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Effect of Dietary Supplementation of Melon (Citrallus Lanatus) Seed Oil on the Growth Performance and Antioxidant Status of Growing Rabbits

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  • Sumitra Research Institute Gujarat India

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This study was carried out to determine the effect of dietary supplementation of melon (Citrallus lanatus) seed oil (WMO) on the growth performance and immune response of growing rabbits. Thirty-six (36), 5-6 weeks weaner rabbit of mixed breed and sex with an average weight of 435 g – 438 grams were randomly divided into four (4) treatments of nine rabbits per group and each rabbit served as a replicate in a completely randomized design (CRD). The experiment lasted for 12 weeks and all other management practices were strictly observed. The basal diet was formulated according to the nutrient requirements of the rabbit according to NRC (1977). Treatment (T1) was fed basal diet with 0 % WMO, T2, T3, and T4 were fed basal diet supplemented with WMO at 0.2 %, 0.4 % and 0.6 % respectively. Results obtained were used to examine the average daily weight gain (ADWG), average daily feed intake (ADFI), feed: gain, mortality, activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), reduced glutathione (GSH), and malonyl dialdehyde (MLA). ADWG, feed: gain, and mortality were significantly different (P˂0.05) among the treatments. ADFI increased as the level of WMO increases, though not at a significant level (P˃0.05). The highest mortality was recorded among animals in T1 (1.00 %), none was recorded in the other treatments (P˂0.05). Activities of SOD, GST, GSH, and MLA were significantly (P˃0.05) influenced by WMO. It was concluded that dietary supplementation of WMO up to 0.6 % enhanced growth performance, improved feed: gain, and had no negative effect on the antioxidant parameters of rabbits, it is safe and could be used to bridge the gap between food safety and production.
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Effect of Dietary Supplementation of Melon (Citrallus Lanatus) Seed Oil on the
Growth Performance and Antioxidant Status of Growing Rabbits
Singh, A.S*, Alagbe, J.O**, Sharma, S***, Oluwafemi, R.A****, Agubosi, O.C.P*****
1 University of Mysore, India
2 Department of Animal Nutrition and Biochemistry, Sumitra Research Institute, Gujarat, India
3Osmania University, India
4,5 Department of Animal Science, University of Abuja, Nigeria
P.O.Box 5205, Garki Area 10, Abuja, Nigeria (900001)
E-mail: drmusabas@gmail.com
------------------------------------------------------------------------***-----------------------------------------------------------------
Abstract: This study was carried out to
determine effect of dietary supplementation of
melon (Citrallus lanatus) seed oil (WMO) on the
growth performance and immune response of
growing rabbits. Thirty six (36), 5-6 weeks weaner
rabbit of mixed breed and sex with an average
weight of 435 g 438 grams were randomly
divided into four (4) treatments of nine rabbits per
group and each rabbit served as a replicate in a
completely randomized design (CRD). The
experiment lasted for 12 weeks and all other
management practices were strictly observed.
Basal diet was formulated according to the
nutrient requirements of rabbit according to NRC
(1977). Treatment (T1) were fed basal diet with 0
% WMO, T2, T3 and T4 were fed basal diet
supplemented with WMO at 0.2 %, 0.4 % and 0.6
% respectively. Results obtained were used to
examine the average daily weight gain (ADWG),
average daily feed intake (ADFI), feed: gain,
mortality, activities of superoxide dismutase
(SOD), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), reduced
glutathione (GSH) and malonyldialdehyde (MLA).
ADWG, feed: gain and mortality were significantly
different (P˂0.05) among the treatments. ADFI
increased as the level of WMO increases, though
not at a significant level (P˃0.05). Highest
mortality was recorded among animals in T1 (1.00
%), none was recorded in the other treatments
(P˂0.05). Activities of SOD, GST, GSH and MLA
were significantly (P˃0.05) influenced by WMO. It
was concluded that dietary supplementation of
WMO up to 0.6 % enhanced growth performance,
improved feed: gain and had no negative effect on
the antioxidant parameters of rabbits, it is safe and
could be used to bridge the gap between food
safety and production.
Key words: growth performance, feed,
melon seeds, rabbits, mortality.
Introduction
Animals encounter numerous stressors during
their lives. These stressors cause hormonal
changes, decrease in feed intake, altered
nutrient metabolism and suppressed immune
function (Gary and Richard, 2002). Animal
performance is a function of genetic potential
and the environment. Immune stress is loss of
immune homeostatis caused by various factors
including different production and
environmental stressors (Sripathy, 2009).
Nutrients are known to influence responses of
rabbits to a disease challenge, thus immune
system benefits largely from proper nutrition or
feeding of animals (Alagbe, 2020; Oluwafemi et
al., 2020).
