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Effect of additives of organic wastes on chemical content of leaves of okra plants (Abelmoschus esculentus L.( grown in unheated plastic houses

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Abstract

The experiment was conducted during the winter season 2017-2018 in one of the plastic houses of the research station of the college of Agriculture, Al-Muthanna University, in order to study the effect of the addition of peat moss of manure of cows, compost of water hyacinth and spray with nanoparticles of marine algae in the chemical content of the leaves of the okra plants (Abelmoschus esculentus L. (. The experiment included (27) factorial treatments which were three levels of cow manures (0, 2, 4) kg. m‾¹ and three levels of the compost of water hyacinth (0, 2, 4 kg. m‾¹ and three concentrations of nano-fertilizers of the marine algae extract (0.5, 0.75, 1.5) m.l‾¹. Factorial experiment was carried out according to the split-split plot design in R.C.B.D with three replicates. The results were analyzed by the analysis of variance and mean values were compared using the Revised Least Significant Difference Test at 0.05 probability level. The main results could be summarized as follows: Peat moss of manure of cows at the levels (2 , 4) kg. m‾¹ was significantly superior to control treatment in leaf content of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, total chlorophyll and total soluble carbohydrates (0.703, 0.714%), 0.303, 0.286%, 285.3, 236.6 mg. 100 g ‾¹ fresh weight and 50.06, 52.43 mg. 100 g ‾¹ dry weight Respectively,while the 4 kg. m‾¹ lwvel was significantly superior to control treatment in the content of leaves of nitrogen and potassium amounted to (4.826, 2.700%) respectively. Compost of water hyacinth at the levels (2, 4) kg. m‾¹ was was significantly higher than control treatment of leaf content of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, total chlorophyll and total soluble carbohydrates by an increase of (15.68, 21.93%),(40.00, 57.35%). (24.21, 43.25%) , (4.04, 7.39%) and (9.00, 21.51%), respectively. Spraying with nanoparticles of marine algae at the