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Local perturbations of periodic systems. Chemisorption and point defects by GoGreenGo.

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We present a software package GoGreenGo -- aimed to model local perturbations of periodic systems due to either chemisorption or point defects. The electronic structure of an ideal crystal is obtained by worldwide distributed standard quantum physics/chemistry codes, then processed by various tools performing projection to atomic orbital basis sets. Starting from this, the perturbation is addressed by GoGreenGo with use of the Green's functions formalism, which allows to evaluate its effect on the electronic structure, density matrix and energy of the system. In the present contribution the main accent is made on processes of chemical nature such as chemisorption or doping. We address a general theory and its computational implementation supported by a series of test calculations for benchmark model solids: simple, face-centered and body-centered cubium systems. In addition, more realistic problems of local perturbations in graphene lattice such as lattice substitution, vacancy and "on-top" chemisorption are considered.
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Local perturbations of periodic systems. Chemisorption and point
defects by GoGreenGo.
Ilya V. Popov1, Timofei S. Kushnir1, Andrei L. Tchougréeff1
June 20, 2021
1 - A.N. Frumkin Institute of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry RAS, Moscow, Russia
Abstract
We present a software package GoGreenGo – an overlay aimed to model local perturbations of
periodic systems due to either chemisorption or point defects. The electronic structure of an ideal crystal
is obtained by worldwide distributed standard quantum physics/chemistry codes, then processed by
various tools performing projection to atomic orbital basis sets. Starting from this, the perturbation is
addressed by GoGreenGo with use of the Green’s functions formalism, which allows to evaluate its
effect on the electronic structure, density matrix and energy of the system. In the present contribution
the main accent is made on processes of chemical nature such as chemisorption or doping. We address
a general theory and its computational implementation supported by a series of test calculations for
benchmark model solids: simple, face-centered and body-centered cubium systems. In addition, more
realistic problems of local perturbations in graphene lattice such as lattice substitution, vacancy and
"on-top" chemisorption are considered.
Keywords: Point defects in crystals, electronic structure, chemisorption, substitutional defects, Green’s
functions
1
Point defects in crystals form a wide class of processes being of great importance in solid state chemistry.
Only by considering surface chemistry one can propose a numerous examples - from formation of isolated
surface defects to a single particle chemisorption and elementary reactions on catalysts’ surfaces. Theoret-
ical investigation of these processes, aiming to understand their mechanisms from the electronic structure
perspective, presents one of many important branches of solid state chemistry deserving close attention. In
this work we present a new software package GoGreenGo specifically designed to perform computation-
ally effective quantum chemical calculations of local processes in solids and to provide results in "chemical"
terms.
2
Introduction
A great number of elementary processes of significant importance in solid state chemistry are local in nature
[1], although they take place in a "matrix" of crystal (periodic) system. Currently, local processes/effects
in solids are addressed by using standard computational chemistry codes pushing towards the limits of their
applicability with a considerable loss of efficiency. Indeed, applying “molecular” codes to study a point
feature in a crystal requires tricky setting up of boundary conditions in the cluster models of eventually
infinite systems [2]. Any way, one has to consider rather large clusters to compensate boundary effects. At
the same time, the required embedding procedures are sometimes awkward and not unique, particularly in
the case of clusters cut from ionic crystals or metals. A comprehensive review of the related problems is
given in [3].
An alternative and nowadays predominant approach is to accommodate periodic wave function [4] or
PAW-DFT [5] based methods to study local effects. In order to do so, one needs to increase the size of the
unit cell to ensure correct proportion of the point defects and to minimize lateral interactions between them
(see, for example, Refs. [6, 7] and references therein). The unit cell enlargement increases the computational
costs drastically with the scaling up to ON3, where Nis the “size” of the unit cell. The entire study
consists of full calculations of the original (ideal) periodic system and repeating them for as well periodic
models which include intrinsically local features. The effect of the local perturbations is then derived by
comparing results of these calculations.
Apparently, the state of the locally perturbed crystal cannot differ too much from that of the ideal one.
The mentioned standard approaches do not take this fact into account, although it seems to be profitable
to avoid repetitive recalculations from the scratch and to make a better use of the eventually more precise
information about the electronic structure of the ideal crystal. Based on this idea, further embedding schemes
had been developed (for example Refs. [8, 9, 10]) which employ the information about the ideal crystal for
analysis of the defect ones. Also, these schemes are not free from numerous ad hoc assumptions leading to
an uncontrollable loss of precision and predictive capacity.
Remarkably, a detailed theory of local perturbations of periodic systems using the Green’s function (GF)
formalism had been developed yet in 60-ies [11, 12, 13, 14] (based on an earlier work [15]) and was applied
to chemisorption in numerous works [16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27]. The most characteristic
feature of this approach is that starting from a solution of the ideal periodic problem and from its local
perturbation, one obtains the answer as a correction to the unperturbed solution. By this, (i) the highly
inefficient step of solving the perturbed problem from the scratch is avoided and (ii) the result is a pure
effect of the perturbation. The theory is highly pedagogically explained in Ref. [28], where it is used to
provide pictorial description of the electronic structure perturbations occurring throughout chemisorption.
Otherwise more mathematical, but still suitable for a chemistry theory student exposition of the required
apparatus is given in Ref. [29].
Being actively used in 70-ies to study local defects in rather simple model solids, the GF theory was prac-
tically abandoned later and replaced by supercell periodic and finite clusters calculations [30]. Undeservedly
forgotten, this approach has been getting much less attention since then, especially in the community of
solid state chemistry. 1Although, it suits better for discussing chemical problems, it has never enjoyed any
generalization to more realistic systems described by rigorously defined Hamiltonians. As well, there is no
reported software implementing the general theory, which would be suitable for a broad range of solid state
and surface chemistry problems (with different kinds of defects in crystals and/or chemisorption). The pur-
pose of the present work and of the proposed GoGreenGo software package is to incorporate the mentioned
approach into a context of modern theoretical methodology used in solid state chemistry. Since we mainly
focus on the chemical interpretation of electronic structure calculations (described in “chemical” terms such
as atomic charges or bond orders), it is implemented for basis of local atomic orbitals.
The paper is organized as follows. In the Theory and Implementation Sections we sketch the generalized
theory and implementation details of the programs included in the GoGreenGo package. After that
we provide test results for various benchmarks by considering substitutional and interstitial defects in the
model cubic lattices. Finally, GoGreenGo package is applied to tackle more realistic problems devoted to
1Relatively modern application of GFs to the problem of point defects in crystals was developed in the framework of Korringa-
Kohn-Rostoker method (KKR-GF) [31], which is based on ideas of multiple-scattering theory and, consequently, relies on rather
different formulation of the GF theory compared to the one used in above cited references and in the present paper (see below).
3
graphene. One can find more detailed specifications of the GoGreenGo by following the link [32]. The
Supporting Material collects analytical results used for the testing.
Theory Sketch
Structure of the electronic problem
Theoretical basis of the proposed software development is the self-consistent perturbation theory of many-
electron systems [33]. It starts from representing the electronic structure either by a single Slater determinant
formed by one-electron (spin-)orbitals for the wave function based methods (as exemplified by e.g. [4, 34,
35]) or by one-electron density in the DFT context. In the latter case one-electron orbitals reappear as
Kohn-Sham ones, so that either wave-function or (Kohn-Sham) DFT procedures can be represented as an
iterative eigenvalue-eigenvector problem with some generalized density dependent Fockian matrix F[P]in
the functional space spanned either by exclusively atomic states or by an assembly of plane waves and atomic
local states augmenting (PAW) the former:
(εIF[P]) |λi= 0.(1)
Solutions of eq. (1) are the eigenvalue-eigenvector pairs ελ,|λinumbered by assemblies of quantum numbers
λand satisfying the well known relations:
F[P]|λi=ελ|λi.(2)
The density Pis determined by the occupied eigenvectors |λiwhose eigenvalues are subject to the condition
ελεF, where εFis the Fermi energy selected so that the number of occupied one-electron states equals to
that of electrons (Fermi statistics). The eigenvalue-eigenvector problems eqs. (1), (2) are sequentially solved
until the convergence for Pis achieved.
Green’s function’s representation
The eigenvalue-eigenvector problem can be alternatively formulated in terms of the quantity2:
G(z)=(zIF)1,(3)
the famous Green’s function of a complex argument z. Since the Fockian F(hereinafter, we omit its P
dependence for brevity) is a Hermitian operator, its eigenvalues ελare always real. Thus, for an arbitrary
complex zunequal to any of ελthe matrix (zIF)is nondegenerate and can be inverted producing a z-
dependent quantity eq. (3). Its closest relation to the eigenvalue-eigenvector problem stems from the spectral
representation:
G(z) = X
λ
|λihλ|
zελ
,(4)
which immediately derives from the expressions for the identity matrix and the Fockian in the basis of its
eigenvectors:
I=X
λ|λihλ|;F=X
λ
ελ|λihλ|.
As soon as the GF is known in the basis of the eigenvalues of F, where it is diagonal, it is known in whatever
basis. E.g. in the basis of local atomic spin-orbitals |ai,|bi, ... a Greenian matrix is formed by the elements
Gab (z) = X
λ
ha|λihλ|bi
zελ
,(5)
where ha|λiare expansion coefficients of the eigenvector |λiover atomic basis.3
2Numerous sources are available, in the computational chemistry context Refs. [28, 29] can be recommended.
3The bra-ket notation is used (see, e.g. Ref. [36]).