Scientific reports have shown that medicinal
plants and their extracts are rich in
phytochemical constituents such as tannins,
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alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenoids, saponins,
steroids, glycosides, saponins, phenols,
carbohydrates, protein and amino acids that
produce significant therapeutic effects and
pharmacological properties such as:
antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory antiviral,
antifungal, hepato-protective, miracicidal,
cytotoxic, antioxidant, immunostimulatory,
neuro-protective, hypolipidemic and
antispasmodic activities (Alagbe, 2017;
Kondratyuk and Pezzuto, 2004;
Anagnostopoulou et al., 2006; Dillard and
German, 2000; Miller and Larrea, 2002;
Nichenametla et al., 2006; Prakash et al., 2007).
Immunomodulatory activity of plant extracts
depends on various factors including nature of
stressors, dosage, type of extracts and
formulation used, phytochemical constituents
and so on (Sripathy, 2009). World health
organization (1991) reports have shown that
there are over 21, 000 species of medicinal
plants globally. Many of these plants and their
extracts are relatively cheap, effective and safe
in prolong use (Gilani, 2005). Among the
potential underutilized plant are melon seeds.
Melon (Citrullus lanatus) is an herbaceous
creeping plant belonging to the family
Cucurbitaceae. It can be grown in most part of
the world and mainly propagated by seeds and
thrives best in warm areas (Betty et al., 2016;
Olaofe et al., 1994; Fokou et al., 2004; Mabalaha
et al., 2007). The plant contains Citrulline which
is transformed into the essential amino acid
(arginine) which is vital in the synthesis of nitric
oxide and strengthening of the immune and
reproductive systems (Edidiong et al., 2013;
Collins et al., 2007; Jacob et al., 2015). Melon
seeds are rich in carbohydrates, protein, fibre,
fats, minerals and other essential vitamins
which can contribute substantially towards
obtaining a balanced diet (Martin, 1998; Sodeke,
2005; Omorayi and Dilworth, 2007).
The aim of this research work was to examine
effect of dietary supplementation of melon
(Citrallus lanatus) seed oil on the growth
performance and immune response of growing
rabbits.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Experimental site
The experiment was carried out at Division of
Animal Nutrition, Sumitra Research Institute,
Gujarat, India during the month of January to
March, 2021.
Collection and processing of test
material
Fresh, healthy and mature melons were
harvested within Sumitra Research Institute,
Gujarat, India. It was identified and
authenticated by a certified crop taxonomist of
the institute, thereafter the fruits were sliced
open with a clean knife; the removed seeds
were washed and sundried for 10 days. The
dried samples were grinded into powder using a
blender and stored into a well labeled air tight
container for further analysis. Extraction of
melon seed oil (WMO) was carried out
according to the methods outlined by Oyeleke et
al. (2012).
Crude fibre, crude protein, moisture, ether
extract and moisture content were determined
according with the official methods of the
association of official analytical chemist (AOAC,
2000). Mineral analyses of calcium, phosphorus,
potassium, sodium, magnesium, manganese,
zinc, iron, cobalt, copper, chromium selenium,
cadmium and lead were determined using
Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS
Model 156Y) based on (AOAC, 2000). Amino
acid analysis was carried out using methods
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reported by Kundan (2017).
Animals and their management
Thirty six (36), 5-6 weeks weaner rabbit of
mixed breed and sex with an average weight of
435 g 438 g were purchased from a local
market in India. It was randomly distributed to
four treatments of nine rabbits per treatment in
a completely randomized design (CRD). Animals
were housed individually in a locally
constructed wire cage measuring (15 × 12 × 25
cm) with provisions of clay feeding and water
troughs. Rabbits were given prophylactic
treatment and acclimatized for two weeks
during which they fed commercial growers
mash before the commencement of the
experiment. Rabbits were fed twice daily at 8:00
am and 4:00 pm while clean water was given ad
libitum, all other management practices were
strictly observed throughout the experimental
period which lasted for 12 weeks.
Formulation of experimental diets
The diets contained maize, soya meal, palm
kernel meal, limestone, bone meal, lysine,
methionine, premix and salt. They were mixed
together to formulate a basal diet according to
nutritional requirement of rabbits according to
NRC (1977). Treatment 1 (T1) contained basal
diet + 0 % WMO, basal diet + 0.2 % WMO (T2),
basal diet + 0.4 % WMO (T3) and basal diet +
0.6 % WMO (T4).
Measurements
Feed intake (FI) was determined by difference
between feed offered and left over.
Weight gain (g) = final weight initial weight
  
(g)
Antioxidant parameters
Blood samples were collected from the marginal
veins of the ears of three randomly selected
rabbits per treatment to determine the
antioxidant status of the animal. Activities of
superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione-S-
transferase (GST), reduced glutathione (GSH)
and malonyldialdehyde (MLA) were carried out
using method outlined by Singh et al. (2011).