concentrations of (0.75, 1.5) m.l‾¹ had Significant increment in leaf content of nitrogen, potassium, total chlorophyll and total soluble carbohydrates, while the concentration of 1.5 m.l‾¹ caused an increment in phosphorus and sodium concentrations compared to control treatment. Most of the binary and triple interactions showed a significant effects on the studied characteristics. Keywords: Okra, peat moss of manure of cows, compost of water hyacinth, seaweed extract, chemical content of leaves, plastic houses. ‫المخلف‬ ‫االضافاث‬ ‫حاثير‬ ‫الباميا(‬ ‫نباحاث‬ ‫علي‬ ‫العضويت‬ ‫اث‬ L. Abelmoschus esculentus ‫البيوث‬ ‫في‬ ‫المسروعت‬) ‫لالوراق‬ ‫الكيميائي‬ ‫المحخوى‬ ‫في‬ ‫المذفأة‬ ‫غير‬ ‫البالسخيكيت‬ ‫عبثش‬ ‫ؽًٛذ‬ ‫ايبٌ‬ 1 ‫هللا‬ ‫ػجذ‬ ‫انؼضٚض‬ ‫ػجذ‬ ‫هللا‬ ‫ػجذ‬ 2 ‫طؼٍٛ‬ ‫اؽًذ‬ ‫ضٛبء‬ 3 (1) ‫انجغزُخ‬ ‫لغى‬-‫انضساػخ‬ ‫كهٛخ‬-‫انًضُ‬ ‫عبيؼخ‬ ٗ , (2,3) ‫انؾذائك‬ ‫ُْٔذعخ‬ ‫انجغزُخ‬ ‫لغى‬-‫انضساػخ‬ ‫كهٛخ‬-‫انجصشح‬ ‫عبيؼخ‬ ‫الخالصت‬ ‫اعشٚ‬ ‫ذ‬ ‫انشزٕ٘‬ ‫انًٕعى‬ ‫خالل‬ ‫انزغشثخ‬ 2017-2018 ‫دساعخ‬ ‫ثٓذف‬ ‫انًضُٗ‬ ‫عبيؼخ‬ ‫انضساػخ‬ ‫كهٛخ‬ ‫اثؾبس‬ ‫نًؾطخ‬ ‫انزبثؼخ‬ ‫انجالعزٛكٛخ‬ ‫انجٕٛد‬ ‫اؽذ‬ ‫فٙ‬ ‫ٔانش‬ ‫انُٛم‬ ‫صْشح‬ ‫ٔكًجٕعذ‬ ‫االثمبس‬ ‫عًبد‬ ‫ثزًٕط‬ ‫االضبفخ‬ ‫ربصٛش‬ ‫انجبيٛب‬ ‫نصُف‬ ‫نالٔساق‬ ‫انكًٛٛبئٙ‬ ‫انًؾزٕٖ‬ ‫فٙ‬ ‫انُبَٕٚخ‬ ‫انجؾشٚخ‬ ‫انطؾبنت‬ ‫ثبنذلبئك‬ ‫ػ‬ ‫انزغشثخ(‬ ‫ٔرضًُذ‬ ‫ؽغُٛبٔٚخ‬ 27 ‫االثمبس(‬ ‫عًبد‬ ‫ثزًٕط‬ ‫يٍ‬ ‫يغزٕٚبد‬ ‫صالس‬ ‫ػٍ‬ ‫ػجبسح‬ ‫ػبيهٛخ‬ ‫يؼبيهخ‬) 0 , 2 , 4 ‫)كغى.و‬-1 ‫يٍ‬ ‫يغزٕٚبد‬ ‫ٔصالس‬ (‫انُٛم‬ ‫صْشح‬ ‫كًجٕعذ‬ 0 , 2 , 4 ‫)كغى.و‬-1 ‫ا‬ ‫يٍ‬ ‫رشاكٛض‬ ‫ٔصالس‬ (‫انُبَٕٚخ‬ ‫انجؾشٚخ‬ ‫انطؾبنت‬ ‫نًغزخهص‬ ‫انؼضٕ٘‬ ‫نغًبد‬ 0.5 , 0.75 , 1.5 ‫)يم.نزش‬-1. ‫نًشرٍٛ‬ ‫يُشمخ‬ ‫ػبيهٛخ‬ ‫رغشثخ‬ ‫اعشٚذ‬ split-split plot design ‫ثٍٛ‬ ‫ٔلٕسٌ‬ ‫يكشساد‬ ‫ؤثضالس‬ ‫انكبيهخ‬ ‫انؼشٕائٛخ‬ ‫انمطبػبد‬ ‫رصًٛى‬ ‫ٔفك‬ ‫ػُذ‬ ‫يؼُٕ٘‬ ‫فشق‬ ‫الم‬ ‫اخزجبس‬ ‫ثبعزؼًبل‬ ‫نهًؼبيالد‬ ‫انؾغبثٛخ‬ ‫انًزٕعطبد‬ (‫اؽزًبنٛخ‬ ‫يغزٕٖ‬ 0.05. ‫ٚهٙ‬ ‫ثًب‬ ‫انُزبئظ‬ ‫اْى‬ ‫ٔرهخص‬) ‫االثمبس(‬ ‫عًبد‬ ‫ثزًٕط‬ ‫االضبفخ‬ ‫يغزٕٖ‬ ‫رفٕق‬ 2 , 4 ‫)كغى.و‬-1 ‫ٔانصٕدٕٚو‬ ‫انفغفٕس‬ ‫ػُبصش‬ ‫يٍ‬ ‫االٔساق‬ ‫يؾزٕٖ‬ ‫فٙ‬ ‫انًمبسَخ‬ ‫ثًؼبيهخ‬ ‫يمبسَخ‬ ً ‫يؼُٕٚب‬ ‫انكهٛخ(‬ ‫انزائجخ‬ ‫ٔانكشثْٕٛذساد‬ ‫انكهٙ‬ ‫ٔانكهٕسفٛم‬ 0.703 , 0.714 (ٔ%) 0.303 , 0.286) (ٔ% 285.3 , 236.6 ‫يهغى,‬) 100 ‫غى‬-1 ‫طش٘‬ ‫ٔصٌ‬ (ٔ 50.06 , 52.43 ‫يهغى,‬) 100 ‫غى‬-1 (‫االضبفخ‬ ‫يغزٕٖ‬ ‫رفٕق‬ ‫ؽٍٛ‬ ‫فٙ‬ ‫انزٕانٙ‬ ‫ػهٗ‬ ‫عبف‬ ‫ٔصٌ‬ 4 ‫كغى.