Book

Women, Gender and Language in Morocco

Authors:
... i 80. XX wieku (np. Spender 1980;Pauwels 1998;Hellinger i Bussmann 2001-2003, a następnie stopniowo wkraczającego na obszar polszczyzny (np. Herbert i Nykiel-Herbert 1986;Miemietz 1993). ...
... Jak dowodzą jednak liczne prace (np. Hahimi 2001;Sadiqi 2003;Farwanath 2005; El Abboubi i in. 2020), ten język cechuje znaczna nierówność płci, co jednak Nasalski całkowicie pominął: w ogóle nie wspomniał o ważnych przypadkach asymetrii rodzajowych. ...
... Takiej właściwości nie mają nazwy żeńskie, które dotyczą tylko kobiet, jak w przeróbkach powyższych zwrotów: klientka nasza pani, Polka potrafi, Dzień Nauczycielki. Taka podwójna funkcja rzeczowników męskoosobowych charakteryzuje większość języków (Hellinger i Bussmann 2001-2003, również język arabski. Przykładowo: muAamiyin to 'mężczyźni prawnicy', a także 'wszyscy prawnicy, kobiety i mężczyźni', a muAamiyat oznacza tylko 'prawniczki'. ...
Article
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Artykuł stanowi polemikę z tezami Ignacego Nasalskiego zawartymi w tekście pt. „Funkcje i dysfunkcje języka inkluzywnego, ze szczególnym uwzględnieniem asymetrii rodzajowej w języku polskim” (Socjolingwistyka 2020), w którym Autor twierdzi, że system rodzajowy języków, rozumiany jako (a)symetrie między nazwami męskimi i żeńskimi, ma znikomy wpływ na sytuację społeczną kobiet, czego dowodzi różna struktura rodzajowa języków arabskiego, perskiego i polskiego, nieprzekładająca się na równouprawnienie kobiet w krajach, gdzie są one używane. W związku z tym faktem Autor kwestionuje zasadność tworzenia i stosowania nowych feminatywów w polszczyźnie. W niniejszym artykule wskazano liczne uproszczenia w argumentacji Nasalskiego, a także pomijanie przez niego wielu prac przedstawiających i dokumentujących odmienny punkt widzenia. Dotyczą one nierówności płci w języku arabskim oraz badań nad wpływem języka na nasze myślenie i zachowania, a także negatywnych konsekwencji stosowania języka wykluczającego oraz korzyści z używania form o charakterze równościowym.
... In the collective Moroccan imagination, women are strong beings who hold the power to threaten the social system (Mernissi 2010), which contrasts with Western stereotypes of passive Arab women (Newcomb 2009;Sadiqi 2010). Because women generally are believed to potentially undermine the social order (Newcomb 2009), the social system features pervasive rules to scrutinize and constrain their speech, appearance, and mobility in public and in families (Mernissi 2010;Naamane Guessous 2007;Sadiqi 2003). Even so, from the founding of Morocco in the 11th century to its independence in 1956, women from upper classes and the royal family have played significant roles, including signing manifestoes for independence from France. ...
... In this context, Moroccan women find some opportunities to empower themselves within the male-dominated system in marriage and procreation (Mernissi 1975). That is, Moroccan women empower themselves in the nuclear and extended families characterizing this social system when they marry and give birth to sons, when they reach menopause, and when their sons have sons (Newcomb 2009;Sadiqi 2003), and further, as elderly women impose their preferences on their daughters-inlaw (Newcomb 2009). At the same time, according to the Moudawana code, women have the legal duty to maintain good relationships with their in-laws, and therefore married women seldom express discontent with their mothers-or elder sistersin-law. ...
... On one hand, approximately 25% of the population over 10year-old is illiterate in Casablanca, the economic capital (HCP 2017). On the other hand, educated mothers who speak French portend a better life for their children, as their ability to speak French helps gain access to bilingual schools (Sadiqi 2003). Therefore, young girls and women are encouraged to learn French in many middle-and upper-class families, even though attitudes towards educated young women "acting French" in terms of styles of clothing, wearing makeup, and going out generally are considered negative, as a route to becoming "too independent, too bold, too dangerous socially" (Sadiqi 2003, p. 37). ...
... Historically, both in rural and in urban areas, Moroccan women lived in hareems (harems) or 'enclosed households' where extended families lived together as one unit. Particularly in cities but also in families in rural areas that could afford to observe female seclusion, women required permission from their husbands or other male family members before leaving a household (Sadiqi 2003). This was the case at least until the declaration of independence from the French protectorate in 1956. ...
... This comes to the fore, amongst others, in the honorific title that is added to their names: Ḥajj for men, Ḥajja for women. As Fatima Sadiqi (2003) has pointed out in her book on gender and language in Morocco, the politics of naming is important in the public discourse in Morocco. Oral blessings and naming a person Ḥajj or Ḥajja carry a very positive value and were described to me as being part of Moroccan tashrīf, which roughly translates into 'honoring practice'. ...
... In the past, family units in Morocco were mostly agnatically organized in which patriarchal views and practices prevailed (cf. Sadiqi 2003). To act outside the permission of male family members was very difficult and risky for women. ...
Chapter
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In this chapter, I discuss how age, gender and class intersect in facilitating or restricting the physical and social mobility of Moroccan women as they (aspire to) go on hajj. Although pilgrimage to Mecca is a sacred duty for all Muslims who are able to undertake it, due to local conceptions of the physical and social mobility it involves, until recently most Moroccans tended to associate the hajj performance with men rather than women. While more female pilgrims are able to perform the pilgrimage today, women continue to face many challenges before they are able to go on pilgrimage to Mecca. This chapter analyses the hajj narratives of Moroccan women from different backgrounds. Taking an intersectionality approach, it studies how women’s pilgrimage experiences are related to their mobility in everyday life and to the forms of capital needed to perform the pilgrimage to Mecca and the kinds of capital that they acquire through hajj performance.
... Historically, both in rural and in urban areas, Moroccan women lived in hareems (harems) or 'enclosed households' where extended families lived together as one unit. Particularly in cities but also in families in rural areas that could afford to observe female seclusion, women required permission from their husbands or other male family members before leaving a household (Sadiqi 2003). This was the case at least until the declaration of independence from the French protectorate in 1956. ...