4
Being defined as a function of complex variable, GF appears in the expressions for the physical quantities
under the integral over the real axis only. Since GF has a lot of poles on the real axis, it should be considered
there as a distribution (or a generalized function). Such distribution is defined as a limit :
G(ε) = lim
ν0+
G(ε+),(6)
where zis set to be ε+with real εand ν. As described in Appendix A, evaluation of the limit entering
the later equation leads to the following GF on the real axis
G(ε) = <G(ε) + i=G(ε),
<G(ε) = X
λ|λihλ|P1
εελ,(7)
=G(ε) = πX
λ|λihλ|δ(εελ),
where δ(ε)is the Dirac δ-”function” and Pindicates that the integral of a function f(ε), multiplied by
(εελ)1, with respect to εmust be understood as the Cauchy principal value. In terms of the GF of a
real argument the general expression for the density operator (eq. (29) of Appendix A) takes the form:
P=π1ˆεF
−∞ =G(ε)dε. (8)
Perturbations in terms of Green’s function
The GF formalism as sketched in the previous Subsection does not add too much to the usual treatment
of the eigenvalue-eigenvector problem. Its power manifests itself when the perturbations are addressed. For
the GF of the Fockian F, being a sum of an unperturbed one F(0) and a perturbation F0:
F=F(0) +F0,
the Dyson equation
G(z) = G(0) (z) + G(0) (z)F0G(z)(9)
holds [37]. Being solved for G(z), it gives:
G(z) = IG(0) (z)F01
G(0) (z),(10)
which generates the perturbation series if one expands the inverse matrix in the geometric series:
IG(0) (z)F01=I+G(0) (z)F0+G(0) (z)F0G(0) (z)F0+...
G(z) = G(0) (z) + G(0) (z)F0G(0) (z) + G(0) (z)F0G(0) (z)F0G(0) (z) + ...
Thus, the general perturbative treatment rewrites in terms of the Green’s functions. Formally, in the case of
a point defect in an infinite crystal the solution of the Dyson equation would require inversion of a matrix of
infinite dimension. However, switching to a local atomic orbital representation allows to reduce the problem
to a finite one, since in this case a point (local) perturbation acts on a relatively low-dimensional subspace
(P) of the entire space of one-electronic states. In GoGreenGo we employ this possibility and consider the
perturbation matrices of a form:
F0=F0
P P 0
0 0 =V0
0 0 .(11)
The Greenian matrix is then split in blocks:
5
G(0) = G(0)
P P G(0)
P Q
G(0)
QP G(0)
QQ !,(12)
where Qrefers to the orthogonal complement of the subspace P(argument zis omitted for brevity). Intro-
ducing a dim P×dim Pmatrix M:4
M=VIPP G(0)
P P V1,(13)
and following the procedure given in Appendix B, one obtains the corrections to the matrix blocks:
GP P G(0)
P P =G(0)
P P MG(0)
P P ,
GQQ G(0)
QQ =G(0)
QP MG(0)
P Q,(14)
GP Q G(0)
P Q =G(0)
P P MG(0)
P Q ,GQP G(0)
QP =G(0)
QP MG(0)
P P ,
which, respectively, express the effect of the perturbation on the Green’s function in the subspace Pitself,
in the subspace where the perturbation is absent (Q) and on the coupling between the perturbed and
unperturbed subspaces. Density matrix elements of the perturbed system are calculated with eq. (8) once
the Dyson equation is solved. If one takes into account the density dependence of the Fockian, the calculated
density serves as an input for a next step of iterative solution. This setting is referred below as the self-
consistent one.
Specific of the problems at hand
So far reviewed greenistic representation of the eigenvalue-eigenvector problem is fairly general. Here, we
apply it to the crystal point defects of different kinds. We consider two types of such defects: (i) point-wise
perturbation of the crystalline matrix itself – the lattice substitution and the vacancy; and (ii) interaction of
the crystal with an extra “particle” – dubbed in different contexts as an interstitial defect or an adsorbate. In
either case we shall employ the generic term defect. The unperturbed solution described by GF G(0) of the
ideal crystal (and of the finite adsorbate in the case (ii)) is assumed to be known. Below we briefly review
the specific of the greeninstic formalism as applied to infinite periodic systems with point defects.
Green’s functions of crystals
When it comes to solids, the solution of the eigenvalue-eigenvector problem has specifics described in hand-
books on solid state physics and chemistry [38] (see chapters devoted to tight binding approximation). Due
to translation invariance of an ideal infinite crystal, its Fockian accepts the block-diagonal form in the basis
of the Bloch sums:
|aki=1
KX
r
exp (ikr)|ari
of Aatomic states. Here Ais the number of atomic spin-orbitals a= 1÷A,rstands for a unit cell index and
Kis the number of k-points involved in the calculation.5The blocks are numbered by the wave vectors kfrom
the first Brillouin zone and respective eigenvalues form Afunctions εαk of k(α= 1 ÷A) - (electronic) bands
with the eigenvector expansion coefficients forming k-dependent A×Amatrices with elements hαk |aki. In
this context, the generalized quantum number λ, labeling the eigenvalues of the Fockian, splits in the pair of
the wave vector kand the band index α:λ= (α, k). Thus, the GF of the ideal crystal with Abands reads:
G(z) = X
αk
|αkihαk|
zεαk
.(15)
It is as well block-diagonal with A×Ablocks numbered by k. A remarkable feature of the “theoretical” GF
of the crystal is that the poles coalesce in (quasi-) continuous segments being the allowed energy bands of
4sometimes called a mass operator.
5It is equal to the number of unit cells used in a periodic model of the infinite crystal [39].
6
electrons (see [38]). Considering the GF on the real axis according to eq. (7) produces the electronic density
of states (DOS):
DOS (ε) = 1
πKSp=G(ε) = X
αk
δ(εεαk),(16)
familiar to the workers of the field.
Applying the same trick to the diagonal elements of the Greenian matrix eq. (5) in the basis of local
atomic orbitals
Gaa (z) = X
αk
hak |αkihαk |aki
zεαk
,
we arrive to
DOSa(ε) = 1
πK=Gaa (ε) = X
αk hak |αkihαk |akiδ(εεαk )
– the projection of the DOS upon the atomic state a, as well, familiar from numerous packages (e.g. lobster
[40] or wannier90 [41]) performing analysis of numerical data derived from PAW-DFT or whatever computer
experiments on solids (see e.g. [40, 42]). Treating similarly off-diagonal elements:
Gar,br0(z) = X
αk
hak |αkihαk |bkiexp (ik (rr0))
zεαk
,
yields:
1
πK=Gar,br0(ε) = X
αk <[hak |αkihαk |bkiexp (ik (rr0))] δ(εεαk )(17)
which is a close relative of the crystal orbital overlap and crystal orbital Hamilton populations (respectively,
COOP and COHP [43]) as well widely available in the solid state packages. In these expressions |ari
corresponds to the AO ain the unit cell r, so, the latter formula allows to calculate the density matrix
element for the pair of orbitals from different unit cells.
Green’s functions of a finite system
The definition of the GF and all related quantities in the case of the finite system remains the same as
sketched in the Subsection devoted to the GF representation of eigenstates problem. The Greenian matrix
element has a general form eq. (5), which for the real values of argument reduces to:
Gab (ε) = X
λha|λihλ|bi
εελha|λihλ|biδ(εελ),(18)
where the summation goes over discrete levels λ. The imaginary part of the GF consists of discrete signals
located at energies ελand proportional to the Dirac’s δ-”function”. The real part is a continuous function
except simple poles at ε=ελ.
In the general case it is not possible to find an analytical solution for the perturbed GF, therefore one has
to treat the initial Greenian matrix of the finite system numerically. Such treatment requires to approximate
the δ-function in eq. (18) by a Lorentzian of a (small) width νas explained in Appendix A. Theoretically,
such approximation approaches genuine result in the limit ν0. In practical calculations the value of this
parameter has to be finite. It is advised to set νequal to the step of the energy grid and to choose the latter
small enough to guarantee required accuracy.
Implementation and Computational Details
General construction
The programmatic implementation of the theory described in the Theory Section is provided by GoGreenGo
package being a set of procedures written in fortran 2010 using the system of high-level objects provided
7
by the cartesius_fort library [44]. The component procedures exchange data through intermediate files
packed in the hdf5 archive [45]. The flow-chart illustrating the relations between different programs of the
package and the paths of data transfer between them is shown on the Fig.1. Specifically,
program get_green evaluates Greenian matrix elements for a given set of local atomic orbitals from
the band structure of the ideal crystal. The program can use eigenvalues derived by VASP [46], ABINIT
[47]. The projections of eigenvectors produced by these packages to the basis of local orbitals can be
obtained by the lobster software [40] whose output format is compatible with get_green. As well
ΘΦ (TetaPhi) [48] produces eigenvalues-eigenvectors in the format readable by GoGreenGo. This
combination allows to extract Greenian matrix of the pure solid in an atomic basis from the most
popular plane wave DFT codes and use it for impurity calculations. One can use the band structure
of the solid from any other source, as well, transforming it to the required format. Imaginary parts of
Gab are calculated in get_green for each point of the energy grid by applying tetrahedron algorithm
[49] of integration over the Brillouin zone. Since the real parts of GF elements are related with the
imaginary parts by the Kramers-Kronig relations [51] they are obtained numerically from the latter as
described in Ref. [52]. The user has to define the interval of the energy, where the Greenian matrix has
to be calculated, and the step of the energy grid. In addition, there is an option to obtain elements of
the Greenian matrix between different unit cells rand r0as in eq.(17) with no calculations on extended
unit cells.
hgen calculates the crystal-defect hopping operator and an array of two-electron Coulomb integrals
(required for the self-consistent setting). Using hgen is not mandatory: one can also use any exter-
nally prepared hopping operator and Coulomb integrals in the required format. hgen calculates the
interaction within a semi-empirical NDDO approximation including different parameterizations such
as MNDO [53], AM1 [54] and PM3 [55] which have been recently shown to be compatible with the
PAW-DFT setting [56]. Other options of calculating atomic integrals will be added in the future re-
leases. To run the hgen utility one has to provide geometries of the defect and crystal, define which
atoms interact (by giving a cut-off distance or listing them explicitly) and type of the AOs basis set to
be used (single STO, MAP [57], Bunge [58], Koga [59] are available so far). Optionally, one can also
change default values of semi-empirical hopping parameters in order to parameterize the Hamiltonian
for one’s needs.
program dyson reads unperturbed Greenian matrix of the ideal crystal (which comes from get_green),
that of a defect (also comes from get_green or can be calculated directly in dyson if one provides
molecular orbital energies and MO LCAO coefficients), initial perturbation operator and a table of
two-electronic integrals, if the self-consistent version is used. The program finds a solution of the
Dyson equation and returns perturbed Greenian matrix together with the new density matrix and
energy correction caused by perturbation. In the case of the self-consistent setting it performs iterative
solution of the Dyson’s equation taking into account an adjustment of the self-energy at each step. In
this case the user has to specify a convergence threshold. The damping ensuring better convergence is
supported and can be used if necessary.
program green_opt performs either gradient or simplex optimization of the defect position and
(internal) geometry. hgen can be used to generate perturbation matrix on each step. In hgen no
gradients are available so far, so it can only be used for the simplex optimization. Gradients will be
added to hgen in future versions.