و‬-1 ‫فٙ‬ ‫انًمبسَخ‬ ‫ثًؼبيهخ‬ ‫يمبسَخ‬ ً ‫يؼُٕٚب‬) ‫ثهغ(‬ ‫ٔانجٕربعٕٛو‬ ‫انُزشٔعٍٛ‬ ‫ػُصش٘‬ ‫يٍ‬ ‫االٔساق‬ ‫يؾزٕٖ‬ 4.826 , 2.700 ‫االضبف‬ ‫يغزٕٖ‬ ‫انزٕانٙ.رفٕق‬ ‫ػهٗ‬ %) (‫انُٛم‬ ‫صْشح‬ ‫كًجٕعذ‬ ‫خ‬ 2 , 4 ‫)كغى.و‬-1 ‫انزائ‬ ‫ٔانكشثْٕٛذساد‬ ‫انكهٙ‬ ‫ٔانكهٕسفٛم‬ ‫ٔانجٕربعٕٛو‬ ‫ٔانفغفٕس‬ ‫انُزشٔعٍٛ‬ ‫ػُبصش‬ ‫يٍ‬ ‫االٔساق‬ ‫يؾزٕٖ‬ ‫فٙ‬ ‫انًمبسَخ‬ ‫ثًؼبيهخ‬ ‫يمبسَخ‬ ً ‫يؼُٕٚب‬ ‫جخ‬ (‫ثهغذ‬ ‫صٚبدح‬ ‫ثُغجخ‬ ‫انكهٛخ‬ 15.68 , 21.93 (ٔ %) 40.00 , 57.35 (ٔ %) 24.21 , 43.25 (ٔ %) 4.04 , 7.39 %) (ٔ 9.00 , 21.51 ‫ػهٗ‬ %) ‫ٔنزشكٛضٍٚ(‬ ‫انُبَٕٚخ‬ ‫انجؾشٚخ‬ ‫انطؾبنت‬ ‫ثبنذلبئك‬ ‫انُجبربد‬ ‫سػ‬ ‫عجت‬ ‫انزٕانٙ.ٔكزنك‬ 0.75 , 1.5 ‫)يم.نزش‬-1 ‫يٍ‬ ‫االٔساق‬ ‫يؾزٕٖ‬ ‫فٙ‬ ‫يؼُٕٚخ‬ ‫صٚبدح‬ ‫ثبنزشكٛض(‬ ‫انشػ‬ ‫عجت‬ ‫ؽٍٛ‬ ‫انكهٛخ.فٙ‬ ‫انزائجخ‬ ‫ٔانكشثْٕٛذساد‬ ‫انكهٙ‬ ‫ٔانكهٕسفٛم‬ ‫ٔانجٕربعٕٛو‬ ‫انُزشٔعٍٛ‬ ‫ػُبصش‬ 1.5 ‫يم.ن‬ ‫زش‬-1 ‫فٙ‬ ‫يؼُٕٚخ‬ ‫صٚبدح‬) ‫انذساعخ.‬ ‫ػُذ‬ ‫نهصفبد‬ ً ‫يؼُٕٚب‬ ‫رأصٛش‬ ‫ٔانضالصٛخ‬ ‫انضُبئٛخ‬ ‫انزذاخالد‬ ‫اغهت‬ ‫انًمبسَخ,ٔاظٓشد‬ ‫ثًؼبيهخ‬ ‫يمبسَخ‬ ‫ٔانصٕدٕٚو‬ ‫انفغفٕس‬ ‫ػُصش٘‬ ‫لالورا‬ ‫الكيميائي‬ ‫البحريت،المحخوى‬ ‫االعشاب‬ ‫،مسخخلص‬ ‫النيل‬ ‫زهرة‬ ‫كمبوسج‬ ‫االبقار،‬ ‫سماد‬ ‫،بخموش‬ ‫الباميا‬ : ‫مفخاحيت‬ ‫كلماث‬ ‫البالسخيكيت.‬ ‫ق،البيوث‬ ‫االٔل‬ ‫نهجبؽش‬ ‫انذكزٕساِ‬ ‫اطشٔؽخ‬ ‫يٍ‬ ‫يغزم‬
1
Muthanna journal of Agriculture Science
VOL.(), NO.(4), 201
Print ISSN: 2226-4086, Online ISSN: 2572-5149, Received Date : 3/ 6/2019 , Accepted Date : 10 /7 /2019
DOI:10.18081/MJAS/2019-7/1-
Effect of additives of organic wastes on chemical content of leaves of okra plants
(Abelmoschus esculentusL. grown in unheated plastic houses
Aman Hameed Jaber ¹ , Abdullah Abdul Aziz Abdullah ² , Dhia Ahmed Taain ³
(1) Department of horticulture - College of Agriculture - University of Muthanna, (2,3) Department of horticulture and
landscape - College of Agriculture - University of Basra
Abstract: The experiment was conducted during the winter season 2017-2018 in one of the plastic houses of the
research station of the college of Agriculture, Al-Muthanna University, in order to study the effect of the addition
of peat moss of manure of cows, compost of water hyacinth and spray with nanoparticles of marine algae in the
