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Basil Seeds as a Novel Food, Source of Nutrients and Functional Ingredients with Beneficial Properties: A Review

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  • Universidad Central de Chile, Chile
Article

Basil Seeds as a Novel Food, Source of Nutrients and Functional Ingredients with Beneficial Properties: A Review

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Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) is found worldwide and is used in the food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries; however, the nutritional and functional properties of the seeds are scarcely known. Basil seeds contain high concentrations of proteins (11.4–22.5 g/100 g), with all the essential amino acids except S-containing types and tryptophan; dietary fiber (soluble and insoluble) ranging from 7.11 to 26.2 g/100 g lipids, with linoleic (12–85.6 g/100 g) and linolenic fatty acids (0.3–75 g/100 g) comprising the highest proportions; minerals, such as calcium, potassium, and magnesium, in high amounts; and phenolic compounds, such as orientine, vicentine, and rosmarinic acid. In addition, their consumption is associated with several health benefits, such as the prevention of type-2 diabetes, cardio-protection, antioxidant and antimicrobial effects, and anti-inflammatory, antiulcer, anticoagulant, and anti-depressant properties, among others. The focus of this systematic review was to study the current state of knowledge and explore the enormous potential of basil seeds as a functional food and source of functional ingredients to be incorporated into foods.
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Foods 2021, 10, 1467. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10071467 www.mdpi.com/journal/foods
Review
Basil Seeds as a Novel Food, Source of Nutrients and
Functional Ingredients with Beneficial Properties: A Review
Héctor Calderón Bravo
1,2
, Natalia Vera Céspedes
1
, Liliana Zura-Bravo
1
and Loreto A. Muñoz
1,
*
1
School of Engineering, Food Science Lab, Universidad Central de Chile, Santiago 8330601, Chile;
hector.calbravo@gmail.com (H.C.B.); nati.vcespedes@gmail.com (N.V.C.); liliana.zura@gmail.com (L.Z.-B.)
2
Department of Food Science and Chemical Technology, Universidad de Chile, Santiago 8380494, Chile
* Correspondence: loreto.munoz@ucentral.cl
Abstract: Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) is found worldwide and is used in the food, pharmaceutical,
and cosmetic industries; however, the nutritional and functional properties of the seeds are scarcely
known. Basil seeds contain high concentrations of proteins (11.4–22.5 g/100 g), with all the essential
amino acids except S-containing types and tryptophan; dietary fiber (soluble and insoluble) ranging
from 7.11 to 26.2 g/100 g lipids, with linoleic (12–85.6 g/100 g) and linolenic fatty acids (0.3–75 g/100
g) comprising the highest proportions; minerals, such as calcium, potassium, and magnesium, in
high amounts; and phenolic compounds, such as orientine, vicentine, and rosmarinic acid. In
addition, their consumption is associated with several health benefits, such as the prevention of
type-2 diabetes, cardio-protection, antioxidant and antimicrobial effects, and anti-inflammatory,
antiulcer, anticoagulant, and anti-depressant properties, among others. The focus of this systematic
review was to study the current state of knowledge and explore the enormous potential of basil
seeds as a functional food and source of functional ingredients to be incorporated into foods.
Keywords: basil seed; functional ingredients; Ocimum basilicum L.; oilseed; novel food
1. Introduction
Ocimum basilicum L., commonly known as basil or sweet basil, is an annual spicy herb
of the Labiatae family. The name basil is derived from the Greek word “Basileus” meaning
“Royal” or “King” and it is often called “King of the herbs” due to its wide range of uses
in medicine, cosmetics, and the pharmaceutical and food industries [1].
This plant is originally from warm and tropical areas, such as India, Africa, and
Southern Asia [2] and is specifically found in Pakistan and India, where it has been
cultivated for around 5000 years. Today, it is found all over the world [3]. O. basilicum is
commercially cultivated in many warm and temperate countries, including France,
Hungary, Greece, and other southern European countries, as well in North and South
America [4].
This herb has been used in different ways from ancient times; the leaves can be used
fresh or dried to add a distinctive flavor and aroma to foods. It is also used in the
manufacture of beverages, liqueurs, vinegars, drinks, teas, and cheese, among others and
the essential oils, which are extracted from the leaves and flowers, are used in the food,
pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries [3,5]. The seeds are commonly added to
beverages and ice cream and are also added whole or milled to bakery products as a
source of dietary fiber for technological purposes.
Moreover, the seeds are used to enrich fruit-based beverages for visual and
functional purposes [6–8]. The seeds are high in dietary fiber and, thus, have huge
potential as a functional ingredient. The mucilage extracted from basil seeds has been
widely studied, and has emulsifying, foaming, thickening, stabilizing, viscosity, and
gelling properties, among others [8–12]. Basil seeds are not conventionally used as a food,
Citation: Calderón Bravo. H.;
Vera Céspedes. N.; Zura-Bravo, L.;
Muñoz, L.A. Basil Seeds as a Novel
Food, Source of Nutrients and
Functional Ingredients with
Beneficial Properties: A Review.
Foods 2021, 10, 1467.
https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10071467
Received: 2 May 2021
Accepted: 18 June 2021
Published: 24 June 2021
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Foods 2021, 10, 1467 2 of 19
despite the literature demonstrating that its consumption stands out not only for its
nutritious value but also for its significant health benefits, such as antidiabetic,
antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anticancer activities [13,14].
Finally, the branches and soft woody stem can be added as a flavoring agent to
different foods, the flowers are used in different dishes and beverages [3], and the roots
are traditionally used in Indian medicine [15]. In general terms, basil leaves, flowers,
seeds, branches, soft woody, and roots are used in both domestic and industrial
applications, such as the food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries.
Basil has also been widely used in traditional medicine in the treatment of headaches,
coughs, constipation, diarrhea, warts, worms, and kidney problems [16]. In addition,
various pharmacological actions have been described, such as stomachic, antioxidant,
antiviral, antimicrobial, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, and anti-stress
activities, and antipyretic diuretic and emmenagogue properties, among others [1,3].
The objective of this work is to present a systematic review of the current state of
knowledge on basil seeds and their by-products from a food science point of view. We
specifically highlight their nutritional, physical, chemical, and agronomic characteristics
as a potential functional food, including the most recent research reported in literature.
2. Methods
A systematic review was conducted by searching electronic databases, including 102
articles. Relevant articles were selected on the basis of the nutritional, chemical,
agronomical, and functional properties of basil seeds. The databases used were the Web
of Science (https://clarivate.com/webofsciencegroup/solutions/web-of-science/), EBSCO
(www.ebsco.com), and Scopus (www.scopus.com), among others.
3. Botanical and Agronomical Diversity of Basil
The genus Ocimum belongs to the Lamiaceaea family, which comprises more than 160
species distributed around the world [17]. This herbaceous plant is an erect, strongly
aromatic, glabrous, branched herb that grows between 30 and 90 cm high [18]. The leaves
are of ovoid shape, the color ranges from bright green to purple, and the flowers are white
or pale purple and are arranged in long terminal racemose inflorescences [4].
Basil can tolerate different climatic and ecological conditions and grows from cool
moist zones to tropical rain forest zones at temperatures between 6 and 24 °C; however, it
favors warm climatic conditions [19]. The geographical distribution shows three main
centers of diversity: the tropical and subtropical regions of Africa, tropical Asia, and
tropical parts of Latin America (Brazil). The maximum number of species is found in the
tropical rain forests of Africa [20,21].
The botanical classification of basil, as described by the USDA [22], is as follows:
Kingdom: Plantae—plants
Sub-kingdom: Tracheobionta—vascular plants
Superdivision: Spermatophyta—seed plants
Division: Magnoliophyta—flowering plants
Class: Magnoliopsida—dicotyledons
Sub-class: Ateridae
Order : Lamiales
Family: Lamiaceae—mint family
Genus: Ocimum L.—basil
Species: basilicum
Binomial name: Ocimum basilicum—sweet basil
From the world market point of view, the most commercially important cultivars
belong to the species O. basilicum. They are characterized by different morphological
features, such as size, shape, color, and aroma. They also have diverse growth habits and
types of leaves, flowers, steam colors, and chemical composition [23].
Foods 2021, 10, 1467 3 of 19
According to Darrah, Helen [24,25], O. basilicum cultivars can be classified into seven
types: (i) tall slender types (the sweet basil group is commonly the green type with white
flowers); (ii) the large-leaf robust type (lettuce leaf, also called Italian basil, with a less
pronounced flavor); (iii) dwarf types, which are short and small leafed (bush basil, with
small and pungent leaves); (iv) compact types, also described as O. basilicum var. thysiflora
(Thai basil, characterized by a balm-like flavor); (v) purpurascens, the purple colored basil
types, with a traditional sweet basil flavor; (vi) purple types (dark opal, an hybrid between
O. basilicum and O. forskolei with a sweet basil plus clove-like aroma); and (vii) citriodorum
types (lemon and lime-flavored basils).
In addition to the traditional types of basil, other species have been introduced for
culinary and ornamental purposes and potential sources of new aromas [23–25].
Moreover, certain varieties have been development to produce high yields with chemical
variability: for example, CIM-Saumya, is a short duration crop and has a potential
essential oil production of 85–100 kg/ha; CIM-Snigda was developed with a distinct leaf
morphology and has a unique aroma; and CIM-Surabhi was developed as a high oil-
yielding (100–120 kg/ha of essential oil) plant with a unique chemical composition [26].
