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Consumer Motivations and Perceived Value in Online Second-Hand Luxury Fashion Shopping

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The secondhand luxury fashion market is growing four times faster than the primary luxury fashion market and already represents a $24 billion market today (Beauloye, 2019; Siwak, 2020). Younger generations such as millennials and Gen Z are buying and selling preowned luxury products almost three times faster than any other age group (Beauloye, 2019). Digital selling platforms such as The RealReal and Vestiaire Collective are fueling the growth of the secondhand luxury fashion market (Beauloye, 2019). Despite the increased consumer interests and sales growth in the secondhand luxury fashion market, existing research has not concentrated on the underlying motivations of secondhand luxury fashion consumption. Most previous studies focused on motivational drivers for new luxury fashion products (e.g., Turunen & Pöyry, 2019). The purpose of this study is to examine consumers' motivations and perceived value from online secondhand luxury fashion retailers. In particular, this study targeted millennial and Gen Z consumers. The current study developed a theoretical framework based on the mental accounting theory (Thaler, 1985, 2008). The framework examined the impacts of five motivations-economic, critical, hedonic, fashion, status seeking-on perceived value, which
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Consumer Motivations and Perceived Value in Online Second-Hand Luxury Fashion Shopping
A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment
of the requirements for the degree of
Master of Science in Human Environmental Sciences
by
Murphy Brianne Aycock
University of Arkansas
Bachelor of Science in Human Environmental Sciences, 2019
May 2021
University of Arkansas
This thesis is approved for recommendation to the Graduate Council.
______________________________________________________
Eunjoo Cho, Ph.D.
Thesis Director
_____________________________________________________
Kathleen R. Smith, Ed.D.
Committee Member
______________________________________________________
Lisa Wood, Ph.D.
Committee Member
ABSTRACT
The second-hand luxury fashion market is growing four times faster than the primary
luxury fashion market and already represents a $24 billion market today (Beauloye, 2019; Siwak,
2020). Younger generations such as millennials and Gen Z are buying and selling preowned
luxury products almost three times faster than any other age group (Beauloye, 2019). Digital
selling platforms such as The RealReal and Vestiaire Collective are fueling the growth of the
second-hand luxury fashion market (Beauloye, 2019). Despite the increased consumer interests
and sales growth in the second-hand luxury fashion market, existing research has not
concentrated on the underlying motivations of second-hand luxury fashion consumption. Most
previous studies focused on motivational drivers for new luxury fashion products (e.g., Turunen
& Pöyry, 2019).
The purpose of this study is to examine consumers’ motivations and perceived value
from online second-hand luxury fashion retailers. In particular, this study targeted millennial and
Gen Z consumers. The current study developed a theoretical framework based on the mental
accounting theory (Thaler, 1985, 2008). The framework examined the impacts of five
motivations economic, critical, hedonic, fashion, status seekingon perceived value, which
leads to purchase intention toward online second-hand luxury fashion retailers.
A total of 216 participants from a Mid-Southern university completed an online survey
distributed through an email invitation. Data screening resulted in a usable sample of 190
participants for data analysis. The majority of respondents were Caucasian or European
American female college students (86.8%) with a median age of 22. Most participants had
purchased second-hand luxury fashion products (72.1%) and owned one to five second-hand
luxury fashion products.
Results of exploratory factor analysis with varimax rotation confirmed one factor for each
variable. Each construct demonstrated sufficient internal consistency with a Cronbach’s alpha
value of α =.74 to .90. The results of regression analysis demonstrated that economic, critical,
fashion, and status seeking motivations significantly enhanced perceived value. Hedonic
motivation did not significantly influence perceived value. The perceived value significantly
influenced purchase intention toward online second-hand luxury fashion retailers. Stepwise
multiple regression showed that the model containing economic, critical, and fashion motivation
had the highest correlation with the dependent variable, perceived value. Whereas previous
studies found that economic motivation is the key driver of second-hand non-luxury purchases,
the results of this study highlight that fashion and critical motivations are much more important
factors for online second-hand luxury fashion purchases among millennials and Gen Z
consumers.
In conclusion, findings from the present study expanded the body of literature that uses
mental accounting theory by examining monetary and non-monetary determinants of value in
online second-hand luxury fashion shopping. Theoretically, the results confirmed that Thaler’s
(1985) mental accounting theory is applicable for studying consumer decision-making in an
online shopping context since multiple factors (e.g., economic, critical, fashion, and status-
seeking) can affect consumers’ online shopping decisions. Findings suggest that online second-
hand luxury fashion retailers should provide trend-driven garments and accessories designed for
digitally native millennial and Gen Z customers.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
I would like to express my deepest appreciation and gratitude to my thesis director, Dr.
Eunjoo Cho. Her mentorship and unquestioning support have been integral to any success I have
achieved. She has guided me in my research every step of the way, providing thoughtful
comments and detailed feedback that greatly improved the quality of my work. Her integrity,
historical understanding of the issues, and ongoing enthusiasm about my topic made her an
invaluable thesis chair. I am privileged to have had the opportunity to work with her and would
not be where I am today if it was not for her consistent encouragement and positive affirmation.
I would also like to acknowledge my committee members, Dr. Kathleen Smith and Dr.
Lisa Wood, for their contributions and support throughout this process. They have both been
extraordinary mentors and have inspired me to pursue my goals with hard work and dedication. I
cannot thank them enough for their scientific advice, knowledge, insightful discussions, and
suggestions. Their participation in this project greatly enriched my experience.
I will forever be thankful for my former undergraduate thesis advisor, Ms. Stephanie
Hubert. She has had the most profound influence on my interests and professional development
over the past six years and is the backbone of my academic success. Her guidance and friendship
have helped me through the most challenging times of my professional career, and her never-
failing support for my intellectual growth is exceptional. She remains my most significant
mentor, for which I am eternally grateful.
I am indebted to many, but I especially wish to acknowledge the efforts and
encouragement from my family. They believed in me and provided the moral and emotional
support I needed to complete my thesis. This journey would not have been possible without their
love, prayers, and the sacrifices they have made for my education and future.
DEDICATION
To my mother, Stacy Morene Aycock. A strong and gentle soul who taught me to trust in
God and never give up on my dreams. Your unconditional love has molded me into the young
woman I am today.
To my father, James Jim Aycock, whose determination and drive have been an inspiring
life-long example. Your willpower to succeed through every battle now shines through me.
To my grandmother, Barbara Ann Smith. Thank you for showing me the importance of
gratitude and remaining humble. You have taught me how to handle life’s obstacles with a sense
of grace and dignity.
To my grandfather, Jerry Harris Smith. You are the glue that holds our family together. A
model of resilience, you have taught me the importance of discipline, perseverance, and hard
work.
Their unyielding love, support, and encouragement have enriched my soul and inspired
me to pursue and complete this research.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................... 1
Definition of Terms..................................................................................................... 5
CHAPTER 2. LITERATURE REVIEW ............................................................................... 7
Theoretical Framework: Mental Accounting Theory ................................................. 7
Motivations for Online Second-Hand Luxury Goods Shopping and Perceived Value
..................................................................................................................................... 9
Economic Motivation and Perceived Value ............................................................... 11
Critical Motivation and Perceived Value .................................................................... 12
Hedonic Motivation and Perceived Value .................................................................. 14
Fashion Motivation and Perceived Value ................................................................... 15
Status Seeking Motivation and Perceived Value ........................................................ 15
Perceived Value and Purchase Intention..................................................................... 16
CHAPTER 3. METHOD ....................................................................................................... 19
Sample......................................................................................................................... 19
Data Collection ........................................................................................................... 19
Instrument ................................................................................................................... 20
Data Analysis .............................................................................................................. 22
CHAPTER 4. RESULTS ....................................................................................................... 25
Sample Characteristics ................................................................................................ 25
Second-Hand and New Luxury Fashion Purchases and Experiences ......................... 27
EFA and Reliability of the Model Constructs............................................................. 28
Correlations between the Variables and Discriminant Validity ................................. 32
Testing Hypotheses ..................................................................................................... 33
Stepwise Multiple Regression Analysis...................................................................... 34
CHAPTER 5. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS ........................................................... 36
Research Summary ..................................................................................................... 36
Theoretical Implications ............................................................................................. 37
Practical Implications.................................................................................................. 39
CHAPTER 6. LIMITATIONS AND FUTURE RESEARCH ............................................... 41
REFERENCES ....................................................................................................................... 43
APPENDICES ........................................................................................................................ 50
Appendix A: IRB Approval of Research .................................................................... 50
Appendix B: Consent Form ........................................................................................ 51
Appendix C: Online Survey Questionnaire ................................................................ 53
LIST OF TABLES
TABLE 2.1.
CONSUMER MOTIVATIONS FOR BUYING SECOND-HAND PRODUCTS ................ 18
TABLE 3.1.
CONSTRUCTS AND SCALE ITEMS USED IN THE STUDY .......................................... 23
TABLE 4.1.
DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS OF PARTICIPANTS .......................................... 26
TABLE 4.2.
SECOND-HAND AND NEW LUXURY FASHION SHOPPING EXPERIENCES ............ 28
TABLE 4.3.
RESULTS OF EFA AND RELIABILITY TEST FOR VARIABLES .................................. 31
TABLE 4.4.
RESULTS OF CORRELATION MATRIX OF KEY VARIABLES .................................... 33
TABLE 4.5.
STEPWISE MULTIPLE REGRESSION ANALYSIS FOR THE VARIABLES PREDICTING
THE PERCEIVED VALUE ................................................................................................... 35
LIST OF FIGURES
FIGURE 2.1. HYPOTHESIZED RESEARCH MODEL ....................................................... 11
FIGURE 4.1. HYPOTHESIZED RESEARCH MODEL ....................................................... 34
1
CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION
In the context of fashion, luxury is characterized by high price points that are justified by
superior quality, craftsmanship, exclusivity, and a sense of scarcity (Cabigiosu, 2020). Luxury
fashion brands have long been associated with haute couture collections worn by the wealthiest,
most affluent members of society (Cabigiosu, 2020). Luxury products are often perceived as
rare, and selectivity should be known at the product level and from the consumer’s perspective
(Kapferer, 1997). Today, brand loyalty and the rising perception among consumers that luxury
goods contribute to greater social acceptance drive the product demand (Grand View Research,
2019). According to Grand View Research (2019), the global luxury fashion market size was
valued at USD 67.85 billion. With the rise of the internet, the luxury fashion industry has seen a
dramatic shift in moving from traditional brick and mortar stores to e-commerce (Grand View
Research, 2019). Millennials and Gen Z consumers are driving this transformation and are
expected to become the most influential consumers of luxury fashion brands (Danziger, 2019).
These younger generations have a unique set of behaviors and values, and what they expect from
luxury fashion brands is entirely different from previous generations (Danziger, 2019). With this
apparent shift underway, the luxury fashion industry is faced with many challenges to keep up
with the ever-changing consumer preferences.
