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Understanding Niger Delta’s violence from a World-Ecology perspective



The conflict in the Niger Delta region (Nigeria) has become one of the most environmentally and humanly devastating contexts on the African continent since the 1960s. The network of different actors involved in this context forms a complex web in which multiple and asymmetrical dynamics and interactions can be identified. From Jason Moore’s World-Ecology perspective (2015), the article suggests that this complex interaction should not be understood as a mere postcolonial episode in the context of globalisation, but as a historical network of relations. This network, in which human and extra-human natures are intertwined, is key to understanding the process of capital accumulation in the region and the resulting capitalogenic violence since the 16th century. Against this background, the article also attempts to counter the tendency to interpret violence and social resistance in the Niger Delta region as mere criminal phenomena or from narratives such as the “resource curse” that has simplified the multidimensionality of violence. In this sense, the paper analyses the different forms, strategies and meanings through which local resistance movements have tried to safeguard and re-appropriate their livelihoods and the commons in recent decades in the face of the growing presence of multinational oil corporations.
Understanding Niger Delta’s
violence from a World-Ecology
Blanquerna-URL School of Communication and International Relations, Spain
ABSTRACT: The conflict in the Niger Delta region (Nigeria) has become one of the most
environmentally and humanly devastating contexts on the African continent since the
1960s. The network of different actors involved in this context forms a complex web in
which multiple and asymmetrical dynamics and interactions can be identified. From Jason
Moore’s World-Ecology perspective (2015), the article suggests that this complex
interaction should not be understood as a mere postcolonial episode in the context of
globalisation, but as a historical network of relations. This network, in which human and
extra-human natures are intertwined, is key to understanding the process of capital
accumulation in the region and the resulting capitalogenic violence since the 16th century.
Against this background, the article also attempts to counter the tendency to interpret
violence and social resistance in the Niger Delta region as mere criminal phenomena or
from narratives such as the “resource curse” that has simplified the multidimensionality
of violence. In this sense, the paper analyses the different forms, strategies and meanings
through which local resistance movements have tried to safeguard and re-appropriate their
livelihoods and the commons in recent decades in the face of the growing presence of
multinational oil corporations.
KEYWORDS: Violence, Niger Delta, World-Ecology, Oil, Capitalism.
Revista de Estudios en Seguridad Internacional, Vol. 7, No. 1, (2021), pp. 29-43.
ISSN: 2444-6157. DOI:
Revista de Estudios en Seguridad Internacional 30
Violence in the Niger Delta has been deemed by the literature on conflict analysis as an
“intractable conflict” (Owolabi & Okwechime, 2007), due to the persistence, severity and
complexity of its dynamics. Located in the southernmost part of Nigeria and covering an
area of some 70,000 square kilometres, the Niger Delta is the largest river delta in Africa
and the third largest in the world. It comprises nine oil-producing states and is home to
about 40 ethnic groups speaking 250 languages and dialects (Niger Delta Regional
Development Master Plan, 2006). Since the 1960s, which coincided with Nigerian
independence, the existence and extraction of oil have become one of the central elements
in the economic and political life of the country, and in particular of this region.
Nowadays, oil revenues account for 80 percent of the federal budget, 95 percent of export
receipts and 90 percent of foreign exchange earnings (Babatunde, 2020).
The extraction and commercialisation of oil, however, has led to environmental
devastation in the Niger Delta. According to Kew and Phillips (2007: 15960), 1.5 million
tons of oil have been spilled into the Niger Delta over the past 50 years, making the region
“one of the five most polluted locations on earth”. Likewise, since the finding of the oil,
conflicts between petroleum multinationals, private security companies, state and federal
authorities and “militias” and armed groups have followed one after the other. This web
of actors thus highlights a complex interconnection between violence and oil resources in
the region (Watts, 2006). Despite attempts and strategies to resolve the dispute, the Niger
Delta continues to be one of the most volatile African contexts today, with multiple forms
of violence affecting all of its communities and groups.
The dominant narratives that have explained this conflict, however, have tended to
understand violence in the Niger Delta simplistically. On the one hand, they tend to
confine the understanding of the conflict to the post-colonial context, with the discovery
of oil. On the other hand, such discourses tend to interpret the nature of the violence as
an essentially criminal phenomenon, whose main perpetrators are a set of local militias
of disaffected youths, in what represents a context-adapted version of the so-called
“resource curse” narrative (Collier, 2007).
This article attempts to confront these two main postulates from the perspective of
“World-Ecology”, as proposed, above all, by Jason Moore (2015). This perspective can
be understood as an open discussion that seeks to understand capitalism as a world
system based on the appropriation of nature to ensure a continuous process of
accumulation” (Molinero-Gerbeau, Avallone & Moore, 2021: 5). From this perspective,
in the first part, the article understands violence in the Niger Delta not as a recent
phenomenon, but as a new phase in the historical process of accumulation of cheap nature,
energy and lives. In the case of this Nigerian region, the slave trade or the palm oil trade
must be understood as part of a long-standing process of accumulation that has been going
on for centuries. Following Moore’s approach, the article problematises the
understanding of nature and humanity as two distinct units, in which nature is conceived
as a mere object, or environmental devastation as a mere externality of human action (see
also Torrent, this special issue). The text presents the interaction between the complex
web of actors of all kinds and nature as a symbiotic and interdependent relationship that
affects each other. This relationship, it is argued, results in a “capitalogenic violence” in
which different impacts and responsibilities must be distinguished.