4. Morphological and Physical Characterization of Basil Seed
The morphological and physical characterization of seeds is important due to the
relationship between the shape and size of the seeds and the design of tools for crop
production, storage facilities, and potential food application. Despite basil being an
important commercial plant, there is a lack of data describing the seed morphology and
physical characteristics [27].
Several authors described basil seeds as oval, ellipsoid, and small, with dimensions
ranging from 2.31 to 3.11 mm in length, 1.3 to 1.82 mm in width, and 0.99 to 1.34 mm in
thickness, as can be seen in Table 1. Their surface was described by Uematsu et al. [28] as
porous from results obtained using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) in Thailand basil
seeds.
Basil seeds vary in size depending on the area in which they are planted and the
country they are from. Kišgeci et al. [29] reported that seeds from the same country
(Serbia), but collected from different localities, demonstrated significant differences in
terms of length, width, and thickness. On the other hand, in the same work, Iranian basil
seeds were shown to be bigger than Serbian basil seeds. These differences in size were
correlated with moisture, i.e., the size increased as the moisture content increased [30].
Furthermore, the sizes of Iranian basil seeds were studied by Hosseini-Parvar et al. [31]
and Razavi et al. [32]. They reported that, two seeds of a similar size demonstrated
moisture contents of 9.1% and 5.5%, respectively.
Table 1. The physical properties of basil seeds.
Origin Length (mm)
Width
(mm)
Thickness
(mm) Species Reference
Iran 3.11 1.82 1.34
O. basilicum
[31]
Iran 3.22 1.84 1.37
O. basilicum
[32]
Serbia
2.31–2.64
1.30–1.54
0.99–1.14
O. basilicum
[29]
India 1.97 1.06 ND
O. basilicum
[10]
ND: Not determined.
In the Figure 1, the image of basil seeds shows black coloring and porous surfaces.
These characteristics were previously described by several authors [29–31,33]. Choi et al.
[30] studied basil seed color in order to discriminate between types and concluded that
the Singaporean basil seed color can be identified by the naked eye, but seeds from India,
Pakistan, and Vietnam cannot be differentiated. The seeds from the same study had
Foods 2021, 10, 1467 4 of 19
Cielab* values ranging between 19.62 and 26.28 to L*; 1.1 and 3.9 to a* and 3.57 and 5.78
to b* with significant differences in the seeds from Singapore.
Figure 1.
Basil seeds
.
Considering that seeds from different geographic locations have different
characteristics, it would be interesting in future studies to include seeds from Latin and
North American countries, mainly due to the differences in environmental conditions.
5. Biochemical and Nutritional Composition of Basil Seed
The consumption of basil seeds is not very common; however, in some Middle
Eastern countries, they are used in foods and beverages. The consumption of this seed has
not spread to the rest of the world mainly because its valuable nutritional and functional
properties are unknown. Various studies have reported the nutritional composition of
basil seeds, highlighting the biological value of seeds from different countries. This is
shown in Table 2. In terms of energy, Khaliq et al. [5] performed calculations based on the
percentage values of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats, and obtained an average value of
442.4 kcal. Moreover, the moisture content of the seeds ranged from 4.0 to 9.6 g/100 g. This
variability can be attributed to the moment of harvest, climate and storage conditions [5].
Finally, basil seeds and other oil seeds, such as chia seeds, can vary in nutritional
composition and bioactive compounds according to the agronomic management,
environmental conditions, geographical location, altitude, soil properties, origin of the
seeds, and degree of absorption of water, among other influences [8,30,34].
Table 2. The nutritional composition of basil seeds (g/100 g dry weight basis).
References
[35]
[27]
[6]
[7]
[36]
[34]
[5]
[30]
Component
Origin
India India Iran Iran Iran Pakistan
Pakistan
Romania
Various
Countries
**
Moisture 9.6 9.4 5.02–6.24 4.0 ND 5.2 9.2 7.0 5.9–7.8
Protein 14.8 10 17.9–20.16
20.4 22.5 11.4 17.3 15.4 ND
Lipid
33.0
22.0–24.5
16.6
ND
20.2
9.7
29.0
9.5–19.6
Ash 7.7 5.6 4.7–5.5 8.9 5.11 6.3 5.8 6.5 ND
Carbohydrate 63.8 43.9 47.2–50.1 40.1 * ND 56.9 * 58 * 47.0 ND
Fiber 22.6 ND ND 26.2 ND ND 7.11 ND ND
ND: not determined. * Determined by difference. ** Singapore, India, Vietnam and Pakistan.
Foods 2021, 10, 1467 5 of 19
5.1. Carbohydrates
Carbohydrates are the principal source of energy in human metabolism [5]. This
nutrient has complex chemical structures and performs a rich physiological function in
living systems. Certain carbohydrates can play important roles in regulating the intestinal
microbiota through prebiotic effects. These effects include the protection of the intestinal
epithelial barrier, the suppression of inflammatory responses, decreasing lipogenesis, and
elevating satiety hormone levels [30]. The benefits of basil seeds are mainly associated
with their nutritional composition (Table 2), as they are a good source of carbohydrates.
The high carbohydrates content, ranging between 43.9 and 63.8 g/100 g of seed (Table 2),
not only represents the sugar content, but also the high content of dietary fiber.
The carbohydrate profile of basil seeds was first reported by Mathews et al. [10], and
the results indicate that the seeds contained non-starchy polysaccharides in the form of
cellulose (8.03%), hemicellulose (9.87%), and lignin (35.2%), with the highest proportion.
In addition, in the same study, the seeds exhibited a high fiber content and were suggested
as an unconventional source of dietary fiber. In this context, Rezapour et al. [6] used basil
seed powder as a source of dietary fiber and other components to enhance the dough
properties and improve the nutritional profile of baguette bread.
Many plants can produce complex polysaccharides, commercially known as plant-
based gums. Plant gums exudate and seed gums are complex
polysaccharides/carbohydrate polymers that are generally used as dietary fiber, fat
replacers, thickening agents, foaming agents, films, emulsifiers, and stabilizers, for
controlling ice crystal growth and drug delivery agents [37,38].
The hydrocolloids from seeds can be used in food formulations due to their
affordable price, availability, and functionality [37,39,40]. In this context, the content of
mucilage from basil seeds is about 17–20%, with functional properties comparable to those
of various other commercial food hydrocolloids [27,31,37]. The potential of basil seed gum
as a new source of hydrocolloid was investigated by Kim et al.[11] and Hosseini-Parvar
et al. [41] as a fat substitute and stabilizer with excellent results.
Finally, O. basilicum seed gum is also used for many other purposes, such as a source
of fiber, a disintegrant, a pharmaceutical excipient, a suspending agent, an anti-diabetic
agent, for seedling growth, and a biodegradable edible film [42].
5.2. Proteins
Previous studies reported that protein deficiency is the most common type of
malnutrition, and, depending on the duration and intensity, it can have multiple
physiological consequences [43]. Plant-based foods that provide more than 12% of their
calorific value in protein are considered to be remarkable suppliers of protein, which is
particularly relevant today as interest in vegetarian and vegan diets is increasing. The data
presented in Table 2 indicates that sweet basil seeds have high protein contents, ranging
between 10% and 22.5%. These findings suggested that basil seeds are a good source of
proteins, which is valuable for human health from a nutritional point of view [44].
In addition, the amino acid composition of basil seeds illustrates the high nutritional
quality of the protein (Table 3). In this context, only one report by Karnchanatat et al. [45]
was found on the amino acid composition of Ocimum basilicum, the cultivar of hoary basil
seeds, which was compared with Ocimum tenuiflorum seeds in a study developed by
Ziemichód et al. [46]. The results showed that glutamic acid and aspartic acid were the
major non-essential amino acids in O. basilicum seeds. Furthermore, all essential amino
acids, except S-containing types and tryptophan, are present in high amounts in this
species, which make it very attractive from a nutritional point of view in terms of dietary
intake recommendations [44].
Foods 2021, 10, 1467 6 of 19
Table 3. The amino acid composition of basil seeds (mg/100 mg).
Reference [45] [46]
Amino Acids Hoary Basil (O. basilicum) Holy Basil (O. tenuiflorum)
Aspartic acid 4.61 1.45
Serine 3.58 1.00
Glutamic acid
10.55
3.16
Glycine 3.12 0.89
Histidine 1.70 0.65
Arginine 8.48 2.05
Threonine
2.16
0.60
Alanine 2.65 0.80
Proline 2.25 0.66
Tyrosine 2.08 0.52
Valine
2.63
0.77
Lysine 1.56 0.54
Isoleucine 1.91 0.54
Leucine 4.02 1.13
Phenylalanine
3.49
0.93
Cysteic acid ND 0.58
Methionine sulfone ND 0.90
Tryptophan ND 0.96
In bold: essential amino acids. ND: not determined.
5.3. Lipids
According to the data in Table 4, basil seeds have a fat content ranging between 9.7%
and 33.0% indicating that the seeds are a good source of lipids. The differences observed
in seeds from different countries can be attributed to genetic and environmental factors,
such as temperature and precipitation, the efficiency and parameters used during
extraction, including solvent type, temperature, extraction time, and the size of the seeds
and their moisture contents [47–50]. In addition, according to Nazir et al. [35] high lipid
contents and low protein contents can be explained by variations in the altitude of the
ecosystem in which the seed is grown.
Table 4. Fatty acid composition (g/100 g) of basil seeds.