The movement towards luxury resale the buying and selling of preowned luxury goods
is growing at an exponential rate and has no signs of slowing down. (Siwak, 2020). The
second-hand luxury fashion market is growing four times faster than the primary luxury fashion
market and already represents a $24 billion market today (Beauloye, 2019). Younger generations
such as millennials and Gen Z are adopting this form of alternative fashion consumption almost
three times faster than any other age group (Beauloye, 2019). Digital selling platforms such as
2
The RealReal and Vestiaire Collective are fueling the growth of the second-hand luxury fashion
market by positioning themselves as conscious alternatives to fast fashion and tapping into
affluent consumers’ changing attitudes towards sustainability, luxury experiences, and the
concept of ownership (Beauloye, 2019). Other driving factors of this booming business are
identified as consumers’ perceived economic value and their need for unique, exclusive pieces
(Beauloye, 2019). The second-hand luxury fashion market offers previous season collections,
vintage gems, limited-edition releases, and sold-out streetwear exclusives at accessible prices for
consumers (Siwak, 2020).
The online luxury resale business is also an essential part of the circular economy
where business models keep resources in use for as long as possible and seek to replace the “end-
of-life” idea (Bocken et al., 2016). Over the past recent years, the circular economy has been
suggested as a substructure to alleviate the problems associated with increased resource
consumption and waste generation (MacArthur, 2013). Goods and services continue to circulate
in the circular economy through preservation, reuse, redistribution, reconstruction,
remanufacturing, and recycling (MacArthur, 2013). In the past, most luxury fashion brands and
retailers would never consider the second-hand market. But now, the second-hand market
presents opportunities for luxury fashion brands to support long-term sustainable goals and earn
new revenue streams (Beauloye, 2019). For example, in 2019, British fashion house Burberry
announced a partnership with an online second-hand luxury consignment store, The RealReal, in
an effort to promote a circular economy in high fashion (Beauloye, 2019). According to
Beauloye’s (2019) report, resale demand for the British fashion brand increased by 64 percent in
2019, with searches for Burberry goods rising fastest among The RealReal’s millennial and Gen-
Z consumers. Despite the increased consumer interests and sales growth in the second-hand
3
luxury fashion market, existing research has not concentrated on the underlying motivations
behind second-hand luxury fashion consumption. Most previous studies focused on motivational
drivers for new luxury fashion products (e.g., Turunen & Pöyry, 2019).
Existing research examined second-hand consumers’ perceived value of second-hand
products (Sihvonen & Turunen, 2016), the underlying motivations to purchase second-hand
products (Ferraro et al., 2016; Guiot & Roux, 2010; Padmavathy et al., 2019; Roux & Guiot,
2008), and the symbolic meanings associated with second-hand products (Cervellon et al., 2012;
Turunen & Leipamaa-Leskinen, 2015). Padmavathy et al. (2019) developed online second-hand
shopping motivation scales that predict attitude and repurchase intention. However, these studies
did not focus on online second-hand shopping for luxury fashion products. Second-hand
shoppers’ motivations for purchasing pre-owned luxury fashion products may not be the same as
buying new luxury products. Given the recent growth in the second-hand luxury fashion market
and lack of investigation on this topic, a further study is needed to reveal motivational factors for
purchasing second-hand luxury fashion products through online channels.
Drawing from mental accounting theory (Thaler, 1985), this study examines motivational
factors that affect consumers’ value perceptions about shopping from an online second-hand
luxury retailer and how consumer motivations and value perception affect consumers’ behavioral
intentions toward online second-hand luxury retailers. Thaler’s (1985) mental accounting theory
explains the perceived value in terms of acquisition value and transaction value. Acquisition
value refers to the net gains associated with the product or service a consumer purchased, while
transaction value refers to the difference between a reference price memorized by a consumer
and the purchase price (Thaler, 1985). The mental accounting theory is useful in examining
monetary and non-monetary determinants of value in online shopping (Gupta & Kim, 2010).
4
Based on the research gap discussed above and the rapid growth of consumers
participating in second-hand luxury fashion consumption, this study aims to identify second-
hand luxury shoppers’ motivations and their perceived value toward online second-hand luxury
fashion retailers, which, in turn, lead to their behavioral intentions. The present study specifically
attempts to understand young adult consumers’ motivations for shopping at online second-hand
luxury fashion retailers. Particular emphasis is placed on economic, critical, hedonic, fashion,
and status seeking motivations. The findings of this study are expected to advance the theoretical
understanding of second-hand luxury shoppers’ purchase decisions and provide online retailers
with practical implications for increasing online second-hand luxury fashion goods sales.
5
Definition of Terms
The following definitions are major terms investigated in the present study.
Circular economy: An economic system aimed at keeping materials and products in use for as
long as possible using renewable recourses (Bocken et al., 2016).
Fashion consciousness: Refers to the consumer’s desire to seek out new, novelty styles (Sproles
& Kendall, 1986).
Fashion involvement: The extent to which fashion is personally relevant and significant
(Cervellon et al., 2012).
Fast fashion: The distribution of highly fashionable products at a low price that captures the
latest trends and replicates designer collections on runaways (Cachon & Swinney, 2011).
Luxury fashion goods: Are products that offer high levels of symbolic and emotional value that
reflect perceived conspicuousness, uniqueness, quality, hedonism, and self-expressiveness
(Vigneron & Johnson, 2004; Wu et al., 2015).
Motivations: Refers to the reason for behaviors in a certain way that fulfills an individual’s
desire or goal (McClelland, 1985; McGuire, 1974).
Nostalgia proneness: A longing for the past and second-hand products that evoke old memories
(Guiot & Roux, 2010; Roux & Guiot, 2008).
Perceived value: The “consumer’s overall assessment of the utility of a product based on
perceptions of what is received” (Zeithaml, 1988, p. 14).
Second-hand fashion: Implies that a garment and/or accessory has previously been worn and
gains a new lifespan by entering the second-hand industry, which links to the aspect of
6
sustainability in that “waste” materials are re-used, and their life is extended (Cervellon et al.,
2012).
Second-hand shopping: The acquisition of second-hand objects through methods and places of
exchange that are generally distinct from those for new products” (Guiot & Roux, 2010, p. 384).
7
CHAPTER 2. LITERATURE REVIEW
The present chapter provides a review of relevant literature that explains the theoretical
framework and primary constructs examined in the study. This chapter begins by explaining the
mental accounting theory, which was adopted to develop a theoretical framework. The second
section defines second-hand shopping and summarizes previous research findings focused on
online second-hand goods consumption. The third section discusses hypothesized relationships
among the variables: economic motivation, critical motivation, hedonic motivation, fashion
motivation, status seeking motivation, perceived value, and purchase intention toward online
second-hand luxury retailers.
Theoretical Framework: Mental Accounting Theory
The mental accounting theory (Thaler, 1985, 2008) is expanded from Kahneman and
Tversky’s (1979) prospect theory which explains customer value-driven decisions under
conditions of risk and uncertainty. The prospect theory suggests that individuals avoid losses and
optimize potential gains from a value maximization perspective. When individuals make
decisions at risk, they are highly susceptible to cognitive biases and do not make the logical
choice (Kahneman & Tversky, 1979). The decision-making process is divided into two stages.
During the initial phase, an individual makes a decision quickly with minimal mental effort. For
example, when dealing with gains, most individuals are risk-averse and will choose the sure
gain. Contrarily, when dealing with losses, people engage in risk-seeking behavior and take a
gamble over a sure loss in hopes of avoiding the loss (Kahneman & Tversky, 1979). In the
evaluation phase, individuals behave based on the potential outcomes and their respective
probabilities, then choose the alternative (Kahneman & Tversky, 1979).
8
Thaler (1985) developed the mental accounting theory to describe the mental evaluation
process whereby individuals organize, evaluate, and keep track of economic outcomes to
maximize utility. This theory enhances the prospect theory by incorporating compound
outcomes. The theory asserts that individuals perceive funds differently and are thus vulnerable
to excessive spending and investment (Thaler, 1985). The mental accounting concept explains
that individuals categorize or evaluate multiple factors or events subjectively. That is, to
maximize utility, they compare costs and benefits of purchases by imagining future consumption
(Thaler, 1985). Mental accounting processes are believed to serve three purposes: to retain self-
control in the face of enticing incentives for consumption, to simplify decisions, and to optimize
hedonic gratification from decision outcomes (Muehlbacher & Kirchler, 2019). The mental
accounting theory is applicable for studying consumer decision-making in an online shopping
context since multiple factors (e.g., price and risk) can affect online shopping decisions.
According to Thaler (1985), a two-stage process is used to analyze consumer transactions. In the
first stage, individuals evaluate potential transactions, which is referred to as the judgment
process. The second stage is known as the decision process, where individuals approve or
disapprove of each potential transaction. For evaluating potential transactions, Thaler (1985)
proposed acquisition utility and transaction utility. Acquisition utility refers to the net value of
the product received compared to the amount spent on it, which is a function of the equivalent
value of the product and its objective price (Thaler, 1985). The amount of cash that would leave
the individual indifferent between receiving the money or the product as a gift is indicated as the
equivalent value (Gupta & Kim, 2010). The objective price is the total amount that a consumer
must pay in order to receive or use the product (Gupta & Kim, 2010). On the other hand,
transaction utility refers to the perceived merits of the deal when comparing a product’s objective
9
price to its reference price offered by different retailers (Gupta & Kim, 2010). Theoretically,
acquisition utility can be distinguished from transaction utility though it is difficult to measure
the difference. Due to the overlap in their roles in evaluation and approval of potential
transactions (Grewal et al., 1998), researchers have measured either acquisition utility or total
utility, which is a sum of acquisition utility and transaction utility (Dodds et al., 1991; Gupta &
Kim, 2010; Thaler, 1985). For the same reason, this study measures total utility as the perceived
value, which refers to the consumer’s perceived benefits in a transaction with an online store
(Gupta & Kim, 2010).
Motivations for Online Second-Hand Luxury Goods Shopping and Perceived Value
It is vital to identify the meanings attached to second-hand possessions in the context of
luxury fashion. Previous literature that focused on second-hand consumption was retrieved to
better understand consumer’s motivations for purchasing second-hand luxury fashion products
from online luxury consignment retailers. Second-hand shopping is defined as “the acquisition of
second-hand objects through methods and places of exchange that are generally distinct from
those for new products” (Guiot & Roux, 2010, p. 384). A stream of literature has examined
consumer motivations for second-hand shopping (e.g., Bardhi & Arnould, 2005; Cervellon et al.,
2012; Ek Styvén & Mariani, 2020; Ferraro et al., 2016; Guiot & Roux, 2010; Hiller Connell,
2011; Padmavathy et al., 2019; Roux & Guiot, 2008; Xu et al., 2014; Yan et al., 2015; Zaman et
al., 2019). Motivation refers to the reason for behaviors in a certain way that fulfills an
individual’s desire or goal (McClelland, 1985; McGuire, 1974). Various research efforts have
found that second-hand shopping is driven by four main motivations: economic, critical,
hedonic, and fashion motivations (see Table 2.1). For purchasing non-luxury second-hand
fashion products, researchers found that consumers are motivated by price and frugality, ethical
10
and moral reasons, entertainment and pleasure, and the need for a unique fashion style. Very few
studies examined motivations for purchasing second-hand luxury fashion products. Turunen and
Leipämaa-Leskinen (2015) revealed five themes surrounding second-hand luxury fashion
purchases: ethical choice, a real deal, pre-loved treasure, risk investment, and uniqueness.