... This comes to the fore, amongst others, in the honorific title that is added to their names: Ḥajj for men, Ḥajja for women. As Fatima Sadiqi (2003) has pointed out in her book on gender and language in Morocco, the politics of naming is important in the public discourse in Morocco. Oral blessings and naming a person Ḥajj or Ḥajja carry a very positive value and were described to me as being part of Moroccan tashrīf, which roughly translates into 'honoring practice'. ...
... In the past, family units in Morocco were mostly agnatically organized in which patriarchal views and practices prevailed (cf. Sadiqi 2003). To act outside the permission of male family members was very difficult and risky for women. ...
... The Sharia describes good behavior and rituals embodied in the Quran, forming the basis of Islamic ethical imperatives (Badran, 2009). It shapes conceptions of gender equality, as women's rights are anchored in Sharia law through the personal status code, also called family code (Sadiqi, 2003): ...
... The Berber groups' religious practices were less scripturally based, though, partly due to the Berber people not being well versed in Arabic and to prevalent illiteracy in general. The Berber integrated "popular Islam" as part of their customs and beliefs (Silverstein, 2012), including traditions of music, dance, and oral poetry (Sadiqi, 2003). Islam-as-practice plays an important role in structuring daily life and as part of rituals and ceremonies. ...
... The family code is the only area in Moroccan law that is regulated by the Sharia (Sadiqi, 2003). Wide-ranging changes were made to the family law in 2004 (Salime, 2012), which included the right to self-guardianship, and made the wife and husband equal heads of the family (Sadiqi, 2010). ...
Article
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This article investigates how religion-based social norms and values shape women’s access to employment in Muslim-majority countries. It develops a religiously sensitive conceptualization of the differential valence of genders based on respect, which serves to (re)produce inequality. Drawing on an ethnographic study of work practice in Berber communities in Morocco, aspects of respect are analyzed through an honor–shame continuum that serves to moralize and mediate gender relations. The findings show that respect and shame function as key inequality-(re)producing mechanisms. The dynamic interrelationship between respect and shame has implications for how we understand the ways in which gender inequality is institutionalized and (re)produced across different levels. Through these processes, gender-differentiated forms of respect become inscribed in organizational structures and practices, engendering persistent inequality.
... It is crucial to bear in mind that Mounib is the first model who is breaking the glass ceiling in a society that still associated politics with men not women. As Sadiqi notes, this has roots in the Islamic notion of al-jamaaçah which means a community or a group of men that makes the fundamental grounds of ruling in the Arab-Muslim culture (Sadiqi, 2003). Although Morocco is somehow modern and respects women's right, there is still a negative attitude towards female leaders as they venture men's status quo (Sadiqi, 2003). ...
... As Sadiqi notes, this has roots in the Islamic notion of al-jamaaçah which means a community or a group of men that makes the fundamental grounds of ruling in the Arab-Muslim culture (Sadiqi, 2003). Although Morocco is somehow modern and respects women's right, there is still a negative attitude towards female leaders as they venture men's status quo (Sadiqi, 2003). Furthermore, the stereotype that women are subordinates while men are leaders is "deeply rooted in the Moroccan culture" (Sadiqi, 2003, p. 125). ...
Article
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Women are ‘intruders’ in the political world, they often find themselves at odds with a world that has established its values and rules according to men’s ways of doing things. When women enter politics, their socially constructed gender clashes with the tough world of politics. Often the feminine style collides with doing political leadership, a leadership that requires toughness, assertiveness and even violence. Women are socially constructed to behave in the complete opposite of this values. The first Moroccan female leader was elected as the head of her political party, Partie Socialist Unifié [PSU], in 2012. Nabila Mounib was faced with the dilemma of how she is going to lead a political party as a female in a patriarchal and conservative society. Should she lead using her feminine leadership style or should she adapt the masculine style that seems to conform with the political world? This paper attempts to explore her leadership style using Feminist Critical discourse analysis FCDA with a focus on the following linguistic features: interruption, hedges and tag questions, and the I vs We.
... Coming from a completely different geographical context, according to Sadiqi (2013), acceptance by local communities could be a challenge that diasporic voluntourists may not have to deal with. She refers to local, indigenous, communities where language is the leading tool to build the essential bridge. ...
... Referring to the ethnic indigenous identity of diasporic voluntourists, and the lack of including this specific identity by countries' own civil society (see Sadiqi, 2013), leads to the following questions we aim to further investigate: Could it be that diaspora are differently accepted by local communities? Do they stay longer? ...
... Coming from a completely different geographical context, according to Sadiqi (2013), acceptance by local communities could be a challenge that diasporic voluntourists may not have to deal with. She refers to local, indigenous, communities where language is the leading tool to build the essential bridge. ...
... Referring to the ethnic indigenous identity of diasporic voluntourists, and the lack of including this specific identity by countries' own civil society (see Sadiqi, 2013), leads to the following questions we aim to further investigate: Could it be that diaspora are differently accepted by local communities? Do they stay longer? ...
Chapter
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This chapter argues that revisiting and revitalizing humanitarian advocacy is especially pertinent in view of three current changes in humanitarian action that can be summarized as a change towards resilience humanitarianism (Hilhorst, 2018). This comprises interwoven shifts that together de-centre classic humanitarian action: a broadening of service providers especially at national and local levels; more attention to the agency and roles of affected communities; and a focus on the nexus between humanitarian action, development and peacebuilding. It is also pertinent in view of changing practices in advocacy. First, there is a nascent practice of advocacy directed at humanitarian actors to influence their definition of who is eligible for aid and their course of action. Second, there has been an unfolding practice of humanitarian advocacy in relation to the solidarity crisis in relation to refugees and migrants in Europe. This comprises broader sets of actors, ranging from refugees, community-based initiatives, new groups of volunteer humanitarians and humanitarian actors; their advocacy is broader in scope with a focus on human rights more broadly. The chapter therefore develops a research agenda that can capture a large diversity of advocacy activities by affected communities, civil society actors, and (international) humanitarian agencies. We sketch this research agenda from five angles, providing illustrations and examples of potential questions.