References [51] [52] [53] [47] [33] [30] [42]
Fatty acids
Origin
Canada
Various
Countries
*
India Iran Iran
Various
Countries
**
Sudan
Palmitic acid (C16:0)
6.8–8.8
5–13
8.0–9.2
4.9
6.23–10.16
5.6–7.7
13.38
Stearic acid (C18:0) 2.0–2.8 2–3 3.6–3.8 2.5 2.97–4.9 2.2–4.4 6.6
Oleic acid (C18:19) 8.7–11.6 6–10 10.3–12.3 7.55 6.2–19.9 5.6–19.4 4.0
Linoleic acid (C18:2n6c) 18.3–21.7 12–32 23.6–26 20.2 16.7–24.9 18.6–85.6 32.2
Linolenic acid (C18:3n3)
57.4–62.5
49–75
49.3–52.4
63.8
42.4–61.9
0.3–66.0
44.0
* Sudan, Germany, and United Arab Emirates. ** Singapore, India, Vietnam, and Pakistan.
Lipids are stored in high concentrations in different plant seeds, presumably because
lipids contain approximately twice the amount of energy per unit dry mass as compared
to carbohydrates [50].
Moreover, fatty acids are the main nutritional components in edible oilseeds, and a
growing body of evidence suggests that individual fatty acids may provide human health
benefits. The incorporation of polyunsaturated (n-3) fatty acids, and essential fatty acids,
Foods 2021, 10, 1467 7 of 19
such as linoleic (LA), linolenic (ALA), and arachidic fatty acids, in the diet can play a
natural preventive role in cardiovascular disease and other health problems and diseases
[42,54,55]. In this context, basil seeds are a good source of polyunsaturated fatty acids.
Table 4 shows the predominant fatty acids in the seed oil according to the literature. The
main unsaturated fatty acids were ALA (0.3–66.0%) and LA (12–85.6%), followed by oleic
acid (8.5–13.3%). The most abundant saturated acids included palmitic acid (4.9–11.0%)
and stearic acid (2.0–6.6%).
In Table 4, seeds from the different studies and countries show differences in the
composition and contents of fatty acids: for example, according to Choi et al. [30], basil
seeds from Singapore exhibited a higher ALA content and a lower content of LA
compared with the samples from Indian, Pakistan, and Vietnam. This can be explained by
the inversion of LA and ALA in basil seed oil that occurs in certain species [51].
Furthermore, in Table 4, the samples from Iran [47], Canada [51], and Vietnam [30]
exhibited higher amounts of ALA, while the Singapore [30], Sudan [42], and United Arab
Emirate [52] samples had higher amounts of LA. These differences in the fatty acid
compositions can be attributed to environmental and climatic factors; although, according
to Mostafavi et al. [33] and Choi et al. [30], the plant genotype is the most important
parameter.
Since basil oil has a high amount of ALA (C18:3), it could be a promising source of
omega-3 for vegetarians and vegans. Finally, according to Mostafavi et al. [33], the fatty
acid content not only determines the nutritional, medicinal, and industrial properties of
herbs, it also affects plant responses to stress.
5.4. Minerals
Minerals are considered inorganic components of plant materials and are important
nutritionally [5,56]. In addition, their incorporation into the diet plays an important role
in the management of diseases and wellbeing, despite the fact that they comprise only 4%
to 6% of the human body [56,57]. The principal minerals that are required in higher
amounts include calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sulfur, potassium, chloride, and
sodium, which are classified as macronutrients, are structural components of tissues, and
function in the cellular and basal metabolism, and water and acid-base balance. Trace
minerals, which are considered as micronutrients, include zinc, iron, silicon, manganese,
copper, fluoride, iodine, and chromium and are very important for hormones, vitamins,
and enzyme activity [57,58]. An insufficient supply of mineral elements in the diet can
have negative effects, such as causing learning disabilities in children, increasing
morbidity and mortality, reducing worker productivity, and increasing healthcare costs
[59].
As is the case with amino acid composition, there are only a few studies concerning
the mineral composition of basil seeds in the literature. Table 5 shows a comparison of the
mineral compositions of O. bacilicum and O. tenuiflorum seeds according to studies by
Munir et al. [34] and Ziemichód et al. [46], respectively.
Table 5. The mineral composition of basil seeds (mg/100 g).
Reference [34] [46]
Minerals Ocimum basilicum Ocimum tenuiflorum
Fe 2.27 8.73
Zn
1.58
5.52
Mg 31.55 293.0
Mn 1.01 1.95
K ND 481.0
Na
ND
2.01
Ca ND 636.0
ND: not determined.
Foods 2021, 10, 1467 8 of 19
The results show that, according to the Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) values, basil
seeds are a good source of minerals [44]. In this context, calcium and potassium were
found in high amounts in O. tenuiflorum (636 and 481 mg/100 g, respectively), followed by
magnesium, with values of 31.55 and 293 mg/100 g for O. basilicum and O. tenuiflorum
respectively, and iron, zinc, sodium, and manganese in minor proportions. Elements, such
as phosphorous, potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron, zinc, copper, and manganese, are
the most important minerals for the human body and play important roles in disease
development and prevention [59].
Calcium is generally known for its role in regulating muscle contraction and
maintaining skeletal integrity, while magnesium is involved in several functions,
including signaling pathways, energy storage and transfer, glucose metabolism, lipid
metabolism, neuromuscular function, and bone development [60–62]. Moreover,
potassium plays a critical role in normal cellular function and participates in carbohydrate
metabolism and protein synthesis [63]. According to the Food and Nutrition Board [44],
the daily requirements of calcium, magnesium, and potassium for an adult are 310–400,
1000, and 2600–3400 mg/day, respectively. To this end, basil seeds can supply 100% of the
Ca, around 50% of Mg, and around 20% of K according to the requirements.
In general terms, the seeds of O. basilicum are characterized as having a lower mineral
content as compared to O. tenuiflorum seeds. These differences may be attributed to
various elements, such as growth conditions, genetics factors, geographic variations, and
analytical procedures [64,65].
6. Beneficial Properties of Basil Seeds
6.1. Antioxidant Activity
It is well known that phenol compounds perform various physiological functions in
plants and their intake produces protective effects against certain serious diseases, such
as cancer and cardiovascular disease [66]. In the case of basil, the antioxidant activity of
the plant has been widely studied; however, the seeds have scarcely been analyzed.
In general, the literature agrees that basil seeds have good antioxidant potential, even
better than other seeds, such as sesame or red seeds, and could be used to develop new
natural antioxidants or be included as ingredients to prevent oxidative deterioration in
foods [36,67,68]. In particular, the antioxidant capacity (AOA) and total phenolic content
(TPC) of basil seeds were determined by various research groups using the DPPH (2,2-
diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-hydrate) and Folin–Ciocalteu methods, respectively, each
reporting different values (Table 6).
Foods 2021, 10, 1467 9 of 19
Table 6. The antioxidant activity and polyphenol content in basil seed extracts.
Basil S
pecies
Variety Origin Solvent
(Extraction)
AOA
Total AOA
Method TPC TPC
(µg GA/g) References
% (mmol
Trolox/Kg)
O. tenuiflorum
“Tulsi” Slovakia
methanol DPPH 968.49 26.67 Folin–Ciocalteu
1506.55 [69]
O. basilicum
“Cinamonette”
Slovakia
methanol DPPH 850.49 26.97 Folin–Ciocalteu
1567.60 [69]
O. basilicum
“Dark Green”
Slovakia
methanol DPPH 869.09 26.26 Folin–Ciocalteu
1681.75 [69]
O. basilicum L.
Oman methanol - - - Folin–Ciocalteu
7857.6 [67]
O. basilicum L.
Iran acetone ABTS
10.8–35.7 Folin–Ciocalteu
22,900–65,500 [68]
O. basilicum L.
Pakistan
ethanol - - - Folin–Ciocalteu
63,780 [34]
O. basilicum L.
Pakistan
n-hexane DPPH 57.35 - Folin–Ciocalteu
4890 [36]
O. basilicum L
Pakistan
methanol DPPH 84.59 - Folin–Ciocalteu
5670 [36]
O. basilicum L.
India
petroleum
ether DPPH 73.85 - - - [13]
O. basilicum L.
India methanol DPPH 34.20 - - - [13]
GA: Gallic acid, standard unit for phenolic content determination. The results are expressed in dry weight. AOA:
Antioxidant Capacity Analysis. TPC: Total Phenolic Content. DPPH: (2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-hydrate) ABTS: 2 2'-
azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid).
The results by Mezeyová et al. [69] are not comparable with others, as the calculation
formula was different. However, seeds from Pakistan presented lower values of TPC
(4890 µg GA/g), and seeds from Iran demonstrated higher values (22,900–65,500 µg GA/g).
Other factors that can influence the results are differences in the initial DPPH
concentrations, reaction time, and type of solvent used to prepare the extract, as reported
by Safraz et al. [36]. Table 6 shows that, when comparing the results from different studies,
the AOA values are higher when using methanol as the extraction solvent, obtaining
values between 34.2 and 968.49% AOA; this is followed by petroleum ether with an AOA
of 73.85%; and n-hexane with 57.35%. According to Safraz et al. [36], these differences can
be attributed to the presence of more polar than nonpolar compounds, which means
higher yields are obtained with methanol than with n-hexane.
Although it is difficult to fully characterize basil seed extracts, it is possible to
determine that the antioxidant capacity is mainly provided by phenolic compounds,
followed by other secondary antioxidant metabolites, such as carotenoids, volatile oils,
and others [13]. According to Javanmardi et al. [70] and Cherian [71], in terms of
flavonoids and phenolic acid contents, the amounts of orientine, vicentine, and rosmarinic
acids are remarkable because they are the most abundant phenolic compounds in Ocimum
spp. In addition, in a recent study by Ghaleshahi et al. [47], interesting findings were
reported concerning tocopherol, i.e., basil seeds contained significantly higher
concentrations of α, β, and γ-tocopherol when compared with flax and perilla seeds.