Some specific features
Self-consistent perturbation theory
As mentioned in the Theory Section, the perturbation of a one-electron part of the Fockian produces a
correction to the density matrix of the same order as the perturbation itself. Then, due to the mean field
treatment of the electron-electron interaction either in the wave-function or DFT setting, the corresponding
Fockian receives further corrections proportional to those of the density matrix elements. They form so called
8
Figure 1: Flow-chart of the GoGreenGo package.
“dressing” which needs to be added to the original one-electron (“bare”) perturbation. The solution of the
resulting Dyson equation yields further changes of density matrix so that one has to repeat the calculation
until the convergence is reached. This option is implemented in the GoGreenGo package.
In metals the effect of perturbation decays with the distance from the defect as R2κwith some κ > 0
dependent on the from of the Fermi surface and dimensionality of the crystal structure (κis typically higher
for higher dimension) [27].6This allows one to restrict the range of the action of the self-consistent (dressed)
perturbation by a finite number of unit cells close to the defect. Of course, the corrections to the two-electron
part of the Fockian involve additional orbitals, and the dimension of the subspace Phas to be increased.
The amount of this augmentation is system dependent and it is advised to look for an optimal size by a
series of convergence tests.
Position of the Fermi level
Another important aspect is the position of the Fermi level in the perturbed system. In general, it does
not remain constant although changes by a small value. The general reason is that the perturbed GF G(ε)
differs from unperturbed one G(0) (ε)and thus the integral of SpG(ε)from −∞ up to εFof the unperturbed
crystal not necessarily yields the same number of electrons as does the integration of SpG(0) (z). The defect
of electron’s number nis to be eliminated by shifting the Fermi energy by δεF. As it is explained in
Appendix C the value of δεFis determined by the value of n
/Kand it, evidently, becomes infinitesimally
small for the limit K→ ∞. In real calculations Kis finite and δεFis non-vanishing in this case. Evaluation
of δεFrequired to keep constant the number of electrons in the system with Kunit cells is implemented in
the GoGreenGo. Practically, in most our calculations the value of n
/Kis rather small (we use 31×31 ×31
meshes of k-points for three-dimensional models and 51 ×51 one for graphene) and affects density matrix
elements only in fourth-fifth decimal place. However, in all cases it is advised to thoroughly check its impact
on the density matrix elements and final results, especially if the number of k-points Kused for the band
structure calculations of the crystal is relatively small as it sometimes happens in PAW-DFT calculations.
6This is the most unfavorable situation – the decay in insulators is even faster.
9
Energy correction
Even an infinitesimally small shift of the Fermi level causes a finite correction to the perturbation energy,
since a summation over infinite number of unit cells is implied in calculations. It may be shown [28] that
the perturbation energy is:
δE =1
πˆεF
−∞
(εεF)δ=SpG(ε)=1
πˆεF
−∞
εδ=SpG(ε)F,(19)
where nis a difference in number of electrons in the perturbed system (calculated with the original Fermi
level of the unperturbed system) and the initial one. In the self-consistent version of the calculations the
modified equation [24]:
δE =1
πˆεF
−∞
(εεF)δ=SpG(ε)
1
2X
i,j,k.l Pij Pkl (ij||kl)P(0)
ij 0P(0)
kl 0(ij| |kl)0(20)
taking into account changes in the self-energy needs to be used. The summation in the last term goes over
all orbitals involved in the perturbed subspace P. Due to the decaying effect of the perturbation, it is a
finite set as explained above. Two-center two-electronic integrals in this equation change in the perturbed
system only if the geometry gets distorted.
Local and virtual states
As it was stressed yet in works [11, 19], the defects may produce additional poles of the perturbed GF of
two types. Either so-called local or virtual states may arise depending on the strength of the perturbation
as related to the energy spectrum of the unperturbed system. The local states correspond to the poles on
the real axis and, therefore, appear as narrow peaks of the perturbed DOS in the energy ranges, where the
unperturbed DOS vanishes – outside the allowed energy bands of the ideal crystal. By contrast, the virtual
states are related with the poles in the complex plane [18] and manifest themselves on the real axis as wide
Lorentzian peaks of the perturbed DOS inside the allowed energy band (see Appendix D). Both features are
perfectly reproduced by the GoGreenGo package as demonstrated in Figs. 4, 6. For more details about
handling the pole structure of the perturbed GF in GoGreenGo see Appendix D.
Test Results and Discussion
Since the described approach, although, well established theoretically (analytically), did not so far enjoy
full scale program implementation, it requires a thorough testing against analytically solvable models, even
looking out oversimplified. Below, we present such tests and round up with an intermediate test – adsorption
on graphene, which on one hand can be traced analytically far enough to provide necessary reference and on
the other hand provides, although a simple, but realistic, example eventually suitable for experimental check.
In the main text we mostly concentrate on the numerical results obtained by GoGreenGo, while analytical
solutions, used for control, are collected in the Supporting Materials. Even in the case of simple models
not all functionality of the package can be tested against analytical solutions, since the later are available
only for the simplest local perturbations and are inaccessible in the frame of the self-consistent approach.
Therefore, we test GoGreenGo against very simple benchmarks and then demonstrate its capabilities for
more realistic and comprehensive setting.
GoGreenGo for perturbation of cubia
Cubia (see e.g. Ref.[60]) are simplest thinkable models of 3D metals. They are formed by s-orbitals centered
at the vertices of (simple - sc, body centered - bcc, and face centered - fcc) cubic lattices with one-electron
hopping tbetween the nearest neighbors of a given node of a lattice. The dispersion laws of electronic bands
for such models [61] allowing for analytic solutions as given in Table 1. Correspondingly, the eigenvectors
10
Table 1: Dispersion relations, Fermi level and the nearest neighbor Coulson bond-order for cubia with single
(one electron per site) occupation. Indices kicorrespond to projection of wave vector kto orthogonal basis
vectors of reciprocal space chosen so that in all cases the cubic Brillouin zone is defined as π < kκπ.
εkW εFB
sc 2t(cos kx+ cos ky+ cos kz) 12t0 0.3324
bcc 8tcos kxcos kycos kz16t0 0.2605
fcc 4t(cos kxcos ky+ cos kxcos kz+ cos kycos kz) 16t0.915t0.2184
(Bloch states) related to these eigenvalues are known and, consequently, the Green’s functions. Specifically,
diagonal GFs for the systems listed in Table 1 are known from Refs. [61, 62, 63, 64] and their plots are
presented in Supporting Material Sec. 1. One can also find the corresponding graphs of the electronic DOS
at the website [65]. The off-diagonal elements of the respective Greenian matrices are as well accessible
through GoGreenGo.
It is as well possible to find analytical solutions for the ideal cubia in the framework of the extended
Hubbard model taking into account electron-electron interactions as described in Appendix E. In our sub-
sequent consideration we will use the extended Hubbard model as a starting point for the self-consistent
calculations. All energy parameters are given in units of t, that is t= 1 everywhere below. The diagonal
matrix elements of the unperturbed Fockian are set to zero being by this the energy reference. In further
Subsections we present as coherence tests the results of numerical treatment of various local perturbations
of cubia with use of GoGreenGo package.
Lattice substitutions in cubia
First, we consider lattice substitution defects in cubia, where one atom of the crystal (denoted as "0") is
replaced by a different atom. In general, the substitute can be a many-electron atom, but here we restrict
our tests by single-electron impurities. Chemically this corresponds to substitution defects in alkali metals.
Complexity of the model can be gradually increased by including different terms into the perturbation
operator so that different program features are tested independently. In the simplest possible setting we
neglect electron-electron interactions and only take into account one-center perturbation: the difference v
between diagonal matrix elements of the Fockian over impurity AO and the AO’s of the unperturbed crystal.
In this case an analytical solution is available (Supporting Material Sec. 3). Comparing numerical results to
this solution shows that GoGreenGo produces the perturbed Greenian matrix identical to the analytical
one up to eighth decimal sign. In addition, this setting allows to make qualitative sketch of the features of
the perturbed system, which remain valid for more involved crystals and perturbations of this kind. As one
can conclude from the analytical form of the mass operator (see Appendix D) and of the cubia GFs G(0)
00
(Supporting Material Sec. 1), the additional poles in the perturbed system appear for: (i) sc |v|>4.01; (ii)
bcc |v|>6.10; (iii) fcc v < 9.38 in the case of occupied local state and v > 0.83 in the case of vacant local
state. In all these cases except for the local state above the band in the fcc lattice, the required value of v
is unreasonably high and it is difficult to expect any local state to appear if, say, indeed, one alkali atom is
exchanged by another (the typical difference in core attractions lies in the range of 0.4-0.8 eV [66] – much
smaller than the typical bandwidth). The only option is an appearance of the vacant local state in the fcc
lattice, but it presents a minor interest since it does not contribute to the electronic density and the energy
of the system. Another conclusion, which can be drawn from the analytical solution, is the behavior of the
perturbed function in the vicinity of the pole of the initial GF in bcc. For bcc =G(0)
00 is even function of ε
and <G(0)
00 is odd. In addition, due to the presence of the pole at ε= 0,<G(0)
00 has a discontinuity there.
