Tradeoffs of chemicals regulation - The science and tacit knowledge
Jaap C. Hanekamp
⁎,Edward J. Calabrese
Science Department, University College Roosevelt, Middelburg, the Netherlands
Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, USA
Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University of Massachusetts, Morrill I, N344, Amherst, MA 01003, USA
•The philosophy of the science in risk as-
sessments is crucial in decision making.
•The risk management paradigm needs a
precise and rigorous divide between
hazard and risk.
•Chemicals regulation has critical risk
tradeoffs in the social-economic sphere.
•Substitution programs underestimates
tacit and formal/codiﬁed knowledge of
Received 19 April 2021
Received in revised form 11 June 2021
Accepted 16 June 2021
Available online 25 June 2021
Editor: Michael N Moore
Value of statistical life (VSL)
Philosophy of science
In this paper, we want to shed light on the tradeoffs of chemicals regulation. We will discuss two types of
tradeoffs: the social-economic impacts of regulation such as cost-induced fatalities and the tradeoffs between
‘old’and‘new’chemicals, thatis the established chemicals in industry and societydeemed in need of replacement
with ‘new’chemicals. We will show that the progression from the science of chemicals risk assessment to regu-
lation requires the science of regulatory (economic) analyses, with added insight from the philosophy of science.
Indeed, riskassessment as such, which is signiﬁcantly driven but is not limitedto the broad toxicological context,
does not unescapably dictate regulatory choices. The science of regulatory and economic analyses, we believe,
could add considerably to the science of toxicology in a combinedeffort to improve upon the protection of public
health and the environment.
1. Weighing the evidence
In this contribution we want to delve into the science of chemicals
regulation and its attendant intricacies, limitations, and tradeoffs. Before
we do that, ﬁrst we need understand what exactly toxicology, as the
eminent faculty within the ﬁeld of chemicals risk assessment, brings
Science of the Total Environment 794 (2021) 148566
⁎Corresponding author at: ScienceDepartment, University College Roosevelt, Middelburg,
E-mail address: firstname.lastname@example.org (J.C. Hanekamp).
0048-9697/© 2021 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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