In the same study, basil seeds were shown to contain higher amounts of sterols over
flax and perilla seeds, and surprisingly, a higher amount of phytosterol was found,
compared with in extra virgin olive oil and safflower. Moreover, Mabood et al. [67]
reported that basil seeds contained higher amounts of TPC as compared with Sesame
seeds, Ajwan seeds, and Red seeds. In this context, in a study by Gajendiran et al. [13], the
presence of different phytochemicals, such as saponins, terpenoids, flavonoids, tannins,
steroids, and alkaloids, was also revealed. Finally, a recent study by Afifah and Gan [72]
found that basil seeds also contained bioactive peptides with antioxidant properties.
Foods 2021, 10, 1467 10 of 19
6.2. Antimicrobial Activity
In recent years, various pathogens have demonstrated a resistance to drugs. This has
led to a search for new naturally derived antimicrobial agents, and researchers have,
accordingly, begun to pay special attention to plants and their seeds, including sesame,
soybean, chia, and basil seeds.
In particular, several authors reported the antimicrobial effects of basil seed oil
against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. In this context, Gajendiran et al. [13]
demonstrated its effectiveness against nine clinical pathogens (Staphylococcus aureus,
Escherichia coli, Enterococcus spp, Proteus mirabilis, Shigella dysenteriae, Salmonella spp,
Klebsiella pneumoniae, Serratia marcescens, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa), showing that it was
most effective against Pseudomonas aeruginosa at a concentration of 100 mg oil/mL. In
addition, in a study by Singh et al. [73], the oil from Ocimum sanctum seeds showed good
antibacterial activity against various pathogens.
They reported that Staphylococcus aureus was the most affected organism as compared
with Bacillus pumius and Pseudomonas aeruginosa; lower levels of activity were reported
against Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella typhi, and Staphylococcus
epidermidis; and it was shown to be inactive against Bacillus subtilis and Micrococcus luteus.
It was also determined that the antibacterial effect of these fatty acids could be mainly
related to their degree of unsaturation; thus, linolenic fatty acid would be the fatty acid
that contributes the most to antibacterial activity.
In addition, Majdinasab et al. [74] studied the antimicrobial activity of coatings based
on the mucilage of basil seeds, due to the protection endowed by the coating against
oxygen and agents that affect food. This antimicrobial action could be enhanced by
combining this coating with an essential oil, such as Shizari thyme essential oil, in order to
increase the quality and shelf life of meat products.
6.3. Benefits of Fatty Acids from Basil Seeds
Fixed oils are glycerol esters of varying consistencies that are found in both animals
and plants. The ω6 (n6) series derived from linoleic acid (18:2, n-6) and the ω3 (n3) series
derived from α-linolenic acid (18:3, n-3) are groups of essential fatty acids for the body.
These acids provide energy, are an integral part of cell membranes, and are precursors of
eicosanoids (prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes). Eicosanoids participate in
the development and synthesis of immune and inflammatory responses [75]. Numerous
properties of basil seed fixed oils are reported in the literature as detailed below.
The anti-inflammatory capacity was reported by Singh et al., 2008 [75], in seeds
containing α-linolenic fatty acid (ALA). In this study, 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0 mL/kg doses of basil
seed, linseed, and soyabean fixed oils were used for the analysis. Each dose, containing
ALA, was used in models of carrageenan, leukotriene, and arachidonic acid-induced paw
edema in rats. The result showed that higher inhibition was produced by oils with higher
ALA contents from basil seeds and linseeds in leukotriene-induced paw edema. This
behavior suggests that modulation of the course of inflammatory disorders can be
achieved by a dietary intervention, i.e., modifying the availability of polyunsaturated fatty
acids.
In a study carried out by Singh and Agrawal [76], the anti-asthmatic and the anti-
inflammatory activities of the fixed oil extracted from basil seeds were evaluated in guinea
pigs. The results showed that the fixed oils from basil seeds significantly protected against
histamine and acetylcholine-induced models. Moreover, anti-inflammatory activity
against carrageen-induced paw edema in rats was also confirmed.
In another study developed by Singh and Majumdar [77], the antipyretic activity of
the fixed oil of basil seeds (O. sanctum) was evaluated. It was tested against typhoid-
paratyphoid fever A/B vaccine-induced pyrexia in rats. They observed that, at doses of 1.0
mL/kg or higher, the oil exhibited a defined antipyretic property. Moreover, the analgesic
activity of the fixed oil of basil seeds was studied [78]. This was carried out by
Foods 2021, 10, 1467 11 of 19
intraperitoneal injection of mice and rats at doses of 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0 mL/kg of the oils. The
results showed that the oil produced significant inhibition in a dose-dependent manner,
suggesting a possible peripheral system-related mechanism.
In another study, the effect of the fixed oil of basil seeds on arthritis was evaluated
[79]. In this work, arthritis was induced in two ways: by injecting a Mycobacterium
tuberculosis suspension and by injecting a formaldehyde solution into rats. As a result, it
was determined that the fixed oil of basil seeds significantly inhibited paw edema and
significantly decreased inflammation and arthritic nodules at a dose of 3.0 mL/kg.
Additionally, the antiulcer activity of the fixed oil of basil seeds against aspirin-,
indomethacin-, alcohol-, histamine-, reserpine-, serotonin-, and stress-induced ulceration
in rats and guinea pigs was evaluated [80]. These authors used oil doses of 1.0, 2.0, and
3.0 mL/kg, noting a significant reduction in the antiulcer effects in experimental animal
models.
The antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant effects of basil seed oil were also
investigated in rabbits [81]. The results showed that the dietary supplementation of
Ocimum sanctum seed oil for four weeks significantly reduced the serum cholesterol
triacylglycerol and LDL-cholesterol + VLDL-cholesterol (LDL: Low-density lipoprotein;
VLDL: Very low-density lipoprotein). In addition, this supplementation also decreased
lipid peroxidation and reduced the glutathione (GSH) levels in the blood. Therefore, this
study confirmed the cholesterol-lowering and antioxidant effects of this oil.
In order to determine the anticoagulant and hypotensive effect of the fixed oil of basil
seeds, doses of 3.0 mL/kg were applied intraperitoneally to rats [82]. An increase in the
blood clotting time was observed. This increase was comparable to aspirin, which may be
due to an antiaggregant action on platelets. With these results, it was possible to verify
the anticoagulant capacity of the fixed oil.
In addition, the chemo-preventive activity of basil seed oil against induced
fibrosarcoma tumors was evaluated [83]. A maximum oil dose of 100 µL/kg of body
weight was supplied, producing a significant reduction in the induced tumor incidence
and tumor volume. Other biological activities of certain extracted seed oils, such as
antioxidant, antimicrobial, anticancer, and anticoagulation activities, have been
previously described in the literature [84–86].
Finally, in a recent study by Idris et al. [42], the physicochemical characteristics and
fatty acid composition of O. basilicum seed oil were reported. It was shown that this oil
can be used in countless applications due to the high content of essential fatty acid, such
as LA and ALA. They also suggested that O. basilicum oil could have applications in the
paint, varnish, ink, and cosmetic industries, in addition to alternative uses in industries in
which the use of these fatty acids is required.
A summary of the biological activity of basil seeds and their constituents is presented
in Table 7.
Foods 2021, 10, 1467 12 of 19
Table 7. Summary of the biological activity of basil seeds and their constituents.
Component/Constituents
Biological Activity
Type of Study
Doses
Results
Reference
Fixed oil
(Petroleum ether extract of basil seeds)
α-
linolenic acid fatty
acids Anti-inflammatory Models of carrageenan, leukotriene, and
arachidonic acid-induced paw edema in rats.
1.0, 2.0, and 3.0
mL/kg of fixed oil
Significant inhibition of paw edema with
3.0 mL/kg dose. Higher α-linolenic acid
content produced a greater inhibition of
paw edema.
[75]
Anti-asthmatic
Histamine-induced bronchospasm in guinea
pigs.
0.2 mL and 0.5
mL/kg of fixed oil Maximum activity observed at 0.5 mL/
kg
dose of fixed oil for histamine- and
acetylcholine-induced bronchospasm.
[76]
Acetylcholine-induced bronchospasm in guinea
pigs.
0.5 mL/kg of fixed
oil
Anti-inflammatory
Induction of paw edema in rats, viz.
carrageenan, serotonin, histamine and
prostaglandins (PGE
2
).
0.1 mL/
100 g of fixed
oil
Fixed oil inhibited hind paw edema
induced in rats by treatment with
carrageenan, serotonin, histamine, and
PGE
2.
Antipyretic Testing it against typhoid-paratyphoid fever A/B
vaccine induced pyrexia in rats.
1.0, 2.0, and 3.0
mL/kg of fixed oil
At doses of 1.0 mL/kg or higher, the oil
exhibited a defined antipyretic property.
The activity at a dose of 3.0 mL/kg was
similar to that of aspirin.
[77]
Analgesic Methods of tail flapping, tail clip, tail dip, and
twisting induced by Acetic acid.
1.0, 2.0, and 3.0
mL/kg of fixed oil
Using an acetic acid-induced writhing
method, the oil showed significant
inhibition in a dose-dependent manner
suggesting its possible mechanism r
elated
to the peripheral system.