The second part of the text discusses the dominant discourses that criminalise political
resistance to the presence of oil multinationals or the role of the state. Despite attempts to
promote some policies that guarantee respect for the human and environmental rights of
31 Understanding Niger Delta’s violence…
local communities, it is argued that such policies do not challenge the process of
accumulation and expropriation of resources. There is, therefore, no supposed curse of
natural resources, but rather the constant commodification and dispossession of these
resources in the hands of global actors and chains. It is this dynamic that explains the
consolidation of the militarised and securitised strategy of the state and private security
companies contracted by oil multinationals as the main response to local resistance and
protest. In short, the article advocates for interpreting the complex meanings of local
resistance as part of a strategy of re-appropriation of resources, as various authors have
argued (Obi, 2010; among others).
Much of the literature that has analysed the conflict in the Niger Delta considers the
discovery of oil in 1956 as a turning point. Whether from a criminalising perspective of
resistance and violence, as in the case of the “resource curse” narrative (Collier &
Hoeffler, 1998; Ross, 1999), or from other more critical views, the growing presence of
multinational oil companies since then, starting with the pioneering Shell-BP, has tended
to be seen as the beginning of a scenario in which oil extraction becomes the main locus
of interaction between transnational and local actors. In many cases, this analysis is also
accompanied by a narrative that considers the fragility of the Nigerian post-colonial state
as a central feature in explaining the conflict.
This view, however, does not help us understand the complexity of the conflict.
Understanding the late 1950s as the origin of the violence in the Niger Delta is
problematic in three ways. First, it reduces the conflict to what we might call a mere
postcolonial episode. Secondly, it places an excessive focus on internal actors for their
new protagonism in this new decolonised context. Finally, it ignores elements of the
country’s history and the insertion of the continent, and of this region in particular, in the
context of global capitalism as a whole. It is true that the literature that has analysed
African conflictivity in recent years has emphasised the need to understand the colonial
legacy, and even the Atlantic slave trade, as relevant to the present in many African
contexts. However, the literature on the Niger Delta abounds in analyses that fall into this
short-term reductionism.
In this sense, Jason Moore’s World-Ecology perspective offers us relevant elements to
go beyond this limited vision of the temporality of conflict in this region. Far from being
something recent, the author warns us, “the processes that have turned our breakfasts, our
cars and our working days into a world-historical activity have their origins in the ‘long’
16th century (1451-1648)” (Moore, 2015: 22). This “longue durée” of historical
capitalism, as he claims, highlights the relationship between cyclical movements (the
phases of capitalism) and the accumulation of socio-ecological contradictions in life,
capital and power over the last five centuries.
Nigerian scholars such as Charles Ukeje (2011), Cyril Obi (2010, 2012) and Modesta
Tochi Alozie (2020), to give a few examples, have offered a “long lights” view of the
conflict in the Niger Delta. For all of them, the interplay between the various processes
of capital accumulation, the natures and power of the various actors that have historically
interacted in this scenario is key. Ukeje (2011: 84) puts it as follows:
Many scholars have inadvertently hinged their narratives of the multifaceted crises
facing the Niger Delta [...] when crude oil was first discovered in commercial quantities
Revista de Estudios en Seguridad Internacional 32
in 1956, after which production and exports began in 1958. Such analyses mostly offer
only a partial and incomplete explanation that can only be remedied by historicizing the
changing political economy of the region from the 1450s onwards. It was from then that
inhabitants of the region began to engage with a succession of European explorers,
missionaries, slavers, colonial mandarins and post-independence state authorities, to
produce the unique blend of social and political relationships that is evident to date.
From the Slave trade to the palm oil trade
There are three major global processes in which capital accumulation, natures and power
were key in this region: the slave trade, the palm oil trade and, in a final phase, oil
production. With regards to the Atlantic Slave Trade that lasted for three centuries, but
which was particularly intense between the mid-17th century and the mid-18th century,
some authors claim that the Niger Delta sea networks played a crucial role in it. Before
the Slavery Abolition Act of 1833, more than three million African slaves had been
shipped to Europe and America through the Niger Delta coast (in Alozie, 2020: 90). There
is much debate in African studies on the impact of an episode as distant a priori as the
slave trade on the political, social and economic present landscape of the countries that
suffered most from it. However, from a critical perspective, it is assumed that the impacts
were multiple (depopulation, culture of violence promoted by the “predatory regimes”,
feeling of inferiority and moral trauma, etc.) and at different levels (economic, social,
political or psychological) (see, among others, Poku & Mdee, 2011).
Authors such as Stefania Barca (2020) draw attention to the importance of the
economic system of exploitation implemented through the transatlantic slave trade and
the enslavement of human beings, without which - she holds - the original accumulation
of capital that generated the subsequent development of neoliberal capitalism would not
have been possible. In this regard, the late burkinabe historian Joseph Ki-Zerbo (2011:
327-328) notes:
Europe used black workers as accumulators of wealth. Thanks to the considerable
profits from the black trade -300 percent to 800 percent- the high-level trade of Europeans
could self-finance its activities and create various processing industries, the birth of which
marked the birth of big industry. In terms of labour-capital and raw materials, Africa has
thus contributed, against its will, to the economic take-off of Europe, continuing in this
role throughout the colonial or neo-colonial period.
After the abolition of the transatlantic slave trade in 1833, trade relations between
Europe and the Niger Delta continued through the palm oil trade. Critical literature
analysing the current conflict in the Niger Delta often refers to it as a key process for
understanding the present, which can be understood in parallel to the process of British
colonisation of what is now Nigeria. According to Alozie (2020: 91), in the latter part of
the 19th century the demand for palm oil trade grew and it was a demand that the
industrial revolution and the increasing demand for natural oil in Europe had inspired.
