
supplemented by the extract of Rosa damascene. And study
concluded that the plant exhibited decreased in mortality of
flies without effecting any secondary physiological mechanism
( Jafari, et al., 2008)
Another study was done by Krishnan, et al., on polyherbal
formulation by using aqueous extract of Rosa damascene
flower, Clerodendrum paniculatum leaves, Murraya Koengii
leaves and Annona squamosal leaves which exhibit anti- aging
properties by increasing the collagen content in human dermal
fibroblast. The study showed significant result against standard
control drug by up regulating the Collagen-I gene expression
and promoted building of collagen matrix (Krishnan, et al.,
Skin glowing property of Rosa damascene Mill.
Haque, et al., performed a survey study on 43 plants from 32
families under 40 genera. These plants are mainly from herbal
cosmetics. The study suggest skin glowing property in rose
(Haque, et al., 2018)
Antimicrobial activity of Rosa damascena Mill.
Shohayeb, et al., completed a study on Gul-e-Surkh (Rosa
damscena Mill.) and petals were subjected to water, hexane,
and ethanol and fractionated with ethyl acetate, butanol and
chloroform. The extracts were evaluated against eleven gram-
positive, gram-negative, acid- fast bacteria and three fungi. The
study concluded that the extracts showed moderate broad
spectrum antimicrobial activity ( Shohayeb, et al., 2014)
Relaxant activity of Rosa damascena Mill.
Boskabady, et al., done an animal study on guinea pig tracheal
chains to study the effect of ethanolic extract and essential oil
of Rosa damascene as relaxant (bronchodilator) in comparison
with saline as negative control and theophylline as positive
control. In both groups, the tracheal chains were contracted by
KCl in one experiment and in another experiment, contracted
by methacholine. The extract and essential oil of Rosa
damascene showed relatively potent relaxant effects compared
with the effect of saline (Boskabady, et al., 2006).
Other pharmacological studies
·Antioxidant activity (Yassa , et al., 2009)
·Anti-inflammatory activity ( Hajhashem, et al., 2010)
·Analgesic activity (Bani, et al., 2014)
·Antidepressant (Nyeem, et al., 2006)
·Nephroprotective activity (Khaliq, et al., 2015)
·Anti- diabetic activity (Gholamhoseinian, et al.,
·Anti HIV activity ( Mahmood , et al., 1996)
Rosa damascene Mill. is one of the famous ornamental and
widely used herb in traditional medicine and many
pharmacological studies showed its potential therapeutic
benefits against various diseases and in cosmetics, the results
are similar to the standard drugs. There is an immense
obligation to scientifically explore and evident it’s medicinal as
well as cosmeceutical values at the molecular level with the
help of latest tools and techniques of biotechnology.
The authors have no conflicting financial interests.
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... Lemon balm has antibacterial and anti-inflammatory effects due to its rosmarinic acid, flavonoids, phenolic, and terpenes compounds and, therefore, can be effective in skin rejuvenation (19). Damask rose has been shown to have beneficial effects on the skin, such as hydration, improvement of stretch marks and wrinkles, acne control, and pigmentation reduction (20). Furthermore, fennel has been used as a traditional medicine in different cultures for a variety of conditions, including digestive problems. ...
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Background: Melasma is an acquired pigmentary disorder that typically affects sun - exposed areas of the skin. Due to the challenges of conventional medicines, many dermatologic patients skew toward complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). Herbal medicine, as the most popular modality of CAM, is an invaluable approach to finding treatments for dermatologic diseases. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a multi - herbal syrup, which included lemon balm, damask rose, and fennel, in patients with melasma. Methods: This study was designed as a randomized, triple - blind, placebo - controlled clinical trial. A total of 110 patients (55 in the intervention group and 55 in the placebo group) were enrolled in the study for a period of 12 weeks. The Melasma Area and Severity Index (MASI), melanin, erythema, lightness, and pigmentation were used to assess the effectiveness of the syrup. The Melasma Quality of Life (MELASQOL) questionnaire was also completed by both groups. Results: The results of the comparison between the intervention and placebo groups indicated a significant difference observed in all parameters, including melanin (P = 0.017), lightness (P < 0.001), pigmentation (P < 0.001), MASI (P < 0.001), and MELASQOL (P = 0.019), except for erythema, which was marginally insignificant (P = 0.06). All parameter scores in the intervention group showed improvement (P < 0.05); however, in the placebo group, they remained insignificant or even worsened. Conclusions: The results suggest that this traditional multiherbal syrup can be considered a safe and effective treatment for melasma.