chemical content of the leaves of the okra plants (
Abelmoschus esculentusL. . The experiment included (27)
factorial treatments which were three levels of cow manures (0, 2, 4) kg. m‾¹ and three levels of the compost of
water hyacinth (0, 2, 4 kg. m‾¹ and three concentrations of nano-fertilizers of the marine algae extract (0.5, 0.75,
1.5) m.l‾¹ . Factorial experiment was carried out according to the split-split plot design in R.C.B.D with three
replicates. The results were analyzed by the analysis of variance and mean values were compared using the
Revised Least Significant Difference Test at 0.05 probability level . The main results could be summarized as
follows: Peat moss of manure of cows at the levels  kg. m‾¹ was significantly superior to control treatment
in leaf content of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, total chlorophyll and total soluble carbohydrates (0.703,
0.714%), 0.303, 0.286%, 285.3, 236.6 mg. 100 g ‾¹ fresh weight and 50.06, 52.43 mg. 100 g ‾¹ dry weight
Respectively,while the 4 kg. m‾¹ lwvel was significantly superior to control treatment in the content of leaves of
nitrogen and potassium amounted to (4.826, 2.700%) respectively.
Compost of water hyacinth at the levels (2, 4) kg. m‾¹ was was significantly higher than control treatment of leaf
content of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, total chlorophyll and total soluble carbohydrates by an increase of
(15.68, 21.93%),( 40.00, 57.35%). (24.21, 43.25%) , (4.04, 7.39%) and (9.00, 21.51%), respectively.
Spraying with nanoparticles of marine algae at the concentrations of (0.75, 1.5) m.l‾¹ had Significant
increment in leaf content of nitrogen, potassium, total chlorophyll and total soluble carbohydrates, while the
concentration of 1.5 m.l‾¹ caused an increment in phosphorus and sodium concentrations compared to control
treatment. Most of the binary and triple interactions showed a significant effects on the studied characteristics
Keywords: Okra, peat moss of manure of cows, compost of water hyacinth, seaweed extract, chemical
content of leaves, plastic houses
L.
Abelmoschus esculentus
 