... Coming from a completely different geographical context, according to Sadiqi (2013), acceptance by local communities could be a challenge that diasporic voluntourists may not have to deal with. She refers to local, indigenous, communities where language is the leading tool to build the essential bridge. ...
... Referring to the ethnic indigenous identity of diasporic voluntourists, and the lack of including this specific identity by countries' own civil society (see Sadiqi, 2013), leads to the following questions we aim to further investigate: Could it be that diaspora are differently accepted by local communities? Do they stay longer? ...
... Coming from a completely different geographical context, according to Sadiqi (2013), acceptance by local communities could be a challenge that diasporic voluntourists may not have to deal with. She refers to local, indigenous, communities where language is the leading tool to build the essential bridge. ...
... Referring to the ethnic indigenous identity of diasporic voluntourists, and the lack of including this specific identity by countries' own civil society (see Sadiqi, 2013), leads to the following questions we aim to further investigate: Could it be that diaspora are differently accepted by local communities? Do they stay longer? ...
Chapter
Full-text available
A review of future research on civil society for Africa.
... Coming from a completely different geographical context, according to Sadiqi (2013), acceptance by local communities could be a challenge that diasporic voluntourists may not have to deal with. She refers to local, indigenous, communities where language is the leading tool to build the essential bridge. ...
... Referring to the ethnic indigenous identity of diasporic voluntourists, and the lack of including this specific identity by countries' own civil society (see Sadiqi, 2013), leads to the following questions we aim to further investigate: Could it be that diaspora are differently accepted by local communities? Do they stay longer? ...
Book
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A multi-disciplinary, international perspective on a future agenda for those interested in research on civil society.
... It has become functional outside the "Inner Circle" (Kachru, 2017) and equally nativised in British (non)colonies (Schneider, 2007). With the emergence of English as a world language, its power has exponentially increased in different domains and "sites of power" (Sadiqi, 2003), such as religion, law, commerce, politics, and literacy. Kachru (1986a) argues that the power of English in these domains allows it to manipulate individuals and nations linguistically, psychologically, and socio-politically. ...
... Out of the over 500 indigenous languages and the three major exoglossic languages (English, French, and Arabic) in Nigeria, English is the language that performs the most function because it "provides access to most important scientific, technological, and cross-cultural domains of knowledge and interaction" (Kachru, 2017, p. 97). In addition, English plays a crucial role in religion (especially Christianity), politics, law, and literacy, which Sadiqi (2003) refers to as "sites of power". This exoglossic monolingual practice in these sites of power has resulted in the functional inertness of Nigerian languages since the dominant linguistic ideologies are in favour of English. ...
Article
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This study explores the power of English in Nigeria following Kachruvian six parameters of the power of English. The paper indicates that the range and depth of English in Nigeria could be seen in the government, education, mass media, commerce, and religion. The positive attitudes towards English have negatively impacted mother-tongue education and have endangered many of Nigeria’s indigenous languages. The desire to learn English has also given rise to the pluricentric power of English, which has seen English “nativised” in Nigeria. Advocacies for the revitalisation and development of indigenous languages have followed the top-down perspective. However, I propose a bottom-up approach for developing indigenous languages in Nigeria. The study argues for the reawakening of the linguistic consciousness of Nigerians towards their languages.
... It is in the domain of education that French has the most prestige in Morocco. This strong position of French in Morocco has given rise to bilingualism (Arabic/Amazigh and French) and to code-switching, as well as it has influenced both SA and CMA especially in term of the lexical level (Sadiqi 2003). Nowadays, French is still very powerful in Morocco and serves significant functions in the Moroccan society. ...
... The English language was introduced in Morocco during World War II when Americans established military bases on the Moroccan land to link them to battlegrounds in Europe. Also, its presence in Morocco was and still enhanced by tourism, movies, music, globalization, as well as the international status it holds as a language of science, technology, business, cyberspace and research (Sadiqi, 2003). English was though an optional language next to Arabic during the French colonization. ...
Thesis
The aim of the present paper is to investigate the Prestige of mother tongues in Morocco, Darija and Amazigh. This paper will make a comparative study between Moroccan Arabic and Amazigh in relation to prestige. It tries to find out why people value certain languages more than others, shed light on the situations in which Moroccan people tend to use language for prestigious reasons, and reveal the motivating factors for such use of language and account for them.
... In Morocco, a number of serious sociolinguistic studies underlined the importance of 'sex' as a social variable in language use (Elbiad 1985;Ennaji 1991;Walters 1999). However, from the mid-1990s onward, consistent with broader global trends in the field, more and more studies began to shift from the concept of 'sex' as a social variable to the concept of 'gender' as an analytical tool (Badran, Sadiqi and Rashidi 2002;Cox 2002;Sadiqi 2003;Ennaji 2005). Scholars began to discuss 'gender' , unlike 'sex' , as performative instead of biological and to highlight the 'power tension' between language users. ...
... Scholars began to discuss 'gender' , unlike 'sex' , as performative instead of biological and to highlight the 'power tension' between language users. I was a central contributor to this shift: my book Women, Gender and Language in Morocco (Sadiqi 2003) was the first book published in English in the discipline of language and gender in North Africa. This upsurge of interest in language and gender was part of the human, cultural and linguistic rights movements that started in the mid-1980s and intensified in the post-Uprisings period. ...
Article
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This essay investigates and contextualises the emergence and evolution of the discipline of ‘Language and Gender’ in North Africa in an attempt to remedy the underrepresentation of this region in scholarship. I ground this essay in my experiences with Language and Gender in Morocco and the International Gender and Language Association (IGALA), both of which were central in shaping my academic journey. The pre- and post-Uprisings periods surrounding what is often discussed as the ‘Arab Spring’ in the early 2010s carried serious consequences for the emergence of Language and Gender as a discipline. These moments and my involvement in them were deeply impacted by specific historical, sociopolitical and intellectual dimensions, most saliently the women’s movement and the discipline of linguistics. My essay draws on these experiences to advocate for the importance of decolonising the international language and gender canon with North African perspectives that move beyond English and the Global North.
