Conference PaperPDF Available

The Influence of the Body Image Presented Through TikTok Trend-Videos and Its Possible Reasons

Authors:
Conference Paper

The Influence of the Body Image Presented Through TikTok Trend-Videos and Its Possible Reasons

The Influence of the Body Image Presented Through
TikTok Trend-Videos and Its Possible Reasons
Jiayan Liu1
1Social Science, Sixth College, University of California-San Diego, San Diego, CA 92093, USA
Corresponding author’s e-mail: ShiLiShuang@cas-harbour.org
ABSTRACT
There are papers criticizing the impact of negative body imaging caused by social media. TikTok is an extraordinary
Internet platform where everyone can upload videos to provide the public with the easiest way to get a sense of presence.
TikTok makes the images under the beautiful filter tend to be standardized. The main purpose of this article is to discuss
how this global popular social platform TikTok enhances body stereotypes and body humiliation trends, and what
impact it has on the public and society. The research objects of this article are TikTok users and believers who fall into
the trend of comments and compromise themselves in order to attract the attention of others and the typical videos they
upload. In the main text, the author introduces and analyzes a series of popular TikTok videos with hash tags. The paper
proves that TikTok does spread the trend of physical shame, and has a negative impact on the public's physical and
mental health, body concepts, and potential threats to society.
Keywords: TikTok, negative body imaging, harmful effects, stereotyped, trend
1. INTRODUCTION
Nowadays, the media plays a vital role in guiding the
values of young people. Among all values, body imaging
is one of the most stereotyped in the public mindset.
According to Gallivan’s research [1], TV commercials,
shows and movies are almost exclusively slender and fit-
looking people. At present, the frequency of such images
on social media is also particularly high. Studies have
shown that girls who regularly use social media are 6
times more likely to engage in unhealthy weight control
behaviors. Boys are four times more likely [1]. It can be
seen that this situation has caused widespread body
anxiety and may cause health problems for the public.
Therefore, this article will take the content and loyal
users of the popular social software TikTok as the
research objects to explore the human shame
phenomenon reflected by the social platform. In
addition, the author will analyze videos made by TikTok
users that agree that people should treat unreal bodies as
goals. Then through user reviews combined with
research in psychology and sociology, the author will
explore how social media can be an accomplice of
physical shame, and analyze the negative effects of such
a situation.
As the media theorist Postman [2] said, media will
cleverly influence the environment and ultimately define
and change our time. No one can predict when this
humiliation trend will disappear, nor can it finally
determine the public's view of human imaging. This
article will provide a reference for how the public should
view the body image on social platforms, and provide
suggestions for the establishment of a healthier Internet
social platform.
2. TIKTOK USERS' OPINIONS ON BODY
SHAMING
TikTok has become a place for young people to
express themselves in various ways, from lip-sync videos
to crazy dances. The culture and structure of the platform
encourage users to imitate each other and participate in
hot topics. According to reports of watching TikTok
videos every day, social platforms are flooded with
unrealistic ideal bodies, that is, what the bodies of men
and women look like to make them attractive. "When I
first downloaded TikTok, I saw a lot of very, very
negative body image videos," quoted from Kaufman [3],
an active TikTok body activist in 2020.
TikTok users are accustomed to these unrealistic
body image videos, and they seem to take this trend for
granted. Taking Khattab [4]'s research results in TikTok
Advances in Social Science, Education and Humanities Research, volume 559
Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Language, Art and
Cultural Exchange (ICLACE 2021)
Copyright © 2021 The Authors. Published by Atlantis Press SARL.
This is an open access article distributed under the CC BY-NC 4.0 license -http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/. 359
as an example, most users and video shooters have
stereotypes about the body of both sexes. Khattab
selected the most popular trends in video with hashtag of
these videos has begun to attract a series of videos in
response to user:. #KarmaisaBitch. According to
Feldman's article [5], all videos are obout the change of
the appearance: The protagonist of the video shows an
unattractive appearance at the beginning, and then says
"Oh, okay. Karma is a bitch", and transforms into a more
fashionable person with trendy makeup and hair.