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   



     split-split plot design         
 

     
 

       
   




        
     
           
  



2






Mengle and kirkby,1982

Lakhdar et at., 2010


EL-Darding,2007
 



Organic farmingRivero et at.,2004


2006









Seoudi(2013)



Frimpang et at.(2017)



see force

Zodape et at.(2008)


Algaren























EC
ds.m-1


Page et al.
(1982)
TDS
g.L-1


NacL


pH




mg.kg-1


mg.kg-1


mg.kg-1




g.cm-3

Black (1965)

g.cm-3





3


















Mulching
















ds.m-1


Page et al. (1982)



g.L-1




mg.kg-1
1025.4

mg.kg-1



18.74

mg.kg-1


mg.kg-1












ppm


Organic(N) 3.43
Fe 150
Auxin 0.027
P2O5 2.44
Mn 18
Cytokinin 0.021
K2O 4.55
B 4
Mg0.68
Zn 75
Ca0.42
1
 split-split plot design

Main plot
Sub plot

Sub Sub plot 




Wlsh and Beatous ,1973



Goodwin,1976


Pag et.at,1982
Murphy and Ritey,1962
Pag et.at,1982

Pag et.at,1982

























 T1C2

T2C2

T1C0

T0C0



T2N2


T2N0
 T0N0

4


T

C


N 
T * C
N 
T * C
N0
N1
N2
N0
N1
N2
T0
C0
3.420
3.733
4.897
4.017
0.366
0.558
0.640
0.521
C1
3.943
4.747
5.480
4.723
0.667
0.774
0.776
0.739
C2
4.350
5.240
5.517
5.036
0.717
0.839
0.851
0.802
T1
C0
2.417
4.403
4.997
3.939
0.393
0.561
0.639
0.531
C1
3.997
4.860
5.687
4.848
0.664
0.777
0.781
0.741
C2
4.397
5.300
5.683
5.127
0.795
0.860
0.860
0.838
T2
C0
3.820
4.420
5.363
4.534
0.406
0.568
0.639
0.538
C1
4.070
4.850
5.713
4.878
0.674
0.779
0.782
0.745
4
5
C2
4.487
5.347
5.360
5.064
0.809
0.874
0.899
0.861
L.S.D0.05
0.3900
0.2724
N.S
0.0197


3.878
4.767
5.411
0.610
0.732
0.763
L.S.D0.05
0.1204
0.0096




T
*
N
T0
3.904
4.573
5.298
4.592
0.583
0.724
0.756
0.688
T1
3.603
4.854
5.456
4.638
0.617
0.733
0.760
0.703
T2
4.126
4.872
5.479
4.826
0.630
0.740
0.773
0.714
L.S.D0.05
0.2074
0.1560
0.0154
0.0099




C
*
N
C0
3.219
4.186
5.086
4.163
0.388
0.562
0.640
0.530
C1
4.003
4.819
5.627
4.816
0.669
0.777
0.780
0.742
C2
4.411
5.296
5.520
5.076
0.774
0.858
0.870
0.834
L.S.D0.05
0.2372
0.1777
0.0182
0.0132


C1N2
 C2N2

C0N0


T1C1N2

T2C2N2

T0C0N0


N,P



Appireddy et at.,2008








Zodape et at.,2008Frimpong et at.,2017














5





2
T
C
N 
T * C
N 
T * C
N0
N1
N2
N0
N1
N2
T0
C0
1.310
1.377
3.077
1.921
0.395
0.307
0.295
0.333
C1
1.457
2.613
3.407
2.492
0.328
0.304
0.295
0.309
C2
2.413
2.933
3.473
2.940
0.318
0.302
0.292
0.304
T1
C0
1.560
1.370
3.123
2.018
0.345
0.295
0.288
0.309
C1
1.643
2.660
3.473
2.592
0.345
0.288
0.268
0.301
C2
2.460
2.953
3.520
2.978
0.335
0.287
0.272
0.298
T2
C0
1.747
2.113
3.133
2.331
0.302
0.298
0.265
0.288
C1
1.857
2.720
3.533
2.703
0.298
0.295
0.262
0.285
C2
2.443
2.833
3.917
3.064
0.298
0.285
0.258
0.284
L.S.D0.05
0.2641
0.1610
0.0209
N.S


1.877
2.397
3.406
0.329
0.297
0.277
L.S.D0.05
0.0908
0.0062




T
*
N
T0
1.727
2.308
3.319
2.451
0.347
0.304
0.294
0.315
T1
1.888
2.328
3.372
2.529
0.342
0.290
0.276
0.303
T2
2.016
2.556
3.528
2.700
0.299
0.296
0.262
0.286
L.S.D0.05
N.S
0.1556
0.0144
0.0138




C
*
N
C0
1.539
1.620
3.111
2.090
0.347
0.300
0.283
0.310
C1
1.652
2.664
3.471
2.596
0.324
0.296
0.275
0.298
C2
2.439
2.907
3.637
2.994
0.317
0.294
0.274
0.295
L.S.D0.05
0.1422
0.0688
0.0113
0.0077