... Oral poetry helps Oromo girls and women to display their talent to the community. This importance of oral poetry also goes in line with report by Sadiqi (2003).The author stated that, Moroccan women show their creativity and dexterity through their oral poetry. The data also shows that Oromo girls and women's oral poetry helps them to fight against illegitimate acts against them. ...
... Works of (Al-Ghadeer 2006; indicates that, women's oral poetry is cultural poetic production by women that helps them to tell their feeling. Sadiqi (2003) also confirms that, rural women fight marginalization and express their idea by the oral poetry. ...
Article
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This article discusses about the role of Oromo oral poetry in helping girls[1] and women[2]to express their idea in their social life. It also aims to illustrate the talent of girls and women in creating and poeticizing oral poetry to display their opinion on social occurrences such as marriage ceremony, birth rite and at work place. During data collection, ethnographic methods such as observation, focus group discussions and semi-structured interview were employed. I interpreted data collected from the field through these methods. The analyzed data shows that oral poetry has a crucial role to help girls and women to express their idea in pre and post marriage respectively. Before marriage, it helps girls to display their feeling, thought and emotion concerning their future life and their friend’s social life. By using oral poetry, they advise their friends and show their devotion for each other. In post marriage, through oral poetry, women pray Waaqaa (Oromo God) for a woman who unable to bear child. The paper concludes that, oral poetry helps girls and women to express their opinion in every aspect of their life such as marriage, spiritual, and reproduction issues. Therefore, it helps them to make their voice heard in the community and enhances their creativity.[1] Is durba in Oromo and are unmarried virgin girl.[2] Is dubartii in Oromo and are married women.
... One possible explanation is that both males and females tend to codeswitch to Hebrew in the same degree. This finding partially contradicts Sadiqi (2003) who claims that some women use the language for self-affirmation, prestige, and proof of identity. Conversely, Henkin-Roitfarb (2011) clarified that males tend to switch to Hebrew more extensively than females, especially those from the Druze Minority. ...
Article
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This study aims at shedding the light on the factors lying behind switching to Hebrew, represented with age, gender, work history and place of residence the phenomenon of code-switching between Hebrew-Arabic among Israeli Arab students at the Arab AmericanUniversity in Palestine. It also studies how code-switching may affect the Palestinian identity of those students. The sample of this study is twofold. The first was conducted quantitatively through randomly selecting 70 Israeli Arabs to answer an 18-itemquestionnaire. The findings were statistically analysed using SSPS, showing the frequencies, values, means and standard deviation which were analysed using content analysis. Also, the reliability of the paper was tested using the Cronbach Alpha formula ofwhich the reliability coefficient was accepted and satisfied at (0.70). The researcher also conducted a qualitative approach through interviewing six students, analysed using conversational discourse analysis. The study revealsthat both age and place of residence were significantly different and affected the choice of Hebrew. Keywords: Code-switching, identity, Israeli Arabs
... Even the words used to describe females pivot on marriage. Females are girls until they marry, and then women (Sadiqi 2003;Singerman 2007). Adult roles, including engaging in sex, childbearing, and independent living are essentially exclusively reserved for married individuals (El Feki 2013;Hoodfar 1997;Singerman and Ibrahim 2003). ...
Article
Marriage is the single most important economic transaction and social transition in the lives of young people. Yet little is known about the economics of marriage in much of the developing world. This paper examines the economics of marriage in North Africa, where asymmetric rights in marriage create incentives for extensive upfront bargaining and detailed marriage contracts. A description of the existing literature on the economics of marriage in North Africa demonstrates the scant and fragmentary nature of both theory and empirical work. Drawing on economic theories of the marriage market and game-theoretic approaches to bargaining, this paper proposes a unifying framework for understanding the economics of marriage in North Africa.
... The key point for us, then, is that the bipolarity of classic gender distinctions must be reassessed for hidden stereotypes, ideologies, and assumptions (Hughes 1992; see also Philips, Steele, and Tanz 1987). As pointed out by Cameron and Coates (1988), "women are not a homogeneous group, they do not always and everywhere behave in similar ways and their behaviour cannot be explained in global, undifferentiated terms" (23; see also Mills 2003Mills , 2012Sadiqi 2003). In other words, the concepts sociolinguists, cognitivists, etc. have been working with -"women's" and "men's" language, "powerful" and "powerless" speech -"are too rigid to capture the subtle complexity of what is going on in talk" (Cameron 1992, 24). ...
Article
The debate about whether the sexes communicate and behave differently continues. The stereotype that women are not funny or that their language or behavior is more ‘ladylike’ is very widespread and has been current for decades, if not centuries. Gender differences in politeness and humor were also frequently reported by early anthropologists, sociolinguists, and cognitivists, but many modern linguists are far from convinced by such findings. Examining multimodal communication, a development phase within many fields, may help us find evidence to support or undermine a sociocognitive hypothesis such as women are more polite or are naturally less funny than men. Using a corpus of political cartoons, this study identifies whether there are gender differences in the use of taboo language and humor, putting special emphasis on impolite metaphor and metonymy. The results of this research show no differences between male and female cartoonists in the use of taboo or impolite metaphors and metonymies. Rather, individual variations are reported. This analysis, then, offers a new window on an age-old question about how men and women think, communicate, and behave.
... and Byrnes (1994), among others, assert that gender bias is omnipresent sneaking into and pervading all the systems of patriarchal societies. Despite the long-lasting journey of a stream of research geared to fight and combat patriarchy and its ramifications (Sadiqi, 2003(Sadiqi, , 2008Benattabou, 2020Benattabou, , 2021, it seems that the issue continues to persist representing strong resistance, and constituting a stumbling block for the on-going development of women in almost all social contexts. ...
Article
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The aim of the present study is to investigate some biased teaching and learning practices in the classroom context. Special focus geared to the analysis of both male and female classroom interactions along with an examination of teachers’ unconscious bias either in their practices with their students and/or in their choice and use of some teaching materials exploited as topics for class discussion or for evaluation. A three sections’ survey administered to second Baccalaureate students studying EFL in Meknes to serve as a data collection tool for this study. The findings crop up from a quantitative analysis of the data seem to align with prior research in this area substantiating the argument that female language learners are found to be at a great disadvantage. They denied the right to take their learning share of the classroom talk; they not been granted equal time and attention like boys, and they have been excluded far more often from their appealing topics. The paper ends up with a conclusion along with some practical recommendations to help combat this educational mishap. Without any awareness regarding the prevalence and the common overuse of these imbalanced practices, female language learners in particular will continue to be subject to a number of learning barriers, which may hinder them from bringing their potentials into fullness.