[78]
Anti-arthritics
Induction, by injecting a Mycobacterium
tuberculosis suspension and by injecting a
formaldehyde solution into rats.
1.0, 2.0, and 3.0
mL/kg of fixed oil
The fixed oil presented greater anti-
arthritis activity at a dose of 3.0 mL/kg,
which was similar to the effect of aspirin.
[79]
Antiulcer
Aspirin-, indomethacin-, alcohol-, histamine-,
reserpine-, serotonin-, and stress-induced
ulceration in rats and guinea pigs.
1.0, 2.0, and 3.0
mL/kg of fixed oil
The fixed oil possesses greater antiulcer
activity at a dose of 3.0 mL/kg [80]
Antihyperlipidemic and
antioxidant
Application of a diet together with fixed oil and
cholesterol in rabbits. 0.8 g/kg of fixed oil
The fixed oil presented a
hypocholesterolaemic effect when it was
added to the diet for five weeks.
[81]
Foods 2021, 10, 1467 13 of 19
Antimicrobial Determination by paper disc diffusion method.
Fixed oil has good antibacterial activity
against S. aureus, B. pumilus and P.
aeruginosa, where S. aureus was the most
sensitive organism (zone of inhibition 0.8
mm).
[83]
Anticoagulant Intraperitoneal application of fixed oil to rats. 3.0 mL/kg of fixed
oil
Fixed oil increased the blood-clotting time
and the percentage increase was
comparable to aspirin.
[82]
Anticancer
20-Methylcholanthrene-induced fibrosarcoma
tumors injected subcutaneously in the thigh
region of mice.
100 mL/kg of fixed
oil
The fixed oil presented
chemopreventive
efficacy at a dose of 100 mL/
kg, which was
comparable to the effect of Vitamin E
[83]
Phytochemical
(
petroleum ether extract of
basil seeds)
Alkaloids,
flavonoids,
carbohydrates,
tannins, terpenoids
Antioxidant DPPH radical scavenging assay
73.85% of the antioxidant capacity of O.
basilicum seeds results from the
contribution of phenolic compounds.
[13] Anticancer
MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]2,5-diphenyl
tetrazolium
Bromide) assay.
The cell viability
percentage showed a maximum activity at
a lower concentration, i.e., 12.5 µg/mL.
Antimicrobial Determination by using the well diffusion
method.
Highest zone of inhibition was observed
at 100 mg/mL concentration against P.
aeruginosa.
Water soluble
polysaccharides
(aqueous
extracts)
Glucose, galacturonic
acid, rhamnose,
mannose,
arabinose, glucuronic
acid, and galactose
Antidiabetic Measuring the inhibitory activity for protein
tyrosine phosphatase 1B in vitro.
Inhibitory activity for protein tyrosine
phosphatase 1B
IC50 = 8.20 µg/mL
[14]
Peptides
(Hydrolyzed and
non-hydrolyzed
extracts)
P1
(ACGNLPRMC)
P2
(ACNLPRMC)
P3
(AGCGCEAMFAGA)
Antioxidant activity
α-amylase inhibitory
activity.
DPPH and FRAP method
Potential α-amylases inhibitor peptides
Peptides can be used as therapeutic agents
to reduce the risk of oxidative stress and
to prevent type-2 diabetes.
[72]
IC50: corresponds to the half maximal inhibitory concentration; FRAP: Ferric reducing antioxidant power.
Foods 2021, 10, 1467 14 of 19
6.4. Uses of Basil Seeds in Traditional Medicine
Basil seeds are traditionally used as a natural remedy for the treatment of indigestion,
ulcers, diarrhea, sore throats, and kidney disorders [1,31,67,87]. Basil seeds have also been
used as a diuretic, antipyretic, aphrodisiac, and anti-dysenteric [1,67]. Traditionally, the
consumption of basil seeds soaked in water provides a refreshing and nourishing food.
The seeds, washed and pounded, are used in poultices for sores and sinus problems and
are also used for the treatment of chronic constipation and internal piles [4]. The seeds are
chewed as an antidote to snake bites [1,23].
The daily consumption of an infusion prepared with a teaspoon of seeds in a glass of
water and sugar acts as a demulcent in the treatment of genitourinary disorders. An
infusion of seeds relieves pain after childbirth and has also been given to reduce fever
[88]. In addition, basil extracts have a number of useful properties, including bactericidal,
anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, antiulcer, antidiarrheal, and chemo-preventive effects.
They lower blood sugar, stimulate the nervous system, protect against radiation, and
protect against oxidative DNA damage and mutagenesis [67].
6.5. Other Benefits
A study by Gajendiran et al. [13] revealed the presence of different phytochemical
constituents, such as alkaloids, flavonoids, carbohydrates, tannins, and terpenoids in
extracts of petroleum ether from O. basilicum seeds. In this study, the seeds were shown
to have good antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anticancer activities.
Imam et al. [14] studied the antidiabetic activity of water-soluble polysaccharides
from O. basilicum seeds by measuring the inhibitory activity for protein tyrosine
phosphatase 1B in vitro. In addition, Afifah and Gan [72] found that basil seeds contained
peptides with an antioxidant activity, as previously mentioned. Moreover, α-amylase
inhibitory activities and three novel inhibitor peptides were successfully identified. It was
suggested that these peptides can be used as therapeutic agents for reducing the risk of
oxidative stress and to prevent type-2 diabetes.
The selenium accumulating properties of basil seeds have been used to produce
selenium-biofortified microgreens in an attempt to increase the content of this mineral
and, thus, its intake by humans [89].
7. Uses of Basil Seeds and By-Products
7.1. Food Uses
Basil seeds are used in different products for culinary, nutritional, pharmacological,
and aesthetic purposes, and are common in many Asian countries, such as Iran and India.
In these countries, the seeds are consumed frequently in drinks (Sharbat) and frozen
desserts (Faloodeh) for aesthetic purposes and as a source of dietary fiber [10,31,34,71]. A
study by Munir et al. [34] showed that a drink with up to 0.3% basil seeds had good
sensory properties, such as taste, texture, and acceptability; moreover, there was an
increase in the fiber and protein contents, and provided a significant amount of minerals
and phenolic compounds, as compared to the control drink.
Several research groups investigated the application of mucilage from basil seeds in
different food products due to its technological, functional, and nutritional properties. The
mucilage from basil seeds has various uses, e.g., as a water binding agent in low-salt meat
product [90]; as a fat substitute in sponge cakes, reducing fat content by 75% [91]; as a
gelling and stabilizing agent in pudding (milk protein gel), ice cream, and low fat yogurt
due to its interaction with milk protein. This was shown to improve their rheological
properties, decrease syneresis, and provide high gel strength [11,92,93]; and as an additive
to improve the physicochemical and sensory properties of bread and other bakery
products [94].
Despite basil seed oil demonstrating useful properties for industrial purposes due to
its oil content and composition and being processed in the same way as linseed oil [51], it
Foods 2021, 10, 1467 15 of 19
has yet to arouse interest from the industry. However, there are certain companies that
managed to obtain basil seed oil using a cold pressing method for cosmetic applications;
however, this was not to a food grade standard.
7.2. Others Uses of Basil Seeds
According to Thessrimuang and Prachayawarakorn [95] and Khazaei et al. [96], the
mucilage of basil seeds has an excellent tensile and deformation capacity at maximum
loads; thus, it can be used as a biodegradable film and in active packaging for various food
applications.
A study by Mezeyová et al. [69] supported the use of basil seeds as a secondary
reservoir of selenium due to their ability to absorb this mineral after incorporating it
during cultivation. In addition, this seed has the capacity to adsorb several metals, such
as copper, cesium, and strontium, in quantities of 400, 160, and 247 mg per g of dry seed,
respectively, in contaminated water, making it possible to use them as a sustainable option
to bioremediate-contaminated water [28,97,98].
The presence of heavy metals in the ground can affect basil morphology, biomass,
and oil content. Moreover, there are several authors that described the capacity of the basil
plant to absorb heavy metals from the ground and transport them to the roots, leaves, and
flowers; however, there is no information about the presence of heavy metals in basil
seeds [99–102]. In this context, it would be interesting to investigate the heavy metals
contents of the seeds in different geographical locations in the future.
8. Conclusions
Basil seeds are a source of vegetable compounds, including proteins, omega 3 fatty
acids, dietary fiber, minerals, flavonoids, and polyphenols, all of which are attractive
characteristics for the food industry and consumers looking for foods with healthy
properties. In addition, they have remarkable properties that are beneficial in relation to
health and disease prevention.
Traditionally, basil seeds are included in certain foods and meals in the East;
however, in other regions, such as Europe and America, the seeds and their by-products
are only beginning to be considered as a functional food. For this reason, more research
on basil seeds, their potential health benefits, and their uses in foods is required to enhance
the potential of this seed. Future studies could include the cultivation and characterization
of basil seeds and their by-products in Latin and North America and their potential use in
foods as a functional and/or nutraceutical ingredient.
Author Contributions: Conceptualization, N.V.C., L.Z.-B., and L.A.M.; investigation, H.C.B.,
N.V.C., L.Z.-B., and L.A.M.; writing—original draft preparation, H.C.B.; writing—review and
editing, N.V.C., L.Z.-B., and L.A.M.; project administration, L.A.M.; funding acquisition, L.A.M. All
authors have read and agreed to the published version of the manuscript.
Funding: This work was carried out with the financial support of FONDECYT regular grant 1201489
from the National Agency for Research and Development (ANID), Chile; Project PYT-2018-0261
from Fundación para la Innovación Agraria (FIA), Chile and CYTED Program, Project 119RT0567,
Spain.