Similarly, Amatulli et al. (2018) identified motivations for purchasing luxury vintage products
that include affordable luxury, avoiding waste, distinction, impressing others, being attractive,
connoisseur, treasure hunt, social acceptance, self-identification, self-fulfillment, and self-
confidence. In line with research on motivations for purchasing new luxury products (e.g.,
Eastman & Eastman, 2011; Vigneron & Johnson, 2004), these findings suggest that purchasing
second-hand or new luxury products is associated with status consumption. Although status
seeking is associated with luxury consumption (Kastanakis & Balabanis, 2014), it is unknown
whether status seeking plays an important role in second-hand luxury consumption. In addition,
prior studies have mainly focused on offline second-hand shopping. To address the research
gaps, this study investigates the economic, critical, hedonic, fashion, and status seeking
motivations of second-hand luxury fashion consumers. Further, this study attempts to examine
the effects of the five motivations on the perceived value of online second-hand luxury fashion
shopping, which may enhance their purchase intention towards online second-hand luxury
fashion retailers (see Figure 2.1).
11
Figure 2.1. Hypothesized Research Model.
Economic Motivation and Perceived Value
Economic motivation is related to price consciousness and sensitivity, which mainly
emphasize financial benefits (Ferraro et al., 2016; Williams & Paddock, 2003). Guiot and Roux
(2010) conceptualized the economic motivation, including the wish to pay less, the search for a
Economic
Motivation
Perceived
Value
Purchase
Intention
Hedonic
Motivation
Fashion
Motivation
Status seeking
Motivation
H1
H6
H2
H3
H4
H5
12
fair price, bargain hunting, and the gratifying role of price. In general, the price of second-hand
products is lower than that of new ones. In various shopping contexts, second-hand shoppers
tend to buy high quality products at a lesser price to acquire value for the money (Chervellon et
al., 2012; Guiot & Roux, 2010). Previous research has consistently revealed that consumers
engage in second-hand shopping to obtain financial benefits (e.g., Bardhi & Arnould, 2005;
Chervellon et al., 2012; Ek Styvén & Mariani, 2020; Ferraro et al., 2016; Guiot & Roux, 2010;
Hiller Connell, 2011; Padmavathy et al., 2019; Roux & Guiot, 2008; Williams & Paddock, 2003;
Xu et al., 2014; Yan et al., 2015; Zaman et al., 2019). Williams and Paddock (2003) found that
economic motivations affect attitudes towards buying second-hand goods. Similarly, Bardhi and
Arnould (2005) found that thrift shoppers are economically motivated as they like to save money
through bargain hunting. In addition, Roux and Guiot (2008) revealed that the economic
motivation for second-hand shopping is positively linked to frugality. Engagement in second-
hand consumption allows consumers to carefully manage their money while getting the most
value from it. Likewise, previous research revealed that consumers who are frugal and/or price
conscious tend to engage in second-hand shopping (Cervellon et al., 2012; Guiot & Roux, 2010;
Roux & Guiot, 2008; Xu et al., 2014; Yan et al., 2015; Zaman et al., 2019). To ease the budget
allocation pressure, those consumers may look for a lower and fair price when engaging in
second-hand shopping (Chervellon et al., 2012; Ek Styvén & Mariani, 2020; Zaman et al., 2019).
Thus, in line with literature on second-hand shopping, the following hypothesis was proposed:
H1. Economic motivation positively influences perceived value for shopping at online
second-hand luxury fashion retailers.
13
Critical Motivation and Perceived Value
Critical motivation for second-hand shopping refers to the possibility of avoiding
conventional channels, supporting ethical and ecological concerns about recycling resources and
combating waste, and avoiding ostentation (Guiot & Roux, 2010; Ek Styvén & Mariani, 2020;
Yan et al., 2015; Zaman et al., 2019). Guiot and Roux (2010) discovered that the critical
motivation towards second-hand shopping is positively related to taking a distance from the main
consumption system and supporting ethical concerns. Buying new products is viewed as a waste
of resources, whereas purchasing second-hand goods is seen as a way of avoiding conventional
consumption and prolonging the lifetime of products that can still be of use (Guiot & Roux,
2010). Moreover, consumers who partake in second-hand consumption value material
simplification and ethical sensitivity (Guiot & Roux, 2010). With growing concerns about the
environmental impacts of consumption, apparel consumers have begun to value low-priced
fashion and embrace second-hand purchases (Kestenbaum, 2017). Similarly, Ek Styvén and
Mariani (2020) revealed that consumer’s perception of environmental sustainability influences
their tendency to take a distance from the consumption system, which in turn leads to a positive
attitude towards buying second-hand goods. Prior research consistently revealed that buying
second-hand goods is driven by consumer’s environmental consciousness (Cervellon et al., 2012;
Hiller Connell, 2011; Xu et al., 2014; Yan et al., 2015). According to Zaman et al. (2019),
environmental consciousness is an important orientation in online second-hand shopping. Taken
together, researchers support that critical motivation is an important factor behind second-hand
shopping. Consequently, consumers may value purchasing second-hand luxury fashion products
when they have ethical and ecological concerns such as recycling materials and reducing waste.
Therefore, the following hypothesis was proposed:
14
H2. Critical motivation positively influences perceived value for shopping at online
second-hand luxury fashion retailers.
Hedonic Motivation and Perceived Value
Hedonic motivation refers to an individual’s desire to seek pleasure and positive
emotions that reflect the recreational aspect of activities (Cinjarevic et al., 2011; Ferraro et al.,
2016; Padmavathy et al., 2019). Guiot and Roux (2010) revealed that the hedonic motivation
taps into treasure hunting, the originality of the product, social contact in the store, and the
nostalgic pleasure of finding objects from the past. Hedonic motivation has commonly been
discussed as one of the main drivers in second-hand shopping (Bardhi & Arnould, 2005;
Cervellon et al., 2012; Ferraro et al., 2016; Guiot & Roux, 2010;). Guiot and Roux (2010)
suggested that second-hand consumption might enable consumers to find old objects that
characterize a way of life, a type of manufacture, or a bygone tradition. Bardhi and Arnould
(2005) found that consumers actively engage in second-hand shopping for the thrill of the hunt,
unexpected finds, excitement, and unanticipated pleasure. Similarly, Ferraro et al. (2016)
discovered that second-hand shoppers enjoy treasure hunting and emotional fulfillment. Previous
research demonstrated that consumer’s positive emotions can affect their perceived value (Gupta
& Kim, 2010; Sweeney et al., 1999). As Siddiqui et al. (2003) suggested, fashion retailers should
use the internet to add value to their brand by developing websites that engage the hedonic
consumer based on their preferences and personalities. In line with previous literature, it can be
assumed that hedonic motivations may predict online second-hand luxury fashion shopping
values.
Thus, the following hypothesis is posited:
15
H3. Hedonic motivation positively influences perceived value for shopping at online
second-hand luxury fashion retailers.
Fashion Motivation and Perceived Value
Fashion motivation is related to seeking originality and authenticity, following a fashion
trend, and creating a unique sense of style (Beard, 2008; DeLong et al., 2005; Reiley & Delong,
2011). Guiot and Roux (2010) discovered that second-hand consumers value fashion authenticity
and vintage uniqueness. Fashion consciousness refers to a degree of involvement with new and
novelty styles (Koksal, 2014). Accordingly, consumers who have a high degree of fashion
involvement are informed and stay up to date with the latest fashion trends (O’Cass, 2000, 2001).
Ferraro et al. (2016) found that fashionability plays a significant role in second-hand
consumption, and consumers who are conscious about fashion view second-hand clothing as
authentic and unique. A recent study found that fashion-conscious consumers shop at online
second-hand retailers to find long-lasting, simplistic, and timeless styles (Zaman et al., 2019).
Based on the review of literature, it can be assumed that second-hand consumers value being
fashion conscious and creating their own unique style. Therefore, in addition to the economic,
critical, and hedonic motivation, this study also considers fashion motivation as a prominent
driver behind online second-hand shopping. Thus, the following hypothesis is posited:
H4. Fashion motivation positively influences perceived value for shopping at online
second-hand luxury fashion retailers.
Status Seeking Motivation and Perceived Value
Status seeking defines individuals who “strive to improve their social standing through
the conspicuous consumption of consumer products that confer and symbolize status both for the
individual and surrounding significant others(Eastman et al., 1999, p. 41). Moreover, status
16
seeking suggests that consumers tend to acquire products and services for social prestige value
(Eastman et al., 1999; O’Cass & Frost, 2002). Individuals who are motivated to consume for
status may purchase luxury products to communicate their social standing and represent their
unique identity to others (Berger & Ward, 2010; Hudders, 2012). According to Sirgy (1985),
consumer’s need for status motivates them to acquire, own, use, and display luxury products to
present an image of what they are like or want to be. Phau and Prendergast (2001) found that
consumers acquire luxury brand products to be accepted in their respective social circles.
Similarly, the results of Husic and Cici (2009) showed that luxury consumers, especially those
from the lower classes, purchase luxury products because of the distinct feeling and the
perceived power they then feel they have in society. Furthermore, by using luxury products as
symbols, individuals can signal meanings about themselves to their reference groups. Butcher et
al. (2017) explored Gen Y consumers’ motivation for purchasing luxury goods and discovered
that status consumption directly influences Gen Y’s purchase intentions of luxury fashion goods.
Millan and Mittal (2017) found that status concern (SC) and preference for status meaning
(PSM) positively influence consumer’s engagement in luxury fashion consumption. Based on a
thorough review of literature, it can be assumed that second-hand luxury fashion consumers
value social prestige and status symbolism. Thus, the following hypothesis is posited:
H5. Status seeking motivation positively influences perceived value for shopping at
online second-hand luxury fashion retailers.
Perceived Value and Purchase Intention
According to Zeithaml (1988), perceived value is “the consumer’s overall assessment of
the utility of a product based on perceptions of what is received and what is given” (p. 14).
Moreover, the concept of perceived value has evolved from two central dimensions: economic
17
(tradeoff between quality and price/sacrifice) (Dodds et al., 1991; Zeithaml, 1988) and the
psychological aspects related to the emotional and experiential aspects of consumption (Babin et
al., 1994; Sheth et al., 1991). Perceived value is an essential forerunner to consumers’
satisfaction and behavioral intentions. Consumers typically make a purchase decision driven by
the perceived benefits (Zeithaml, 1988). Chi et al. (2011) found that the higher a consumer’s
perceived value is of a product, the more likely they will purchase it. Accordingly, this suggests
that consumers may make a purchase decision based on their perceived value of a product.
Thaler (1985) indicated that perceived value is an important antecedent to influence consumer’s
purchase intentions because it is the composition of transaction utility and acquisition utility.