Therefore, one would observe a discontinuity of the perturbed function DOS0(ε)at ε= 0, which is indeed
observed in our numerical results described below (see Fig. 2).
Although described model provides a simple and pictorial solution, it is rather far from realistic description
of the substitution defects, requiring more involved interaction operator and the self-energy corrections.
GoGreenGo supports such description and to test this, we included corrections to one-center two-electron
and two-center hopping integrals, Coulomb interactions, and applied the self-consistent procedure. We
performed calculations within this setting for cubia lattices for v=±1(t)complemented by a set of further
11
Table 2: Parameters of charge distribution in cubia with the substitutional defect and electronic energy of
the defect formation. Qi= 1 nicorresponds to the atomic charge of i-th neighbor of the defect site "0"
with nibeing the electronic population of the i-th site in the perturbed system.
v Q0Q1Q2Q3PijδBij n δE
sc
1–0.3478 0.1216 –0.0712 0.0555 –0.1620 0.0882 –1.9964
10.3478 –0.1217 0.0711 –0.0555 –0.1594 –0.0899 –0.0029
bcc
1–0.4067 0.1058 –0.0835 –0.0389 –0.0600 0.1488 –2.0900
10.4043 –0.1088 0.0819 0.0379 –0.0592 –0.0121 –0.0866
fcc
1–0.1984 0.0243 –0.0115 –0.0025 –0.0532 0.0294 –2.1583
10.2903 -0.0293 0.0116 0.0025 –0.0413 –0.0766 –0.2671
parameters: variation of the hopping between the impurity and its neighbors (δt =0.2), one-center Coulomb
repulsion in the unperturbed system (γ0= 0.6), two-center (nearest neighbor) Coulomb repulsion in the
unperturbed system (γ1= 0.3) and a variation of the Coulomb integrals in the defect (δγ0=0.1and
δγ1= 0.1). The resulting perturbed DOS0(ε)together with obtained charge distributions are depicted in
Fig.2; numerical values of charges and the electronic7energy variations due to the defect formation are
collected in Table 2.
In all cases the charge distributions induced by the defect have a similar oscillating-decaying behavior. The
defect site ("0") carries the highest (by absolute value) net-charge, negative (electron density accumulation)
for v=1and positive (electron density depletion) for v= 1. Absolute values of the net-charges on other
sites decay with the separation from the defect and have alternating signs so that for any site its charge has
the opposite sign to the charges of its neighbors. The decay rate is rather high as expected for 3D metals
[27]. The fastest one is observed for fcc, where the induced charges are insignificant (<0.01) beyond the 2nd
neighbors. For bcc the corrections become negligible beyond 3rd neighbors and for sc beyond the 4th ones. In
all cases the Fermi level shifts as described in the Implementation Section and Appendix C, but the absolute
values of δεFdo not exceed 7·106. For v=1it shifts downwards and for v= 1 – upwards. Such a small
shift insignificantly affects individual density matrix elements. Maximal correction of the diagonal density
matrix elements due to the Fermi level shift equals to n
/K.For 31 ×31 ×31 k-mesh used in our calculations
and values of nfrom Table 2 they never exceed 5·105for cubia, which is fairly negligible.
The (Coulson) bond orders – the off-diagonal elements of the one-electron density matrix – are affected
much less than the diagonal matrix elements of the density. Again, these corrections decay rapidly with
the distance from the defect. In all cases, the bonds formed by the defect site are weaker than those of the
innate atom, but even this correction occurs only at the third decimal place. Nevertheless, the sum of all
corrections to the bond orders PijδBij can be fairly noticeable due to the large number of bonds in the
cubia lattices. These values are presented in Table 2. As one can see, in all cases the total variation of the
bond orders is negative, meaning that the system loses a part of the bonding energy because of the defect.
Electronic energy of the defect formation can be evaluated by eq. (20). An alternative expression for it
is given in Appendix E. As it can be seen from Table 2, in all cases the total energies are negative and the
absolute values are much higher for the systems with v=1, which is obviously explained by the sign of the
one-center contribution of the impurity AO. Further significant contributions are the Coulomb attraction of
the atomic charges, which is always negative due to the oscillatory behavior of the charge distribution, and
the correction to the bonding energy, which is always positive as we saw above.
Substitution defects in p-cubium
In the previous Subsection, we have tested the main functionality of GoGreenGo for cubia – single-band
crystals. To demonstrate package’s capabilities in treating multi-band solids we use a p-cubium (pc) model,
which is formed by three p-orbitals located in the vertices of the simple cubic lattice. Due to symmetry, each
orbital overlaps only with its own nearest translation images in the frame of the tight-binding approximation
(e.g. pxorbital overlaps only with neighboring pxorbitals and orthogonal pyand pz). Two of such overlaps
correspond to σ-σinteraction and four others to π-πinteraction. In addition we assume the following for
7Correction to core-core repulsion term caused by the defect is not included.
12
Figure 2: Perturbed densities of states DOS0(ε)(blue lines) in comparison with the initial ones (red lines) for
the cubia lattices and schematic representations of atomic charges distributions induced by the substitutional
defects. Dashed vertical lines show the Fermi level. Individual panels correspond to the following systems:
a) sc v=1; b) sc v= 1; c) bcc v=1; d) bcc v= 1; e) fcc v=1; f) fcc v= 1. Radii of the spheres
are proportional to the charge of the atom (notice the different scales of Q0for different lattices in Table
2). Red spheres correspond to the positive charge, blue - to the negative. The biggest sphere in all cases is
located on the defect site ("0"). On the plots red filling between the curves corresponds to the increase of
the diagonal electronic density on the site and blue one – to decrease.
13
the two-electron Coulomb integrals (ab|cd)=(aa|cc)δabδcd, which allows to keep the same number of two-
electron parameters as previously. The analytical band-structure for the ideal pc contains three degenerate
bands (see e.g. Ref. [60]):
εαk =2t
cos kα+κX
β6=α
cos kβ
(21)
where α, β =x, y, z numerates bands and projections of k-vector, κis a ratio between π-πand σ-σhoping
parameters and tstands for the σ-σone. Minus in front of the first cosine in the brackets occurs because the
σ-σoverlap of two p-orbitals is negative (and hopping is positive), if they are aligned in the same direction.
In our further consideration we set κ= 0.40 and t= 1. The elements of the Greenian matrix for pc are
accessible through GoGreenGo and can be found in Supporting Material Sec. 1. We consider pc with one
electron per unit cell, yielding the Fermi level to be εF=1.753t. Coulson bond-order Bσfor the σ-bond
is 0.2753 and for the π-bond is Bπ= 0.1474. Note, that Bσis negative and being combined with positive
σ-σhopping produces a negative contribution to the energy. In our further discussion of overall change in
the bond orders it is convenient, therefore, to use values of |Bσ|.
To test the whole functionality of the program in the case of multi-band crystal we consider substitutional
defects in the most rigorous setting by taking into account the self-energy correction and changes of one- and
two-center integrals as it was done in the previous Subsection. The set of parameters used for calculations:
v=±0.5,δt =0.2,γ0= 0.6,γ1= 0.3,δγ0=0.1and δγ1= 0.1.
Perturbed DOS’s projected on one of the p-orbitals of the defect site "0" are plotted on Fig. 3 for the
negative and positive perturbation. Resulting charge distributions exhibit similar behavior as in sc with
some specific variations. First of all, the charges decay faster than in sc: they become negligible beyond 3rd
neighbors for v=0.5and beyond 4th for v= 0.5. Moreover, charge signs follow a different pattern: (i)
for v=0.5the charges are Q0=0.4152,Q1= 0.0195,Q2= 0.0102,Q3=0.0042; (ii) for v= 0.5they
are Q0= 0.3039,Q1=0.0245,Q2=0.0044,Q3= 0.0217. That is, the charges change their signs every
two neighbors from the defect. Also, it can be seen that the negative perturbation causes a larger charge
than the positive one of the same magnitude. This is a consequence of a nonsymmetric location of the Fermi
level in the band (like in fcc cubium). Values of nare 0.1523 for the negative perturbation and 0.2524
for the positive one. As previously, such small values do not cause significant shift of the Fermi level for our
31 ×31 ×31 k-mesh.
As for corrections to the bond orders, we see that they change significantly only for the bonds incident to
the "0" site (σ-bond becomes weaker and π-one stronger in all cases). The total changes in bond orders are
PijδBij =0.1541 for the negative perturbation and PijδBij =0.2414 for the positive perturbation,
so the system loses bonding energy, upon formation of the defect.
One-orbital interstitial impurity in simple cubium
Further class of problems accessible for GoGreenGo is that of interactions of solids with some extra additive
termed as an interstitial defect. The simplest example of such defect is an interstitial (impurity) atom
represented by a single s-orbital, which may be considered as a model of a hydrogen atom. We considered
the effect of such impurity placed in a cubic void of the sc lattice being a nontrivial example illustrating
general features of the methodology. In the cubic void, the defect is surrounded by eight identical atoms of
the crystal system. The unperturbed Fockian of such a system is one of the crystal augmented by an extra
row and column having the energy of the impurity orbital on their intersection and filled by off-diagonal
zeroes signifying no interaction between the impurity and the crystal. The perturbation consists, in the first
approximation, of one-electron hopping between the defect (s-)orbital and those of its immediate neighbors
in the lattice (eight neighbors). These nine orbitals form the perturbation subspace (the P-subspace of eq.
(11) ) hereinafter addressed as the "impurity cluster".