Institutional Review Board Statement: Not applicable.
Informed Consent Statement: Not applicable.
Acknowledgments: The authors thank Winston Colvin from South Pacific Seeds Chile (SPS), for his
valuable help in agronomic aspects of the basil seed.
Conflicts of Interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.
Foods 2021, 10, 1467 16 of 19
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... Indonesian people consume the fresh and raw leaves of the basil plant, and the roots of basil are used in India as a medicine [4,5]. At present, basil is grown and used worldwide in the medical, food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetics industries [6]. The medicinal properties that basil contains can be leveraged as a therapeutic for various diseases, which will be beneficial for human health, especially reproductive health [6]. ...
... At present, basil is grown and used worldwide in the medical, food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetics industries [6]. The medicinal properties that basil contains can be leveraged as a therapeutic for various diseases, which will be beneficial for human health, especially reproductive health [6]. Available at www.veterinaryworld.org/Vol.15/May-2022/7.pdf ...
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Background and aim: Basil is well known as a medicinal plant that contains high essential oils and antioxidant compounds that have the potential to improve ovarian development. Thus, basil may have the potential to improve the growth and development of the uterus and placenta for optimal prenatal growth of offspring. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of Indonesian basil maceration on gonad development of mature female albino rats. Materials and methods: Fifteen 8-week-old female Sprague-Dawley rats, at the diestrus stage of the estrus cycle, were divided into three different treatment groups: Control group (mineral water), bas-low group (1% of basil maceration), and bas-high group (5% of basil maceration). Basil maceration was dissolved and administered in mineral drinking water, and the treatments were given for 20 days (4 estrus cycles). At the end of the treatment period, serum follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), estradiol, and progesterone (Pg) were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The relative weight of the ovary and uterus; diameter and length of uterine cornual; vascularization of uterus; the diameter of uterine glands; the number of primary, secondary, and tertiary de Graaf follicles; the number of corpora luteum; as well as the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the ovary were determined. Results: There was no significant difference (p>0.05) in the serum FSH level of rats treated with basil maceration drinking water doses of 1% and 5% compared to the control group. However, serum estradiol and Pg concentrations in the 1% and 5% basil maceration groups were significantly higher (p<0.05) than those of the control group. Furthermore, 1% and 5% basil maceration significantly increased the uterus's relative weight, diameter, and vascularization. Serum estradiol concentrations contributed to the elevated expression of VEGF compared to Pg. Conclusion: Administration of basil maceration for 20 days before mating could improve follicle growth and development, eventually increasing estradiol synthesis and secretion, thus improving the uterus's preparation for implantation. This makes basil maceration an attractive candidate in clinical research to enhance the growth and development of the uterus and placenta, which will better support the optimum prenatal growth and development of embryos and fetuses, resulting in superior offspring.
... Hexyl acetate (20) 6.32 [ [29] Phenolic Vanillin (31) 6.72 [26,30] Ellagic acid (32) -Eugenol (33) 20.36 Monoterpenoids α-Thujone (34) - [29,30,33,34] Neral (35) 11.19 Geranyl acetate (36) 21.3 Linalool (37) 7.41 β-Myrcene (38) -Geraniol (39) 5.76 Linalyl acetate (40) - ...
... Ocimum basilicum, commonly called sweet basil, is one of the species of genus Ocimum from Asia, Africa, and South America regions [36,37]. O. basilicum can live in different climates and ecology, grows in cool humid areas to tropical areas with the temperatures between 6 and 24 • C, and also favors warm conditions [38]. This plant is the species of Ocimum which is commercially available in the market [39]. ...
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Infection by bacteria is one of the main problems in health. The use of commercial antibiotics is still one of the treatments to overcome these problems. However, high levels of consumption lead to antibiotic resistance. Several types of antibiotics have been reported to experience resistance. One solution that can be given is the use of natural antibacterial products. There have been many studies reporting the potential antibacterial activity of the Ocimum plant. Ocimum is known to be one of the medicinal plants that have been used traditionally by local people. This plant contains components of secondary metabolites such as phenolics, flavonoids, steroids, terpenoids, and alkaloids. Therefore, in this paper, we will discuss five types of Ocimum species, namely O. americanum, O. basilicum, O. gratissimum, O. campechianum, and O. sanctum. The five species are known to contain many chemical constituents and have good antibacterial activity against several pathogenic bacteria.
... Ocimum basilicum L. (Basil) seeds have been used in traditional medicine and are consumed as a spice and for flavor in the food industry worldwide. The essential minerals, amino acids and phytochemicals (such as orientine, vicentine and rosmarinic acid) present in O. basilicum have been reported for their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory [16] and in silico anti-obesity actions [17], among many beneficial activities [18]. In the present study, we selected O. basilicum seeds to analyze the lipid lowering effect and adipokine levels in maturing adipocyte. ...
... Traditional medicinal plants provide abundant bioactive compounds with proved health-promoting activities, such as anti-obesity, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant actions [18,26]. In the present study, we identified that the major phytochemical compounds from basil seed methanolic extract (BSME) are ricinolic acid, gamabufotalin, colchicine, beclomethasone, prednisone, beta carotene, levodopa, retinol, triaziquone, retinyl acetate and vincamine. ...
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Excessive storage of lipids in visceral or ectopic sites stimulates adipokine production, which attracts macrophages. This process determines the pro- and anti-inflammatory response regulation in adipose tissue during obesity-associated systemic inflammation. The present study aimed to identify the composition of Ocimum basilicum L. (basil) seed extract and to determine its bio-efficacy on adipocyte thermogenesis or fatty acid oxidation and inhibition of lipid accumulation and adipokine secretion. Ocimum basilicum L. seed methanol extract (BSME) was utilized to analyze the cytotoxicity vs. control; lipid accumulation assay (oil red O and Nile red staining), adipogenesis and mitochondrial-thermogenesis-related gene expression vs. vehicle control were analyzed by PCR assay. In addition, vehicle control and BSME-treated adipocytes condition media were collected and treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced macrophage to identify the macrophage polarization. The results shown that the active components present in BSME did not produce significant cytotoxicity in preadipocytes or macrophages in the MTT assay. Furthermore, oil red O and Nile red staining assay confirmed that 80 and 160 μg/dL concentrations of BSME effectively arrested lipid accumulation and inhibited adipocyte maturation, when compared with tea polyphenols. Gene expression level of adipocyte hyperplasia (CEBPα, PPARγ) and lipogenesis (LPL)-related genes have been significantly (p ≤ 0.05) downregulated, and mitochondrial-thermogenesis-associated genes (PPARγc1α, UCP-1, prdm16) have been significantly (p ≤ 0.001) upregulated. The BSME-treated, maturing, adipocyte-secreted proteins were detected with a decreased protein level of leptin, TNF-α, IL-6 and STAT-6, which are associated with insulin resistance and macrophage recruitment. The “LPS-stimulated macrophage” treated with “BSME-treated adipocytes condition media”, shown with significant (p ≤ 0.001) decrease in metabolic-inflammation-related proteins—such as PGE-2, MCP-1, TNF-α and NF-κB—were majorly associated with the development of foam cell formation and progression of atherosclerotic lesion. The present findings concluded that the availability of active principles in basil seed effectively inhibit adipocyte hypertrophy, macrophage polarization, and the inflammation associated with insulin resistance and thrombosis development. Ocimum basilicum L. seed may be useful as a dietary supplement to enhance fatty acid oxidation, which aids in overcoming metabolic complications.
... The omega 6 (n6) and 3 (n3) series of important fatty acids for the cells are generated from linoleic acid (18:2, n-6) and -linolenic acid (18:3, n-3) respectively. These acids deliver a critical role in the maintenance of the cell membranes and are the precursors for most prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes (Bravo et al., 2021). Tulsi is being one of the foremost pillars among all the natural healers and contains vitamins like retinol (vitamin A), ascorbic acid (vitamin C), thiamine (vitamin B1), riboflavin (vitamin B2), niacin (vitamin B3), pyridoxine (vitamin B6), folic acid and cyanocobalamin (vitamin B12), tocopherol (vitamin E), calciferol (vitamin D), and phylloquinone (vitamin K) which may facilitate simultaneous production of disease-fighting antibodies and enhance the antioxidant activity which may assist in the prevention of cell damage from cancerous conditions (Ribas et al., 2019). ...
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Objectives Ocimum sanctum L. a benevolent herb has been integrated into the traditional medicine practice from ancient times. The phytochemical analysis signifies the presence of polyphenols, flavonoids, terpenoids, amino acids, unsaturated fatty acids, and essential elements (vitamins and minerals). Polyphenols and flavonoids are the major essential components present in the various form of tulsi extract and responsible for different pharmacological activities such as anticancer, antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-inflammation, etc. These activities were mediated through altering the functionality associated with the nF-κβ, ERK, p38, and MPK pathways. Further, the antimicrobial activity is amplified by the presence of unsaturated fatty acids such as linolic acid and linoleic acid which manipulate the membrane integrity of microbial. The molecular mechanism for such activity is mediated through destabilization of the microbial membrane by interfering with the electron transport chain and oxidative phosphorylation process. Material and method An extensive literature survey was carried out through various scientific search engine such as PubMed, Google scholar, science Direct, Medline, Embase, Cochrane library, and Indian medical databases. Conclusion Diversified phenolic and flavonoid phytoconstituents of tulsi are responsible for anti-oxidant, antimicrobial, hypolipidemic, immunomodulatory, hepatoprotective, neuroprotective, antistress, antidiabetic, antiulcer, anticancer, anti-inflamatory, etc. Further, therapeutic potency of tulsi reflects in clinical trail reports provide satisfactory results with negligible adverse effects, which might be emerge as a green medicine to lessen the global burden of microbial, inflammation, metabolic associated disorders, etc. However, alteration in the composition and variation in the percentage yield of secondary metabolites due to phenotypic and genotypic disparity are the critical challenges that need to address in future.