Based on Thaler’s (1985) research model, Gupta and Kim (2010) revealed that perceived value
positively influences online consumers’ purchase intentions. The positive association between
perceived value and purchase intention is empirically supported by studies (Chen et al., 2017;
Hu, 2011; Mosunmola et al., 2018; Zeithaml et al., 2002). Therefore, the following hypothesis is
posited:
H6. Perceived value positively influences purchase intention toward online second-hand
luxury fashion retailers.
18
Table 2.1.
Consumer Motivations for Buying Second-Hand Products.
Motivational factors
References
Economic motivation
Wish to pay less
Bargain hunting
Impulsivity
Search for fair price
Gratification from role of price
Smarter purchasing behavior
Frugality
Bardhi & Arnould (2005); Cervellon et al.
(2012); Ek Styvén & Mariani (2020); Ferraro
et al. (2016); Guiot & Roux (2010); Hiller
Connell (2011); Padmavathy et al. (2019);
Roux & Guiot (2008); Xu et al. (2014); Yan
et al. (2015); Zaman et al. (2019)
Critical motivation
Ethics and ecology
Anti-ostentation
Avoidance of conventional channels
Distance from consumption system
Prevention of wasteful disposal
Reuse
Lowering environmental footprint
Ek Styvén & Mariani (2020); Ferraro et al.
(2016); Guiot & Roux (2010); Hiller Connell
(2011); Xu et al. (2014); Yan et al. (2015);
Zaman et al. (2019)
Hedonic motivation
Social contact
Treasure hunting
Originality
Nostalgia proneness
Stimulation
Bardhi & Arnould (2005); Cervellon et al.
(2012); Ferraro et al. (2016); Guiot & Roux
(2010); Roux & Guiot (2008); Turunen &
Leipämaa-Leskinen (2015); Xu et al. (2014)
Fashion motivation
Fashion authenticity
Fashion involvement
Following fashion trends
Desire for uniqueness
Creation of style
Ferraro et al. (2016); Koksal, 2014; Xu et al.
(2014); Yan et al. (2015); Zaman et al. (2019)
Status seeking motivation
Perceived power
Social prestige value
Belongingness
Self-identity expressiveness
Husic & Cici (2009); Phau & Prendergast
(2001); Sirgy (1985);
19
CHAPTER 3. METHOD
Chapter 3 explains the procedures and methods used for data collection and data analysis. A
quantitative research design was used to examine relationships between the variables: economic
motivation and perceived value (H1), critical motivation and perceived value (H2), hedonic
motivation and perceived value (H3), fashion motivation and perceived value (H4), status
seeking motivation and perceived value (H5), and perceived value and purchase intention (H6).
The following section discusses sampling, survey instrument development, data collection
procedure, and data analyses.
Sample
A convenience sample of college students from a Mid-Southern university was recruited
to participate in the study. An invitation email that included information about the study was sent
to the potential participants. Those who were of 18 years of age or older were allowed to
participate in the study. This study targeted consumers who have purchased and/or owned
second-hand luxury fashion products. The demographics of the sample were monitored to assess
the representativeness of the population.
Data Collection
A quantitative approach was employed to examine the relationships proposed in the
literature review. After receiving approval for the use of human subjects from the Institutional
Review Board (IRB) of the Mid-Southern university (Appendix A), an online survey was
administered using Qualtrics software to collect data. The first page of the survey was composed
of a consent form and a description of the procedures, benefits, compensation, confidentiality,
participant rights, and investigator’s contact information (Appendix B). The participants were
20
asked to continue to the next page if they agreed to voluntarily participate in the present study by
clicking the “Next” button located at the bottom of the web page.
The definition of second-hand shopping and screening questions were placed at the
beginning of the survey. This ensured that participants’ responses reflected their experiences of
purchasing second-hand luxury fashion products. Participants were asked to indicate one online
or offline second-hand luxury consignment store that immediately came to their mind when they
think of second-hand luxury fashion products. Next, participants were asked whether they have
purchased and/or owned second-hand luxury fashion products. Responses from participants who
named an online or offline second-hand luxury fashion consignment store and indicated they had
previously purchased second-hand luxury fashion products were selected for data analysis. The
survey questionnaire contained seven sections: (1) general experiences of buying second-hand
luxury fashion products, (2) economic and critical motivations, (3) hedonic motivations, (4)
fashion and status seeking motivations, (5) perceived value and purchase intentions, and (6)
demographic information including age, gender, ethnicity, education attainment, occupation,
annual household income level, monthly flexible income, and zip code (Appendix C). As
compensation for completing the survey, participants were asked to provide their email if they
chose to participate in the $30.00 gift card drawing. All participants received an invitation email
with a link to the web-based survey questionnaire. All data collected was kept confidential to the
extent allowed by the law and University policy.
Instrument
A self-administered survey was distributed online to test the proposed model. Seven
constructs were measured in this study: economic motivation, critical motivation, hedonic
motivation, fashion motivation, status seeking motivation, perceived value, and purchase
21
intention. Reliable and valid scale items were adopted from existing literature to ensure content
validity. The reliability coefficient (Cronbach’s α) values of all constructs were reported above
the prescribed limit of .70, which indicated the internal consistency of the scale items of each
construct. Although the measures were adapted from the literature, each of the scale items was
modified to the current context (see Table 3.1). All scale items except demographic information
were measured using a 5-point Likert-type scale ranging from strongly disagree (1) to strongly
agree (5).
Economic motivation was measured by adapting Guiot and Roux’s (2010) five scale
items that assessed the wish to pay less, bargain hunting, the search for a fair price, and frugality.
The reported reliability of the scale was .70 (Guiot & Roux, 2010). Critical motivation was
measured using five scale items developed by Guiot and Roux (2010) that assessed concerns on
ethics and ecology, avoidance of conventional channels, distance from the consumption system,
prevention of wasteful disposal, reuse, and lowering the environmental footprint. The reported
reliability of the scale was .75 to .87 (Guiot & Roux, 2010). Hedonic motivation was measured
with four scale items adapted from Guiot and Roux (2010) that assessed nostalgia proneness and
originality of second-hand fashion products. The reported reliability of the scale was .77 (Guiot
& Roux, 2010). Fashion motivation was measured by adapting five scale items that assessed
fashion involvement, following fashion trends, and creation of style (Kautish & Sharma, 2018;
Wan et al., 2001). The reported reliability of the scale was .78 (Kautish & Sharma, 2018). Status
seeking motivation was measured by adapting five scale items from Eastman et al. (1999). The
scale items measured perceived power, social prestige value, and self-identity expressiveness.
The reported reliability of the scale was .89 (Eastman et al., 1999). Perceived value was
measured by adopting four scale items from previous studies (Grewal et al., 1998; Gupta & Kim,
22
2010; Sirdeshmukh et al., 2002). The scale items assessed perceived benefits relative to
perceived sacrifices of purchasing second-hand luxury fashion products through online retailers.
The reported reliability of the scale was .92 (Gupta & Kim, 2010). Purchase intention was
measured by adopting four scale items from Dodds et al. (1991) and Gupta and Kim (2010). The
scale items assessed the willingness of an individual to perform or not perform a behavior such
as purchasing a product. The reported reliability of the scale was .92 (Gupta & Kim, 2010).
Data Analyses
Data collected from the online survey were analyzed using Statistical Package for the
Social Sciences (SPSS) 26.0. First, descriptive statistics included means, standard deviations, and
frequencies of item scores. Second, exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was performed to evaluate
the dimensionality of each variable (i.e., five motivations, perceived value, and purchase
intention). Third, a Cronbach’s alpha coefficient for each of the six measures was calculated to
assess reliability and test discriminant validity of the constructs. Fourth, Pearson’s correlation
coefficient, means, standard deviations, and average variances were calculated to investigate the
relationship between the variables proposed in the study. Lastly, stepwise multiple regression
analysis was employed in SPSS to test the six hypotheses in the proposed research model.
23
Table 3.1.
Constructs and Scale Items Used in the Study.
Constructs
Scale Items
Source
Economic
motivation
I can afford more things because I pay less while shopping for
second-hand luxury fashion products.
One can have more things for the same amount of money if one
buys second-hand luxury fashion products.
I feel that I can have more things for less money by buying
second-hand luxury fashion products.
I do not want to pay more for a luxury product just because it is
new.
I feel I am paying a fair price when I purchase second-hand
luxury fashion products.
Guiot &
Roux
(2010)
Critical
motivation
Buying second-hand luxury fashion products is a form of
alternative fashion consumption.
Buying second-hand luxury fashion products is a more
sustainable approach.
Buying second-hand luxury fashion products enables me to
distance myself from the consumer society.
I enjoy buying second-hand luxury fashion products because I
do not like objects being thrown away that can still be of use.
By buying second-hand luxury fashion products, I feel I am
helping to fight against waste.
Guiot &
Roux
(2010)
Hedonic
motivation
I am attracted to old things compared to new ones.
Above all, I buy second-hand luxury fashion products because
they are old and have a history.
I like buying second-hand luxury fashion products because
they evoke examples of the past.
I like buying second-hand luxury fashion products because I
find them authentic.
Guiot &
Roux
(2010)
Fashion
motivation
I am conscious of fashion trends when I shop at online second-
hand luxury fashion stores.
I am very attentive to my inner feelings for fashion apparel.
I am eager to purchase second-hand luxury fashion products
online that correspond with my style.
I am quite aware of the latest design trends for fashion apparel
and accessories available online.
I usually notice how some people are more fashionable than
others.
Kautish
&
Sharma
(2018);
Wan et
al. (2001)
24
Table 3.1 (Cont.)
Constructs
Items
Source
Status
seeking
motivation
I would buy a product just because it has status.
I am interested in new products with status.
I would pay more for a product if it had status.
The status of a product is irrelevant to me.
A product is more valuable to me if it has some snob appeal.
Eastman et
al. (1999)
Perceived
value
Considering the time and effort I spend on buying luxury
fashion products, shopping at online second-hand luxury
fashion retailers is worthwhile.
Considering the risks I take in buying luxury fashion
products, shopping at online second-hand luxury fashion
retailers has value.
Considering the money I pay for buying luxury fashion
products, shopping at online second-hand luxury fashion
retailers is a good deal.
Considering all monetary and non-monetary costs I incur in
buying luxury fashion products, shopping at online second-
hand luxury fashion retailers is of good value.
Grewal et al.
(1998);
Gupta &
Kim (2010);
Sirdeshmukh
et al. (2002)
Purchase
intention
If I were to buy a luxury fashion product, I would consider
buying it from an online second-hand luxury fashion retailer.
The likelihood of me purchasing a luxury fashion product
from the online second-hand luxury fashion retailer is high.
My willingness to buy a luxury fashion product from an
online second-hand luxury fashion retailer is high.
The probability that I would consider buying a luxury fashion
product from an online second-hand luxury fashion retailer is
high.
Dodds et al.
(1991);
Gupta &
Kim (2010)
25
CHAPTER 4. RESULTS
Chapter 4 presents the sample description and the results of exploratory factor analysis,
reliability, and convergent validity for the variables proposed in Figure 2.1 (see Chapter 2). This
chapter discusses the correlations between the variables and the results of stepwise multiple
regression analysis.