The position of the defect s-orbital relative to the cubium Fermi level is given by a difference between
ionization potentials of the interstitial atom and crystal atom of the lattice. For all metals, atomic ionization
potentials are smaller than for hydrogen, therefore we assume that the diagonal matrix element over the
impurity orbital is negative. In the cubia models the nearest neighbor hopping parameter tof the crystal
provides the natural energy scale. We, at first, considered numerically the effect of interaction on the atomic
14
Figure 3: Perturbed densities of states DOS0(ε)(blue lines) compared with the ideal ones (red lines) for the
substitution defect in p-cubium : a) v=0.5; b) v= 0.5. Color scheme is the same as in Figure 2.
Table 3: GoGreenGo results obtained for the hydrogen impurity atom in the cubic void with the Anderson
Hamiltonian (Supporting Material Sec. 3.2). Parameter γ= 0.40 for all cases.
εa2 0
t00.20 0.70 0.83 0.95 0.20 0.70 0.83 0.95
na1.9910 1.6823 1.4164 1.2164 0.6872 0.6023 0.6319 0.6557
ni0.9987 0.9608 0.9347 0.9130 0.9887 0.9534 0.9474 0.9418
B0.3311 0.2932 0.2672 0.2454 0.3211 0.2858 0.2798 0.2742
B00.0108 0.1286 0.2072 0.2446 0.1381 0.2772 0.2909 0.2995
δE –1.8278 –2.2008 –2.3433 –2.0104 –0.2086 –2.0233 –2.6101 –3.0670
charges and bond orders in the "impurity cluster" in the frame of the Anderson model (see Supporting
Material Sec. 3.2). Analytical solutions for the Anderson model used for testing are given in Supporting
Material Sec. 3.2.
Perturbed GFs obtained numerically with GoGreenGo for a “hydrogen” atom in a cubic void (for
the first step of the self-consistent procedure) were compared with corresponding analytical equations from
Supporting Material Sec. 3.2. The values coincide up to 6th decimal place. Corrections to density matrix
elements are not accessible analytically due to a very involved functional form of G(0) even for the sc cubium.
Numerical values are collected in the Table 3. As one can conclude, if the adsorbate level is positioned below
the Fermi level the impurity atom acquires a negative charge, while for εa=εF= 0 the charge is positive.
The absolute value of charge depends on the impurity-matrix hopping parameter t0– as it increases, the
charge decays which is a result of changing in coupling patterns (see the four types of perturbed adsorbate
levels in Supporting Material Sec. 3.2.). Atoms of the crystal matrix in all cases acquire a small positive
charge.
Bond orders Bbetween the crystal atoms of the "impurity cluster" become smaller (the bonds become
weaker) and this energetically unfavorable change is compensated by formation of new bonds with the order
B0between impurity atom and lattice atoms. With increasing hopping parameter t0the orders of new bonds
increase and the orders of original bonds decrease. For εa= 0 the bond orders B0are larger than for εa=2.
In a more extended setting, we turn on the Coulomb interactions in the crystal. In this case, non-vanishing
15
Table 4: GoGreenGo results obtained for the hydrogen impurity atom in the cubic void with taking into
account inter-electronic interactions in the crystal. Parameters γ=γ0= 0.4,γ1=γ0= 0.2for all cases (see
Supporting Material Sec. 3.2 for the equations).
εa2 0
t00.20 0.70 0.83 0.95 0.20 0.70 0.83 0.95
na1.9914 1.6814 1.4592 1.2321 0.6242 0.6079 0.6387 0.6654
ni0.9470 0.9306 0.9330 0.8935 1.0098 0.9816 0.9748 0.9701
B0.3296 0.2887 0.2779 0.2313 0.3198 0.2833 0.2770 0.2728
B00.0116 0.1336 0.2417 0.2511 0.1450 0.2791 0.2923 0.3027
δE –1.8720 –2.2704 –4.5067 –2.0715 –0.2247 –2.0645 –2.6345 –3.3018
matrix elements between the sites outside the impurity cluster appear, which makes an analytical treatment
unfeasible. The point to be checked here, is the extension of the number of atoms in the impurity cluster for
accounting of the perturbation dressing through electron-electron interactions. According to the tests, it is
sufficient to include first and second neighbors of the lattice atoms directly interacting with impurity.
As it can be concluded from Table 4 including two-electron Coulomb terms and the self-energy correction
does not have major influence on the resulting density matrices and energies; all trends remain fairly the
same with slight numerical modifications. The only exception is the case of εa=2and t= 0.83, where one
observes more significant differences in density matrix elements na,Band B0between two settings, which
translates into quite considerable difference in energies.
GoGreenGo for perturbations of graphene
Two-dimensional graphene sheets are widely studied experimentally and theoretically being nature models
for two dimensional solids and, respectively, surfaces. Either lattice impurities or adsorbates in/on graphene
are of considerable interest from the experimental and theoretical points of view [67, 68].
The honeycomb lattice of graphene has a primitive cell containing two carbon atoms. The π-system is
formed by pπ-orbitals, one for each site of the lattice. Dispersion law in the approximation of the nearest
neighbor hopping is:
ε(k) = ±tq3 + 2 coskx+ 2 cos kx+ 2 cos (kxky)(22)
where "" corresponds to the filled band and "+" to the empty one. Eq. (22) allows analytical evaluation
of the diagonal DOS [69] (see also Supporting Material Sec.2 ). The Fermi level εF= 0 and the Coulson
bond order B= 0.525 between nearest neighbors.
In the present Section the Greenian matrix of pure graphene serves as a starting point for the study of
several types of local defects. We concentrate on the effect of the local perturbations on the π-system of
graphene and for the time being ignore the σ-system.
Substitution defects in graphene
Substitution defects in graphene can be described in the same manner as in cubia. Here we aim to study
defects, which are closer to the experimental situation. Specifically, we consider the graphene layer, where
one of the carbon atoms is replaced by nitrogen or boron. This is modeled by an appropriate choice of
parameters describing one- and two-center interactions as described in Supporting Material Sec. 4. The
parameters used to study boron and nitrogen impurities in graphene lattice are collected in Table 5.
The bare perturbed subspace is spanned by four π-orbitals, one of boron/nitrogen and three more of their
nearest neighbors. The perturbation itself touches the diagonal matrix element of the substituted atom and
the hopping integrals with its nearest neighbors.
For 2D graphene being a poor metal (Fermi surface degenerates to two – Dirac – points ) one can
expect a slower decay of perturbation effect with the separation from the defect. To ensure we do not
miss any significant corrections to the density matrix elements we performed self-consistent calculations of
substitutional defects using an impurity cluster formed by 7×7original cells, whose unperturbed Greenian
16
Table 5: Atomic parameters used in this work to describe boron and nitrogen impurities in graphene lattice.
All values are in units of t.v β γ0γ1
C - 0.792 2.100 0.792
B 2.488 0.914 1.228 0.699
N -1.251 0.904 3.573 0.862
Table 6: Parameters of charge distribution in the graphene with the substitutional defects and electronic
energy of the defect formation. Qicorresponds to the atomic charge of i-th neighbor of the defect site "0".
Q0Q1Q2Q3Q4Q5Q6PijδBij n δE
B 0.74 –0.39 0.24 –0.22 –0.16 0.14 –0.09 –0.76 –1.10 1.04
N –0.42 0.27 –0.17 0.15 0.12 –0.10 0.07 –0.42 0.91 –1.42
matrix was derived from the band structure of the unit cell with two atoms eq. (22). As previously we
denote the defect site as "0".
Diagonal DOS on the "0"-th site together with schematic representation of the charge distribution in
the perturbed systems is given in Fig. 4. The charge distribution parameters and electronic energies of the
defect formation are collected in Table 6. As one can see from the plots of DOS0(ε)the local states outside
the band appear, respectively, below the band for nitrogen (εl=3.053) and above it for boron (εl= 3.773).
For nitrogen the local state contributes 0.38 to the diagonal density matrix element which is 26.95% of the
total value. In the case of boron the local state is vacant and does not contribute. The Fermi level in both
cases shifts since nitrogen brings one more electron to the system (hence n= 0.91) and boron withdraws
one electron (hence n=1.10). However, the value of n
/Kis again very small and does not affect the
individual density matrix elements significantly (we used 51 ×51 k-mesh ).
The qualitative behavior of the atomic charge distribution is fairly similar to that observed in cubia with
the only exception that values of the charges decay much slower here, as anticipated. In both cases the
corrections to density become negligible (<0.01) beyond 6th neighbor. This is rather reasonable response to
very strong perturbation induced by substitutions. Spectacular alternation of signs of the charges induced by
substitution seen in Figure 4 is nothing, but the manifestation of the Coulson’s “law of alternating polarity”
[70], which had been known already to Hückel [71] and served to explain the rules of ortho-meta-para
orientation in the electrophilic substitution in benzene derivatives known in organic chemistry [72] .
In complete analogy with cubia, the bond orders are much less affected by the predominantly diagonal
perturbation. This effect manifests only for the bonds closest to the defect and become negligible as from
the bonds between 3rd and 4th neighbors. The order of the bond closest to the defect decreases by 0.048
for nitrogen and 0.165 for boron. The total change in bond orders PijδBij is, however, quite significant
due to the number of bonds involved (see Table 6) and comprises the contributions of the bond orders up
to those between 3rd and 4th neighbors, therefore being more local than the variation of diagonal densities
(charges).
Energies of the defect formation have different signs – negative for nitrogen and positive for boron. In
the latter case this is the result of the huge positive one-center contribution.
Vacancy in graphene
Vacancies in graphene lattice are interesting from two viewpoints. First, they can appear in the material
during synthesis and, therefore, can have an impact on the properties of available samples. Second, vacancies
in the π-system are tentative models of a carbon atom forming an extra bond with some unsaturated particle,
which acquiring the sp3hybridization, leaves the π-system. In the case of not self-consistent setting analytical
GFs can be found, which are given in Supporting Materials Sec. 4. Comparison of GoGreenGo numerical
GFs to analytical ones showed they coincide up to eight decimal place. To study vacancy in a more realistic
setting we again apply the self-consistent option of the package with one- and two-center parameters of
carbon being the same as in the previous Subection.