... Arabic is a Semitic language with a very high "gender loading" (Guiora, 1983), a fact that runs against Sadiqi's (2003aSadiqi's ( , 2003bSadiqi's ( , 2006 ill-founded claim that Arabic is "androcentric". Its gender system is said to hark back to Proto-Semitic and to have probably evolved from a more complex Proto-Afro-asiatic system, where grammatical gender may have been part of a broader nominal class system (Hämeen-Anttila, 2000). ...
Article
In this paper, we analyze a large-scale corpus of Arab cartoons to measure the correspondence between grammatical gender in Arabic and personified gender in images. The results show that the effect is very strong for males (a near-perfect relationship between the two, grammatical and visual depiction), but the reverse is the case for females (the grammatical description is almost the opposite in perceived meaning of the graphical depiction). It can be a substantive cartoon effect. That is, there is more ambiguity in images depicting females due to some implicit cultural effect (i.e., males/gendered maleness dominates even in the text in ‘male-centric’ cultures). We look at the implications of this androcentric behavior for understanding the complex set of relationships linking language, thought, and culture. Such research will aid both gender studies and cognition scholarship based on multimodal stimuli.
... Si atendemos al género de los informantes, en palabras de Sadiqi (2003), el género en la narración adquiere significado. Para Sirhan (2014), referido a las historias de vida entre los palestinos expone: "there are notable differences in the personal narratives of woman and those of men, not only in style but also in content and form" (p. ...
Article
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Este artículo tiene como objetivo presentar un estudio sobre la presencia de la mujer y del personaje femenino en cuentos palestino-jordanos de tradición oral. Para ello, partimos de la investigación etnográfica realizada por Asensio (2015) y el corpus de cuentos por esta recopilados. Así, mostraremos, por un lado, el papel que ocupa la mujer dentro del marco de la narración oral como depositaria activa de dicha tradición siguiendo la terminología de Sydow (1965) y, por el otro, ofreceremos un estudio sobre el personaje femenino teniendo en cuenta el corpus mencionado. Estos datos servirán para dar a conocer nuevos contextos literarios para la construcción de un canon literario de LIJ intercultural, etnopluricultural y coeducativo para docentes de Educación Infantil y Primaria.
... Holmes (1995) suggests that women's speech is more polite than men's with a degree of reservation, and they are more conservative than men, Sadiqi (2003). Holmes claims that women's performance in language tests is better than men's in terms of "fluency, vocabulary, sentence complexity, listening comprehension, and speaking", cites in Chambers (1992). ...
Article
This paper investigates the differences in language use across gender. This current paper accounts for this verity of use within several linguistic features. On the one hand, prestige and conformity are analyzed to determine how the two genders differ according to these two aspects. On the other hand, linguistic features: lexicon, sound production "phonology", were discussed in the light of the difference across gender. The aim was to state explanations of the existence of these differences. The outcomes of this analytical and descriptive research showed that men and women use language differently.
... ✓ The work follows in the footsteps of most studies dealing with the issue of gender stereotyping which are reported to focus exclusively on western communities (Sadiqi and Leiden, 2003). Analysing gender within local, non-western, or crosscultural settings can be a more rewarding challenge. ...
Book
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This book is situated within the framework of media & communication research and gender studies. It intends to measure the extent to which modern western TV adverts go beyond the traditional and stereotyped depiction of the sexes and to identify the messages they send to women and men about their gender roles and identities. Equally important, the research aims at examining how such potential sexism is mediated linguistically and non-linguistically and whether gender stereotypes lie primarily in the verbal or non-verbal components of TV commercials. To answer these research questions, a corpus of ten TV ads was content analysed along eight non-verbal variables and three verbal ones. The findings revealed that the selected TV advertisements alternate between exhibiting traces of a traditional and sexist portrayal of the sexes and reflecting instances of a more equitable representation of women and men in TV advertising.
... Jiogo Ngaufack's (2013) analysis of Cameroonian mass media also pointed to a movement towards the empowerment of women as political leaders in the country. In written media texts, women in politics were represented positively as effective leaders and as the hope for Africa's political change; this contrasted with their male counterparts who were portrayed as uncaring and dictatorial.There is a limited yet growing literature on gender, language and leadership in the Middle East (e.g.Baxter and Al-A'ali 2014;Metcalfe 2007;Sadiqi 2003). In Baxter and Al-A'ali's (2014) analyses of how a Middle Eastern (ME) woman and a Western European (WE) woman index leadership in management meetings in largely maledominated companies, they found that both women performed the 'unmarked' ...
Chapter
This chapter begins by mapping the theoretical developments in the field of language and gender onto empirical workplace studies, with an emphasis on social-constructionist perspectives, indexicality, and gendered discourses. Next, we discuss the double bind and intersectionality in empirical studies, and provide an overview of work emerging from Asia, Africa, and the Middle East. Current research methods and the types of linguistic data examined are then reviewed. Lastly, we recommend raising awareness of stereotypes in the workplace through initiatives including training and consultancy, alongside other interventions, before emphasizing the need for global coverage in the field alongside intersectional approaches.
... Therefore, on could conclude that despite the affinities it has with both Middle Eastern feminisms and Western feminisms, Moroccan feminism remains different from both of them because of its historical and socio-cultural backgrounds and contexts. So to speak, unlike Western feminisms, Moroccan feminism did not grow up of a militant feminist movement, and unlike Middle Eastern feminisms, Moroccan feminism did not emerge out of nationalism (Sadiqi, 2003). Regardless of its origins and specificities, Moroccan women"s movement has managed to secure a number of rights for Moroccan women through instigating reforms and changes. ...