Statistical analysis
All data were subjected to one -way analysis of
variance (ANOVA) using SPSS (18.0) and
significant means were separated using Duncan
multiple range tests (Duncan, 1955). Significant

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Proximate composition of experimental diet
Table 1 reveals the chemical composition of
experimental diet. The experimental diet
contained dry matter (88.01 %), crude protein
(17.24 %), crude fibre (10.33 %), ether extract
(3.44 %), calcium (0.88 %), phosphorus (0.41
%) and energy (2500.7 Kcal/kg). The crude
protein and dry matter values obtained in this
study are in agreement with the values obtained
by Aduku and Olukosi (1990); Alagbe (2021)
and Andrzej et al. (2019) who examined the
effect of dietary supplementation of silkworm
pupae meal on the performance of rabbits.
Crude fiber and ether extract value is in line
with the recommended range by Adham et al.
(2020); Alagbe (2019). The calcium and
phosphorus value obtained in this experiment
were higher than the values obtained by Lima et
al. (2017) but in conformity with the values
obtained by Lawal et al. (2010) who determined
the effect of soya meal based meal diet on the
performance of Albino rats. Energy value is in
close agreement with the findings of Omokore
and Alagbe (2019); Onyekwere et al. (2010)
when Bambara nut waste meal were fed to
growing rabbits. According to Omokore and
Alagbe (2019) Essential nutrients required by
rabbits are those which will be able to maintain
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normal physiological processes of the body such
as growth, health, digestion, reproduction and
lactation. Inadequate energy, protein or
micronutrients in the diet may impair
     
nutrition and requirements for feed intake vary
with age and particularly with reproductive
status (Aduku and Olukosi, 1990; Alagbe and
Akintayo, 2020). Proteins play a vital role in
biological processes, catalyze reactions in the
body, transport molecules such as oxygen, keep
the body healthy as part of the immune system
and transmit messages from cell to cell
(Ojewuyi et al., 2014). Ether extracts or fats are
very good sources of energy and aid in the
transport of fat-soluble vitamins, insulate and
protect internal tissues, and contribute to
important cell processes (Pamela et al., 2005).
Dietary fibre enhances digestion promotes
digestion and reduce the risk of cardiovascular
disease in animals (Musa et al., 2020). Calcium,
phosphorus and other minerals are important in
many biochemical reactions functioning as co-
enzyme and aid physiological functioning of
major metabolic processes in the body (Alagbe
and Omokore, 2019). However, all the values
obtained were within the nutritional
requirements of rabbits according to NRC
(1977).
Table 1: Percentage composition of
experimental diet
Ingredients
Quantity (kg)
Maize
20.00
Wheat offal
41.00
Palm kernel meal
25.00
Soya meal
12.65
Bone meal
0.20
Limestone
0.40
Lysine
0.10
Methionine
0.10
*Growers premix
0.25
Salt
0.30
Total
100.00
Calculated analysis (%)
Dry matter
88.01
Crude protein
17.24
Crude fibre
10.33
Ether extract
3.44
Calcium
0.88
Phosphorus
0.41
ME:kcal/kg
2500.7
*Premix - quantity per kg of product: vitamin A,
2 500 000 IU; vitamin D3, 500 000 IU; biotin, 50
mg; choline, 50 mg; niacin, 10000 mg; calcium
pantothenate, 3000 mg; vitamin B12, 7 mg;
vitamin B2, 1800 mg; vitamin E, 7500 mg;
vitamin K3, 1000 mg; Fe, 40000 mg; Cu, 35000
mg; Mn, 20000 mg; Zn, 40000 mg; Co, 360 mg; I,
840 mg; Se, 120 mg.
Proximate composition of dried melon seed
Proximate composition of dried water melon
seed is presented in Table 2. The sample
contained dry matter, moisture content, crude
protein, crude fibre, ether extract, ash and
energy at 91.12 %, 7.86 %, 17.40 %, 30.83 %,
25.50 %, 2.71 % and 402.7 Kcal/kg respectively.
The crude protein, crude fibre and ether extract
values conforms to the findings of Betty et al.
(2016). The ash value was lower than those
reported by Oyeleke et al. (2012) but are in
close agreement with the findings of Taiwo et al.
(2008). Energy value of water melon seed
conforms to the findings of Alagbe (2020) who
examined the proximate composition of
Prosopis africana stem bark. The sample
contained higher level of protein which is a
clear indication that it can be used as a protein
supplement in animals (NRC, 1994). The ash
content gives an indication of the amount of
minerals present in a particular sample, which
are important in many biochemical reactions
functioning as co-enzyme and aid physiological
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functioning of major metabolic processes in the
body (Onwuka, 2005). The energy result thus
suggests that water melon seeds may not be
able to supply adequate amount of calorie to
animals.