The old continent was struggling with its future, and just as the labours of African male
slaves contributed to the wealth and development of pre-modern Europe, Europe
desperately needed the palm oil from West Africa to modernise (Watts, 2008). For Obi
(2012), the connection between the dispossession of the wealth of the African continent
and the growth of industrial capitalism in Europe and North America is plain to see. This
unequal exchange, the author points out, in the case of the Niger Delta, led to the
integration of this region into global trade as a source of palm oil that did not benefit the
people of the region in any way, but led to the exploitation of the region’s resources for
the benefit of Europe and to violent resistance.
33 Understanding Niger Delta’s violence…
This trade had not only economic, but also political and social implications. The
control of the palm oil trade was instrumental in the British conquest of the region as a
precursor to the eventual colonisation of Nigeria in 1914. The creation of Nigeria and its
division into three regions meant the subjugation of the Niger Delta trading states and the
local business class. Furthermore, the people of the Niger Delta were relegated to ethnic
minority status in relation to the numerically superior ethnic groups that dominated
political life in the former Western (Yoruba), Eastern (Igbo) and Northern (Hausa-Fulani)
regions of Nigeria (Obi & Rustad, 2011: 5). These elements, as in many other places on
the African continent, contributed to the construction of grievances among ethnic groups
that underlie many of the internal conflicts that have taken place in the country since then.
Both the slave trade and palm oil trade, Ukiwo (2011: 20) holds, required community
participation as they entailed massive mobilization of local labour and capital. Surpluses
and rents which accrued to the local elite contributed to class formation and the
consolidation of dynastic rule in some of the prominent communities.
From the perspective of World-Ecology, moreover, the subjugation of nature and
societies for commercial and profit-making purposes, in what Moore (2015) calls “cheap
nature”, will be key to the process of accumulation in Europe at that time. This
subjugation is based on the dehumanisation and commodification of people and the
conception of nature as a mere object, something that, for this author, is functional to the
configuration of capitalism. The discovery of oil in the late 1950s initiated a third global
process that continues to the present day, in which the dynamics of today’s violence are
embedded. From the Ecology-World perspective, understanding this “historical
coherence of capitalism”, as Moore calls it, since the 16th century (and in the case of the
Niger Delta even since the 15th century), is key to any analysis of the current dynamics.
Oil, Accumulation and Violence in the Post-Colonial Context of the Niger Delta
Although oil was discovered in 1956, it was not until the mid-1960s, with Nigeria now
independent, that crude oil exports began to gain prominence and to undermine revenues
from other sources such as agriculture. In the early stages, the oil industry in the Niger
Delta was dominated mainly by Shell-BP, which was later joined by other multinational
oil companies. Local participation and the ability of the national authorities to regulate
the business was minimal until the 1970s (Obi & Rustad, 2011). From then on, as oil
commercialisation became the country’s main asset, state authorities nationalised the oil
profits, generating a huge level of resentment and frustration among the local population
of the Niger Delta as they watched the oil profits remain in the hands of the Nigerian state
elites and the big corporations.
The various local resistance movements, whose motivations will be analysed in the
following section, began to proliferate in response to the perceived marginalisation they
already suffered as minority groups in the new post-colonial context, and to the
dispossession of their natural wealth. These groups, most notably MOSOP (Movement
for the Survival of Ogoni People) or IYC (Ijaw Youth Council), were characterised by
the use of peaceful means. For Charles Ukeje (2011: 85), however:
Conflict began to brew and escalate during the 1990s, against the backdrop of past
failed promises, growing marginalization and frustration that reliance on non-bellicose
community-based actions to draw attention to their plight had yielded little, if any,
positive result. The groundswell of new community- and grass-roots-based protests began
to grow during the late 1980s, exacerbated by the biting effects of the IMF/World Bank-
imposed Structural Adjustment Programme (SAP). At the same time, nascent grassroots
Revista de Estudios en Seguridad Internacional 34
protests sprouted in the context of domestic and post-Cold War global discourses on
human, environmental and minority rights, the former deriving from a nationwide
clamour for a quick return to civilian rule, and the latter to do with attempts to bring about
the empowerment of minority and environmentally challenged groups around the world.
According to Ukoha Ukiwo (2011), in a few years, the Niger Delta witnessed the
transition from a peaceful and civil protest to a violent movement that gradually
intensified its activities and strategies (sabotage of oil installations, kidnapping of
expatriates, ...) against the presence of multinationals and state authorities.
Apart from the proliferation of various armed groups and militias since then, violence
in the Niger Delta has also been characterised by the multiplicity of actors and instruments
that make up a complex network that, for instance, Michael Watts (2006) has called the
“oil complex”. This notion connects with concepts such as “Global assemblages” (Sassen
2006; Abrahamsen, 2017) or “Networked wars” (Duffield, 2001) which, precisely, aim
to highlight the multinodal, complex and networked nature of violence in contemporary
armed conflicts. In this regard, Watts sees the Nigerian state as interacting in a network
with: i) state and federal military forces; ii) local and global civil society organisations,
whether through transnational advocacy groups concerned with human rights and
transparency of the entire oil sector, or through local social movements and NGOs
fighting the consequences of the oil industry and the accountability of the state; iii)
transnational oil companies - the majors, independents and the major service industry; iv)
local political forces, such as ethnic militias, paramilitaries, separatist movements, etc.;
v) multilateral development agencies (e.g., the International Monetary Fund, the
International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, etc.); vi) financial corporations
such as export credit agencies as key intermediaries in the construction and expansion of
energy sectors in oil-producing states, or among others, vii) drug trafficking networks or
private security companies.