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Before the constitutional reforms of 2011 in Morocco, women’s movement in Morocco has - in many cases - stepped over the assumed democratically elected institutions and resorted directly to the king, to instigate reforms and change laws to attain its objectives. This has resulted in the reinforcement of the existing system of government and contributed to trivializing activism in Morocco. The 2011 political atmosphere and constitutional reforms have offered a momentum for women’s movement to thrive and reemerge as a powerful actor with more rights and significant roles in the political arena. In this regard, this paper aims to explain how women’s movement organization have become very efficient in actions namely after the new progressive provisions of the 2011 constitution. To achieve this, the paper uses a comparative approach to women’s movement activism in Morocco before and after 2011 constitutional reforms. It makes use of my doctorate research findings (2012) on women’s movement in Morocco, and on following the movement’s mobilizations during and after Arab spring on the ground and through media.
... Rather than identifying gender as stable, stand-alone, and dichotomous, the constructionist view conceptualizes gender as under constant construction, a series of practices that interplay with different contextual variables, such as age, culture, and situational context (Eckert and McConnell-Ginet, 1992;Sadiqi, 2003;Cameron, 1998). The notion of 'community of practice', as a constructionist approach, was initially put forward by Lave and Wenger (1991) as a social theory of learning, before being broadened in scope by Eckert and McConnell-Ginet (1992) in order for it to apply to all sorts of common interest groupings (e.g., a workplace, a sports team, a neighbourhood playgroup, etc.) (see Eckert, 2006). ...
Conference Paper
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Although the literature on group gender composition in the classroom derives from a variety of research disciplines, including sociolinguistics and educational psychology, little attention has been paid to approaching this contextual factor pragmatically. This study, therefore, makes use of Brown and Levinson's (1987) and Culpeper's (1996) pragmatic theories of (im)politeness to investigate the extent to which group gender composition conditions (male-only (MO), female-only (FO), and evenly-mixed (MIX) groups) and communication modalities (face-to-face and online communication) influence undergraduates' linguistic choices in the Tunisian context. Twenty-four participants were divided into six groups of four participants each. Half of these groups met face-to-face, whereas the other half got in touch using Hipchat as a text-based online chat utility. Each group was assigned a problem-solving task on which they had to reach a consensus, with English as the communication medium. Afterwards, each participant was invited to rate their satisfaction with the group discussion process on a 7-point Likert scale. The findings reveal that gender composition, across face-to-face and online modes of communication, affected the participants' linguistic choices. FO groups were the most supportive and polite, followed by MIX and MO groups. Contrary to our expectations, both genders proved to be less impolite and confrontational online than in face-to-face encounters. They also showed satisfaction with the overall discussion process, regardless of the communication modality and the gender composition of the group to which they had been assigned. The significance of the results lies in informing the teachers of the modes of communication and group gender composition conditions that are more likely to enhance their students' learning experience.
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This research brings together insights from philosophy, political theory, and consumer research in conceptualizing and empirically examining the social dimension of negative and positive freedom in consumption. Drawing from ethnographic observations and interviews with Moroccan women regarding their shopping at the supermarket, the findings detail the roles of husbands, store employees, extended family members and friends as constrainer, protector, enabler, facilitator, indulger, and witness. The discussion explains a ‘domino effect’ in such innovative marketplaces, as these market and social actors together enact positive and negative forms of freedom in consumption in ways that co-disrupt social traditions. Implications for business ethics emphasize the need for greater theoretical understanding and practical transparency and accountability regarding the shared, yet disparate responsibilities among businesses and consumers for the changes to social traditions that result in the joint enactment of women’s freedom in consumption.
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Moroccan Darija is the de facto language of Morocco. It came about through the contact between Arabic and the indigenous mother tongue, Tamazight, and is widely considered as a dialect. However, now Moroccan Darija has penetrated many fields which were previously dominated by only Arabic or other languages, usually European languages. It did so not only in its spoken form, but in a written form which lacks uniformity and official support. This gives rise to the question of standardization, whether it is needed or will it change anything. Why Moroccan Darija does not have official support and how Moroccans view their own language. In this thesis I tried to contribute to the debate over the usefulness of Moroccan Darija to Morocco by exploring the people's attitudes toward it–since attitudes determine the degree of the acceptability of the standardization–through a survey as well as through two interviews with two representatives from the two ends of the political spectrum, and an interview with Khalil Mgharfaoui who is one of the linguists who worked for the first Moroccan Darja monolingual dictionary.
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This study is a critical appraisal of official knowledge about: (1) Amazigh ethnic groups in Morocco; (2) the socio-semantic resources for representing them; and (3) the interaction between Amazigh ethnic groups and the dominant Arab group in 33 EFL textbooks which have been developed, approved, and distributed by the Moroccan Ministry of Education, and have been required to be used in every school, public or private from the early 1980s up to the present. Examined though an integrated CDA model which is inspired Van Leeuwen’s (1996) social actor analysis, Scott's (2018) sociology of the (un)marked, and Bank’s (1989) Ethnic Content Integration model, the findings demonstrated that Amazighs have received varying degrees of discursive representation, ranging from suppression, fixation, cataloguing and backgrounding to partial inclusion and fractional participation. The analyzed EFL textbooks were also found to promote an official stance that can be lexicalized in five main discourses about Amazighs. Such a stance, I argue here, is a clear instance of an exclusionary discourse whose impacts, the study recommends, should be well-adjusted by integrating more precise and wide-ranging ethnic knowledge in Moroccan EFL textbooks.
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In an attempt to shed light on the general situation of rural women and girls, this article makes a part of an investigation carried out in a rural area of Morocco. The survey revolves around studying of the situation of rural women and girls in the province of Taounate. It has been built on fieldwork that was accomplished in three villages of the province. The study looks through the reasons why illiteracy is still at its height amongst females in these areas, despite various literacy campaigns conducted in the province; remarkably after the launching of the National Initiative for Human Development (NIHD) on the 18th of May 2005. Actually, there is a multitude of reasons leading to girls’ non-schooling in rural zones. It has been demonstrated that poverty, often declared to be behind this issue, should not be seen the main reason but other factors.