Table 2: Proximate composition of dried melon
seed
Constituents
Composition
Dry matter
91.12
Moisture content
7.86
Crude protein
17.40
Crude fibre
30.83
Ether extract
25.50
Ash
2.71
Energy (Kcal/100g)
402.7
Mineral composition of dried melon seed
Table 3 reveals the mineral composition of
melon seed. The sample contained calcium
(75.62 mg/100g), phosphorus (42.77
mg/100g), potassium (11.88 mg/100g),
magnesium (26.80 mg/100g), zinc (30.81
mg/100g), sodium (19.40 mg/100g), copper
(8.45 mg/100g), iron (3.61 mg/100g) and
manganese (12.56 mg/100g). In order of
󰂬󰂬󰂬
 󰂬  󰂬  󰂬  󰂬
 󰂬      
the WHO (1991) recommendation. Calcium is
the abundant element in the body; it is an
important constituent of the skeleton and teeth,
deficiency of calcium in the body results in
tetany (Vasudevan and Sreekumari, 2007;
Ellenberger et al., 1994). Phosphorus plays a
vital role in bone formation (Alagbe, 2019). Iron
is an essential trace element for haemoglobin
formation and normal functional of the central
nervous system and in the oxidation of
carbohydrates, protein and fats (Adeyeye and
Otokiti, 1999). Magnesium is major
intracellualar cations in cells; they were catalyst
to enzymatic reactions and assimilation of
phosphorus (Vasudevan and Sreekumari, 2007;
Ryan, 1991). Sodium is the major cation which
is involved in maintaining osmotic pressure,
controlling water balance and acid-base balance
(Akpanyung, 2005). It also functions in muscle
contractions, nerve impulse transmission and
glucose / amino acid transport (Oduye and
Fasanmi, 1971). Zinc serves as a cofactor in
many enzyme systems, including arginase,
enolase, several peptidases, and oxalacetic
decarboxylase (Alagbe, 2016). Manganese is a
cofactor or component of several key enzyme
systems, manganese is essential for bone
formation (re. mucopolysaccharide synthesis),
the regeneration of red blood cells,
carbohydrate metabolism, and the reproductive
cycle (Okwu, 2005). Copper is involved with
iron metabolism, and therefore haemoglobin
synthesis and red blood cell production and
maintenance (Ishida et al., 2000).
Table 3: Mineral composition of dried melon
seeds
Parameters
Composition
(mg/100g)
Calcium
75.62
Phosphorus
42.77
Potassium
11.88
Magnesium
26.80
Zinc
30.81
Sodium
19.40
Copper
8.45
Iron
3.61
Manganese
12.56
Amino acid of dried melon seeds
The amino composition of melon seeds is
presented in Table 4. The sample contains
aspartic acid, glutamic acid, arginine, serine,
alanine, phenylalanine, glycine, threonine,
tyrosine, valine, proline, methionine, lysine,
isoleucine, leucine and histidine at 2.11g/100g,
1.88 g/100g, 3.85 g/100g, 0.67 g/100g, 1.33
g/100g, 0.62 g/100g, 1.21 g/100g, 0.72 g/100g,
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0.41 g/100g, 0.26 g/100g, 0.54 g/100g, 0.31
g/100g, 0.22 g/100g, 0.68 g/100g, 0.74 g/100g
and 0.69 g/100g respectively. The values
obtained in this study are in agreement with the
values obtained by Edgar et al. (2014); Kasimu
et al. (2015) who examined the lipid and
proximate composition in Anisophyllea boehmii
seeds. According to Perez and Avalos (2009);
Cuin and Shabala (2007), amino acids play an
important role in the synthesis of protein and
precursors in the formation of secondary
metabolism molecules that participate in cell
signaling, homeostatis and gene expression. It
also participates in various physiological
processes such as skeletal muscle function,
atrophic conditions, sarcopenia and cancer (Wu,
2009; Nicastro et al., 2011).
Table 4: Amino acid profile of melon seeds
Constituents
Composition (g/100g)
Aspartic acid
2.11
Glutamic acid
1.88
Arginine
3.85
Serine
0.67
Alanine
1.33
Phenyalanine
0.62
Glycine
1.21
Threonine
0.72
Tyrosine
0.41
Valine
0.26
Proline
0.54
Methionine
0.31
Lysine
0.22
Isoleucine
0.68
Leucine
0.74
Histidine
0.69
Performance characteristics of growing
rabbits fed diets supplemented with WMO
Performance characteristics of growing rabbits
fed diets supplemented with WMO is presented
in Table 5. Initial body weight (IBW), final body
weight (FBW), weight gain (WG), average daily
weight gain (ADWG) and feed: gain ranged
between 435.0 438.0 g, 986.1 1170.6 g,
548.4 735.6 g, 9.14 12.51 g and 7.18 7.62
respectively. Total feed intake (TFI) and average
daily feed intake (ADFI) ranged between 7200.1
7308.4 g and 120.7 123.0 g. WG and feed:
   󰂫 
among the treatments. The result obtained is in
agreement with the findings of Olatunji et al.