Sample Characteristics
A total of 216 participants from a Mid-Southern university completed the online survey
distributed through an email invitation. Since the study’s target age group focused on millennial
and Gen Z consumers, data screening resulted in a usable sample of 190 participants for data
analysis. Respondents’ demographic characteristics are depicted in Table 4.1.
The majority of participants were female (86.8 %). The highest number of respondents
(n=133, 70%) fell into the Gen Z cohort, between 19 and 24 years of age. The millennial cohort
accounted for 30% of the sample (n=58). Most of the participants reported their ethnicity as
Caucasian or European American (71.6%), followed by Hispanic or Latino (8.4%) and Asian
American (6.8%). The remaining were either Black or African American (4.2%), two or more
races (4.2%), Native American (2.1%), or Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander (2.1%).
In terms of occupation, the majority of the respondents reported that they were college
students (74.7%). A total of 167 respondents had some level of college education or had obtained
a higher education degree (i.e., Bachelor, MS, MBA, PhD), indicating that the sample included
individuals with a higher level of education than the average U.S. population. The highest
representation (22.6%) of the annual household income in the sample was between $100,000-
$149,000, followed by $200,000 or more (15.8%). The median annual household income level of
the sample was between $75,000-$99,000. Students without incomes reported their parents’
household income.
26
Table 4.1.
Demographic Characteristics of Participants (n=190)
Participant characteristics
Frequency
Percent (%)
Gender
Male
Female
Prefer not to disclose
22
165
3
11.6
86.8
1.6
Age
19-24
25-30
31-35
36-39
133
35
16
7
70.0
18.4
8.4
3.7
Ethnicity
Native American
Black or African American
Asian American
Hispanic or Latino
Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander
Caucasian or European American
Two or more races
Other
Occupation
College student
Management, business, and finance
Human resource manager and purchasing manager
Computer, engineering, and science
Education, legal, and community service
Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media
Healthcare practitioners and medical
Food preparation and serving
Sales agent
Office and administrative support
Installation, maintenance, and repair
Production, transportation, and material moving
Other
Education
9th to 12th grade, no diploma
High school graduate (includes equivalency)
Some college, no degree
Associate degree
Bachelor’s degree
Master’s degree
4
8
13
16
4
136
8
1
142
4
3
2
9
8
4
3
4
4
1
3
3
3
20
108
19
31
9
2.1
4.2
6.8
8.4
2.1
71.6
4.2
.5
74.7
2.1
1.6
1.1
4.7
4.2
2.1
1.6
2.1
2.1
.5
1.6
1.6
1.6
10.5
56.8
10.0
16.3
4.7
27
Table 4.1 (Cont.)
Participant characteristics
Frequency
Percent (%)
Annual Income
$0-$24,999
$25,000-$49,999
$50,000-$74,999
$75,000-$99,999
$100,000-$149,999
$150,000-$199,999
$2000,000 or more
24
22
30
28
43
13
30
12.6
11.6
15.8
14.7
22.6
6.8
15.8
Second-Hand and New Luxury Fashion Purchases and Experiences
The majority of the sample reported they had purchased and/or owned second-hand
luxury fashion products (72.1%). Approximately 44% of participants had previously purchased
and/or owned one to five new luxury fashion products, followed by 23.3% reporting they had
purchased and/or owned six to ten new luxury fashion products. About half of the respondents
indicated they had previously purchased and/or owned one to five second-hand luxury fashion
products (51.1%), and 18.4% reported they had previously purchased and/or owned six to ten
second-hand luxury fashion products. In terms of preferred shopping channel for second-hand
luxury fashion products, approximately 38% of participants used an official online second-hand
luxury consignment store. About 28% of respondents preferred using an online social commerce
marketplace, and 23.7% of the sample preferred an official offline luxury department store chain.
A full description of the sample’s second-hand and new luxury fashion shopping experiences is
summarized in Table 4.2.
28
Table 4.2.
Second-Hand and New Luxury Fashion Shopping Experiences (n=190)
Shopping Experiences
Frequency
Percent (%)
Purchased and/or Owned Second-Hand Luxury Fashion
products
Yes
No
137
53
72.1
27.9
New Luxury Fashion Products Purchased and/or Owned
0
1-5
6-10
11-15
16-20
21-25
26-30
30
83
44
10
9
4
10
15.8
43.7
23.2
5.3
4.7
2.1
5.3
Second-Hand Luxury Fashion Products Purchased and/or
Owned
0
1-5
6-10
11-15
16-20
21-25
26-30
25
97
35
10
10
7
6
13.2
51.1
18.4
5.3
5.3
3.7
3.2
Preferred Shopping Channel
Official offline luxury department store chain
Official online second-hand luxury consignment store
Online social commerce marketplace
Online social networking sites
Other
45
72
53
17
1
23.7
37.9
27.9
8.9
0.5
EFA and Reliability of the Model Constructs
EFA using principal axis factoring was conducted with varimax rotation in SPSS version
26.0 to determine the underlying dimensions of the multi-item measurement scales used in this
study. Items used in this study were adapted from previous studies and applied in the second-
hand luxury fashion context. One factor was extracted with an Eigenvalue greater than one.
Items with factor loadings of .50 or higher were loaded onto one factor, and factor loadings of
.30 or lower were retained on one factor (Nunnally & Bernstein, 1994). Internal consistency of
29
each measure was tested with a Cronbach’s alpha value and composite reliability (CR) greater
than .70 (Cronbach, 1951). Each construct demonstrated satisfactory internal consistency with a
Cronbach’s alpha value of α =.74 to .90, indicating a high level of reliability for the scale items.
Table 4.3 includes the results of EFA and reliability analysis.
Economic Motivation
All five items for the economic motivation were retained based on the factor loadings.
The items captured participants’ economic motivation to purchase second-hand luxury fashion
products. The Cronbach’s alpha for these five items was .74. The composite reliability for these
five items was .76.
Critical Motivation
Four items were retained for the critical motivation based on the factor loadings. Due to
low factor loading, one item was removed: “Buying second-hand luxury fashion products
enables me to distance myself from the consumer society.” Retained items captured participants’
ethical and critical motivations to purchase second-hand luxury fashion products. The
Cronbach’s alpha for these four items was .78. The composite reliability for these four items was
.78.
Hedonic Motivation
The hedonic motivation factor retained all four items that captured nostalgia proneness
and originality of second-hand luxury fashion products. The Cronbach’s alpha for these four
items was .78. The composite reliability for these four items was .79.
30
Fashion Motivation
All four items were retained for fashion motivation. The items captured participants’
fashion involvement, following fashion trends, and creating their own styles. The Cronbach’s
alpha for the four items was .8l. The composite reliability for these four items was .81.
Status Seeking Motivation
All five items were retained for the status seeking motivation. The scale items captured
participants’ social standing and prestige value gained through second-hand luxury fashion
products. The Cronbach’s alpha for these five items was .84. The composite reliability for this
factor was .84.
Perceived Value
The perceived value factor retained all four items. The scale items captured benefits
perceived by participants that are relative to perceived sacrifices of purchasing second-hand
luxury fashion products through online retailers. The Cronbach’s alpha for these four items was
.80. The composite reliability was .81.
Purchase Intention
All four items were retained for the purchase intention factor. These scale items captured
participants’ purchase intentions toward second-hand luxury fashion products through online
channels. The Cronbach’s alpha of the scale was .90. The composite reliability was .90.
31
Table 4.3.
Results of EFA and Reliability Test for Variables (n=190)
Key constructs
Factor
loadings
αa
CRb
Economic motivation
I can afford more things because I pay less while shopping for
second-hand luxury fashion products.
One can have more things for the same amount of money if one
buys second-hand luxury fashion products.
I feel that I can have more things for less money by buying
second-hand luxury fashion products.
I do not want to pay more for a luxury product just because it is
new.
I feel I am paying a fair price when I purchase second-hand luxury
fashion products.
.50
.80
.81
.50
.51
.74
.76
Critical motivation
Buying second-hand luxury fashion products is a form of
alternative fashion consumption.
Buying second-hand luxury fashion products is a more sustainable
approach.
I enjoy buying second-hand luxury fashion products because I do
not like objects being thrown away that can still be of use.
By buying second-hand luxury fashion products, I feel I am
helping to fight against waste.
.49
.76
.70
.78
.78
.78
Hedonic motivation
I am attracted to old things compared to new ones.
Above all, I buy second-hand luxury fashion products because
they are old and have a history.
I like buying second-hand luxury fashion products because they
evoke examples of the past.
I like buying second-hand luxury fashion products because I find
them authentic.
.60
.69
.85
.62
.78
.79
Fashion motivation
I am very attentive to my inner feelings for fashion apparels.
I am eager to purchase second-hand luxury fashion products
online that correspond with my style.
I am quite aware of the latest design trends for fashion apparel and
accessories available online.
I usually notice how some people are more fashionable than
others.
.79
.62
.71
.76
.81
.81
Status seeking motivation
I would buy a product just because it has status.
I am interested in new products with status.
I would pay more for a product if it had status.
The status of a product is irrelevant to me.
A product is more valuable to me if it has some snob appeal.
.73
.81
.81
.71
.53
.84
.84
32
Table 4.3. (Continue)
Key constructs
Factor
loadings
αa
CRb
Perceived value
Considering the time and effort I spend on buying luxury fashion
products, shopping at online second-hand luxury fashion retailers is
worthwhile.
Considering the risks I take in buying luxury fashion products,
shopping at online second-hand luxury fashion retailers has value.
Considering the money, I pay for buying luxury fashion products,
shopping at online second-hand luxury fashion retailers is a good
deal.
Considering all monetary and non-monetary costs I incur in buying
luxury fashion products, shopping at online second-hand luxury
fashion retailers is of good value.
.50
.75
.83
.77
.80
.81
Purchase intention
If I were to buy a luxury fashion product, I would consider buying it
from an online second-hand luxury fashion retailer.
The likelihood of me purchasing a luxury fashion product from the
online second-hand luxury fashion retailer is high.
My willingness to buy a luxury fashion product from an online
second-hand luxury fashion retailer is high.
The probability that I would consider buying a luxury fashion product
from an online second-hand luxury fashion retailer is high.
.66
.89
.88
.89
.90
.90
Notes: a Cronbach’s alpha, b Composite reliability.
Correlations between the Variables and Discriminant Validity
Pearson’s correlation coefficient was conducted to assess the discriminant validity among
the seven variables (Kline, 1998). The results of the correlation coefficient showed strong
relationships among the variables except for the relationship between status seeking motivation
and other variables (see Table 4.4). Economic, critical, and fashion motivations were strongly
correlated with perceived value and purchase intention. Hedonic motivation was moderately
correlated to perceived value and purchase intention. Perceived value was strongly correlated
with purchase intention. Correlation values less than .85 (Kline, 1998) confirmed the
discriminant validity of the constructs.
33
Table 4.4.