In this last area alone, that of private security, Rita Abrahamsen and Michael C.
Williams (2009: 10) have shown, for instance, how in the case of the Niger Delta between
1500 and 2000 private security companies were deployed in this region, employing more
than one hundred thousand people who participate in the complex dynamics of violence.
Both authors have pointed out how private security in the Niger Delta plays an important
role in securing not only the operations of oil companies, but also, by extension, the
authority of the federal government, which depends on the revenues from these
According to Obi and Rustad (2011: 2), the reality of the Niger Delta has devolved
thus into a vicious cycle of exploitation, protest, repression, resistance, militarisation and
the descent into a volatile mix of insurgent violence and criminality. The human and
environmental impact since then has been extraordinary. On the latter point, for example,
in recent years several reports have warned of the extraordinary impact of extractivism
on the Niger Delta ecosystems that local populations need to survive (UNDP, 2006;
UNEP, 2011). More recently, the Bayelsa State Oil and Environmental Commission
(2019: 11) published a report echoing the scale of the catastrophe for local populations:
Hundreds of thousands of people in Bayelsa have been forced to live on contaminated
land, drink and fish in contaminated water and breathe contaminated air. Mortality and
morbidity rates have risen sharply, as has the incidence of chronic disease, in
communities without the resources to cope. Countless lives and livelihoods are being
destroyed. Thousands of communities and tens if not hundreds of thousands of people
have seen their land and fishing grounds poisoned. Neonatal death and child malnutrition
has risen, and hundreds of thousands have been forced into abject poverty.
35 Understanding Niger Delta’s violence…
The complex webs of violence, however, demand a nuanced analysis based on the
recognition of the confluence or interaction of many factors - national, regional,
international and transnational - rather than the imposition of a single narrative or “cause”
as responsible for the violence in the oil-rich but impoverished region (Obi & Rustad,
2011). From a World-Ecology perspective, it is important to emphasise the asymmetrical
character of violence. Environmental and human devastation is not the mere consequence
of armed confrontation between the different actors in this network, or the primary
responsibility of local militias and local groups that are considered “criminals”. Violence
does not have, in this regard, an “anthropogenic” character, which places equal
responsibility on all human action, or in this case, on all the actors involved in this
network. The violence in the Niger Delta is, from our perspective, a capitalogenic
violence, that is to say, driven by a capitalist system that historically accumulates by
dispossessing on the basis of a given power structure (see also Hardt, this special issue).
This historical dynamic, moreover, is not only responsible for fostering direct violence
(devastation of the environment and ecosystems, deaths resulting from armed clashes,
etc.), but has historically produced structural violence, systematising a system of
inequalities and injustices, as well as a culture of violence that legitimises the current
militarised dynamics in the region. As will be argued below, any conflict transformation
strategy must emphasise the structural and cultural violence elements that underlie this
capitalogenic violence. Yet conventional responses have generally insisted on addressing
aspects of the conflict that are very superficial and essentially concerned with dampening
direct violence.
A second narrative that has been prevalent in the interpretation of violence in the Niger
Delta is one that understands it as a criminal and post-political phenomenon, essentially
centred on the role, in this case, of local militias since the 1990s. This interpretation is not
unique to the Nigerian context. Most media, political and even academic interpretations
of post-Cold War African armed conflicts have advocated understanding violence on the
African continent from monocausal and very simplistic narratives, in which identity
(Rwanda), the resource curse (Sierra Leone, Democratic Republic of Congo) or the role
of the failed state (Somalia) are considered central elements in explaining the origin of
armed violence (see Ruiz-Giménez, 2012). The critical literature on conflict analysis has
warned of the serious impact of this trend. The interpretation of a conflict in a certain way
also ends up determining the type of solutions offered at the state, regional or international
level (Mateos, 2020).
From conflict resolution strategies to conflict militarisation strategies in the Niger Delta
In the case of violence in the Niger Delta, conflict resolution strategies have been very
superficial and little oriented towards addressing the structural elements that have to do
with the processes of accumulation by dispossession of global chains. In recent years,
there have been some attempts to pacify and negotiate a way out with armed groups and
militias. Babatunde Ahonsi (2011: 36-39) identifies three broad phases of the official
response to the crisis and conflict to date: i) 196089, this period was featured by the
early recognition by the federal government of the special developmental attention that
the region deserved, establishing the so-called Niger Delta Development Board (NDDB)
Revista de Estudios en Seguridad Internacional 36
to manage the developmental challenges of the region that was not able to achieve much;
ii) 199099, a period that witnessed the intensification of discontent and protest and in
which the governmental authorities set up the Oil Mineral Producing Areas Development
Commission (OMPADEC) that allocated 3 percent of federal oil revenue to tackle the
developmental challenges of the oil-bearing communities, and iii) 2000-present, a period
characterised by the decision to grant more benefits to local communities (increasing the
so-called “derivation principle” to 13 percent of the wealth), the creation of a ministry for
the Niger Delta and the granting of an amnesty to imprisoned members of armed groups
and militias.
The Amnesty program provided training and reintegration opportunities for
demobilised combatants and led to more than 30,000 alleged members joining the
amnesty between October 2009 and May 2011 (ICG, 2015). This fact was hailed as a
major achievement of Umaru Musa Yar'Adua's government (Ukiwo, 2011). Although the
amnesty, as well as other initiatives deployed in this period (NDDC or the Ministry for
the region, mainly) were considered important milestones in the pacification of the region,
the proliferation of new militant groups has revived violence almost permanently and
highlighted the fragility of peace. Moreover, problems related to corruption, poor inter-
institutional coordination or political interference have also derailed many of these
measures (Alozie, 2020). Analyses that have addressed the difficulties of peacebuilding
in the region, however, have raised two fundamental problems that critical peace studies
have been suggesting in order to understand the unsustainability and lack of legitimacy
of these initiatives: on the one hand, the tendency to boost top-down strategies that do not
include the participation of communities and affected local actors; on the other hand, the
inability to address the underlying issues (Babatunde, 2020; Obi & Rustad, 2011).