(2016); Alagbe et al., 2020; Oluwafemi et al.
(2020); Alagbe and Oluwafemi (2019) who
evaluated the growth performance of weaner
rabbits fed Noni (Morinda citrifolia) and
Moringa olifera leaf mixture as partial
replacement of soya bean meal. The highest
weight gain observed in T3 and T4 could be
attributed to the presence of phytochemicals in
WMO. According to Olafadehan et al. (2020);
Kim et al. (2015), phytochemicals are performs
multiple biological activities such as:
antimicrobial, antifungal, antiviral, anti-
inflammatory and antioxidant properties. In
addition, the inclusion of phytochemicals in the
diets alters and stabilizes the intestinal
microbiota and reduces microbial toxic
metabolites in the gut, owing to their direct
antimicrobial properties on various pathogenic
bacteria, which results in relief from intestinal
challenge and immune stress, thus improving
performance. Average daily feed intake
increased from diet 1 to 4 though not at a
  󰂬    
indication that WMO is capable of improving the
palatability of feed (Akintayo and Alagbe, 2020).
Highest mortality was recorded in T1 and none
󰂫
Table 5: Performance characteristics of growing
rabbits fed diets supplemented with WMO
Parameters
T1
T2
T3
T4
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SEM
IBW (g)
437.7
438.0
435.8
435.0
5.11
FBW (g)
986.1b
1012.8b
1168.0a
1170.6a
9.33
WG (g)
548.4b
574.8b
732.2a
735.6a
2.71
ADWG (g)
9.14b
9.60b
12.20a
12.51a
0.04
TFI (g)
7200.1
7306.2
7308.0
7308.4
10.90
ADFI (g)
120.7
121.8
122.9
123.0
2.30
Feed: gain
7.62a
7.55a
7.20b
7.18b
1.22
Mortality
1.00
-
-
-
Means in the same row with different
superscripts differ significantly (P<0.05)
Initial body weight (IBW), final body weight
(FBW), weight gain (WG), average daily weight
gain (ADWG)
Antioxidant response of growing rabbits fed
diets supplemented with WMO
Table 6 reveals the antioxidant response of
growing rabbits fed diet supplemented with
WMO. Malanodialdehyde (MDA), superoxide
dismutase (SOD), glutathione-S-transferase
(GST) and reduced glutathione (GSH) ranged
between 1.22 3.87 (U/mg Hb), 28.1 42.1
(U/mg Hb), 12.1- 30.8 (U/mg Hb) and 29.7
40.6 (U/mg Hb) respectively. The parameters
follow similar pattern and values were highest
in T3, T4, intermediate in T2 and lowest in T1
󰂫      
findings of Mahipal et al. (2015). According to
Hasanuzzaman et al. (2015); Jackson et al.
(1978), plants have lot of antioxidant systems
that are capable of scavenging free radicals. SOD
is a ubiquitous metalloenzymes that constitute
the first line of defense against reactive oxygen
species, it constitutes one of the major
enzymatic components of detoxification of
superoxide radicals generated in biological
system by catalyzing its dismutation to H2O2
and finally H2O and O2 by catalase and
peroxidase (Mukesh and Chet, 2000; Hernandez
et al., 2004; Gill and Tuteja, 2010; Fridovich,
1975). Adequate availability of glutathione is
critical in maintaining health, protecting the
body from toxins and promoting longevity in
animals (Pompella et al., 2009; Kern et al., 2011;
Arosio et al., 2002). Malondialdehyde is usually
used as a biomarker for many health problems
such as respiratory and cardiovascular diseases
(Maryam et al., 2015). Glutathione directly
scavenges diverse: superoxide anion, nitric
oxide, hydroxyl and carbon radicals, protects
cells from oxidants via recycling vitamin C and
catalytically detoxifies: hydroperoxides,
perxynitrites and lipid peroxides (Julius et al.,
1994; Barja et al., 2000; Allen et al., 2011).