These videos show the stereotypes about beauty and
therefore have some recurring features. First, the user
intentionally displays simulated behavior changes, from
the softness in the first scene to the confidence and sexy
in the second scene. Therefore, sexy is related to beauty
and openness. In addition, medical conditions ranging
from acne to implied more serious diseases are
considered unattractive. Therefore, some abilities will be
hinted to a certain extent in this process. The most
obvious finding is that in some video samples, both
female and male users pretended to be overweight in the
initial scene, thus suggesting a sense of physical shame
many times.
#KarmaisaBitch is the subject of the biggest
challenges has 145 million followers, while other
alternatives (such as #KarmaisaBitchChallenge) it has 4
million followers. On this short video platform, this
seems to be a common scenario, and most users and
video viewers do not think that physical shame is
abnormal.
Instead, their "likes" and comments provide strong
support for this appearance. Although most people
cannot meet the so-called "slim" and "beautiful"
standards, the crowd still recognizes and considers
themselves "overweight". When these opinions continue
to appear in the comment section of the short film, it is
not difficult to find that most TikTok users desire a
"perfect body" and have almost no fitness awareness.
The comment section of TikTok videos can host
annoying content, while users despise their bodies. Such
comments can be considered "fat talk", which may lead
to negative views of body image, which was first
proposed by Mills & Tyszkiewicz F. [6], a researcher at
the School of Psychology at Deakin University in
Australia.
In addition to the opinion that most people can
humiliate the body, some TikTok stars have struggled
with voices and comments criticizing their bodies over
the years. However, this operation will not make any
changes. Take a popular trending video
#DontJudgeMeChallenge with hashtags as an example.
This video is composed of user-made videos that
highlight facial blemishes such as acne or scars, and
clearly add irony through makeup, only on camera
Remove it on top to reveal a cleaner skin tone.
Commented by Lin Shi[7], the movement is sometimes
criticized for self-deception and spreading allegedly
targeted elements that humiliate the body.
Then, the video did not fully reach the level of the
title. Although the title of this challenge is more like a
request for the public to reject the judgment, the structure
of the video accepts or even seeks the judgment. It only
requires viewers to postpone their judgment until the user
changes its appearance to become more acceptable in the
normalized aesthetic. However, without requiring any
judgment, the video will cause judgment. Even some
people want to eliminate this prejudice, which seems to
enhance the value judgment based on human images.
3. THE POTENTIAL THREATS OF
NEGATIVE BODY IMAGING TO
SOCIETY ENFORCED BY TIKTOK
3.1. Stereotyped discrimination, bullying, job
loses
Therefore, the stereotyped visual structure of the
human body makes an important contribution to the
hierarchical binary value judgment system of good and
bad human images. In Engeln-Maddox's book [8], the
media proposed traditional beauty ideals with a special
preference for flawless facial features, skin tone, hair and
figure. A relatively early study by Groesz, Levine and
Murnen [9] confirmed that the slim figure presented in
the media has an important influence on the public's
satisfaction with their body.
As the trend changes, the thin body image has
evolved into a healthy body image, but the single
aesthetic of the body has not changed. For example, this
has been emphasized in Tiggmann and Zaccardo [10]'s
research on the hashtag #fitspiration, which is a portrayal
of the words "fit" and "inspiration". In addition, in
another study on the self-customization of female body
images in Instagram, Fardouly, Willburger, and
Vartanian [11] discussed the role of adaptability in
defining hard-to-obtain body images.
"This kind of fixation will lead to the marginalization
of aging and disabled people." proposed by Tiidenberg
and mez Cruz [12]. "Even when appearance is
irrelevant, they tend to focus only on women's
appearance and physical characteristics rather than
personality characteristics or abilities. This trend is very
common. Both men and women tend to build women's
value mainly through the following methods: Studies
have shown that their bodies look very beautiful." [13].
If the public is biased against body image, then there
may be more incidents of physical discrimination and
invisible bullying in schools and workplaces. These
harmful problems will definitely cause confusion in our
society's value judgment system. The new digital media
TikTok can attract people's attention through its
Advances in Social Science, Education and Humanities Research, volume 559
360
attractive features (for example, tags and influencers),
thereby accelerating this stereotype.functions such as
hashtags and influencers who aspire for amount of
attention.
3.2. Gender stereotypes
Empirical evidence confirms that many women
report using models displayed by the media as
comparison objects when assessing their appearance.