... Conversely, stems are seldom reported for their use. They may find application in food flavoring [5,6] and one reference indicates a traditional medicine usage [1]. ...
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(1) Background: Ocimum basilicum L. is an aromatic medicinal plant of the Lamiaceae family known as sweet basil. It is used in traditional medicine for its beneficial effects on gastrointestinal disorders, inflammation, immune system, pyrexia or cancer among others. Ocimum basilicum (OB) leaf extracts contain many phytochemicals bearing the plant health effects but no reports is available on the potential bioactivity of stem extracts. Our investigation aimed at assessing the differential biological activity between basil leaf and stem to promote this co-product valorization. (2) Method: For this purpose we explored phytochemical composition of both parts of the plant. Antioxidant activity was evaluated through total polyphenol content measure, DPPH and ORAC tests. Anti-inflammatory markers on stimulated macrophages, including NO (nitric oxide), TNFa (tumor necrosis factor alpha), IL-6 (interleukin 6), MCP1 (monocyte attractant protein 1) and PGE-2 (prostaglandin E2), were evaluated. In addition, we investigated OB effects on jejunum smooth muscle contractility. (3) Results: OB extracts from leaves and stems demonstrated a different biological activity profile at the level of both antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and smooth muscle relaxation effects. (4) Conclusion: Taken together our results suggest that Ocimum basilicum extracts from co-product stems, in addition to leaves, may be of interest at the nutrition-health level with specific therapeutic potential.
... These cause damage to the immune system, resulting in various diseases including heart disease, vascular disease, and cancer [47]. BSM contains nutrients such as vitamin E, an important substance that helps the body produce free antioxidants [48]. Consequently, the antioxidant activities of the BSM/SA/MPs hydrogel beads were studied at pH 1.2 and pH 7.4. ...
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Medicinal plants have traditionally been used in folk medicine for their natural healing effects. It is estimated that around two-thirds of the world’s population uses traditional medicine for their primary medical needs. Basil (Ocimum basilicum) is one of the main herbal crops in the world that has shown components that can be beneficial for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases, inflammatory disorders, and decreased risk of cancer. This article presents a review of the state of the art about the basil plant and seeds from 2010 to date, with the aim of identifying the chemical composition (macronutrients-proteins, lipids, carbohydrates; volatile compounds and polyphenols) and its benefits on health based on evidence in humans, in vivo and in vitro models. Recent literature shows that basil leaves and seeds are a good source of α-linolenic fatty acids, essential oils and polyphenols with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties that would have a favorable impact on health, restoring homeostasis in various pathologies. However, to date, the molecular mechanisms involved have not been fully elucidated.
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This study aimed to investigate the antioxidant and antibacterial activities (AOA and ABA) of broccoli sprout extract (BSE) nanoliposomes co-encapsulated into basil seeds gum (BSG). The characteristics of the BSE-loaded nanoliposomes and nano-capsules were firstly determined. Their functional (antioxidant and antibacterial) properties were tested in vitro, and their anti-Listeria effect (at 0.4 and 0.8% w/w) on ricotta cheese was evaluated. The produced nanoliposomes and nano-capsules were spherical in shape and did not tend to accumulate. The mean particle size, polydispersity index (PDI) and encapsulation efficiency (EE) were observed about 39.60 and 69.00 nm, 0.279 and 0.496, 85.73 and 88.46% for nano-capsules and nanoliposomes, respectively. The zeta potential (ζ) values were observed at −65.73 and −71.16 mV and therefore the nanoparticles had good stability and uniform particle size distribution. Encapsulation had no significant effect on total phenol and flavonoids content of the BSE. The amounts of these active compounds were in the range of 25.12–26.97 mg GAE/g dw and 6.84–6.95 mg QE/g dw, respectively. The free and encapsulated BSE displaying good AOA in the DPPH, ABTS and FRAP assays. Results of the ABA measured by inhibition zone diameter and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) demonstrated that the free BSE had antibacterial action against the tested Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, and the nano-encapsulation process led to improved ABA of this extract. The organic acids in BES indicated the presence of high levels of citric, malic and oxalic acids at 613, 98 and, 45 (mg/g dw), respectively. The BSE-loaded nanoparticles showed remarkable anti-Listeria activity in ricotta cheese, which their activity increased with increasing their concentration. In conclusion, BSE-loaded nanoliposomes and nano-capsules have potential interest to be used as natural antioxidants and preservatives for food applications.
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Selasih (Ocimum basilicum) and chia seed (Salvia hispanica L.) are plant-based sources that have a unique characteristic of being able to form a gel when hydrated because they have a poly-saccharide layer that can bind water. The purpose of this study was to characterize selasih seed, Indo-nesian indigenous basil seed, compared to chia seeds which have been widely studied. The characteri-zation leads to functional properties for health and their potential to be applied to food products including crude fiber content, water holding capacity (WHC), and emulsification ability. The value of total dietary fiber which was quite high in both seeds (48.78 to 54.07%) had potential as a source of healthy dietary fiber. The selasih seed has water holding capacity and emulsion capacity that not significantly different from chia seed. The emulsification ability of selasih seeds and chia seeds needs proving by being applied to processed food products such as bakery products and processed meat products (sausages).
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The objective of this study was to evaluate physical properties and structural changes of myofibrillar protein gels with basil seed gum (BSG) at different salt levels and develop the low-salt sausages with BSG. Myofibrillar protein (MP) gels were prepared with or without BSG at different salt concentrations (0.15, 0.30, and 0.45 M). Cooking yield (CY, %), gel strength (GS, gf), viscosity, sulfhydryl contents, protein surface hydrophobicity, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) of MP were measured. Pork sausages were manufactured with 1% BSG at both low-salt (1.0%) and regular-salt (1.5%) levels. pH, color, expressible moisture (EM, %), CY, textural profile analyses, FTIR, sulfhydryl group, and protein surface hydrophobicity (μg) were measured for analyzing the properties of sausages. The addition of 1% BSG to MP gels increased CY and shear stress. Among treatments with different salt concentrations, MP at 0.30 M salt level with 1% BSG had higher GS than that at 0.15 M salt level with BSG. In microstructure, swollen structures were shown in MP gels with BSG. Although CY of sausage at the low-salt concentration (1.0%) decreased, regardless of the BSG addition, hardness values of sausages with regular-salt level increased with the addition of 1% BSG was added. Protein surface hydrophobicity and sulfhydryl contents of sausages increased with the addition of 1% BSG, resulting in higher hardness and lower springiness than those without BSG. These results suggest that BSG could be used as a water-binding and gelling agent in processed meats.
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The work aimed to determine the potential of selenium incorporation into seeds of selected species of Ocimum spp. after fortification with a foliar solution of sodium selenate at a concentration of 50 g Se · ha ⁻¹ . In a 2-year trial, the selenium content was determined by electrothermal atomic absorption method with Zeeman background correction. Modified spectrophotometric method (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl [DPPH] assays) was used to rate the potential of oxidation– reduction components of basil seeds (AA). The total polyphenol content (TPC) was determined spectrophotometrically using the Folin–Ciocalteu reagent and gallic acid (GA) as the standard solution. The results of experiments showed that the selenium biofortification significantly ( p < 0.05) increased the content of selenium in basil seeds (17-fold increase in comparison with controlled variant in case of Tulsi, 12-fold in ‘Cinamonette’ and 12-fold in ‘Dark Green’ when compared with control). The basil seeds represented a valuable source of polyphenols (1414.61–1681.75 μg GA · g ⁻¹ dried weight [d.w.]) with multiple times higher antioxidant activity (23.50–28.97 mmol Trolox · kg ⁻¹ ) in comparison with common tested horticultural crops (e.g. peas, tomato and pumpkin). Significant influence of fortification was not found in AA and TPC values. Fortification was not significantly reflected in AA and TPC values. In addition to its very strong reproductive function, healing and religious purposes, the basil seed is used as a functional food due to its high content of bioactive compounds.
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To confirm the capability and mechanisms of Sr(II) and Cs(I) adsorption from the aqueous phase using basil seed (BS), virgin BS, calcined BS (BS500 and BS1000), and enzymatically treated BS, namely Mannanase BGM (M-BS), Pectinase G (P-BS), Hemicellulase (H-BS), and Cellulase A (C-BS) was evaluated. The adsorption capabilities of Sr(II) and Cs(I) of various BS adsorbents were also evaluated. The quantity of Sr(II) and Cs(I) adsorbed onto BS was greater than that of BS500 or BS1000, suggesting that the physicochemical characteristics of the BS surface affected Sr(II) and Cs(I) removal from the aqueous phase. Furthermore, the quantity of Sr(II) and Cs(I) adsorbed onto virgin BS was greater than that of enzymatically treated BS, indicating that glucomannan or (1,4)-xylan in the cellulosic hydrocolloid of the BS strongly affected the adsorption capability of Cs(I) or Sr(II) (except for M-BS in Sr(II) adsorption). Our obtained results indicate that, as an adsorbent, BS was capable of removing Sr(II) and Cs(I) from the aqueous solution.