Table 6: Antioxidant response of growing
rabbits fed diets supplemented with WMO
Parameters
T1
T2
T3
T4
SEM
MDA (U/mg
Hb)
1.22c
2.91b
3.03b
3.87a
0.21
SOD (U/mg
Hb)
28.1c
32.6b
41.0a
42.1a
0.03
GST (U/mg
Hb)
12.1b
19.5b
26.1a
30.8a
1.21
GSH (U/mg
Hb)
29.7c
30.8b
38.0a
40.6a
0.97
Means in the same row with different
superscripts differ significantly (P<0.05)
GST: glutathione-S-transferase; SOD: superoxide
dismutase; MDA: malondialdehyde; GSH:
reduced glutathione.
Conclusion
Medicinal plants are rich in secondary
metabolites which are potential sources of
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drugs and essential oils of therapeutic
importance. Essential oils are cheap, safe,
effective and easily available. Dietary
supplementation of WMO in rabbits is capable
of performing several pharmacological activities
which includes: antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-
inflammatory, hepato-protective,
hypolipidemic, cytotoxic etc. Supplementation
of WMO at 0.6 % in rabbit diets is capable of
improving growth performance without any
deleterious effect on the immune syetem of the
animal.
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... Consumer pressure for antibiotic free poultry products has led to increased research in the area of antibiotic alternatives, including essential oils. Essential oils (EOs) are plant based medicine that perform multiple biological activities such as; antimicrobial, antioxidant, antiviral, antiinflammatory, antifungal, antiviral and hepato-protective (Botslogou et al., 2002;Singh et al., 2021). According to Adewale et al. (2020); Musa et al. (2010), EOs are volatile oily liquids extracted from plant parts, such as flowers, buds, stems, seeds, leaves, twigs and root which are capable of producing a positive physiological function in the body of animals. ...
... EOs have been demonstrated to positively impact growth performance, blood profile and gut health of animals . However, there are inconsistencies in the results due to differences in the chemical composition of EOs, which are affected by plant age or part used, extraction or processing methods, geographical locations and antinutrients (Singh et al., 2021). Therefore, this experiment was designed to evaluate the effects of dietary inclusion of ginger (Zingiber officinale) and garlic (Allium sativum) oil mixture on the growth performance and caecal microbial population of broiler chickens. ...
Article
Full-text available
The objective of the present study was to determine effect of dietary inclusion of (Zingiber officinale) and garlic (Allium sativum) oil mixture (GIGM) on the growth performance and caecal microbial population of broiler chickens. One hundred and fifty one-day-old broiler chicks (Ross 308) were randomly allocated into 5 treatments with three replicates consisting of 10 birds each in a completely randomized design. Birds in treatment 1 (T1) was fed basal diet with 0 % inclusion of GIGM while T2, T3, T4 and T5 were given 0.1 %, 0.2 %, 0.3 % and 0.4 % respectively. Clean feed and water were offered ad libitum and all other management practices were strictly observed throughout the experiment which lasted for 56 days. Results obtained were used to determine weight gain (WG), average daily weight gain (ADWG), total feed intake (TFI), average daily feed intake (ADFI), feed conversion ratio (FCR) and microbial population of E.coli, Salmonella spp and Lactobacillus spp. ADWG, ADFI and FCR were significantly (P ˂ 0.05) influenced by the dietary inclusion of GIGM. ADWG were highest in T5 (47.80 g), T4 (45.75 g) and T3 (45.09 g), intermediate in T2 (39.59 g) and lowest in T1 (30.72 g). Lactobacillus spp increased as the level of dietary inclusion of GIGM increases (P ˂ 0.05). E.coli and Salmonella spp counts were significantly (P ˂ 0.05) different among the treatments. It was concluded that GIGM could be included in the diet of broilers up to 0.4 % without causing any deleterious effect on the performance and health of birds.
... Consumer pressure for antibiotic free poultry products has led to increased research in the area of antibiotic alternatives, including essential oils. Essential oils (EOs) are plant based medicine that perform multiple biological activities such as; antimicrobial, antioxidant, antiviral, antiinflammatory, antifungal, antiviral and hepato-protective (Botslogou et al., 2002;Singh et al., 2021). According to Adewale et al. (2020); Musa et al. (2010), EOs are volatile oily liquids extracted from plant parts, such as flowers, buds, stems, seeds, leaves, twigs and root which are capable of producing a positive physiological function in the body of animals. ...
... EOs have been demonstrated to positively impact growth performance, blood profile and gut health of animals . However, there are inconsistencies in the results due to differences in the chemical composition of EOs, which are affected by plant age or part used, extraction or processing methods, geographical locations and antinutrients (Singh et al., 2021). Therefore, this experiment was designed to evaluate the effects of dietary inclusion of ginger (Zingiber officinale) and garlic (Allium sativum) oil mixture on the growth performance and caecal microbial population of broiler chickens. ...