Ringrose et al. [14] stated that the digitally mediated
value judgements associated with these videos ascribe to
a normative heterosexualised performances of feminine
and masculine desirability nowadays. Such
heterosuxalised context resulted in normalizing the
sexualization of the female body as Evans, Riley and
Shankar [15] explained in their book. Similarly, Siibak
[16] mentioned that men present their body image as
sexualized and romantic objects, influenced by
stereotypical visual representation of masculinity on
social media. In his study of constructing masculinity in
social networks, Siibak argues that posing techniques by
users in social networks are influenced by advertising
trends. This is evident in the videos in the TikTok videos
discussed before for both men and women.
Encompassing around the stereotypical visual
representation of extreme sexualization every day,
netizens of our era are confronting a big challenge.
Putting an overemphasized-clear line between the
appearance of two sex is quite unfriendly to the
transgender, the LGBTQ, etc.——the minority.
3.3. Younger generation, future of society
According to Gallivan’s presentation [1], on a typical
day American children ages 8-18 are engaged with some
form of media for 7.5 hours. It’s easy to think that
TikTok can probably be one of these media for children
to play and watch.
Dina Borzekowski, professor at Johns Hopkins
school of public health notes: “Social media may have a
stronger impact on children’s body image than
traditional media. Messages and images are more
targeted: if the message comes from a friend it is
perceived as more meaningful and credible.” She also
emphasizes that children most at risk are those with more
exposure to media messages and less exposure to
rational, clear messages from supportive adults.
In order to catch up the trends, millions of children
could try dangerous things like this, not to say about
taking the harmful body criteria for granted. There are so
many worries about the value judgement system of
children. The article written by Porterfield [17] discussed
that taking some essential action to the videos about
negative body image and eating disorders is especially
important for TikTok, with roughly 18 million of the
platform's daily users believed to be under the age of 15.
4. REASONS WHY TIKTOK IS CAPABLE
OF INFLUENCING NETIZENS' OPINION
ON BODY IMAGING
The first reason is the algorithm. The algorithm used
by TikTok can track what users like to browse and
interact with, and then recommend similar content to
them to increase the number of views on the platform. In
addition, TikTok also has communities divided by
interest, which not only cultivates users' sense of
belonging, but also increases competitive pressure.
Thanks to this feature, TikTok has attracted millions of
viewers and followers. According to the website data
report [18], there are approximately 689 million monthly
active users.
In addition, users can also promote their ideal ways
to lose weight through the recent trend on the platform,
including fitness, diet and fitness clothing. According to
Dempster, A. [19], this rising trend has attracted the
attention of people who are prone to eating disorders and
body imaging disorders. Many people began to question
their consumption, their dress and their figure. Because
their fitness habits, eating habits, and dressing habits did
not match the images presented in these popular videos,
they began to wonder if they were lazy, undisciplined or
failed people. These videos take advantage of others’
anxiety about life and dissatisfaction with the present.
Many people think that if they live like these Internet
celebrities, their lives will be as good as theirs. As a
result, these comparisons make people think "I should eat
better", "Why do I not look like this?" or "I wish I could
do this." Therefore, the decline in shame and self-worth
will destroy the thinking and behavior of those who are
greatly affected. However, as E. Lantos [20] said, it is
important to note that these advertised standards are not
suitable for everyone's own body shapes and needs.
In addition, from the Internet perspective, the group
also showed similar body image and diet problems. This
phenomenon is sometimes referred to as peer infection,
and was first proposed by Hutchinson, Lapi, and Paxton.
[twenty one].
What is more, it has been found that appearance-
related comments from friends strengthen the
relationship between physical dissatisfaction and eating
disorders [22]. Therefore, peers have been shown to be
an important source of affecting young people's body
image and eating problems.
5. CONCLUSION
In conclusion, this article proves that the emerging
new media TikTok has a significant impact on the value
judgment system that guides people, causing serious
Advances in Social Science, Education and Humanities Research, volume 559
361
social problems. In order to solve these problems, people
should pay attention to the algorithm and the cliques on
the platform. It is worth noting that TikTok is not isolated.
It also links its shareability with major social networks
(such as Facebook, Twitter and Instagram) to gain more
access. The widespread promotion of short video
platforms has a huge social impact. However, this
influence may not proceed smoothly due to some
criticisms or even legal battles over its content. In order
to jointly build a new media environment in a healthier
way in the future, scholars, listeners and software
developers should first understand the consequences of
the content published on the platform. Second, users
need to consciously collect different opinions to avoid
the negative impact of information cocoons.