Oil companies have also been subject to a global debate on corporate social
responsibility, through initiatives such as “Publish what you pay”, which have sought to
promote transparency, respect for human rights in contexts of conflict and compensation
for affected communities (Idemudia, 2011). Likewise, various international resolutions
have condemned the actions of some of the companies present in the Niger Delta. The
networking of local civil society organisations with regional and international civil
society organisations has been instrumental in exposing the responsibilities of
multinational oil companies and in increasing the national, regional and international
pressure and demand for accountability on them.
All of these initiatives, however, do not take into account the capitalogenic character
of violence, nor do they have the capacity to address the structural elements that are found
in the processes of accumulation by dispossession that affect the Niger Delta. They are
essentially reactive measures (based on ex-post compensations) and aimed at regulating
the impact of multinationals on the local context. Global governance initiatives, such as
the aforementioned “Publish what you pay”, or others such as the so-called “Global
Compact” or the “United Nations Guiding Principles”, have made the abuses committed
by oil multinationals more visible and have forced these companies to incorporate this
issue into their modus operandi. However, all these global governance initiatives, which
have a multi-stakeholder and multi-level character, do not achieve a real readjustment of
global production chains. On the one hand, they represent a cosmetic change for many of
these companies (greenwashing), which continue to be based on economic growth and
profit as their main guideline. On the other hand, they do not imply a questioning of the
dynamics of accumulation by dispossession, based on a culture of extreme consumption
that is only possible, as Moore points out, through the use, in this case, of cheap nature,
energy and labour. Beyond corporate social responsibility policies, a real transformation
37 Understanding Niger Delta’s violence…
requires, at the level of economic governance, questioning and regulating the very process
of these global chains. At the cultural and social level, it means tackling a system based
on a consumer culture that generates winners and losers.
Likewise, the limited results obtained by these measures are accompanied by a
growing militarisation of the response in an attempt to contain local discontent over the
effects of the dispossession of their resources and the impact on ecosystems. According
to Obi (2008: 428), the globalisation of Niger Delta oil has been accompanied by a process
of securitisation, in which global hegemonic forces regard oil as a “globally necessary”
vital resource, whose continuous “uninterrupted” flow along with the security of
(transnational) oil investments and oil workers must be protected by all means, including
military means. To understand the factors underpinning the securitisation, and ultimately
militarisation, of the Niger Delta, Ukeje (2011) argues, it is important not to forget the
character of the colonial state and its post-colonial reincarnation.
The strong military presence in both areas has entailed a strategy based on repression,
intimidation, abuse, mass arrests, detentions, beatings, torture, killings and destruction.
In the view of Agbonifo and Aghedo (2012), there is no doubt that militarisation has
aggravated the spiral of violence. We cannot forget that the execution of Ken Saro-Wiwa
and eight other Ogoni environmental activists in November 1995, based on fabricated
charges by the Sani Abacha regime (1993-1998), was the beginning of the intensification
and systematisation of violence, which would escalate in the late 1990s. However, it is
clear to Babatunde (2020: 16) that the main strategy so far of the Nigerian government
and international actors has been militarisation: “The government seems to rely on the
brutal force more than the concerted commitment to tackle the mounting environmental
and developmental problems facing the region.” This explains why a considerable
proportion of the federal government’s budget allocated to the Niger Delta, at least in
2008 (one of the years with the highest intensity of violence), went to military and police
security (Ukiwo, 2011).
“Resource curse” or “resource control”?
Violence in the Niger Delta, especially since the late 1990s, has tended to be interpreted
as a criminal phenomenon (see Watts, 2004). The emergence in 2006 of the so-called
Movement for the Emancipation of the Niger Delta (MEND) marked a turning point in
the systematisation and intensification of actions against the oil complex, aimed literally
at destroying the Nigerian government’s capacity to export oil (Ako, 2011).
The proliferation of groups, guerrillas or militias in this context has even led some
authors to try to categorise such diversity and differentiate the nature and characteristics
of the various groups. Francis, Deirdre, and Rossiasco (in Aghedo & Osumah, 2014: 217),
for example, distinguish between what they term as: i) Advocacy groups (agitate for
substantive ethnic and communal demands using non-violent methods); ii) Cults and
confraternities (main players in petty crimes and local kidnapping for ransom, they are
not politically motivated but frequently serve as mercenaries or allies of other armed
groups and may join political militias during elections); iii) Community-based ‘vigilante’
(they assure communal defence and protection from criminals or predatory enemies); iv)
Militias (sustain themselves with oil bunkering, well-paid security contracts for
politicians or oil companies, political enforcement, armed services, piracy, or trafficking
in drugs and weapons), and v) Umbrella militias: MEND.
Revista de Estudios en Seguridad Internacional 38
This process of intensification and diversification of violent actions in the Niger Delta
since then has given more space to narratives that focus on the presence of natural
resources and that stereotype all these groups, as Alozie (2020: 21) suggests, as ‘restive’,
‘criminal’, ‘gangs’, ‘terrorist groups’, hell-bent on destabilising the region, largely
because of ‘greed’ and ‘poor education’.