Results of correlation matrix of key variables. (n=190)
Key Variables
EM
CM
HM
FM
SM
PV
PI
Economic motivation (EM)
Critical motivation (CM)
Hedonic motivation (HM)
Fashion motivation (FM)
Status seeking motivation (SM)
Perceived value (PV)
Purchase intention (PI)
Mean
Standard deviation
.51
.58**
.20**
.50**
-.12**
.54**
.51**
3.82
0.72
.48
.25**
.51**
-.13
.57**
.54**
3.92
0.79
.49
.22**
-.20**
.27**
.25**
2.93
0.87
.52
.14
.66**
.59**
3.72
0.90
.53
.09
-.07
2.62
0.90
.52
.69**
3.61
0.77
.70
3.78
0.92
Notes: *p < .05, **p < .01. (two-tailed).
Testing Hypotheses
Simple linear regression analysis was conducted to test the six hypotheses (see Figure
4.1). A significant regression equation was found, (F(5, 176) = 42.68, p <.001), with R2 = .55.
The results of the regression analysis indicated that economic motivation significantly influenced
perceived value (β = .16, t = 2.49, p <.05), supporting H1. Critical motivation significantly
influenced perceived value (β = .25, t = 3.77, p <.001), supporting H2. Hedonic motivation did
not significantly influence perceived value (β = .11, t = 1.94), rejecting H3. Fashion motivation
significantly influenced perceived value (β = .41, t = 6.34, p <.001), supporting H4. Status
seeking motivation significantly influenced perceived value (β = .12, t = 2.28, p <.05),
supporting H5. Perceived value (β = .69, t = 13.16, p <.001) significantly influenced purchase
intention toward shopping at online second-hand luxury fashion retailers, supporting H6. The
percentage of variance explained by the motivations for the perceived value was 55.0% (R2=
.55). The perceived value was accounted for 48% of the variance of purchase intention (R2= .48).
These R2 values suggest that a high percentage of variance among the variables explained in the
model.
34
Figure 4.1. Hypothesized Research Model.
Notes: *p < .05, **p < .01, ***p < .001.
Stepwise Multiple Regression Analysis
Next, stepwise multiple regression analysis was conducted to determine the best model
that demonstrated the variance in a continuous dependent variable explained by a set of
predictors. In the stepwise regression, all variables were checked if their significance had been
reduced, and if a nonsignificant variable was found, it was removed from the model. The results
H6
.69*** (13.16)
.41*** (6.34)
.11 (1.94)
H3
H2
.25*** (3.77)
Perceived
Value
Purchase
Intention
Hedonic
Motivation
Fashion
Motivation
Status Seeking
Motivation
H1
H4
H5
.16* (2.49)
.12* (2.28)
Economic
Motivation
35
showed that the model containing economic, critical, and fashion motivation had the highest
percentage of variance among the variables (R2= .53). Fashion motivation (β = .46, t = 7.33, p
<.001) had the strongest impact on perceived value, followed by critical motivation (β = .24, t =
3.66, p <.001), and economic motivation (β = .15, t = 2.30, p <.001) (see Table 4.5).
Table 4.5.
Stepwise Multiple Regression Analysis for the Variables Predicting the Perceived Value
Variables
β
t
P
Fashion motivation
Critical motivation
Economic motivation
R2
.46
.24
.15
.53
7.33
3.66
2.30
.000
.000
.023
36
CHAPTER 5. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS
This chapter summarizes the research results and discusses the findings presented in
Chapter 4. The conclusions and theoretical and practical implications are presented in this
chapter.
Research Summary
The second-hand luxury fashion market is growing at an exponential rate and shows no
signs of slowing down. Sales of second-hand luxury fashion products are thriving on luxury
consignment websites such as The RealReal, Fashionphile, and Vestiaire Collective. As noted
earlier, young, affluent generations frequently use these online platforms to purchase second-
hand luxury fashion products. Despite the popularity of the second-hand luxury fashion market,
empirical findings are limited to reveal factors associated with young consumers’ intention to use
digital platforms to purchase second-hand luxury fashion goods. Therefore, the purpose of this
study was to identify young consumers’ motivations and perceived value toward online second-
hand luxury fashion retailers, which, in turn, influence their purchase intention of second-hand
luxury fashion products. The study specifically examined millennial and Gen Z consumers’
economic, critical, hedonic, fashion, and status-seeking motivations. The findings of this study
can fill the gaps addressed in the second-hand luxury fashion literature and create a foundation
for future researchers to investigate this topic. The findings can also help online second-hand
luxury fashion retailers understand the key driving factors that influence young adult consumers’
purchase intentions of second-hand luxury fashion products.
Students at a Mid-Southern university in the U.S. were recruited to participate in an
online survey. Reliable and valid scale items were adapted from existing literature to measure the
seven variables. For example, scale items measuring three variables (i.e., economic motivation,
37
hedonic motivation, and critical motivation) were adapted from Guiot and Roux (2010). A total
of 190 participants were deemed usable for data analysis. The majority of the sample were
female Caucasian students (86.8%) between 19 and 24 years old. The median household income
level was $75,000-$99,000. This above-average household income level may be due to
participants reporting their parents’ annual household income. Most participants had purchased
second-hand luxury fashion products (72.1%) and owned one to five second-hand luxury fashion
products (51.1%). The most preferred shopping channel was official online second-hand luxury
consignment stores (37.9%), followed by online social commerce marketplaces (27.9%).
Descriptive statistics were conducted to examine a mean of the five motivations
(economic, critical, hedonic, fashion, status seeking). EFA with varimax rotation and reliability
tests were assessed to ensure internal consistency and a single factor of each measure. Pearson’s
correlation coefficients were examined to assess discriminant validity among the seven variables.
Simple linear regression analysis was conducted to test the six hypotheses. Stepwise multiple
regression analysis was conducted to determine the best model that demonstrated the variance in
a continuous dependent variable explained by a set of predictors. The results of this study
indicated that five of the six hypotheses were statistically supported; one path between hedonic
motivation and perceived value was not significant. Whereas prior studies that revealed hedonic
motivation as a main driver in second-hand shopping focused on brick-and-mortar stores (Bardhi
& Arnould, 2005; Cervellon et al., 2012; Ferraro et al., 2016; Guiot & Roux, 2010;), this study
focused on online second-hand luxury shopping. It has been noted that non-brick-and-mortar
retailers are limited in providing hedonic shopping values (Kwon & Jain, 2009). The size of the
sample may be another reason for the insignificance between hedonic motivation and perceived
value. Fashion motivation had the strongest influence on perceived value, followed by critical
38
and economic motivation. Perceived value significantly influenced purchase intention toward
online second-hand luxury fashion retailers. Thus, when consumers perceive value from second-
hand luxury fashion products, it would directly influence their purchase intentions. The results
support that millennial and Gen Z consumers are fashion-forward and are driven by a
commitment to sustainability. Younger generations may also be inclined to use online second-
hand luxury retailers as a way to update their wardrobes by spending less money.
Theoretical Implications
This study contributes to the luxury fashion literature by identifying young adult
consumers’ motivational factors for purchasing second-hand luxury fashion products through
online retailers. Findings revealed that millennials and Gen Z consumers are driven by fashion,
economic, and critical motivations when purchasing second-hand luxury fashion products from
online retailers. The results are aligned with studies that found the importance of economic and
critical motivations in second-hand product purchase (Ek Styvén & Mariani (2020); Ferraro et al.
(2016); Guiot & Roux (2010); Hiller Connell (2011); Xu et al. (2014); Yan et al. (2015); Zaman
et al. (2019). These studies found that economic motivation is the key driver to the purchase of
second-hand products. However, the results of this study highlight that fashion and critical
motivations are much more important factors than the economic motivation to the online second-
hand luxury fashion purchase among millennials and Gen Z consumers. This may suggest that
millennial and Gen Z shoppers place a higher priority on the social and environmental impacts of
their purchases.
Whereas fashion consciousness heavily influences perceived value for shopping at online
second-hand luxury fashion retailers, status seeking motivation had the weakest impact on
perceived value for shopping at online second-hand luxury fashion retailers. This may indicate
39
that young, affluent consumers are driven to find unique, trendy collections that reflect their
individuality and style. Findings also revealed that online second-hand luxury fashion shoppers
are similar to second-hand non-luxury fashion shoppers as they are conscious about the
ecological environment (Cervellon et al., 2012; Xu et al., 2014; Yan et al., 2015; Zaman et al.,
2019). Findings from the present study expanded the body of literature that uses the mental
accounting theory by examining monetary and non-monetary determinants of value in online
second-hand luxury fashion shopping. The results theoretically confirmed that Thaler’s (1985)
mental accounting theory is applicable for studying consumer decision-making in an online
shopping context since multiple factors (e.g., economic, critical, fashion, and status-seeking) can
affect consumers’ online shopping decisions. Although Gupta and Kim’s (2010) study adapted
this theory, they focused on online consumers’ perceived price, perceived risk, convenience, and
pleasure. The current study focused on online second-hand luxury fashion consumers’ economic,
critical, hedonic, fashion, and status seeking motivation, as well as perceived value and purchase
intention.
Practical Implications
The findings of this study provide practical implications for online second-hand luxury
fashion retailers. This study indicates the fashion, critical, and economic factors motivate young
adult consumers to purchase second-hand luxury fashion products from online retailers. The
findings suggest that online second-hand luxury fashion retailers should provide trend-driven
garments and accessories designed for digitally native millennial and Gen Z customers. They can
also appeal to these young adult consumers by showing increased engagement and commitment
to social responsibility. For instance, The RealReal is partnering with Gucci. The pre-owned
merchandise from consignors is brought in directly from Gucci. For every Gucci item purchased
40
or sold on The RealReal, the consignment retailer commits to planting a tree through One Tree
Planted, a nonprofit organization (Farra, 2020). Other online second-hand luxury fashion
retailers can partner and collaborate with luxury fashion brands like Gucci. By encouraging
customers to resell lightly worn or gently used clothing and accessories, they can extend the life
of their products which will promote circularity for luxury fashion. The findings of this research
provide online second-hand luxury fashion retailers with a better understanding of online
purchase intention, which allows them to practice effective online marketing strategies, and
eventually benefits the consumer’s online shopping experience.
In conclusion, economic, critical, and fashion motivations significantly influence young
adult consumers perceived value and purchase intentions toward online second-hand luxury
fashion shopping. It would be beneficial to examine what other variables can explain purchase
intention toward second-hand luxury fashion products. Further, researchers could also explore
mediating and moderating effects of various variables, such as age, gender, and ethnicity.
Influencer marketing is prevalent in the fashion industry (Jin & Ryu, 2020; Neff, 2019), and their
impact on attitude and purchase intention of second-hand luxury fashion products could be
explored in further studies.
41
CHAPTER 6. LIMITATIONS AND FUTURE RESEARCH
Chapter 6 summarizes limitations for this present study and recommendations for future
research are discussed. While this study contributes to extending the body of second-hand luxury
fashion consumers’ motivations and perceived value research, several limitations should be
recognized.
First, the sample was limited to college students at a Mid-Southern university. Therefore,
the results may not represent the U.S population in general. The majority of the sample consisted
primarily of Caucasians or European Americans located in the Mid-South. Thus, the results may
not characterize individuals from diverse backgrounds and other specific regions of the country.