T2C2

 T0C0

T0C0

T2C2



C2N2

C0N0





T2C2N2

T0C0N0



6
7









Khatun and Flowers,1995(
















T

C


N 
T * C
N 
T * C
N0
N1
N2
N0
N1
N2
T0
C0
251.2
267.6
286.5
268.4
32.42
41.52
55.97
43.31
C1
262.4
286.5
307.6
285.5
36.65
46.93
62.23
48.60
C2
277.0
299.6
305.6
294.1
41.37
56.69
64.20
54.09
T1
C0
258.4
275.3
290.5
274.7
36.65
42.70
56.69
45.35
C1
259.7
289.2
305.6
284.8
38.63
47.30
62.94
49.62
C2
280.5
301.3
307.5
296.4
42.09
57.95
65.61
55.22
T2
C0
277.0
273.4
289.5
279.9
41.37
46.12
58.13
48.54
C1
265.9
287.5
305.3
286.2
39.94
48.32
65.71
51.32
C2
276.5
292.6
311.7
293.6
45.39
60.12
66.74
57.42
L.S.D0.05
N.S
3.95
1.083
0.627


267.6
285.9
301.1
39.39
49.74
62.03
L.S.D0.05
3.16
0.374




T
*
N
T0
263.5
284.6
299.9
282.7
36.81
48.38
60.80
48.67
T1
266.2
288.6
301.2
285.3
39.12
49.32
61.75
50.06
T2
273.1
284.5
302.2
286.6
42.23
51.52
63.53
52.43
L.S.D0.05
4.70
2.09
0.629
0.453
8




C
*
N
C0
262.2
272.1
288.8
274.4
36.81
43.45
56.93
45.73
C1
262.6
287.7
306.2
285.5
38.41
47.52
63.63
49.85
C2
278.0
297.8
308.3
294.7
42.95
58.25
65.52
55.57
L.S.D0.05
5.04
2.62
0.630
0.379


  
    
       
       
 
        
        
T1C2

 T2C2
    

 T0C0





    T2N2
   

   

      T0N0

    

       
        
C2N2
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C0N0
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T2C2N2
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


Solanum L.tuberosum 

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



Tikrit Journal of Pure Science
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11-pp.5
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