Article
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The objective of the present study was to determine effect of dietary inclusion of (Zingiber officinale) and garlic (Allium sativum) oil mixture (GIGM) on the growth performance and caecal microbial population of broiler chickens. One hundred and fifty one-day-old broiler chicks (Ross 308) were randomly allocated into 5 treatments with three replicates consisting of 10 birds each in a completely randomized design. Birds in treatment 1 (T1) was fed basal diet with 0 % inclusion of GIGM while T2, T3, T4 and T5 were given 0.1 %, 0.2 %, 0.3 % and 0.4 % respectively. Clean feed and water were offered ad libitum and all other management practices were strictly observed throughout the experiment which lasted for 56 days. Results obtained were used to determine weight gain (WG), average daily weight gain (ADWG), total feed intake (TFI), average daily feed intake (ADFI), feed conversion ratio (FCR) and microbial population of E.coli, Salmonella spp and Lactobacillus spp. ADWG, ADFI and FCR were significantly (P ˂ 0.05) influenced by the dietary inclusion of GIGM. ADWG were highest in T5 (47.80 g), T4 (45.75 g) and T3 (45.09 g), intermediate in T2 (39.59 g) and lowest in T1 (30.72 g). Lactobacillus spp increased as the level of dietary inclusion of GIGM increases (P ˂ 0.05). E.coli and Salmonella spp counts were significantly (P ˂ 0.05) different among the treatments. It was concluded that GIGM could be included in the diet of broilers up to 0.4 % without causing any deleterious effect on the performance and health of birds.
... The phytogenic compounds of AV powder have positive effects, such as the gut microflora regulation through stimulating macrophages for growing rabbits. According to Singh et al. (2021), phytochemicals including flavonoids, phenols, and alkaloids can reduce the activity of harmful bacteria through the process of competitive exclusion and promote the growth of helpful bacteria like Lactobacillus sp., acting as probiotics. So, AV leaves powder as phytogenic have provided sufficient evidence to be safe and natural antioxidant in growing rabbits diets to prevent microorganisms' contamination of human food and to avoid diseases. ...
... Recently, the use of essential oils has been found to be one of the alternatives to the use of antibiotics because it is safe and effective (Musa et al., 2020; Shittu and Alagbe, 2020). Essential oils contains several bioactive chemicals or secondary metabolites which performs antimicrobial, antifungal, antibacterial, antioxidants, hepato-protective and hypolipidemic activities and are generally regarded as safe (GRAS) when used in right doses for animals (Singh et al., 2021). Essential oils extracted mainly from spices and herbs and their purified compounds have been shown to have antimicrobial actions in vitro (Ultee et al., 2002;Faleiro et al., 2003). ...
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An experiment was carried out to examine the effect of dietary inclusion of Moringa oleifera oil (MOO) on the growth performance and nutrient retention of broiler chicks. A total of 180-day-old broiler chicks (Arbor acre) of mixed sex were randomly allotted into six dietary treatments of 30 birds per treatment; each treatment was further divided into 3 replicates consisting of 10 birds each in a completely randomized design. Basal diet was formulated to meet the nutritional requirements of broiler chicks, feed and clean water were given ad libitum throughout the experiment which lasted for 28 days. Birds in treatment 1 (T1) were fed basal diet with Oxytetracycline at 1.5g/kg feed while birds in T2, T3, T4, T5 and T6 were fed basal diet mixed with MOO at 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4 and 0.5 mL/kg feed respectively. Results on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) revealed the presence of 17 bioactive compounds which accounted for 70.72 %. The major compounds identified in MOO are: β-caryphyllene (19.02 %), β-myrcene (16.08 %), carvenone (10.11 %) and α-cubebene (7.11 %) respectively. Data on average daily weight gain, average daily feed intake and feed conversion ratio were not significantly (P˂0.05) different among the treatments. Highest mortality was recorded among birds in T1 (0.33 %) followed by T2 (0.01 %) none was recorded in the other treatments (P˂0.05). Results on nutrient retention (dry matter, crude protein, crude fibre, ether extracts and nitrogen free extracts) were influenced by the dietary inclusion of MOO. It can be concluded that MOO could be fed to broilers up to 0.5 mL per kg feed without causing any negative effect on the performance of birds.
... Anthocyannins have been suggested possess antidiabetic, anticancer and anti-inflammatory activities (Hock et al., 2017; Shittu et al., 2021).Saponins is characterized by a bitter taste, foaming properties and posses antimicrobial properties (Alagbe, 2020; Adewale et al., 2021). The anti-nutritional effect of saponins is the retardation in growth rate, due to reduction in feed intake is probably the major concern (Cheeke et al.,Singh et al., 2021). Phytates bind minerals like calcium, iron, magnesium and zinc and make them unavailable(Aletor, 1991; Alagbe and Motunrade, 2019). ...