As before the perturbation cluster involves four orbitals – one excluded from the π-system and three its
17
Figure 4: Perturbed diagonal densities of states DOS0(ε)in comparison with the initial ones and schematic
representation of the charge distributions in graphene with the substitution defects: a) boron, b) nitrogen.
Color code and other legend is the same as in Fig. 2. Narrow peaks on the plots above the band in panel a)
and below the band in panel b) correspond to the local states formed predominantly of the defect orbital.
18
Figure 5: Perturbed diagonal DOS for the site nearest to the vacancy (left) and schematic illustration of the
charge distribution caused by the vacancy defect in graphene. Legend for the plot and color scheme are the
same as in previous Figures.
nearest neighbors. The perturbation itself reduces to nullifying the hopping matrix elements between the
excluded site and its neighbors. The resulting charge distribution as well as AO-projected DOS for the site
nearest to the vacancy are shown in Fig.5. Remarkably, the situation is quite different from that of the
previous Subsection. For the predominantly off-diagonal perturbation, corrections to the diagonal densities
are not that large (Q1= 0.096,Q2=0.050,Q3= 0.045,Q4=0.032) and become negligible beyond
4th neighbors from the vacancy. On the contrary, off-diagonal densities (bond orders) are affected much
stronger: δB01 =0.525 (quite obvious since the bond between the vacant site and its neighbor disappears),
δB12 = 0.085,δB23 =0.013,δB34 = 0.012,δB45 =0.020 and all other changes occur only at a third
decimal place. With a good accuracy (up to third decimal place) the following holds:
X
ij
δBij 3δB01 + 6δB12,(23)
so that, all other oscillations of bond orders compensate each other and the total change of the bonding
energy is a sum of two local terms – energy of three broken bonds and energies of six nearest bonds, which
become stronger.
Adsorption of hydrogen/alkali metal atom on graphene
On-top adsorption of atomic hydrogen on graphene is a process of considerable interest in material science
because it leads to a formation of sp3defects, which usually present in synthetic graphene and affect its
properties. It is known [73] that chemisorption of hydrogen forces carbon atom to rise above the plane by
0.4 Å and to form a σ-bond with the adsorbate. This causes a change of hybridization state of the carbon
atom (from sp2to sp3) and consequent reorganization of both π- and σ-systems – three π-bonds break and
one new σ-bond appears along with distortion of three C–C σ-bonds. Complete treatment of such process
can be performed in σπapproximation by considering π-bonds breaking as a vacancy forms (as described
above) and a rigorous evaluation of the σ-system reorganization energy. Although theoretical basis for that
has been already established in our previous works [56, 74, 75, 76], full analysis of the problem goes beyond
19
the scope of the present paper. Here, we restrict ourselves by testing the effect of interaction of “hydrogen”
atom only with the graphene π-system, neglecting possible distortion of graphene geometry and not touching
the σ-core. Treatment of the on-top adsorption on graphene in the framework of the standard Anderson
impurity model was given in Refs. [78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83]. Here we employ more advanced self-consistent
model taking into account electron-electron interactions at different atomic sites.
Parameters required to describe interactions are calculated within the MNDO setting which has shown
its validity for description of carbon allotropes [56]. We take R(CH) = 1.1Å. The adsorbate level lies
below the Fermi level by εa=2.150 and one-center electron-electron repulsion on the adsorbate s-orbital
is γ0
0= 3.952. Two-center parameters for the C-H pair have the following values β0= 1.095 and γ0
1= 1.41.
All energies are in the units of t, which is known to be 2.4 eV in graphene [77]. We denote the graphene site,
interacting with the H atom, as "0". The bare perturbation acts in the two-dimensional space (0-th π-AO
of graphene and adsorbate s-orbital):
δF =0β0
β00,(24)
but the size of the cluster used for the self-consistent calculations is, of course, larger due to Coulomb
interactions. To ensure we do not miss any significant changes in the density matrix elements, we, as
previously, use the impurity cluster of 7×7original graphene cells, whose unperturbed Greenian matrix was
derived from the band structure calculated with the original unit cell of two atoms.
Perturbed AO-projected DOS for adsorbate:DOSa(ε)and for the 0-th π-AO of graphene: DOS0(ε)are
plotted in Fig. 6. The adsorbate DOS below the Fermi level consists of two broad peaks. The first one lies
in the interval [3,1] with the maximum at ε=εa. It is obviously the adsorbate level broadened due to
interaction with the graphene π-band. The second peak is much smaller than the first one and lies in the
interval [1,0] with the maximum at ε=0.630. At the point ε=1the DOS drops to zero 8due to the
logarithmic singularity of the pure graphene DOS (GF). There is a local state above the band at ε= 3.090,
which does not contribute to the electronic density. No local states show up below the band in this case.
Adsorbate s-AO acquires a negative charge Qa=0.7516 and the site "0" a positive one of Q0= 0.4607.
The charge distribution in graphene lattice generally follows the same pattern as in the impurity problem –
the values of the net-charges decay with the distance from the defect with alternating signs. The decay is
rather slow and the charges become negligible (<0.01) only beyond 6th neighbors of the adsorption site. The
net-charges of the neighbors from 1st to 6th are Q1=0.3137,Q2= 0.1942,Q3=0.1355,Q4= 0.1174,
Q5=0.0775 and Q6= 0.0538. Due to the alternation of atomic charges, the contribution of two-center
Coulomb interactions is negative, favoring the perturbed state.
Corrections to the bond orders decay much faster with the distance than atomic charges. Coulson bond
order for the C-H bond formed upon adsorption is Ba0= 0.5802. Three bonds of the adsorption site with
its neighbors in the layer turn weaker (δB01 =0.1672), six bonds between 1st and 2nd neighbors turn
stronger (δB12 = 0.0173) and twelve bonds between 2nd and 3rd neighbors again weaker (δB23 =0.01131).
All further corrections to the bond orders are negligible (<0.01) and do not contribute significantly to the
adsorption energy. Due to the formation of the C-H bond the system gains the energy:
δECH
b=2β0+γ0
1
2Ba0Ba0=1.5080.(25)
At the same time it loses the energy due to the weakening of three C-C bonds connected with the site "0":
δECC
b=6tδB01 = 1.0032.(26)
In total, the change in bonding energy is negative.
Electronic energy of chemisorption can be calculated by eq. (20) or alternatively one can adapt eq. (57),
which in both cases gives the value of δE =1.392 and favors the adsorption in agreement with DFT
calculations [73]. However, numerical comparison of binding energies is not possible at the moment, since
the calculated electronic energy does not include significant positive terms of core-core repulsion, which will
be added in the next release. We, also, did not take into account rehybridization effects. The most significant
negative contributions to the binding energy come from one-center term (1.62), two-center Coulomb and
8Since in practical calculations we do not have a genuine pole at ε=1and it is approximated by a peak with small yet
finite width, the numerical DOS does not drop to zero exactly. However, this fact does not influence an integral of DOS.
20
Figure 6: Diagonal AO-projected DOS for the atomic orbital of adsorbate (a) and for the orbital of graphene’s
site interacting with the H atom (b). On the right plot (b) red curve corresponds to the initial (unperturbed)
DOS and the blue one – to the perturbed DOS. Narrow peaks on the plots above the band corresponds to
the local state. On the plot a) one can also observe a virtual state being wide peak centered at the point ca.
—0.5.
bonding terms mentioned above. The most significant positive contribution comes from one-center repulsion
of adsorbate electrons with different spin-projections which equals to γ0
0n2
a
/4= 1.7306 (note, that we employ
a non-magnetic solution for the perturbed system, but take into account that unperturbed hydrogen atom
bears one unpaired electron).
In conclusion of this discussion, we mention that omitting the self-consistency procedure in the above
model calculations leads to the charge distribution drastically differing from that obtained above. In the non
self-consistent setting with the bare perturbation eq. (24), the following fast-decaying charge distribution
Qa=0.8372,Q0= 0.1103,Q1=0.0187,Q2= 0.0081 is obtained (other charges are negligible). The
local state below the band at ε=3.05 appears, which is not there in the self-consistent calculations. This
example demonstrates that in some cases the self-consistency is important, when considering point defects,
not only quantitatively perspective, but also qualitatively.
Conclusion
We present the GoGreenGo package intended for description of point defects in crystals as well as for
analysis of adsorption processes on surfaces. The package employs the Green’s functions formalism in order
to obtain the densities of states of the perturbed crystal containing defects. It builds the Green’s function of
the unperturbed crystal from the output produced by major ab initio solid state quantum chemistry codes
and solves the Dyson equation for the perturbed GF. Results of this calculation are processed so that the
perturbed densities of states, charge distributions and the off-diagonal matrix elements of the density are
available in the atomic basis. The package is tested for various local defects in model cubia crystals, in more
realistic graphene and simple multiband model of p-cubium. In all cases, when the analytic solutions were
available, the package manifested perfect agreement with the former.
21
Data Availability Statement
The data that support the findings of this study are available either in Supplementary Materials or from the
corresponding author upon reasonable request.
Acknowledgments
This work is supported by the State Task 0081-2019-0018 «Fundamental physicochemical laws of adsorp-
tion, adsorptive separation, adsorptive electrochemical ion exchange processes in nanoporous materials and
fundamentals of targeted synthesis of new adsorbents».