REFERENCES
[1] H.R. Gallivan. Presentation about teens, Social
Media And Body Image, thousands of lives restored,
healing eating disorder. Park Nicollet Melrose
Center. 2014. pp:1-3.https://www.macmh.org/wp-
content/uploads/2014/05/18_Gallivan_Teens-
social-media-body-image-presentation-H-
Gallivan-Spring-2014.pdf
[2] N. Postman. Amusing ourselves to death. 1985. The
Medium Is the Metaphor.
[3] S. Kaufman. Young women on how TikTok has
warped their body image during COVID pandemic.
NBC News. 2020.
https://7news.com.au/lifestyle/health-
wellbeing/not-worth-it-young-women-on-how-
tiktok-has-warped-their-body-image--c-1179929
[4] M. Khattab. Synching and performing: body (re)-
presentation in the short video app TikTok. Osuva
Open Science. 2020.
http://widerscreen.fi/numerot/2019-1-2/synching-
and-performing-body-re-presentation-in-the-short-
video-app-tiktok/
[5] B. Feldman. "Karma's a Bitch" is the Rare Meme
Combining Riverdale and Kreayshawn. New York
Magazine. 2018.
http://nymag.com/intelligencer/2018/01/what-is-
the-karmas-a-bitch-meme.html
[6] T.F. Mills. Fat Talk and Body Image Disturbance: A
Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Psychology
of Women Quarterly. 2016.
https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0361
684316675317
[7] J. Linshi. Here's How the "Don't Judge Challenge"
Totally Backfired. Time. 2015.
http://time.com/3948968/dont-judge-challenge/.
[8] R. Engeln-Maddox. Buying a Beauty Standard or
Dreaming of a New Life? Expectations Associated
with Media Ideals. Psychology of Women Quarterly.
2006, 30(3): 258-266. Doi: 10.1111/j.1471-
6402.2006.00294.x.
[9] L.M. Groesz, P. Michael. Levine and Sarah K.
Murnen. The Effect of Experimental Presentation of
Thin Media Images on Body Satisfaction: A Meta
analytic Review. International Journal of Eating
Disorders. 2002, 31(1): 1-16. Doi:
10.1002/eat.10005.
[10] M. Tiggemann and M. Zaccardo. "Strong Is the New
Skinny": A Content Analysis of #fitspiration
Images on Instagram. Journal of Health Psychology.
2018, 23(8): 1003-1011. Doi:
10.1177/1359105316639436.
[11] J. Fardouly, B.K. Willburger, and L.R Vartanian.
Instagram Use and Young Women's Body Image
Concerns and Self-Objectification: Testing
Mediational Pathways. New Media & Society. 2018,
20(4): 1380-1395.
Doi:10.1177/1461444817694499.
[12] K. Tiidenberg and E.G. Cruz. Selfies, Image and the
Re-Making of the Body. Body & Society. 2015,
21(4): 77-102. Doi:10.1177/1357034X15592465.
[13] N. Ellemers. Looks Do Matter, Especially for
Women, and Also at Work. Psychology Today.
2018.
https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/social-
climates/201809/looks-do-matter-especially-
women-and-also-work
[14] J. Ringrose, L. Harvey, R. Gill and S. Livingstone.
Teen Girls, Sexual Double Standards and
Sexting: Gendered Value in Digital Image
Exchange. Feminist Theory. 2013, 14(3): 305-323.
Doi: 10.1177/1464700113499853.
[15] A. Evans, S. Riley and A. Shankar. Technologies of
Sexiness: Theorizing Women's Engagement in the
Sexualization of Culture. Feminism & Psychology,
2010, 20(1): 114-131. Doi:
10.1177/0959353509351854.
[16] A. Siibak. Constructing Masculinity on a Social
Networking Site: The Case-study of Visual Self-
Presentations of Young Men on the Profile Images
of SNS Rate. YOUNG: Nordic Journal of Youth
Research. 2010, 18(4): 403-425. Doi:
10.1177/110330881001800403.
[17] C. Porterfield. TikTok Takes On 'Body Shaming'
With A Ban on Ads for Fasting Apps. Forbes.