The case of the Niger Delta has attracted the attention of all those authors who have
inserted themselves into the narrative of the “resource abundance curse”, from the
different variants: the “honey pot” narrative, which directly links resources, greed and
violence; the “Dutch disease” narrative, which analyses the indirect link between natural
resources, violence and the rentier state; and the “separatist incentive” variant, which
focuses on the relationship between resource wealth and so-called “secessionist” wars
(see Mateos, 2011). These narratives have offered some interesting elements, such as, for
example, the visibility of the networks and actors in the global economy of contemporary
conflicts, although, on many occasions, their authors have tended to caricature,
depoliticise and criminalise the multiple and complex meanings of violence, especially
on the African continent. The various works of economist Paul Collier have undoubtedly
been one of the main exponents of such narratives. In his work, The Bottom Billion,
Collier (2007: 30-31) frames the conflict in the Niger Delta in the following terms:
[People in the Niger Delta] with a sense of grievance were no more likely to take part
in violent protest than those who were not aggrieved. So what did make people more
likely to engage in political violence?…well, being young, being uneducated, and being
without dependents… [There] was no relationship between social amenities that a district
possessed and its propensity to political violence. Instead the violence occurs in the
districts with oil wells…
From the critical literature that has analysed this Nigerian region, the “resource curse”
narrative is reductionist, and in turn, damaging, as it does not help to articulate any truly
transformative strategies. For Alozie (2020), for example, this understanding of youth
violence obscures the decisive impact of local and international capitalist networks, the
pre-colonial and the colonial legacy of exploitation and cultural factors in shaping local
violence. For the author, instead of considering this violence as a form of youth criminal
behaviour, in direct allusion to Collier, it is necessary to understand it as the interaction
between multi-level factors. Political ecology, she suggests, believes that social relations
are shaped by the interaction between humans and the biophysical environment, and that
this interaction can inform people’s identities and shape political and economic processes.
Because humans and the biophysical environment co-produce each other, transformations
of the latter can shape social relations in violent ways.
Critical peace and conflict studies have insisted on understanding the nature of today’s
armed conflicts as multi-causal and complex (Ruiz-Giménez, 2012). It is not only a matter
of understanding the different actors or structural factors that explain violence, but also,
as the “anthropology of war” reminds us (see, for example, Richards, 2005, or in the case
of the Niger Delta, Bøas, 2011), of understanding the multiple and overlapping
motivations that lead different individuals to engage in violence in a particular territory.
Ukiwo (2011), in this case, has argued for understanding violence from Frances Stewart’s
(2008) theory of “horizontal inequalities”, seeing perceptions of alienation and exclusion
as central to the shaping of grievances.
Cyril Obi and Siri Aas Rustad (2011) or Rhuks Ako (2011), among others, have
contrasted the resource curse narrative with what they have termed the “resource control”
view, in which the “politics of dispossession” are central:
39 Understanding Niger Delta’s violence…
The quest for resource control by the people of the Niger Delta lies at the heart of the
violence in the region. Resource control is essentially based on claims of ownership,
access and equity, and refers to the desire that the region be left to manage its natural
resources, particularly its oil, and pay taxes and/or royalties to the federal government.
The notion of ‘resource control’ is grounded in the historical struggles of the people of
the Niger Delta for self-determination and local autonomy, particularly in reversing
decades of perceived federal marginalization in the distribution of power, and from the
benefits accruing from the exploitation of the natural resources in the region. (Ako, 2011:
Latin American Ecofeminism invites us to understand resistance movements against
extractivism in a way that links with the perspective of World-Ecology. Resistance, in
this sense, is interpreted as a form of re-appropriation of subtracted livelihoods and as a
way in which land, resources and the body are an intertwined whole that confronts
capital’s attempts at dispossession. Cruz and Bayón (2020) thus speak of the “Body-
territory” to recognise one’s own body in connection with the fabric of life and in
interdependence with the territory they inhabit. Women, Navarro-Trujillos and Linsalata
(2021) also point out, have not only been identifying the dispossessions, exploitations and
affectations of the territory-land of which they are part, but also those logics of
domination over their own bodies in their physical, emotional and spiritual dimensions,
finding that there is a continuum and that nothing is separate. In a similar vein, the
Nigerian scholar, Oluwatoyin Oluwaniyi (2011), relates women's protests in the Niger
Delta to the double exploitation of women, first by men, and second as a result of their
exclusion from the benefits of the oil economy, including their victimisation by state
repression of the protests. For Oluwaniyi, the struggle for resource control and self-
determination of ethnic minorities in the region has a gendered component. In addition to
fighting against male and class domination, women play an important role in the
resistance in the Niger Delta (see also Mújika, this special issue).
This perspective, therefore, questions the simplistic and hyper-rationalist narrative,
which focuses on greed as a central aspect inserted in a context of enormous material and
cultural precariousness. From a World-Ecology perspective (but not exclusively), it
advocates repoliticising, historicising and complexifying the interpretation of violence,
based on two main aspects: i) understanding the role of elements that have to do with the
structure and functioning of global chains historically in the context of global capitalism;
ii) in turn, also understanding, as Alozie (2020) suggested, the elements of agency that
seek to understand the motivations of those individuals who participate in the different
armed groups or militias, also related to a complex social and cultural interaction that end
up shaping and informing their priorities, perceptions and decisions.
This article has attempted to question the dominant narratives in the interpretation of
violence in the case of the Niger Delta region from the perspective of the World-Ecology.