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A Some elements of the general theory of GF
Somewhat more refined explanation of relations between the GF and corresponding eigenvector-eigenvalue
problem along with the separation of the GF into real and imaginary parts can be built upon the theory of
residues of the functions of complex variable [84]. Since G(z)given by eqs. (4), (5) is continuous everywhere
in the complex plane except for the simple, first-order poles located on the real axis at the points z=ελ,
one can express the solution of the eigenvector-eigenvalue problem in terms of the GF. Its poles, obviously,
correspond to the eigenvalues, while residues:
Res
ελ
G(z) = 1
2πi ˛
Cελ
G(z)dz = lim
zελ
(zελ)G(z) = |λihλ|(27)
are the projection operators to the eigenvectors of the Fockian F. In eq. (27) the first equality is the
definition of the residue, the second one is the theorem expressing the integral over a contour encircling
a simple pole, and the last one is the result of the calculation for the first-order poles. Correspondingly,
the density (matrix) of the system in its ground state which is the sum of the operators projecting to the
occupied |λi’s expresses through the integral over the contour Cencircling all poles ελεFFig.7:
P=X
λ
ελεF
|λihλ|=1
2πi ˛
C
G(z)dz. (28)
The density matrix elements in the basis of atomic functions|ai,|bi, ... can be found by integration of
the matrix elements Gab of the GF over the contour Cencircling all poles ελεF:
Pab =1
2πi ˛
C
Gab (z)dz. (29)
In physics books (and in the main text) these results are frequently represented with use of the intuitively
less clear recipe involving the δ-”functions” and Kramers-Kronig relations as applied to the GF’s of the real
argument. It tacitly employs the crucial fact that in the expressions for the physical quantities the GF
appears under the integral over the real axis, where it has a plenty of poles. Thus, the Green’s functions
25
Figure 7: A form of the contour C[29] used to calculate integrals of the GF – the elements of the perturbed
density matrix. Black crosses are the poles of the unperturbed GF referring to the allowed energy band of
the crystal. Blue cross on the abscissa to the left of the allowed band is the additional pole referring to the
local state outside the allowed band which appeared due to perturbation – due to absence of intrinsic width
it generates extremely narrow peaks in the DOS which can be seen in Figs. 4, 5. The cyan cross represents
an additional pole within the allowed band. The corresponding virtual state provides a contribution to the
perturbed DOS which has an energy spread proportional to the unperturbed DOS occurred at the energy
corresponding real part of the pole. Similarly, the red cross represent a pole within the allowed energy band,
but close to the Fermi level.
(on the real axis) are not functions in the usual sense anymore (although they are in the complex plane),
rather they are distributions – linear functionals on the space of the true functions and the item of interest
are the values of these functionals as such and the limits they may converge to. The reasoning is based on
a high-school formula for the inverse of a complex number:
z=x+iy 1
z=xiy
x2+y2,
where zis set equal to ε+with an energy εand (half-)width ν. Then GF separates into real and imaginary
parts:
G(z) = X
λ|λihλ| εελ
(εελ)2+ν2iν
(εελ)2+ν2!=<G(z) + i=G(z).(30)
The second term in the brackets above is nothing but the Lorentzian of half-width νmultiplied by
one of the well-known probability (Cauchy) distributions. Making ν0+nullifies it everywhere except for
ε=ελwhere it diverges: very unnatural and peculiar behavior for a true function. Only, bearing in mind
the intentional use of the above expression as of a multiplier in an integrand over εand not as a function of
εper se, and then, taking the limit while ν0+, supplies meaning to the formal expression:
lim
ν0+
1
ε+ελ
=P1
εελiπδ (εελ)(31)
abundant in physics books. It can be shown that if multiplied by a function f(ε)then put under the integral
and integrated first and making the ν0+afterwards produces exactly the value of fat ελ:f(ελ)-
that what the Dirac δ-function is expected to do. Analogously, treating the first term in the brackets as a
multiplier to an integrand we arrive at the Hilbert transform of the function f(ε).
26
B Matrix solution of the Dyson equation for local perturbation
For the local perturbation F0which affects only a subspace Pof the entire space of the one-electronic states
it is natural to divide the latter into Pand its orthogonal complement Q. The matrix to be inverted in order
to solve the Dyson equation then acquires a special form:
IG(0)F0= IP P G(0)
P P V0
G(0)
QP V IQQ !(32)
where subscripts refer to the subspaces where the respective matrices act and the local perturbation Vacts
only in P(is a dim P×dim Pmatrix) . Although the matrix to be inverted has a very large (or even infinite)
dimension of the entire orbital space of the crystal, its special structure permits to find its inverse relatively
easily [85]:
IG(0)F01=
IP P G(0)
P P V10
G(0)
QP VIP P G(0)
P P V1
IQQ
,(33)
that is, only a dim P×dim Pmatrix needs to be actually inverted (the rest is accessed through matrix
multiplication). The correction to the unperturbed Greenian matrix caused by perturbation is then:
GG(0) =
IPP G(0)
P P V1IPP 0
G(0)
QP VIPP G(0)
P P V10
G(0)
P P G(0)
P Q
G(0)
QP G(0)
QQ !(34)
From the latter, one obtains equations given in the main text.
C Shift of the Fermi level
The trace of the Greenian matrix after the perturbation changes as
δSpG(ε) =
∂ε ln det G(ε) +
∂ε ln det G0(ε) =
∂ε ln det G0(ε)
det G(ε).(35)
The first equality comes from the fact, that determinant equals to the product of eigenvalues gλ(ε)of
the Greenian matrix:
∂ε ln det G(ε) =
∂ε ln Y
λ
gλ(ε) = lim
ν0+X
λ
∂ε ln (ε+ελ)1=
= lim
ν0+X
λ
(ε+ελ)1=X
λ
gλ(ε) = SpG(ε)(36)
From the Dyson’s equation we get:
det G(ε) = det IG(0) (ε)F01det G(0) (ε).(37)
The latter allows to express the trace correction as
δSpG(ε) =
∂ε ln det IG(0) (ε)F0(38)
If the Fermi level had had not changed, the conservation of number of electrons would require that
1
πˆεF
−∞
∂ε =ln det IG(0) (ε)F0= 0 (39)
27
which is, generally, not satisfied. Let us denote the integral on the left of the last equation as n. The
condition of conservation of number of electrons reads then
KˆεF+δεF
εF
DOS0(ε)=n(40)
where DOS0(ε)is a sum of diagonal projected DOS for a single unit cell in the initial (unperturbed) system.
From this equation one can see that for K→ ∞ the shift of the Fermi level approaches zero. However, in
the finite dimension models this shift needs to be taken into account especially in the case of small K(not
very dense k-mesh). Note, that for negative nthe Fermi level shifts up, while for positive – down.
D Pole structure of the perturbed GF
Due to a specific role which poles of the GF play throughout the integration prescribed by eq. (29), the
qualitative effect of perturbation crucially depends on whether it causes any additional poles to appear on
the right hand side of eq. (14). A sketch of evolving events comes from considering simplest perturbation
v, acting on the one-dimensional subspace Pspanned by the state |0i. The 1×1matrix to be inverted to
solve the Dyson equation (see Appendix B) is
1vG(0)
00 ,
and the only nonvanishing matrix element of the mass operator eq. (13) takes the form:
M00 =v
1vG(0)
00
.(41)
The tentative additional poles are zeroes of the denominator in the latter equation. Separating G(0)
00 into
real and imaginary parts we obtain an equation for the poles:
1v<G(0)
00 (εl)iv=G(0)
00 (εl)=0 (42)
For the complex quantity to vanish its real and imaginary parts have to vanish separately. The imaginary
part =G(0)
00 (ε)is zero everywhere in the forbidden energy bands of a crystal (where the DOS vanishes). In
this case only one condition needs to be satisfied:
<G(0)
00 (εl) = 1
v(43)
at a point εloutside the allowed energy band. Thisdefines position of the local state and is referred to in
the main text throughout the discussion of additional poles in the case of substitutional defect in cubia.
Here we only mention that for cubia <G(0)
00 is positive above the Fermi level and negative below it (see
Supporting Materials Sec.1), therefore a positive perturbation (v > 0) can only lead to a local state above
the allowed band, while a negative one – only below it. Values of vrequired to satisfy the condition for cubia
are discussed in the main text.
If eq. (43) is satisfied for the complex point εv+vwith its real part εvlying inside the band (=G(0)
00 (εv)6=
0), then a virtual state appears – a pole in the complex plane. It manifests itself on the real axis as a maximum
of the DOS in the allowed energy band [11]. Behavior of DOS0(ε)in the vicinity of the virtual state εv
derives from the following equation for the perturbed GF with mass operator eq. (41):
G00 (ε) = G(0)
00 (ε) + G(0)
00 (ε)MG(0)
00 (ε) = G(0)
00 (ε)
1vG(0)
00 (ε).
Evaluating imaginary part of this, one obtains
DOS0(ε) = π1=G(0)
00 (ε)
1v<G(0)
00 (ε)2+v2=G(0)
00 (ε)2.(44)
28
If =G(0)
00 (ε)changes slowly in the vicinity of εv, the perturbed density of states is proportional to a Lorentzian:
DOS0(ε)π1η
(εεv)2+η2(45)
with a half-width
η==G(0)
00 (εv)
<G(0)
00 (ε)/∂εε=εv
,(46)
which follows from the expansion
1v<G(0)
00 (ε) = v(εεv)<G(0)
00 (ε)
∂ε ε=εv
.(47)
If the half-width νεv, one would observe a sharp maximum of DOS at εv, otherwise, there would not
be a definite peak. In addition, from this analysis one can explicitly observe that for the pole outside the
band the half-width vanishes (η= 0) yielding a discrete peak in DOS, which corresponds to the local state
discussed above.
It should be noted that the condition eq. (42) may not be possible to satisfy for a given value of
perturbation v. In this case there are no local or virtual states influencing the resulting DOS, and its form
is simply given by eq. (44).