2020.https://www.forbes.com/sites/carlieporterfiel
Advances in Social Science, Education and Humanities Research, volume 559
362
d/2020/09/23/tiktok-takes-on-body-shaming-with-
a-ban-on-ads-for-fasting-apps/?sh=7f3859a9389e
[18] Global Social Media Overview. DATAREPORTAL.
2020. https://datareportal.com/social-media-users
[19] A. Dempster. Tik Tok weight loss videos fueling
eating disorders amid coronavirus lockdowns,
health experts say. 2020. ABC news.
https://www.abc.net.au/news/2020-05-13/experts-
concerned-tiktok-content-fuelling-eating-
disorders/12215986
[20] E. Lantos. Tik Tok: Fears videos may trigger eating
disorders. BBC wales news. 2020.
https://www.bbc.com/news/uk-wales-52919914
[21] D.M. Hutchinson & R.M. Rapee. Do friends share
similar body image and eating problems? The role
of social networks and peer influences in early
adolescence. Behaviour Research and Therapy,
2007, 45(7), 1557-1577.
Doi:10.1016/j.brat.2006.11.007.
[22] K.J. Forney, L.A. Holland & P.K. Keel. Influence of
peer context on the relationship between body
dissatisfaction and eating pathology in women and
men. International Journal of Eating Disorders,
2012, 45(8), 982-989. Doi:10.1002/eat.22039.
Advances in Social Science, Education and Humanities Research, volume 559
363
... Furthermore, these associations persisted after adjusting for content types, supporting the independent associations with duration of smartphone use. Individuals with prolonged smartphone use are more likely to be exposed to idealized body images and appearance-related content from various digital platforms (eg, social media, blog posts, and advertisements), 14 which provide increased opportunities for cognitive internalization of idealized body shapes and engagement in body comparison that may lead to negative body image. 43 The perception of body weight may also be associated with misleading messages and content from marketing companies 11 and peers on digital platforms. ...
Article
Full-text available
Importance: Despite high use of smartphones among adolescents, little is known about the association of smartphone use with body image and related behaviors. Objective: To examine the associations of duration of smartphone use and types of content most frequently accessed via smartphone with body image distortion and weight loss behaviors in adolescents. Design, setting, and participants: This cross-sectional study used data from the population-based Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-Based Survey 2017. Participants comprised a nationally representative sample of 53 133 Korean adolescents aged 12 to 18 years. Data were collected from June 1 to July 18, 2017. The analysis was performed from February 7, 2020, to March 30, 2022. Exposures: Self-reported duration of smartphone use (min/d) and types of content (educational or informational searches; chatting, messaging, or email; social networking services or forums; games; videos, movies, or music; webtoons or web novels; and shopping or other activities) most frequently accessed during smartphone use. Main outcomes and measures: Body image distortion (overperception of body weight), weight loss attempt, use of inappropriate weight loss strategies (skipping meals, eating only 1 food at a time, vomiting, or using laxatives), and healthy weight loss behaviors (muscle-strengthening and aerobic physical activity). Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs, accounting for survey sampling and adjusting for potential confounders. Results: Among 53 133 participants, the mean (SD) age was 15.0 (1.8) years; 50.7% of participants were female, and 49.3% were male. After adjusting for types of content accessed, prolonged smartphone use (≥301 min/d) was positively associated with body image distortion (boys: OR, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.07-1.28; girls: OR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.10-1.30) and inappropriate weight loss strategies (boys: OR, 1.54; 95% CI, 1.25-1.90; girls: OR, 2.45; 95% CI, 2.14-2.79) in both sexes compared with minimal smartphone use (1-120 min/d). After adjusting for duration of smartphone use, the use of smartphones mainly for videos, movies, or music (OR, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.02-1.29), webtoons or web novels (OR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.10-1.48), and games (OR, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.03-1.32) was positively associated with body image distortion in boys compared with the use of smartphones mainly for educational or informational content. Among boys, the use of smartphones mainly for chatting, messaging, or email was positively associated with muscle-strengthening activity (OR, 1.31; 95% CI, 1.18-1.44) and aerobic physical activity (OR, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.29-1.55), as was the use of smartphones mainly for social networking services or forums (muscle-strengthening activity: OR, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.13-1.42; aerobic physical activity: OR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.15-1.43). Among girls, the use of smartphones mainly for chatting, messaging, or email was positively associated with weight loss attempts (OR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.19-1.51) and the use of inappropriate weight loss strategies (OR, 1.57; 95% CI, 1.25-1.99), as was the use of smartphones mainly for social networking services or forums (weight loss attempts: OR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.07-1.36; use of inappropriate weight loss strategies: OR, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.08-1.73). Conclusions and relevance: In this cross-sectional study, both the duration of smartphone use and the types of content most frequently accessed via smartphone were associated with body image distortion and weight loss behaviors in adolescents. These findings suggest a need for the identification of strategies to help adolescents develop healthy smartphone use behaviors.