On the one hand, the article considers that the context of violence circumscribed by oil
exploitation is rooted in the long history of the region’s insertion into global chains since
the beginning of capitalism, first during the slave trade, and second, with the
commercialisation of palm oil. The historical interaction between power structures, the
dynamics of wealth accumulation, and the human and environmental impacts since then,
generate a capitalogenic violence that generates structural and cultural violence that goes
far beyond the direct violence generated since the late 1950s with the discovery of oil. It
is this long-standing dynamic that helps us understand how the forces and actors that have
Revista de Estudios en Seguridad Internacional 40
shaped global capitalism since then have moulded nature and the environment. In turn, to
what extent this reality should not be conceived as a mere externality but as a reality that
has also co-produced the different political and social processes that have characterised
the region since then, such as resistance and the proliferation of local groups and militias.
The second part of the article has argued for a move away from the resource curse
narrative, usually adopted in the political discourses of major international actors or in
media interpretations. Rather than being a problem of resource abundance in a context of
poverty, lack of opportunity and illiteracy, the World-Ecology perspective, together with,
for example, Eco-feminism, helps us to understand violence in a much more complex and
politicised sense. The critical literature, with a strong presence also of Nigerian scholars,
suggests understanding local resistance as an attempt to re-appropriate historically
expropriated livelihoods. And in turn, understanding this struggle as a connection of
resistance to the territory that these communities and groups inhabit. The article, however,
is also committed to approaching this whole phenomenon from a broader perspective, in
which it is possible to understand the multiplicity of motivations based on interactions in
specific social or cultural contexts.
The World-Ecology perspective is incorporated as a key discourse, highly suggestive
and complementary to critical conflict analysis and peace studies, which in recent years
have questioned the negative impact of the dominant monocausal narratives, and have
tried to advocate a complex and multicausal view. From such a perspective, we are
challenged in a suggestive and urgent way to overcome the Cartesian dualism between
nature and society, internalised as an insurmountable prism even from perspectives that
are highly critical of dominant discourses. The Niger Delta is thus a good context in which
to continue thinking and reflecting on the causes, dynamics and meanings of armed
violence on the African continent.
Oscar Mateos es profesor de Relaciones Internacionales en Blanquerna-Universitat
Ramon Llull (Barcelona) e investigador principal del grupo de investigación
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Full-text available
Las reflexiones que aquí se presentan nacen de las preocupaciones del área de investigación de “entramados comunitarios y formas de lo político” en torno a lo que hoy en América Latina significa defender la vida para un amplio y variado abanico de procesos organizativos y luchas comunitarias en medio de las renovadas dinámicas de apropiación, despojo, devastación y degradación de las naturalezas humanas y no humanas que las violentas lógicas de acumulación impulsan sin parar. Esta inquietud nos ha llevado a la tarea de dotarnos de una mirada analítica, ecológica, holística y relacional en torno a la noción de vida, que hemos ido componiendo en diálogo con la perspectiva de la ecología-mundo, la ecología política latinoamericana y la apuesta de algunas tradiciones del feminismo por poner en el centro la vida. En este texto, a modo de síntesis parciales, presentamos lo que, desde nuestras propias inquietudes políticas, implica pensar la vida, el Capitaloceno y las disputas planteadas por una multiplicidad de luchas en defensa de lo común con base en diversas investigaciones en diferentes países de América Latina, en particular en México y Bolivia, pero también en Ecuador, Guatemala, Colombia y Uruguay. El texto se compone de tres apartados. En el primero, explicamos qué entendemos por condición de interdependencia y cómo, a partir de esta idea, recuperamos la noción de trama/tejido de la vida propuesta por diferentes autores. En el segundo, nos preguntamos por la vida que el proyecto moderno-capitalista ha ido produciendo a partir de la lógica de dominio de carácter antropocéntrico, patriarcal y colonial y los modos en los que se ha buscado reorganizar la condición de interdependencia, poniendo a trabajar a las naturalezas humanas y no humanas para garantizar la lógica de acumulación. Un ejemplo a través del cual ilustramos estas dinámicas es la gestión capitalista de las relaciones de interdependencia en torno al agua en tiempos neoliberales. Y finalmente, exponemos sobre la base de numerosas investigaciones, enfocadas principalmente en experiencias comunitarias en oposición a algún proyecto extractivista, nuestro acercamiento al antagonismo social y la disputa que entablan las luchas por lo común en América Latina para defender la vida y gestionar las relaciones de interdependencia en contradicción con los términos de coproducción capitalistas.
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Using the case of groundwater pollution in Nigeria’s Niger Delta, this paper examines the shifting contours of primitive accumulation in the region. Based on two years of ethnographic research, the paper unravels the losses experienced by individuals and their dependents whose privately owned sources of water were polluted. It argues that the groundwater pollution is a deadly but less discussed form of primitive accumulation that has strong implications for peace and development in the affected communities. The paper concludes that accumulation by dispossession driven by oil exploration in the Niger Delta operates in complex ways and generates multifaceted crises; as such, the prospects for resolving the conflicts lie in addressing various strands of the dispossession, including groundwater pollution in the region. © 2018, GIGA German Institute for Global and Area Studies. All rights reserved.
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This Research Note contributes to recent debates about Africa's place within the discipline of International Relations (IR). It argues that bringing Africa into IR cannot be simply a question of 'add Africa and stir', as the continent does not enter the discipline as a neutral object of study. Instead, it is already overdetermined and embedded within the politics and structure of values of the academe, which are in turn influenced in complex ways by changing geopolitics. The present combination of IR's increased awareness of its own Western-centrism and Africa's position as the new 'frontline in the war on terror' therefore harbours both opportunities and dangers, and bringing Africa into IR involves epistemological and methodological challenges relating to our object of study and political challenges relating to the contemporary securitization of Africa. The Research Note suggests that an assemblage approach offers a productive way of negotiating this encounter between IR and African Studies, making it possible to study Africa simultaneously as a place in the world and of the world, capturing the continent's politics and societies as both unique and global. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal African Society.