Extending the study to other regions of the U.S would greatly contribute to understanding
second-hand luxury fashion consumers’ motivations, perceived value, and purchase intentions
using online second-hand luxury fashion retailers while shopping for second-hand luxury fashion
products. Such studies will fill the information gaps and increase external validity of the model.
Second, the present study focused on millennial and Gen-Z consumers. The majority of
the participants were 19 to 24 years of age (70%). Age can be an important factor in
understanding different shopping motivations and intention. Future researchers could perform a
similar study on different age groups such as baby-boomers and Gen X consumers. In order to
enhance the generalizability, it is necessary to validate the model with consumers from different
age groups.
Additionally, the obtained sample size is rather small, and caution should be applied
when generalizing the results of the study. The sample size was limited due to time constraints
and individuals were approached to participate in the study through an email invitation. There
42
were also several questionnaires that were only partially filled out, thus, they had to be
eliminated from the study.
Finally, the framework examined the impacts of five motivations economic, critical,
hedonic, fashion, status seekingon perceived value, which leads to purchase intention of
second-hand luxury fashion products. Future researchers could explore other non-monetary
motivations (i.e., identity expressiveness and perceived risks) that may affect perceived value,
which in turn, may lead to purchase intention. Furthermore, including other variables in the
proposed research model could enhance the predictive power of second-hand luxury fashion
consumers’ purchase behaviors. Therefore, these relationships should be empirically tested.
43
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50
APPENDICES
Appendix A: IRB Approval of Research
To: Murphy B Aycock
BELL 4188
From: Douglas J Adams, Chair
IRB Expedited Review
Date: 12/15/2020
Action: Exemption Granted
Action Date: 12/15/2020
Protocol #: 2011300540
Study Title: Consumer Motivations and Perceived Value in Online Second-Hand Luxury Fashion
Shopping
The above-referenced protocol has been determined to be exempt.
If you wish to make any modifications in the approved protocol that may affect the level of risk to your participants, you
must seek approval prior to implementing those changes. All modifications must provide sufficient detail to assess the
impact of the change.
If you have any questions or need any assistance from the IRB, please contact the IRB Coordinator at 109 MLKG
Building, 5-2208, or irb@uark.edu.
cc: Eunjoo Cho, Investigator
Page 1 of 1
51
Appendix B: Consent Form
Title: Consumer Motivations and Perceived Value in Online Second-Hand Luxury Fashion
Shopping
Investigators: Murphy Aycock and Dr. Eunjoo Cho
Investigators:
Murphy Aycock will be conducting an online survey and will be responsible for obtaining
informed consent through this online survey under the mentorship of Dr. Eunjoo Cho, faculty
advisor. Murphy is a master’s student in the School of Human Environmental Sciences at the
University of Arkansas. Investigators appreciate your willingness to participate in this survey.
Purpose:
This is an academic research project. The purpose of this research is to better understand
consumer motivations to purchase second-hand luxury fashion products. Eligible participants
will be undergraduate and graduate students at the University of Arkansas. We appreciate your
willingness to participate in this survey.
Procedures:
If you agree to participate in this study, you will be asked to complete an online survey that will
take approximately 10-15 minutes. The questions will consist of six parts asking your opinions
and experiences about purchasing second-hand luxury fashion products. The last part will ask
you to provide your general background including age, gender, ethnicity, educational attainment,
occupation, annual household income level, monthly flexible income, and current residence. All
the questionnaires will use numeric codes for analytical purposes. You will indicate your
response by clicking the number from 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree) that best
describes your opinions and experiences for each question.
Benefits:
Participating in this research study will provide future researchers and second-hand luxury
fashion retailers important knowledge on consumer motivation in the second-hand luxury
fashion market. As compensation for completing the survey, you may choose to participate in a
drawing for a $30 gift card. Participation in the drawing is optional.
Confidentiality:
All data collected will be kept confidential to the extent allowed by the law and University
policy. All survey data will be saved on password-protected computers with access limited to the
researchers. If results are published, the summary of data will be reported rather than individual
responses.
Participant Rights:
Your participation in this study is completely voluntary. You have the right to refuse to
participate or leave the study at any time without any penalty. If you decide not to participate in
the study or leave the study early, it is up to your discretion. You can skip any question if you do
not feel comfortable answering. There are no known or anticipated risks for participation in this
study.
52
Contacts:
If you have questions or concerns about this study, you may contact the primary investigator,
Murphy Aycock at mbaycock@uark.edu or the co-investigator, Dr. Eunjoo Cho at
ejcho@uark.edu. For questions or concerns about your rights as a research participant, please
contact Ro Windwalker, the University’s Institutional Review Board Coordinator, at
irb@uark.edu.
By beginning the survey, you acknowledge that you have read this information and agree to
participate in this research. You are free to withdraw participation at any time without penalty.
Thank you for your time and participation.
53
Appendix C: Online Survey Questionnaire
Consumer Motivations and Perceived Value
in Online Second-Hand Luxury Fashion
Shopping
Start of Block: Default Question Block
Consumer Motivations and Perceived Value in Online Second-Hand Luxury Fashion
Shopping
Investigators:
Murphy Aycock will be conducting an online survey and will be responsible for obtaining
informed consent through this online survey under the mentorship of Dr. Eunjoo Cho, faculty
advisor. Murphy is a master’s student in the School of Human Environmental Sciences at the
University of Arkansas. Investigators appreciate your willingness to participate in this survey.
Purpose:
This is an academic research project. The purpose of this research is to better understand
consumer motivations to purchase second-hand luxury fashion products. Eligible participants
will be students, faculty, and staff at the University of Arkansas. We appreciate your willingness
to participate in this survey.
Procedures:
If you agree to participate in this study, you will be asked to complete an online survey that will
take approximately 10-15 minutes. The questions will consist of six parts asking your opinions
and experiences about purchasing second-hand luxury fashion products. The last part will ask
you to provide your general background including age, gender, ethnicity, educational attainment,
occupation, annual household income level, monthly flexible income, and current residence. All
the questionnaires will use numeric codes for analytical purposes. You will indicate your
response by clicking the number from 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree) that best
describes your opinions and experiences for each question.
Benefits:
Participating in this research study will provide future researchers and second-hand luxury
fashion retailers important knowledge on consumer motivation in the second-hand luxury
fashion market. As compensation for completing the survey, you may choose to participate in a
drawing for a $30 Walmart gift card. Participation in the drawing is optional.
Confidentiality:
All data collected will be kept confidential to the extent allowed by the law and University
policy. All survey data will be saved on password-protected computers with access limited to the
54
researchers. If results are published, the summary of data will be reported rather than individual
responses.
Participant Rights:
Your participation in this study is completely voluntary. You have the right to refuse to
participate or leave the study at any time without any penalty. If you decide not to participate in
the study or leave the study early, it is up to your discretion. You can skip any question if you do
not feel comfortable answering. There are no known or anticipated risks for participation in this
study.
Contacts:
If you have questions or concerns about this study, you may contact the primary investigator,
Murphy Aycock at mbaycock@uark.edu or the co-investigator, Dr. Eunjoo Cho at
ejcho@uark.edu. For questions or concerns about your rights as a research participant, please
contact Ro Windwalker, the University’s Institutional Review Board Coordinator, at
irb@uark.edu.
By beginning the survey, you acknowledge that you have read this information and agree to
participate in this research. You are free to withdraw participation at any time without penalty
Thank you for your time and participation.
Page Break
55
Second-hand shopping is defined as “the acquisition of second-hand objects through methods
and places of exchange that are generally distinct from those for new products” (Guiot & Roux,
2010, p. 384).
Please indicate one online/offline second-hand luxury fashion consignment store that
immediately comes to your mind when you think of second-hand luxury fashion products.
________________________________________________________________
Page Break
56
Part I. Please think of all your experiences and opinions about second-hand luxury products for
a few seconds before looking at the questionnaire. Please click on the answer that best describes
your opinions for each question.
1. Have you purchased and/or owned SECOND-HAND luxury fashion products?
o Yes
o No
2. Please check all second-hand luxury fashion product categories that you have purchased.
Apparel
Handbags
Wallets
Belts
Jewelry (bracelets, charms, necklaces, and rings)
Shoes
Sunglasses
Watch
Car
Other (Please specify)
________________________________________________
57
2. Please check all second-hand luxury fashion product categories that you are interested in
making purchases in the near future.
Apparel
Handbags
Wallets
Belts
Jewelry (bracelets, charms, necklaces, and rings)
Shoes
Sunglasses
Watch
Car
Other (Please specify)
________________________________________________
58
3. Please indicate how many NEW luxury fashion products you have purchased or owned.
o 0
o 1-5
o 6-10
o 11-15
o 16-20
o 21-25
o 26-30
4. Please indicate how many SECOND-HAND luxury fashion products that you have purchased
or will purchase in the near future.
o 0
o 1-5
o 6-10
o 11-15
o 16-20
o 21-25
o 26-30
5. Please indicate a luxury fashion brand you have purchased through an online or offline
second-hand luxury fashion retailer.
________________________________________________________________
59
6. Please indicate a luxury fashion brand you will purchase in the future through an online or
offline second-hand luxury fashion retailer.
________________________________________________________________
7. Which of the following transaction channels do you most prefer when shopping for second-
hand luxury fashion products? Please select one.
o Official offline luxury department store chain (e.g., Macy's ThreadUp, etc.)
o Official online second-hand luxury consignment store (e.g., therealreal.com,
vestiairecollective.com, fashionphile.com, luxurygaragesale.com, etc.)
o Online social commerce marketplace (e.g., poshmark.com, rebelle.com, etc.)
o Online social networking sites (e.g., Facebook, Instagram, etc.)
o Other (Please specify) ________________________________________________
Page Break
Part II. Please select the option that best describes your thoughts and opinions about buying
second-hand luxury fashion products for each question.
60
Strongly
Disagree
Disagree
Neither
Agree nor
Disagree
Agree
Strongly
Agree
I can afford
more things
because I pay
less while
shopping for
second-hand
luxury
fashion
products.
o
o
o
o
o
One can have
more things
for the same
amount of
money if one
buys second-
hand luxury
fashion
products.
o
o
o
o
o
I feel that I
can have
more things
for less
money by
buying
second-hand
luxury
fashion
products.
o
o
o
o
o
I do not want
to pay more
for a luxury
fashion
product just
because it is
new.
o
o
o
o
o
61
I feel I am
paying a fair
price when I
purchase
second-hand
luxury
fashion
products.
o
o
o
o
o
Please select
"Strongly
Disagree".
o
o
o
o
o
Buying
second-hand
luxury
fashion
products is a
form of
alternative
fashion
consumption.
o
o
o
o
o
Buying
second-hand
luxury
fashion
products is a
more
sustainable
approach to
apparel
consumption.
o
o
o
o
o
Buying
second-hand
luxury
fashion
products
enables me to
distance
myself from
the consumer
society.
o
o
o
o
o
62
I enjoy
buying
second-hand
luxury
fashion
products
because I do
not like
objects being
thrown away
that can still
be of use.
o
o
o
o
o
By buying
second-hand
luxury
fashion
products, I
feel I am
helping to
fight against
waste.
o
o
o
o
o
Page Break
Part III. Please select the option that best describes your thoughts and opinions about buying
second-hand luxury fashion products for each question.