... These social platforms consisted of unrealistic ideal images e.g. bodies of men and women that are more attractive than their normal bodies [25]. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study intends to find out the influence of Self-Esteem on and Social Appearance of Tik Tok Users, as well as to see if the aggregate Social Support from Significant Others, Families and Friends could serve as moderator. Fifty-three TikTok users were the respondent of this study who voluntarily answer through the Google Form link sent to them. The results revealed that the most watched videos of TikTok users were Dance Covers, level of Self-esteem is Average, levels of Social Support coming from significant others, families, and friends were were all High. Most of the respondents have Above Average Social Appearance Anxiety. Self-esteem is negatively associated with Social Appearance Anxiety; Social Support has no direct and indirect effect to Social Appearance Anxiety nor combining Self-esteem and Social Support.
Article
Full-text available
This article explores the relationality between women’s bodies and selfies on NSFW (Not Safe For Work) tumblr blogs. We consider the way selfie practices engage with normative, ageist and sexist assumptions of the wider culture in order to understand how specific ways of looking become possible. Women’s experiences of their bodies change through interactions, sense of community and taking and sharing selfies. This article provides an empirical elaboration on what sexy selfies are and do by analysing interviews, selfies and blog content of nine women in the NSFW self-shooters community on tumblr. For our participants, self-shooting is an engaged, self-affirmative and awareness raising pursuit, where their body, through critically self-aware self-care, emerges as agentic, sexual and distinctly female. Thus, this is a reading of selfies as a practice of freedom.
Article
Full-text available
This article explores gender inequities and sexual double standards in teens' digital image exchange, drawing on a UK qualitative research project on youth 'sexting'. We develop a critique of 'postfeminist' media cultures, suggesting teen 'sexting' presents specific age and gender related contradictions: teen girls are called upon to produce particular forms of 'sexy' self display, yet face legal repercussions, moral condemnation and 'slut shaming' when they do so. We examine the production/circulation of gendered value and sexual morality via teens' discussions of activities on Facebook and Blackberry. For instance, some boys accumulated 'ratings' by possessing and exchanging images of girls' breasts, which operated as a form of currency and value. Girls, in contrast, largely discussed the taking, sharing or posting of such images as risky, potentially inciting blame and shame around sexual reputation (e.g. being called 'slut', 'slag' or 'sket'). The daily negotiations of these new digitally mediated, heterosexualised, classed and raced norms of performing teen feminine and masculine desirability are considered. © The Author(s) 2013 Reprints and permissions:sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.
Article
Full-text available
‘Raunch’ culture and ‘porno-chic’ are examples of a dramatic rise in the re-sexualization of women’s bodies. Wrapped in discourses of individualism, consumerism and empowerment, and often excluding those who are not white, heterosexual and slim, this sexualization of culture has created significant debates within feminist literature with regard to the question of how to value women’s choices of participation in sexualized culture while also maintaining a critical standpoint towards the cultural context that has enabled such postfeminist sexual subjectivities. In this paper we contribute to these debates by presenting ‘technologies of sexiness’, a theoretical framework that draws on Foucauldian theorizing of technologies of the self and Butler’s work on performativity. The technology of sexiness framework conceptualizes a blurring between subjectivity and consumer and media culture and highlights the doubled movements in which agency is complexly enabled and disabled in relation to technology, performance/parody, multiplicity and recuperation.