In the general case a similar analysis of the pole structure can be performed if the mass operator Mis
expressed according to Kramer’s rule through the adjugate matrix and determinant D= det IPP G(0)
P P V:
M=
Vadj IPP G(0)
P P V
D.(48)
The sought additional poles are the roots of D, which is a polynomial of the power dim P. If a root of
determinant z0=εlis real, then corresponding pole describes a local state. If it is complex then it refers to
a virtual state. In the impurity problems local states appear outside the band where =D= 0 for all points
and position of the local state is therefore determined by roots of <D. Positions of the virtual states are
determined by zeroes of <Das well, but located inside the band [11].
While virtual states do not provide any difficulties in evaluating integrals eqs. (19) and (16), the local
states do. In their presence those integrals are understood in terms of Cauchy principal value. Contribution
of the local state outside the band to the density matrix elements can be evaluated by considering residue
at z0, which for the root of the first order has a form
Res
z0
Gab (z) = lim
zz0
(zz0)Gab (z) = ha|lihl|bi(49)
From eq. (48) it follows that the perturbed function Gab may be represented in a form f(z)/D (z). If both
Dand fare holomorphic and D0(z0)6= 0 then the residue can be evaluated as
Res
z0
Gσ
ab (z) = f(z0)
D0(z0)(50)
This allows to express contributions of localized states to the density matrix elements through the derivatives
of D. With the same approach it may be shown that local state outside the band contributes to the energy
correction δε as εl.
E Model periodic systems
In order to test our approach we consider impurity atoms in several simple model metals: simple cubium,
face centered cubium and body centered cubium each bearing one s-orbital per lattice node. Besides that
29
we consider perturbations of π-bands of graphene. All these lattices have one electron per site. We consider
them in the framework of HF approach with extended Hubbard Hamiltonian:
H=UX
i,σ
c+
c1X
i,σ
c+
cβX
ij,σ c+
cj σ +h.c.+
+γ0X
i
c+
c c+
c+γ1X
ij,σ,κ
c+
c c+
c ,(51)
featuring following energy contributions: one-center core attraction (term proportional to U), one-center
Coulomb repulsion (γ0), nearest neighbor electron hopping (β) and Coulomb repulsion (γ1); the term pro-
portional to mthe number of neighbors of each atom in respective lattice models the core attraction to the
nearest neighbors which is necessary for overall energy balance. For spin and charge symmetric states we set
c+
c =Dc+
cE=1
2,(52)
c+
cj α=Dc+
cE=B
2,(53)
where the last equation holds for neighbor sites iand j. In the Hartree-Fock approximation the following
Fockian appears:
F=αX
i
c+
ctX
ijc+
cj σ +h.c.,(54)
where αand tare:
α=U1+γ0c+
c +γ1X
jiX
σc+
c =U+γ0
2,(55)
t=β+γB
2.(56)
In all further discussions we set the energy reference at α= 0. In principle these equations are to be
solved iteratively for the only nontrivial density matrix element B. However, in cubia and graphene the bond
order Bdoes not depend on Hamiltonian parameters due to the symmetry and no self-consistent procedure
is required to obtain analytical solutions in these cases.
In some cases to get anlytical estimates we will be interested in a simpler model without two-center
Coulomb terms in Hamiltonian (simple Hubbard Hamiltonian). Then tdoes not depend on the density
matrix elements.
The energy of the defect formation can be expressed through the parameters of the Hamiltonian and the
density matrix elements corrections as
δE =v+δγ0
4δn0n02δt X
i0
Bi0+δγ1X
i0
(δn0δni1) 2tX
ij
δBij +
+γ1
2BX
ij
δBij +γ0
4X
i
δn2
i+γ1X
ij
δniδnjF.(57)
This equation has an advantage that it allows to analyze contributions of different terms and it is being
referred to in the main text in the discussions of the defects’ energies.
30
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Chapter
Full-text available
This introductory chapter begins with a summary of the developments of the theory of defects in semiconductors in the past 50years. This is followed by an overview of single-particle methods and today’s first-principles approach, rooted in density-functional theory. Much more detail about this theory and the approximations it involves is found in subsequent chapters. The last section discusses the various contributions to this book.
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Article
PREFACE: No period in the history of organic chemistry has been as dynamic and productive of research accomplishment as the twelve years between the completion of the first and present editions of this textbook. New reagents, new reactions, and extraordinary syntheses have been manifold. New techniques and new instruments for analysis and determination of structures, improved methods for theoretical calculations, as well as new junctures with physical, inorganic, and biochemistry, have made organic chemistry an enormously vital discipline. But along with this "best of times," there is a "worst of times" coming from the recognition that many widely used organic compounds are more toxic than previously suspected. Some are carcinogenic; some may be destroying the ozone layer in the upper atmosphere, which protects all life from the sun's strong ultraviolet radiation; others are concentrated and persist in living tissue to as yet unknown effect. Nonetheless, our society has come to depend on synthetic organic chemicals, and we may ponder the fact that in just a few years the petroleum that makes so many useful organic compounds easily available will be in very short supply throughout the world. It has been a real challenge for us to try to cover the elements of modern organic chemistry with sufficient breadth to anticipate the interests and needs of the future chemists, biologists, physicians, medical scientists, and engineers, who constitute the majority of those who study the subject, and, at the same time, give a balanced view of both its current accomplishments and difficulties. Our attempt has resulted in a large book that may appear unwieldy. Between editions, we often received suggestions from professors to write a book "covering just the material I need in my course," but no two ever seemed to agree on what "the" material should be. Perhaps the discipline has now progressed in breadth and complexity that no simple short text can suffice, any more than the old-fashioned grocery store can compete with the supermarket to supply the diverse needs of a modern community. To a degree, our book has a parallel to a supermarket because not only do we cover many subjects, we cover the important ones in detail. There is no intention on our part to supply just the right amount of material for some particular course of study. Instead, we intend to provide a broad enough range of topics to accommodate almost any desired emphasis or approach to the subject. More on our objectives with regard to different possible approaches to the study of organic chemistry is given in the latter part of Section 1-5 (p. 24). This book makes a substantial break with tradition in the matter of organic nomenclature. It was difficult to decide to do this because changes in this area are very hard to achieve, perhaps for the reason that they threaten the viability of what already is published and, indeed, even our customary forms of verbal communication. One of the authors remembers vividly the protests of his thesis supervisor to the idea of acquiescing to the admonition of a manuscript reviewer who felt that "crotyl chloride" and "methylvinylcarbinyl chloride" represented just too much of a mixing of nomenclature systems for isomeric compounds. "But we've used those names in nineteen earlier papers!" Nonetheless, organic chemists and organic chemistry will surely be better off to name these same compounds systematically as 1-chloro-2-butene and 3-chloro-1-butene. Use of systematic nomenclature is a bit like energy conservation - we all recognize it is necessary, but we would just as soon the start be made after we are dead. The phenomenal growth of organic chemistry during the past decade and the switch by the indexes of Chemical Abstracts to use much more systematic nomenclature suggests that the right time is now. The approach we will take in this book to the nomenclature problem is described in more detail in Chapter 3 (pp. 49-5 1). As in the earlier edition, considerable attention is given to the application of the principles of thermodynamics, quantum mechanics, kinetics, and spectroscopy to understanding and correlating the myriad of seemingly unrelated facts of organic chemistry. Much of this material could be appropriately categorized as belonging to a "Department of Fuller Explanation," and rightly so because it represents a real attempt to achieve a genuine understanding of difficult points of fact and theory. Examples include rather detailed discussions of the properties of solvents, the differences between resonance and molecular-orbital treatments of valence, ionization strengths of acids, the origin of spin-spin splitting and kinetic effects in nuclear magnetic resonance spectra, reaction mechanisms, photosynthesis, carbohydrate metabolism, peptide-sequence determinations and peptide syntheses, enzyme action, and reactions of transition-metal compounds. It will not be possible to cover many of these topics in the usual one-year course, but many options are possible, as well as opportunities for individual studies. Many individuals contributed to the progress and content of this edition. Special thanks are due for the suggestions of the reviewers, in particular to Professor George E. Hall of Mount Holyoke College, who read and commented not only on the whole of the first draft but also a much-revised second draft. Helpful suggestions also were received from Professors Robert E. Ireland, Robert G. Bergman, W. A. Goddard III, and John H. Richards of the California Institute of Technology, Jerome Berson of Yale University, Ernst Berliner of Bryn Mawr College, Emil T. Kaiser of the University of Chicago, J. E. Guillet of the University of Toronto, and Dr. John Thirtle of Eastman Kodak. The students at both Caltech and the University of California at Irvine participated in class-testing the first draft and contributed significantly to the final draft. We owe them much for their patience and helpful suggestions. Over the years, many teachers and students have taken time to send us their comments regarding the first edition, and many of these suggestions have been very helpful in preparing the second edition. Also, we are indebted to our respective colleagues for providing the encouragement that makes an endeavor of this kind possible. The revised drafts were prepared in part while one of us was on leave at Stanford University and the other at the University of Hawaii. We are very appreciative of the substantial assistance and hospitality provided by these universities. The manuscript and its interminable revisions were typed with skill and patience by Ms. Rose Meldrum. Our thanks also go to Ms. Margaret Swingle. It was a pleasure to work with Mr. Georg Klatt who did the final artwork, and Ms. Mary Forkner who was the production supervisor. The index was prepared with a HP9830 calculator system, and it would never have been possible to alphabetize and edit the 7500 entries without the help of equipment loaned by Mr. Stanley Kurzet of Infotek Systems. Special thanks are due to Drs. James L. Hall and Jean D. Lassila (as well as Ms. Patricia Sullivan) for their seemingly tireless efforts and continual contributions through the various stages of editing and proofreading. Finally, the patience of our families during the several years that it has taken to write and produce this book is worthy of very particular mention and appreciation. As before, we will be pleased to receive corrections and suggestions from our readers for further improvement of later editions. John D. Roberts Marjorie C. Caserio May 15,1977
  • A L Tchougréeff
Tchougréeff, A.L. Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 1999, 1, 1051-1060.