63
Strongly
Disagree
Disagree
Neither
Agree nor
Disagree
Agree
Strongly
Agree
I like
wandering
around
second-hand
luxury
fashion stores
because I
always hope I
will come
across a real
find.
o
o
o
o
o
I go to certain
second-hand
luxury
fashion stores
to rummage
around and
try to find
something.
o
o
o
o
o
I am often on
the look-out
for a find
when I go to
certain
second-hand
luxury
fashion
stores.
o
o
o
o
o
I feel like a
treasure
hunter in
certain
second-hand
luxury
fashion
stores.
o
o
o
o
o
64
I hope to
come across
articles that
nobody else
has.
o
o
o
o
o
I hope to
come across
original
articles that
are not found
in
mainstream
stores.
o
o
o
o
o
Please select
"Strongly
Agree".
o
o
o
o
o
What I like
about certain
second-hand
luxury
fashion stores
is the
pleasure of
meeting and
talking to
people.
o
o
o
o
o
In certain
second-hand
luxury
fashion
stores, I like
entering into
discussion
with people
even if I do
not buy
anything.
o
o
o
o
o
65
I like going
to second-
hand luxury
fashion stores
to have
contact with
people and
talk to them.
o
o
o
o
o
I enjoy the
social
interaction
you find in
certain
second-hand
luxury
fashion
stores.
o
o
o
o
o
I am attracted
to old things
compared to
new ones.
o
o
o
o
o
Above all, I
buy second-
hand luxury
fashion
products
because they
are old and
have a
history.
o
o
o
o
o
I like buying
second-hand
luxury
fashion
products
because they
evoke
examples of
the past.
o
o
o
o
o
66
I like buying
second-hand
luxury
fashion
products
because I find
them
authentic.
o
o
o
o
o
Part IV. Please select the option that best describes your thoughts and opinions about buying
second-hand luxury fashion products for each question.
Page Break
67
Strongly
Disagree
Disagree
Neither
Agree nor
Disagree
Agree
Strongly
Agree
I am
conscious of
fashion
trends when I
shop at online
second-hand
luxury
fashion
stores.
o
o
o
o
o
I am very
attentive to
my inner
feelings for
fashion
apparels.
o
o
o
o
o
I am eager to
purchase
second-hand
luxury
fashion
products
online that
correspond
with my
style.
o
o
o
o
o
I am quite
aware of the
latest design
trends for
fashion
apparel and
accessories
available
online.
o
o
o
o
o
I usually
notice how
some people
are more
fashionable
than others.
o
o
o
o
o
68
Please select
"Strongly
Disagree".
o
o
o
o
o
I would buy a
product just
because it has
status.
o
o
o
o
o
I am
interested in
new products
with status.
o
o
o
o
o
I would pay
more for a
product if it
had status.
o
o
o
o
o
The status of
a product is
irrelevant to
me.
o
o
o
o
o
A product is
more
valuable to
me if it has
some snob
appeal.
o
o
o
o
o
Page Break
Part V. Please select the option that best describes your thoughts and opinions about buying
second-hand luxury fashion products for each question.
69
Strongly
Disagree
Disagree
Neither
Agree nor
Disagree
Agree
Strongly
Agree
Considering
the time and
effort I spend
on buying
luxury
fashion
products,
shopping at
online
second-hand
luxury
fashion
retailers is
worthwhile.
o
o
o
o
o
Considering
the risk I take
in buying
luxury
fashion
products,
shopping at
online
second-hand
luxury
fashion
retailers has
value.
o
o
o
o
o
Considering
the money I
pay for
buying
luxury
fashion
products,
shopping at
online
second-hand
luxury
fashion
retailers is a
good deal.
o
o
o
o
o
70
Considering
all monetary
and non-
monetary
costs I incur
in buying
luxury
fashion
products,
shopping at
online
second-hand
luxury
fashion
retailers is of
good value.
o
o
o
o
o
Please select
"Strongly
Agree".
o
o
o
o
o
If I were to
buy a luxury
fashion
product, I
would
consider
buying it
from an
online
second-hand
luxury
fashion
retailer.
o
o
o
o
o
71
The
likelihood of
me
purchasing a
luxury
fashion
product from
an online
second-hand
luxury
fashion
retailer is
high.
o
o
o
o
o
My
willingness to
buy a luxury
fashion
product from
an online
second-hand
luxury
fashion
retailer is
high.
o
o
o
o
o
The
probability
that I would
consider
buying a
luxury
fashion
product from
an online
second-hand
luxury
fashion
retailer is
high.
o
o
o
o
o
Page Break
Part VI. Please select the option that best describes your thoughts and opinions about buying
second-hand luxury fashion products for each question.
72
Strongly
Disagree
Disagree
Neither
Agree nor
Disagree
Agree
Strongly
Agree
Internet
shopping at
second-hand
luxury fashion
retailers
involves
significant
uncertainty.
o
o
o
o
o
There is a
significant
chance of
money and/or
time loss when
shopping online
at second-hand
luxury fashion
retailers.
o
o
o
o
o
There would be
negative
outcomes when
shopping online
at second-hand
luxury fashion
retailers.
o
o
o
o
o
My credit card
and personal
information
may not be
secure with
second-hand
luxury fashion
retailers.
o
o
o
o
o
73
Most people
who are
important to me
think that
shopping online
for second-hand
luxury fashion
products is
acceptable.
o
o
o
o
o
The people in
my life whose
opinion I value
would approve
of online
second-hand
luxury fashion
shopping.
o
o
o
o
o
Please select
"Strongly
Disagree".
o
o
o
o
o
Most people
who are
important to me
approve of me
shopping for
second-hand
luxury fashion
products on
websites/mobile
devices.
o
o
o
o
o
I am willing to
encourage
friends to try
online shopping
at second-hand
luxury fashion
retailers.
o
o
o
o
o
74
I am willing to
share with
others the
website/mobile
app I use to
purchase
second-hand
luxury fashion
products.
o
o
o
o
o
I am willing to
introduce others
to shop for
online second-
hand luxury
fashion
products.
o
o
o
o
o
I am willing to
share positive
things about
buying second-
hand luxury
fashion
products at
online retailers.
o
o
o
o
o
Page Break
75
Part VII. The questions below ask about your general background information. Please check
the appropriate information.
1. What year were you born?
________________________________________________________________
2. What is your gender?
o Male
o Female
o Prefer not to disclose
3. What is your ethnicity? Please select one.
o Native American
o Black or African American
o Asian American
o Hispanic or Latino
o Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander
o White or European
o Two or more races
o Other (Please specify) ________________________________________________
76
4. What is your occupation?
o Student (college, university, graduate school)
o Management, business, and finance occupations (e.g., marketing manager, accountant,
financial analyst)
o Human resource manager and purchasing manager
o Computer, engineering, and science occupations (e.g., software developer, mechanical
engineer, epidemiologist)
o Education, legal, and community service occupations (e.g., professor, lawyer)
o Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media occupations (e.g., graphic designer, art
gallery curator, broadcast journalist, photographer)
o Healthcare practitioners and medical occupations (e.g., surgeon, pharmacists)
o Healthcare support (e.g., nursing assistant, dental assistant, pharmacy aide)
o Food preparation and serving occupations (e.g., cook, waiter/waitress)
o Sales agent occupations (e.g., retail salesperson, real estate broker, insurance, and
cashier)
o Office and administrative support occupations (e.g., bookkeeper, financial clerk)
o Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations (e.g., agricultural inspector, farm contractor)
o Construction and extraction occupations (e.g., masonry work, carpenter)
o Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations (e.g., electrical installer, automotive
service technician)
o Production, transportation, and material moving occupations (e.g., flight attendant, pilot,
material moving machine operator)
o Information and technology (e.g., computer programmer, database administrators)
o Military specific occupations (e.g., army linguist, navy operations specialist)
o Other occupation
77
5. What is the highest degree or level of school you have completed?
o No schooling completed
o Less than 9th grade
o 9th to 12th grade, no diploma
o High school graduate (includes equivalency)
o Some college, no degree
o Associate degree
o Bachelor's degree
o Master's degree
o Doctor of Philosophy's degree
6. What is your annual household income level? (If you are a dependent student, please list your
parent’s income.)
o less than $24,999
o $25,000-$49,999
o $50,000-$74,999
o $75,000-$99,999
o $100,000-$149,999
o $150,000-$199,999
o $200,000 or more
78
7. What is your monthly flexible income that is left for spending after paying taxes and paying
for your necessities?
o $100-$299
o $300-$499
o $500-$699
o $700-$899
o $900-$1,999
o $2,000 or more
8. What is your zip code?
________________________________________________________________
Please provide your email address if you would like to participate in the drawing for a $30
Walmart gift card.
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
End of Block: Default Question Block
Article
As the luxury market gains popularity, it becomes critical to understand factors that influence consumers to purchase luxury fashion brands. It is even more important to understand what motivates young college consumers who are the market for tomorrow. Additionally, luxury brands consumption is linked to the state of mind of an individual understanding how affected by the consumer’s values and attitudes. Consumers use the luxury brands as an expression of the self. Young Americans are mainly hedonistic shoppers who seek pleasures and the latest trends. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the influence of consumption values and self-esteem among generation Z college students’ attitudes and intention to purchase luxury fashion brands. A convenience sample of college students was randomly sampled for the study. Data was gathered using scales that were adopted and modified to answer the research questions. Results showed that consumers with high consumption values such as quality value and social values have a positive attitude towards luxury brands supporting previous research. Furthermore, consumers with high self-esteem had less intention to purchase these luxury brands. Additionally, the results have implications for luxury brand managers and marketers to effectively plan and design market segmentation for these consumers given that they are the future consumers. Keywords: self-esteem, attitude, consumption values, purchase intention, luxury brands, Gen
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Sharing economy (SE) platforms are increasingly providing an effective means of connecting providers and users of secondhand goods. While media seem to emphasize that the trend of selling/buying secondhand has been growing due to the consolidation and development of peer‐to‐peer (P2P) sharing platforms, a comprehensive identification of the antecedents of buying secondhand on SE platforms is virtually missing. This study addresses this gap by (a) identifying different sets of motivations and attitudes leading consumers to adopt SE platforms for secondhand buying and (b) testing a model on a sample of UK consumers in the context of P2P sharing platforms for secondhand clothing. This study reveals that there are three major antecedents of consumers' attitude towards buying secondhand clothes on P2P–SE platforms: perceived sustainability, economic motivations, and taking a distance from the consumption system. Perceived sustainability and economic motivations influence positively attitude toward buying secondhand, as well as motivations in the form of distance from the consumption system. Attitude toward buying secondhand is positively influenced also by distance from the system and, in turn, has a strong positive influence on behavioral intention to buy secondhand clothes. Moreover, past experience of buying secondhand online has a positive moderating effect on the relationship between perceived sustainability and distance from the consumption system.
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Chapter
provides a definition of luxury and a detailed discussion of how it has changed in time till arriving at the concepts of new luxury and zeroing;
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