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145-pp.134

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9
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
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ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
Article
A single solution reagent is described for the determination of phosphorus in sea water. It consists of an acidified solution of ammonium molybdate containing ascorbic acid and a small amount of antimony. This reagent reacts rapidly with phosphate ion yielding a blue-purple compound which contains antimony and phosphorus in a 1:1 atomic ratio. The complex is very stable and obeys Beer's law up to a phosphate concentration of at least 2 μg/ml.The sensitivity of the procedure is comparable with that of the stannous chloride method. The salt error is less than 1 %.
Article
Saline soil was amended with 13.3 and 26.6 g kg-1 of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) compost or sewage sludge, and arylsulphatase (ARY), phosphatase (PHO), dehydrogenase (DEH), (β-glucosidase ((β-GLU), urease (URE) and catalase (CAT) activities as well as physical-chemical properties were determined after 70 day of incubation under laboratory conditions. MSW compost and sewage sludge significantly improved soil physical-chemical properties, especially carbon and nitrogen contents. Accordingly, overall enzyme activities were substantially promoted in presence of both amendments and the higher increases were measured at 13.3 g kg-1 of MSW compost (increases by 107%, 43%, 20%, 11%, and 148% for, DEH, (3-GLU, PHO, URE, and CAT, respectively). Lower beneficial effects occurred at 26.6 g kg-1 of sewage sludge possibly because of the increased salinity or the presence of trace elements by sewage sludge application. As a general response, MSW compost supplied at 13.3 g kg-1 seems to be a useful strategy to enhance biologic activities of salt-affected soil.
Article
A field experiment was conducted during the summer season of 2005 and 2006 at Almora (Indian Himalayas) to evaluate the comparative performance of five varieties of bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) and changes in soil properties under organic and integrated nutrient management (INM) systems. The number of fruits plant−1 and fruit yield was significantly higher under INM compared with organic nutrient supply. The yield reduction in the latter was 22.1% in 2005 and 21.7% in 2006 compared with INM. Among the bell pepper varieties, ‘US Agri 181’ produced significantly higher fruit yield (25.42 mg ha−1 in 2005 and 28.82 mg ha−1 in 2006) compared with other varieties. The soil pH, organic carbon, and microbial activities in terms of urease, dehydrogenase and alkaline phosphatase were higher in the plots treated with organic manures alone compared to INM. The latter, however, recorded higher N, P, and K contents in soil. The gross margin and benefit:cost (B:C) ratio were higher under INM compared with organic nutrient supply. ‘US Agri 181’ gave the highest net returns followed by ‘Aishwarya’ and ‘California Wonder’. However, the latter recorded the highest B:C ratio (9.2) compared with other varieties. We conclude that at least 25–50% price premium for organic bell pepper may be required to offset the higher cost of cultivation and low yields under organic production system. Among the bell pepper varieties, ‘US Agri 181’ was the best variety as it yielded highest followed by ‘Aishwarya’.
Article
Salinity reduces fertility in rice (Oryza sativa L.), but little is known of the underlying cause(s). In order to determine the relative importance of pollen viability and stigmatic receptivity for seed setting, plants of the rice cultivar IR36 were treated with ‘artificial’ sea water (0,10, 25 or 5Omol−3 with respect to NaCl) from 1 month after germination until the main tiller flowered. An increase in the salinity in the medium resulted in a decrease in the number of fertile florets and in the viability of pollen as determined both by pollen germination and by pollen staining with the tetrazolium salt 3-(4,5-dimethyl-ithyazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl monotetrazolium bromide. In order to assess the effects of salt on stigmas, seed production was measured for salt-grown and non-salt-grown female plants pollinated with viable pollen (from plants grown in the absence of salt). The percentage of seed set was reduced by 38% when the female plants were grown in 1Omol m−3 Na and by 72% at 25mol m−3 Na: no seed setting was recorded for plants grown in 50mol m−3 Na. Comparisons between crosses involving male and female parents grown at different salinities indicated that effects on the female plants dominated those on pollinator plants. Mineral analysis of leaves of different ages showed that there was a gradient of K concentration from leaf to leaf which was opposite to that of Na and Cl at all levels of applied salinity: K was maximal in the flag leaf, where Na and Cl were minimal. Analysis also revealed that there was an increase in the concentrations of Na and Cl and a decrease in the concentration of K in the pollen grains and stigmas of plants subjected to saline conditions. Correlations between the concentration of Na and Cl in pollen and pollen staining and pollen germination in vitro suggest that Na and Cl perse were responsible for the poor viability. The change in ionic concentrations in pollen and stigmas was much larger than that in the younger leaves, and in particular very much larger than that in the lemmas and paleas.
Article
A field study was conducted in Puerto Rico to evaluate the impact of compost on soil quality and crop production in an ultisol. In particular, the effect of compost on the quality of soil organic mater (SOM) was investigated. Compost quantities of 0, 37, 74 and 148 Mg ha−1 were applied annually for 3 years to four different plots and a high single dose of compost was applied (444 Mg ha−1) to a separate plot in the first year of the experiment. Surface soil samples were collected from the five treatments 1, 2, and 3 years after compost application. Soil humic substances were extracted, fractionated and purified. The humic and fulvic acids (HA and FA) were studied to determine SOM quality. The following parameters were determined: (i) C-HA/C-FA ratio, (ii) E4/E6 ratio, (iii) Kumada classification of the humic acids, and (iv) fluorescence spectra. Higher compost application rates resulted in greater C-HA/C-FA and E4/E6 ratios (more humification and aromaticity) and a shift of fluorescence spectra to longer wavelength (with more functional groups). The results showed that composting produced statistically significant (α=0.05) changes in the C-HA/C-FA and E4/E6 ratios. The fluorescence spectra also showed considerable changes. Additions of compost to soil increased the quality of SOM by increasing the quantity of HA with more functional groups and aromacity. Our research demonstrated that addition of compost not only increased the quantity, but also the quality of SOM, thus improving soil quality and productivity.
Nutrient cycling and maintaining soil fertility in fruit and vegetable crop systems
  • P M Bierman
  • C J Rosen
Bierman, P. M., and Rosen, C. J. (2005). Nutrient cycling and maintaining soil fertility in fruit and vegetable crop systems.University of Minesota. M 1193.