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The present article mainly focuses plant species used in beauty care and cosmetics. The ethno botanical study has been resulted in recording of total 43 plants under 32 families under 40 genera that were reported by interviewing 27 key informants. According to the habit diversity of recorded plant, 52% were herb, 38% were tree, and 10% were shrub. Leaves (28%), fruits (28%), Seed (25%) were the most commonly used part for plants or for the preparation of the mixture which is used in the beauty care and herbal cosmetics. The most frequently used plants for beauty care were Aloe vera, Azadirachta indica, Cucumis sativus, Curcuma longa, Lawsonia inermis, Mentha arvensis, Citrus limon, Santalum album, Phyllanthus emblica, Rosa damascena, Trigonella foenum-graecum. Active ingredients may found from these plants which could be the good source of plant based cosmetics for beauty care.
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Rosa damascena petals were extracted by water, hexane and ethanol. The latter was further fractionated with chloroform, ethyl acetate and butanol. Rose oil and different petal extracts were evaluated against three fungi and eleven Gram-positive, Gram-negative and acid-fast bacteria. Rose oil and all extracts exerted broad spectrum antimicrobial activities against the tested organisms. The descending order of antifungal activity of rose oil and different extracts was, Penicillium notatum, Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans. Ethyl acetate extracted fraction was relatively more active against the tested bacteria than the other tested extracts. Gram-positive bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Streptococcus pyogenes were more sensitive than Gram-negative bacteria and had MICs and MBCs in the range of 0.125 to 2 mg/ml and 0.5 to 4 mg/ml respectively. Acinetobacter baumannii, which is intrinsically resistant to most antibiotics, was relatively more sensitive than other Gram-negative bacteria. On the contrary, Klebsiella pneumoniae was the least sensitive Gram-negative bacterium. The MICs of Gram-positive bacteria to different extracts were significantly (p≤0.05) less than those of K. pneumoniae. The acid-fast bacterium, Mycobacterium phlei, was intermediate in its sensitivity to the extracted fractions compared to Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The antibacterial activity of aqueous extracts of petals suggests a possible utilization of rose petal boiling water after rose oil distillation. Further studies are required to separate and identify the active antimicrobial phytoconstituents of petals to utilize them pharmaceutically.
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Rosa damascena as an ornamental plant is commonly known as “Gole Mohammadi” in Iran. Iranian people have been called this plant, the flower of Prophet “Mohammad”. R. damascena is traditionally used for treatment of abdominal and chest pains, strengthening the heart, menstrual bleeding, digestive problems and constipation. This paper reviews the ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry and pharmaceutical investigations on R. damascena. All relevant databases and local books on ethnopharmacology of R. damascena were probed without limitation up to 31st March 2015 and the results of these studies were collected and reviewed. R. damascena has an important position in Iranian traditional medicine. It is economically a valuable plant with therapeutic applications in modern medicine. The antimicrobial, antioxidant, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic and anti-depressant properties of R. damascena have been confirmed. Citronellol and geraniol as the main components of R. damascena essential oil are responsible for pharmacological activities. Overall, R. damascena as holy ancient plant with modern pharmacological investigations should be more investigated as traditional uses in large preclinical and clinical studies.
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Gentamicin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic comprised of a mixture of related gentamicin components and fractions and is used to treat many types of bacterial infections, particularly those caused by Gram-negative organisms. Herbal plants can be used for the prevention and treatment of kidney damage. Therefore, the nephroprotective activity of aqueous extract of Rosa damascena (250 and 500 mg/kg), Cichorium intybus (250 and 500mg/kg) and their mixture (250 and 500 mg/kg) was evaluated on gentamicin (80 mg/kg) induced toxicity in albino rabbits by using the standard drug silymarin (200 mg/kg). The study period was from 0-21 days and blood samples were collected at 0, 7 th , 14 th and 21 st day. The biochemical analysis was done by using the standard protocols and kit methods. Serum urea and creatinine are the reliable markers to access the renal function. The results were subjected to two way analysis of variance and Duncan Multiple Range test as applicable. The gentamicin caused a significant (P≤0.01) increase in levels of serum urea, creatinine and blood urea nitrogen and decrease in levels of serum albumin. Statistically significant decrease in levels of serum urea, creatinine and blood urea nitrogen and statistically significant increase in the levels of albumin was observed for both plants and their mixture in dose dependent manner as compared to untreated, gentamicin treated and silymarin treated control groups. All results were supported by significantly improved renal cortical histopathology and kidney weight observations. The findings suggested that aqueous extract of both plants and their mixture have marked nephroprotective activity in dose dependent manner which could be due to the inherent antioxidant and free radical scavenging capacity contained in both plants.