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One of the many-sided effects of environmental injustice in the Niger Delta is “Youth Restiveness” which metamorphosed into proliferation of arms and the emergence of militias that is arguably a threat to the macro-Nigerian environment. This article, which relied on secondary sources of data, critically examines youth restiveness in the Niger Delta and contends that the root cause is the legal environmental laws that provided the basis for the operational hazards of the oil conglomerates that have collaborated with the Nigerian state whose intervention agencies have largely failed to close the developmental gaps in the region. The article posits that in the face of sundry efforts by the Nigerian state, particularly the infinitesimal 13% derivation element of the current revenue sharing formula, the failed land use reform attempt, the partially successful shortrun post-amnesty program, and the controversial petroleum industry bill, the central developmental concerns of the Niger Delta region have not been addressed. The article concludes with some useful recommendations including the exigency of the modification of the obnoxious and eco-environmentally disadvantageous laws and a holistic developmental approach and action-based programs by the Nigerian government and oil conglomerates that will provide sustainable windows of opportunity and safety nets for the socio-economically dislocated youths.
In Nigeria’s Niger Delta, oil pollution has significantly harmed the natural environment on which the local people in the Niger Delta depend for their livelihood and sustenance. The direct consequence of oil pollution is that it has led to multidimensional and protracted conflicts in oil-bearing communities. Drawing on fieldwork data, this article examines the ways in which oil pollution harms water resources and fuels conflicts in the local communities. It explores the socio-economic dynamics of the conflicts and insecurity, and how they are aggravated by the ineffectiveness of the measures adopted by the state to manage the conflicts. It argues that the role of local actors in the ecological dislocation have been downplayed and not factored into the measures devised to tackle the intractable conflicts. This article demonstrates how the network of interactions among localised, national and globalised actors aggravate environmental pollution and the complex conflicts in local communities.
The Niger Delta is an oil-producing region in Southern Nigeria. It is rich in biodiversity and has abundant petroleum resources. Increased demand for Nigeria’s low sulphur oil shortly after Shell D’Arcy discovered oil in the Niger Delta in 1956 transformed Nigeria, previously an agrarian economy, into the largest oil producer in the continent of Africa. Today, oil dominates Nigeria’s export and contributes significantly to its foreign exchange earnings. With the commercialisation of oil in 1958, the federal government introduced new institutional mechanisms which set the stage for Nigeria’s fiscal centralism. These include a nationalised oil company (NNPC) established in 1971 and the distributable pool account introduced in 1966, subsequently renamed the federation account in 1979. In contrast to the fiscal arrangement in pre-oil Nigeria, these institutional mechanisms gave the federal government the legitimacy to retain a large proportion of the profits generated from the oil industry. But while the federal government and oil companies accumulate enormous profits from oil, violence became a part of everyday life in the Niger Delta. To a significant degree, the linkages between oil and violence in the Niger Delta is connected to discontent over the oil revenue distribution pattern, which has led to the emergence of violent groups in which youths, and male youths, in particular, are the main actors. These violent groups, known locally as ‘militants’, are resisting the oil companies, local leaders, and the federal government who they blame for their experiences of violence. The media and official discourses characterise these violent groups as criminals and problematic and blame them for violence. So far, there has been little systematic effort to give these youths a voice in discussions about violence in the Niger Delta. Using a political ecology approach which combines Bourdieu’s thinking tools-(habitus, field and capital)-with Connell’s concept of hegemonic masculinity, this thesis seeks to understand petro-violence from the perspective of youths but male youths in particular. This means an analysis that prioritises how young people perceive, explain and justify their relationship with violence. The arguments in this thesis resulted mainly from 5 events of focus groups and in-depth interview with 84 youths mostly from two ethnic groups (Ijaw and Ogoni) who have experienced oil-related violence in both direct and indirect forms. It also includes in-depth interviews with 42 institutional representatives who have relevant knowledge about youth violence in the Niger Delta. The findings highlight the role of the political ecology of oil as well as institutional and social factors in shaping young people’s experiences of violence. Based on these findings, this thesis shifts away from an explanation of youth violence which focuses on youth (mis) behaviour and moves towards an analysis which locates young people’s relationship with violence within the broader social structures that contours their lives.
The article examined the nature, dynamics and implications of the interactions of interventions and project contexts. It emphasised the centrality of the resources of interventions in driving the mutual, bi-directional impacts of both interventions and project context. Using a grounded theory (GT) research approach, the study investigated the interactions of the Niger Delta Development Commission’s (NDDC) interventions in Odi community in Bayelsa State, Nigeria. A peace and conflict impact theory that emerged offers eight concepts: resource-status of intervention, black hole of interactions (Bhis), likely deprivation, malevolent charity–beggar relationship, oppressiveness and divisiveness of intervention, local capacities for peace (LCP) and federal government presence as a theoretical explanation of the phenomena. It argues that the resource-status the interventions enjoy compels competition from actors at various levels, in a socio-political and cultural space characterised by bad governance and endemic corruption. The competition begins with shady deals among influential actors as they appropriate the resources, constituting Bhis. The combined effects of the resource-status of intervention, Bhis and bad governance and endemic corruption provide sufficient conditions for spirals of negative impacts—likely deprivation, the malevolent charity–beggar relationship, oppressiveness and divisiveness of intervention—down the intervention programming stages. Thus, the potential positive impacts of the interventions are significantly reduced. However, the LCP and federal government presence that the interventions represent cushion the effect of the negative impacts.