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With the emergence of the “Arab spring” in 2011, men and women in Morocco started to become more aware of the changing nature of the relationship between them. Aspects of gender equality and the negotiation of visibility and power inside and outside the private sphere is strikingly an indication of a massive change in gender relations and social values. Moroccan society appears to be undergoing a difficult transition from tradition to modernity with tension between Islam and feminism in their complex, infinite and fluid definitions and manifestations. Sociologists have coined terms like “crisis of values”, “Bricolage”, “Detraditionalization” to better describe situations of societies that fluctuate between values of the past and the present. In Morocco, where minor revolutionary change happened at the political level, the social arena saw sweeping waves of individualization in contrast to resisting acts of collectivism and conformity. Women are at the heart of this struggle as they are challenging traditional gender roles and compromising established social values in novel, unauthorized, and often shocking ways. Academicians, civil society activists and policy makers are all engaged in a polarized debate about convergence and divergence between tradition and modernity where binary lines are still hazy and uncertain. In this context, a growing tendency, endorsed by the state, and referred to as “third way” Islamic feminism, has appeared to pacify the contention and create forms of conciliation between gender equality and the Islamic teachings. Thus, the “third way” Islamic feminism propagates the possibility of non-contradiction between Islam and international demands of gender equality, and takes part in a discourse that touches upon issues of the local and the “Universal”, the static and the changeable in Sharia, and the socio-religious dimensions of reform. This paper, therefore, tries to investigate the theoretical paradigms, sociological facts and the political strategies of constructing new patterns of gender relations in Morocco. Furthermore, the paper inspects the impact of the Arab uprisings on the trajectories of social change touching on gains and challenges for new configurations of gender equality in the Moroccan society.
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ספר זה הוא כרך ראשון מתוך שניים, אשר אמורים למלא חלל בשדה המקצועי של חינוך וטיפול בילדים ובמתבגרים במצבי סיכון בישראל. מטרתנו לספק לאנשי המקצוע בישראל, הן בשדה והן באקדמיה, כמו גם לסטודנטים המכשירים את עצמם לקראת השתלבות בעבודה עם נוער במצבי סיכון, לקט נבחר של חומר עדכני שברובו מתבסס על מחקר שיטתי ואמפירי.
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The article aims to provide an insight into how ‘ordinary’ Muslims look for workable solutions to family and marital disputes in line with their cultural and religious values. More specifically, it looks into the informal processes of reconciliation ( sulh ) with the assistance of imams of local mosques, primarily among Muslims with Moroccan roots in the Netherlands. Relevant questions that are addressed are: What types of disputes are settled within the (religious) community? Who are the authorities involved? How do they obtain, claim or create authority? Why do Muslim women and men choose these processes over formal litigation? What do they hope to gain from these processes? And what kind of solutions are offered to disputants?
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Islamic legal discourse is mainly developed by men, particularly in communities that many assume they are male-dominated. The study seeks to explore this assumption to unravel whether early legal discourse is biased against women in the first place or today’s translators, for some reasons, are influenced by modern societal norms. We will explore whether the translations of some legal rulings containing linguistic gender forms or introduced by modal auxiliaries, which function as performative verbs of action, are gender-sensitive. The paper first investigates linguistic gender forms to probe their functions in either equal/unequal representation of women in religious legal language by means of a corpus-based quantitative analysis. To achieve a homogeneous and representative design of the data, we focused on two main reliable sources of legal discourse in Islam: The Glorious Qur’an and the Prophet’s Traditions (Hadith) and two translations of both the Qur’an and Hadith by men and women. The chosen Hadith Collection is legally oriented. Using corpus linguistics techniques helped us to identify how men and women are addressed and whether women are more subjected to legal constraints than men by examining the linguistic gender forms and the behavior of the performative modal verbs in early legal texts.
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Previous research on /s/ weakening in Spanish has consistently aligned with Labovian principles: women prefer the prestige variant, usually [s], while men favor nonstandard, lenited variants. However, in Salvadoran Spanish—a dialect that weakens /s/ across syllable positions and shows allophonic variation beyond the tripartite paradigm of [s]/[h]/[∅]—gender-based lenition patterns contradict this generalization. This study examines the production of phonological /s/ by 72 Salvadorans balanced for region, urbanicity, age, and gender who participated in sociolinguistic interviews in El Salvador in 2015. We find that women not only lenite /s/ at higher rates than men overall, but also produce significantly more of the variants that carry the most local stigma. We further find that, counterintuitively, women are significantly more likely than men to lenite /s/ in utterance- and word-initial prosodic positions, which are stronger and more perceptually salient than medial and final tokens. We argue that these discrepancies are best understood by taking El Salvador’s unique historical and sociopolitical context into account. Specifically, we propose that a culture of state-sanctioned violence against women and the unprecedented threat of gangs in El Salvador have led to the social segregation and linguistic isolation of women, affording them little access to standard linguistic forms even as globalization, urbanization, industrialization, and migration facilitate a shift toward linguistic standardization.
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The early modern Mediterranean was a space of expansive linguistic mixing, and multilingual discourse was a common response to the exigencies of communication within this context. There is a growing body of scholarship on male multilingualism; however, women have been largely overlooked. This article argues that far from marginalized outsiders, as they were often depicted, women were active participants in the Mediterranean linguistic ecology. They developed communication strategies and techniques to navigate language difference in trade, travel, work, diplomatic, and domestic settings. The numerous and varied spaces that they occupied were not barriers but doorways to their participation in the multilingual Mediterranean.
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Cross-border diasporic philanthropy has been studied over the last couple of decades. Several studies have demonstrated the impact of diaspora groups in Europe supporting their family and community members in their home country through the act of remittances. As diaspora groups often exist in countries with a post-colonial history, countries who do not share such history are rather absent in these studies. The Netherlands and Morocco are examples of such. This study contributes to the literature on cross-border diasporic philanthropy in cross-national context of countries with no colonial past, but with a diaspora present in both societies. Through empirical research, done between 2016 and 2021, the perspectives are summarized and presented of three distinctive groups: the Amazigh diaspora living in the Netherlands, the Amazigh diaspora living in Morocco and the social groups finding themselves on the receiving ends of the philanthropy done by the first two groups. This study presents how both diasporic voluntary groups, both paid and unpaid, are criticizing the other (diaspora voluntary group) together with how post-colonial behavior is experienced by the receiving end. This study reveals both religious and secular motifs within the national and international Moroccan diaspora, stating that religious motifs as more effective than the first. This leads to the main argument answering the question in the title of this article, along with a possible explanation of the existence of this phenomenon and elevation for its solution.