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This article reviews selected edible fruit, spice, and herb seed oils for their fatty acid compositions and other physicochemical properties. The seed oils were grouped according to their predominant or distinguishing fatty acid. These groups mainly included oils rich in α‐linolenic (18:3n−3), γ‐linolenic (18:3n−6), linoleic (18:2n−6), oleic (18:1n−9), or petroselinic (18:1n−12) acids. A total of 65 seed oils were included.
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Ocimum basilicum has been widely used in traditional medicine. Rural communities have used fixed oils for variety purposes since a long time ago. They used for cosmetic applications, fuel, medicine and food. The aim of this study was to characterize the physicochemical properties and fatty acid composition of O. basilicum seed oil. Lipids were determined by continuous extraction in a Soxhlet apparatus for 6 hours using hexane as solvent. The physicochemical properties of the oil were assessed by standard and established methods. The fatty acids composition of the seed oil was determined by GC-MS. The Pale yellow with camphor odor oil extracted from the seed has the following properties: yield, 18.01%; freezing point, -2°C; melting point, 5°C; boiling point, 215°C; refractive index (25°C), 1.48532; iodine value, 108.6 g/100 g of oil; peroxide value, 4.6 meq. O2/kg of oil; free fatty acids, 0.20%; acid value, 4.0 mg of KOH/g of oil; saponification value, 164.2 mg KOH/g of oil; unsaponifiable matter, 1.6; moisture and volatile value, 4.97 (wt%); density, 0.91372 g/cm3; viscosity, 10.29 mm2/s; specific gravity, 0.9210. Fatty acids composition showed that linolenic- (43.92%) was the major fatty acid and followed by linoleic- (32.18%), palmitic- (13.38%), stearic- (6.55%), palmitoleic- (0.78%), arachidic- (0.72%), anteisomargaric- (0.45%), nonadecylic- (0.28%), gondoic- (0.27%), margaric- (0.20%), behenic- (0.17%), heneicosylic- (0.14%), lignoceric- (0.13%) and myristic acid (0.11%). Therefore, recommended that more and advanced investigations should be undertaken for this abundant oil as natural source for many industrial applications, especially, for applications that require acids like linolenic and linoleic.
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Purpose The evaluation of the ecotoxicity effects of some heavy metals on the plant growth and metal accumulation in Ocimum basilicum L. cultivated on unpolluted and polluted soils represented the objective of the present study. Materials and methods The basil aromatic herb was evaluated in a laboratory experiment using soil contaminated with Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn, similar to the one from a mining area. The soils and different organs of the basil plants were analyzed, the total contents of the added elements being determined using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. The ability of basil plants to accumulate metals from soil and to translocate them in their organs was evaluated by transfer coefficient, translocation factor, enrichment factor, and geo-accumulation index determinations. Results and discussion The basil plants grown in the metal-polluted soil showed stimulation effects comparing with the plants from the control soil. At the end of the exposure period, the plants had a visible increase of biomass and presented inflorescences and the leaves’ green pigment was intensified. The metals gathered differently in plant organs: Cd, Co, Cr, and Pb were accumulated in roots, while Cu, Ni, and Zn in flowers. Cr and Pb exceeded the toxic levels in roots. Also, the heavy metal intake depends on the plant development stages; thus, Cd, Cr, and Pb were accumulated more in mature plant leaves. The Cd and Pb contents were higher than the World Health Organization and European Commission permissible limits. Conclusions The experimental results revealed that the basil plants exposed to a mixture of heavy metals have the potential to reduce the metal mobility from soil to plants. Translocation process from roots to flowers and to leaves was observed for Cu, Ni, and Zn, emphasizing a competition between metals. The calculated bioaccumulation factors were insignificant, but Cd and Pb concentrations exceeded the legal limits in the mature plants, being restricted for human or animal consumption.
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Supplementation with calcium (Ca) and/or vitamin D (vitD) is key to the management of osteoporosis. Other supplements like vitamin K2 (VitK2) and magnesium (Mg) could contribute to the maintenance of skeletal health. This narrative review summarizes the most recent data on Ca, vitD, vitK2 and Mg supplementation and age-related bone and muscle loss. Ca supplementation alone is not recommended for fracture prevention in the general postmenopausal population. Patients at risk of fracture with insufficient dietary intake and absorption could benefit from calcium supplementation, but it needs to be customized, taking into account possible side-effects and degree of adherence. VitD supplementation is essential in patients at risk of fracture and/or vitD deficiency. VitK2 and Mg both appear to be involved in bone metabolism. Data suggest that VitK2 supplementation might improve bone quality and reduce fracture risk in osteoporotic patients, potentially enhancing the efficacy of Ca ± vitD. Mg deficiency could negatively influence bone and muscle health. However, data regarding the efficacy of vitK2 and Mg supplementation on bone are inconclusive.
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The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of antimicrobial and antioxidant coatings based on basil-seed gum (BSG) on the refrigerated shelf-life of chicken fillets. Antimicrobial and antioxidant properties were developed by incorporating summer savory essential oil (SEO) and Shirazi thyme essential oil (TEO) emulsions, individually or in combination with each other, into BSG coating. Microbiological evaluations including total viable count (TVC), psychrotrophic (PBC) and lactic acid bacteria counts (LAB), as well as chemical charachteristics namely peroxide value (PV), thiobarbituric acid (TBA), total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) and pH were performed on coated and control samples. Moreover, sensory evaluations were performed for odor, color, texture and overall acceptability. Results showed that incorporating SEO and TEO into BSG coatings could significanty (p < 0.5) increase the quality of chicken fillets. Antimicrobial and antioxidant coatings significantly (p < 0.05) reduced pH, TVB-N, PV and TBA values compared to uncoated control samples, specially for BSG/TEO coated samples, which resulted the best treatment. pH, TVB-N, PV and TBA in BSG/TEO coated samples were 5.96, 16.84, 3.33 and 2.44, respectively, lower than those of uncoated control samples on day 12 of storage. A similar reduction trend was observed for microbial population. TVC, PBC and LAB were 3.69, 4.73, and 3.87 log CFU/g on day 12 of storage in BSG/TEO coated samples lower than those of uncoated samples. Therefore, the natural active components of EOs showed positive effects on extending the shelf-life of coated chicken fillets. Besides, sensory properties of coated samples were significantly (p < 0.05) better than those of control samples. Generally, TEO was more effective than SEO and no synergistic effect was observed between TEO and SEO.
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In this paper, the influence of a variety of salts (NaCl, CaCl2, and KCl) at different concentrations (0, 0.1, 0.5 and 1% w/w) on rheological and functional properties of basil seed gum (BSG) were investigated. BSG produced a high viscosity solution with yield stress, which was a function of salt type and concentration. In all samples, viscosity decreased as the electrostatic interactions between the BSG chains altered by salts. Flow behavior index increased by salt addition, which shows BSG had weaker shear-thinning behavior and worse mouthfeel in the presence of salts. The viscoelasticity of BSG strongly influenced by the addition of salt type as well as concentration. Larger cations (Ca+2) shield the electrostatic interaction between BSG chains more strongly compared to smaller cations as they have larger hydrated radius. As a result divalent salts decreased the viscosity and viscoelasticity more significantly. Emulsion capacity improved by salts addition, especially at high concentrations of salts. The foam capacity increased in the presence of CaCl2 and KCl increased foaming capacity of BSG. The results suggest that the addition of the different types of salt can alter or modify the rheological and functional properties of BSG, depending on the salt concentration.
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This study investigated the use of basil seed gum (BSG) as a fat substitute on the physicochemical properties and antioxidant activities of yogurt. A 0.5 and 1% BSG solution was supplemented to reduced-fat and nonfat yogurts, and their physicochemical properties, quality properties, antioxidant activity, and sensory evaluation were compared with each control group. We prepared 3 yogurts as controls and 4 yogurt samples containing BSG as follows: FFY (yogurt made from full-fat milk: a control group), LFY (yogurt made from reduced-fat milk: a control group), SY (yogurt made from nonfat milk: a control group), LFY 0.5% (0.5% BSG added to reduced-fat yogurt), and LFY 1.0% (1.0% BSG added to reduced-fat yogurt), SY 0.5% (0.5% BSG added to nonfat yogurt), and SY 1.0% (1.0% BSG added to nonfat yogurt). The pH of LFY 0.5% and LFY 1.0% was decreased compared with LFY control, whereas pH of SY 0.5% and SY 1.0% had no significant difference. The titratable acidity showed no significant increase. The viscosity was the highest in FFY among the control groups and increased with the concentration of BSG in the SY group. The L-value (brightness) and b-value (yellowness) were the highest in FFY at 85.05 among the control groups. The L-value and b-value of LFY 0.5% and SY 0.5% showed higher values than LFY 1% and SY 1%. The a-value (redness) was the highest in SY 0.5% at -2.36, and ΔE (total color difference) was the highest in SY 1% at 7.33. The moisture content of SY was the highest among the control groups and addition of 1% BSG to SY was highest among the BSG-added group. Total contents of phenol and flavonoid slightly increased as the concentration of BSG increased (increase in the contents of phenol and flavonoid). The results of ferric reducing antioxidant power were similar to the findings of phenol and flavonoid content (an increase as the concentration of BSG increased). The overall acceptability of sensory characteristics was improved in all groups of samples when BSG 1% concentration increased. Application of BSG for the production of nonfat yogurt can enhance physicochemical properties, antioxidant activity, and sensory characteristics of reduced-fat and nonfat yogurt. Addition of BSG to reduced-fat and nonfat yogurt can improve their physical and antioxidant properties to the level of FFY.