Article
Full-text available
This study explored college women's ideas regarding how their lives would change if their appearance were consistent with a media-supported female beauty ideal. Participants rated self-generated life changes they associated with looking like a media ideal in terms of likelihood and positivity. Women's tendency to link positive and likely life expectations with looking like the media ideal was significantly associated with both internalization of media ideals and appearance-related dissatisfaction. However, internalization fully mediated the relationship between expectations and appearance-related dissatisfaction. Results are discussed in terms of implications for understanding the nature of internalization and implications for the design of programs targeted at reducing appearance-related dissatisfaction and eating disordered behaviors.
Article
Full-text available
The effect of experimental manipulations of the thin beauty ideal, as portrayed in the mass media, on female body image was evaluated using meta-analysis. Data from 25 studies (43 effect sizes) were used to examine the main effect of mass media images of the slender ideal, as well as the moderating effects of pre-existing body image problems, the age of the participants, the number of stimulus presentations, and the type of research design. Body image was significantly more negative after viewing thin media images than after viewing images of either average size models, plus size models, or inanimate objects. This effect was stronger for between-subjects designs, participants less than 19 years of age, and for participants who are vulnerable to activation of a thinness schema. Results support the sociocultural perspective that mass media promulgate a slender ideal that elicits body dissatisfaction. Implications for prevention and research on social comparison processes are considered.
Article
The performance of the body via new media seems centered on negotiating stereotypes of the body image, mainly gendered images of masculinity and femininity, and perceived notions of beauty as an indicator of sexual appeal. This study seeks to analyze the role of social networks in shaping stereotypes that rely on body visibility. The article chooses the short video app TikTok as one of the recent social networking apps (SNAs) offering users the ability to upload, edit, and share short form videos. The research methodology offers a content analysis of sample videos focusing on self-representation. Such analysis examines the impact SNAs have on the formation and expression of users’ notions of beauty and gender through their digital representations of the body.
Article
This study examined the relationship between Instagram use (overall, as well as specifically viewing fitspiration images) and body image concerns and self-objectification among women between the ages of 18 and 25 from the United States (n = 203) and from Australia (n = 73). Furthermore, this study tested whether internalization of the societal beauty ideal, appearance comparison tendency in general, or appearance comparisons to specific target groups on Instagram mediated any relationships between Instagram use and the appearance-related variables. Greater overall Instagram use was associated with greater self-objectification, and that relationship was mediated both by internalization and by appearance comparisons to celebrities. More frequently viewing fitspiration images on Instagram was associated with greater body image concerns, and that relationship was mediated by internalization, appearance comparison tendency in general, and appearance comparisons to women in fitspiration images. Together, these results suggest that Instagram usage may negatively influence women’s appearance-related concerns and beliefs.
Article
‘Fitspiration’ is an online trend designed to inspire viewers towards a healthier lifestyle by promoting exercise and healthy food. This study provides a content analysis of fitspiration imagery on the social networking site Instagram. A set of 600 images were coded for body type, activity, objectification and textual elements. Results showed that the majority of images of women contained only one body type: thin and toned. In addition, most images contained objectifying elements. Accordingly, while fitspiration images may be inspirational for viewers, they also contain a number of elements likely to have negative effects on the viewer’s body image.
Article
Social networking website (SNS) Rate is the most popular online environment for young Estonians, which has more than 290000 active users. The study aims to examine visual self-presentations of young men (N = 108) in Rate. Quantitative content analysis methodology was used to analyze 599 profile images of young men belonging to a community 'Damn I'm Beautiful!'. The results indicate that media representations of men are often taken as role-models while constructing one's visual identities online. In particular, young men mostly pose alone in order to emphasize their looks and appear as willing sexual or romantic objects. They appear mostly in the public sphere, however, without being engaged in any purposeful activities. All in all, SNS profile images function on many levels in order to portray different versions of masculinity. The findings highlight the importance of photos as additional impression management tools and confirm their conscious use for identity 'performances' on SNS. © 2010 SAGE Public
Presentation about teens, Social Media And Body Image, thousands of lives restored, healing eating disorder. Park Nicollet Melrose Center
  • H R Gallivan
H.R. Gallivan. Presentation about teens, Social Media And Body Image, thousands of lives restored, healing eating disorder. Park Nicollet Melrose Center. 2014. pp:1-3.https://www.macmh.org/wpcontent/uploads/2014/05/18_Gallivan_Teens-social-media-body-image-presentation-H-Gallivan-Spring-2014.pdf