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Background and the purpose of study: Rosa damascena Mill. (Rosaceae) has cooling, soothing, astringent, and anti-inflammatory effects, and has been used in the north of Iran as a cardiotonic agent. The aim of this study was to identify components of R. damascena (cultivated in Guilan Province) extract and essential oil and to study their biological activities. Methods: Essential oil of R. damascena was prepared by hydrodistillation and analyzed with GC/MS instrument. The antioxidant activity of hydro-alcohlic extract of petals and essential oil was measured using free radical scavenging activity with 2-2-diphenyl, 1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and lipid peroxidation (ferric ammonium thiocyanate) methods. Results: Hydro-alcoholic extract showed strong free radical scavenging capacity compared to lipid peroxidation inhibitory effects. IC50 values of the extract were 2.24 μ g/mL and 520 μg/mL in free radical scavenging and lipid peroxidation assays, respectively. The major components of essential oil were linalool (3.8%), nerol (3.05%), geraniol (15.05%), 1-nonadecene (18.56%), n-tricosane (16.68%), hexatriacontane (24.6%) and n-pentacosane (3.37%). The bioassayguided fractionation of extract led to the isolation of three flavonol glycosides: quercetin-3-Oglucoside, kaempferol-3-O-rhamnoside and kaempferol-3-O-arabinoside. The IC50 value of the radical scavenging activity of kaempferol-3-O-rhamnoside which was, 530 μg/mL was weaker than the extract. Major conclusion: The petal of this cultivated rose has no bitter taste and because of its potential antioxidant activity and good taste, can be used as food flavor and a preventing agent for many diseases.
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Extracts obtained from the petals of Rosa damascena (Rosaceae) are used in Iranian folk medicine as remedies for the treatment of some inflammatory diseases. In this study the hydroalcoholic extract and essential oil of the plant were investigated for its possible anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities. The extract was administered at the doses (p.o.) of 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg and the doses of essential oil were 100, 200 and 400 μL/kg. The acetic acid-induced writhing response, formalin-induced paw licking time in the early and late phases and light tail flick test were used in mice to assess analgesic activity. For evaluation of anti-inflammatory effect carrageenan-induced paw edema served as a valid animal model in rats. The extract significantly attenuated the writhing responses induced by an intraperitoneal injection of acetic acid and also showed potent analgesic effect in both phases of formalin test but not in light tail flick test. In addition, the higher dose of the extract significantly (P < 0.05) reduced carrageenan-induced paw edema. Essential oil of the plant at all administered doses failed to show any analgesic or anti-inflammatory effect in above mentioned tests. These results provide support for the use of hydroalcoholic extract of Rosa damascena in relieving inflammatory pain, and insight into the development of new agents for treating inflammatory diseases.
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Rosa damascena mill L., known as Gole Mohammadi in is one of the most important species of Rosaceae family flowers. R. damascena is an ornamental plant and beside perfuming effect, several pharmacological properties including anti-HIV, antibacterial, antioxidant, antitussive, hypnotic, antidiabetic, and relaxant effect on tracheal chains have been reported for this plant. This article is a comprehensive review on pharmacological effects of R. damascena. Online literature searches were performed using Medline, medex, Scopus, and Google Scholar websites backed to 1972 to identify researches about R. damascena. Searches also were done by going through the author's files and the bibliographies of all located papers.
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Roses are always appreciated because of their inimitable aroma, many uses and of course their beauty. In addition to the different damask rose (Rosa damascena Mill.) products (oil, water, concrete, absolute, gulkand etc.), its dried petals are also used for various health purposes. The hydrodistilled volatile oil and water of shade-dried damask rose petals were investigated by GC and GC-MS. The predominant components of tThe essential oil and rose water were aliphatic hydrocarbons (56.4 and 46.3%), followed by oxygenated monoterpenes (14.7 and 8.7%). The main aliphatic hydrocarbons of the essential oil and rose water were heneicosane (19.7 and 15.7%), nonadecane (13.0 and 8.4%), tricosane (11.3 and 9.3%) and pentacosane (5.3 and 5.1%) while the content of 2-phenyl ethyl alcohol was 0.4% and 7.1% in the essential oil and rose water, respectively. The chemical composition of the dried rose petal volatiles is quite different from fresh flower volatiles.
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For tens of centuries, plants have been highly valued and regularly used as medicine amongst the masses. Insomnia, a loss of sleep, is mostly treated by synthetic sleeping tablets these days. However, questions have been raised about the safety of prolonged use of artificial sedatives due to their deleterious side effects such as physical dependence. In recent years, there has been an increasing propensity to preclude insomnia by herbal medicines throughout the world. Many herbs have a lengthy background in terms of insomnia treatment in Iran. This paper gives an account of previously published research on sedative and hypnotic effects of medicinal herbs used for treatment of insomnia in Iranian traditional medicine.