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A well-known form of cross-border philanthropy, remittances, was traditionally done to help modernize migrants’ home-countries in economic and social ways. These acts of giving were, one: faith-based, two: international, and three: done from a secular social context towards an (Islamic) faith-based society. However, over the last two decades, we have seen such acts lead to a still under-examined understanding of cross-border philanthropy. Expanding this understanding through this special issue led to the distinction of three key elements: the fundament of cross-border philanthropy (religious or secular), its influence on the local, regional and global civil society (social geography) and finally the importance of religious norms and values (societal opposites). Each part of this ternary influences the other parts which makes it impossible to examine one without including the other. The introduction of the special issue ‘Cross-Border Philanthropy in the Islamic World: from Europe to Middle East and North Africa (MENA)’ draws a brief preface of the constant ternary connection of which each part is further examined in the articles within this special issue.
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Amazigh women in Morocco have traditionally suffered triple marginalisation: as women, indigenous and rural. The language and geography of the Atlas Mountains where they live have also made it difficult for them to access the most basic educational and health-care resources. That is why Amazigh women are often represented in many studies as ‘illiterate’ and ‘in need of help’. But a careful examination of the history and the daily reality of Amazigh women reveals another side of the Amazigh women’s story that has yet to be told and on which we wish to shed light in this article. We will focus on the agency and resilience of Amazigh women and how they transform their daily reality and vulnerabilities into opportunities that empower them, their families and communities. Through their knowledge and practices, Amazigh women contribute as active agents of civil society, caring not only for the well-being of their own families, but for the development of their community and the legacy of their culture. We provide clear examples of how these women contribute to the local economy and rural development by organising and working in cooperatives dedicated to carpet weaving, argan oil production and arts and crafts. Culture and tradition, reclaimed and preserved by women, emerge as a source of recognition of Amazigh identity, of local community development and of feminist empowerment.
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Convenience technologies have the ability to change the way people do reproductive labor, or labor associated with caregiving and domestic roles, in their households. Reproductive labor is disproportionately performed by women across the globe and underpins capitalism by creating cheap labor. This article investigates how convenience technology challenges and reinforces gender roles and socioeconomic class for urban Moroccans. Although experiences of “convenience” are highly variable, gender and socioeconomic class influence experiences of convenience technologies. Convenience technologies help urban Moroccan women by opening up reproductive labor to men and children but, simultaneously, hurt urban Moroccan women by devaluing their reproductive labor in relation to men's labor. Convenience technologies reinforce socioeconomic class by supporting a household's reputation and validating urban Moroccans' perceptions of themselves as citizens of a developed nation‐state. Besides expressing class, convenience technologies can contribute to a restructuring of women's position within the household. The article analyzes data collected during seventeen months of ethnographic fieldwork in Rabat‐Salé, Morocco, from 2018 to 2019. I conducted fifty‐three semistructured interviews with married middle‐ and lower‐class Moroccans in Moroccan Arabic, as well as extensive informal participant observation. I analyze the gendered and classed politics of reproductive labor in relation to convenience technologies.
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Contemporaries describe the adoption of the Family Code of Morocco in 2004 as Moroccan women’s “velvet revolution”. One of the most advanced family codes of the Arab-Muslim world was adopted as a result of the complex relationship between the Royal power, Islamic traditionalists, secular parties and women’s associations. It has influenced the reform of similar sections of state legislation in other countries in the region. But it has not yet found its reflection in the works of Russian researchers in social history. The article attempts to consider a brief historical retrospective of the law, the main stages of its adoption and modern problems of its implementation in practice, the feminist movement struggle, the counteraction of powerful Islamic forces and traditional society’s overwhelming public opinion, including Moroccan women’s traditionalist convictions. The reformation of the Code under the influence of international legal documents and declarations was made possible by the country’s achievement of a certain level of the socio-economic basis and socio-political relations.
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Bu makale kadın Kur’ân mütercimlerinin Kur’ân’daki ataerkil dil unsurlarını nasıl ele aldıklarını çevirideki iki temel zorluğa odaklanarak araştırmayı ve tartışmayı amaçlamaktadır. İlki, kaynak dil ve erek dil arasındaki cinsiyet uyumu farklılıkları sorunudur. Çünkü Arapça çok cinsiyetli bir dil iken İngilizce böyle olmadığı için birçok dişil isim, zamir ve fiiller İngilizcede görünmez hale gelir ve sonuç olarak, orijinalde (kaynak metinde) oluşturulmuş olan “cinsiyet dengesi” çeviride kaybedilebilir. Karşılaşılan ikinci zorluk ise, birçok feministin de iddia ettiği gibi insanlar için genelleyici bir ad olarak erkek isimler kullanıldığında “kadın”ı “insan” olarak tanımlamanın dışına çıkartan genelleyici eril isim ve zamirlerin kullanılmasıdır. Bu makalede ele alınan dört kadın mütercim bu dil ve çeviriden kaynaklanan problemlere bir yandan “dişil dili” ortaya çıkararak, diğer yandan da baskın erkek düşüncesini tekrar ederek farklı bir şekilde karşılık vermektedir.
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This study bridges CCT and macromarketing perspectives in carrying out an ethnographic study examining how Moroccan women empower themselves in shopping in the supermarket. Our three-year ethnographic study in Casablanca among women and men illuminates the ways in which women develop new capabilities and alter social relations with family members, friends, store employees and customers. In turn, the interplay of women’s competencies, their interactions with men and women, and their socio-demographics of age and social class, together with supermarket characteristics, provide favorable conditions for the women to empower themselves. As women gain confidence to demonstrate their competencies and manifest their desires in leveraging their traditional nurturing roles and taking on tasks previously in the domain of men, they alter their relations with their husband and with the women who exercise control over them. Theoretical contributions contribute to knowledge of the importance of gender and family interactions as they impact the acquisition of key competencies in novel marketspaces through which women empower themselves, and generate further insight into the complex interweaving of market and social systems.
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