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This study was conducted to evaluate the nutritive value of sweet potato peels. The proximate composition, mineral composition, amino acid profile and anti-nutritional factors were determined in air-dried and sun-dried sweet potato peels. The sweet potato peels used for this research was collected from Gwagwalada and its environs. The results of the analysis show that crude protein (7.89%, 5.63%), crude fibre (3.41%, 3.68%), ether extract (1.71%, 2.15%), ash (6.95%, 5.82%), moisture (10.00%, 11.50%) and nitrogen free extract (70.04%, 71.22%) for air-dried and sun-dried sweet potato peels respectively. The air-dried and sun-dried peels had the following macro mineral contents respectively: calcium (61.70mg/100g, 45.73mg/100g), magnesium (9.33mg/100g, 5.11mg/100g), potassium (10.3mg/100g, 10.74mg/100g), sodium (4.12mg/100g, 1.52mg/100g), phosphorus (21.81mg/100g, 20.45mg/100g). The micro mineral content of zinc (1.00mg/100g) and iron (3.14mg/100g) in air-dried sweet potato peels had a higher value than that of sun-dried sweet potato peels. Sun-dried sweet potato peels had a higher value in copper (1.33mg/100g) and cobalt (0.18mg/100g) compared to the air-dried sweet potato peels. The air-dried and sun-dried sweet potato peels have the same manganese (1.22mg/100g) deposit in the mineral contents. A total of 16 amino acids (lysine, arginine, aspartic acid, threonine, histidine, serine, glycine, alanine, cystine, valine, leucine, phenylalanine, Tryosine, isoleucine, proline and methionine) were identified in the air-dried and sun-dried sweet potato peels, 9 of which were essential amino acid (lysine, arginine, threonine, histidine, valine, leucine, phenylalanine, isoleucine and methionine). The air-dried peels has the highest value of amino acids while sun-dried peels has the least except in Aspartic acid with 2.47% as compared to 2.13% air-dried peels, histidine with 6.18 % as compared to 4.71 % air-dried peels, alanine with 3.77% as compared to 3.13 % air-dried peels, valine with 1.10 % as compared with 0.88% air-dried peels and leucine with 2.79% as compared with 2.04 % air-dried peels. Histidine is the highest among the amino-acids with 6.18% in sun-dried sweet potato peels. The anti-nutritional factors detected includes: flavonoids, phenols, alkaloids, saponins, trypsin, phytate, cyanogenic glycosides, condensed tannins, hydrolysable tannins and anthocyanins. There is a reduction in the level of the nutritional factors after air-drying and sun-drying. Flavonoids in the air-dried peels was found to be above to be above the safe recommended level that should be consumed by animals. The data derived from the nutrient characterization of sweet potato peels in this study are clear indications that the sweet potato peels are rich in nutrients and can be used in feed formulation.
... Phenols are strong antioxidants which prevent oxidative damage to biomolecules such as DNA, lipids and protein that play a role in chronic disease, (Ojewuyi et al., 2014). Phenols are strong antioxidant which prevent the entry of diseases (Singh et al., 2021;. ...
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An experiment was conducted to assess the influence of GGO on carcass features and sensory assessment of broiler chickens. 120 1-day-old (Arbo acre) birds were separated into five treatments, each with three replicates of 8 birds. Throughout the 8-week trial, clean feed and water were available at all times. NRC's basal diet was designed to suit avian nutritional needs (1994). A 0% GGO meal was given to the birds in treatment 1, whereas GGO levels of 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 and 0.4 percent were given to the birds in treatments 2, 3, 4, and 5. As well as studying the phytochemical content of (Zingiber officinale) and garlic (Allium sativum) oil, carcass and organ features of birds were also studied. Zingiber officinale contains phenols (8.21%), alkaloids (5.12%), flavonoids (7.49%), tannins (6.52%), saponins (3.18%), streiods (2.38%), glycosides (0.18%), oxalates (0.07%), and phytate (0.07%). (0.02 %). Sativum contains flavonoids (10.67%) alkaloids (7.02%) tannins (4.72%) steroids (3.65%) saponin (2) glycoside (0.33%) oxalates (0.26%) and phytate (0.26%). (0.05 %). Dressing %, carcass and relative organ weights differed across treatments (P0.05). The liver, kidney, spleen, and other internal organs showed no signs of inflammation. GGO altered meat sensory assessment (tenderness, juiciness, taste, and fragrance) except meat color which was not significantly (P0.05) different across treatments. GGO may be fed to broilers up to 0.4 percent without affecting their health or performance.
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The aim of this experiment was to evaluate the proximate, mineral, vitamin and amino acid composition of Prosopis africana seed oil (PASO). The proximate revealed the presence of moisture (5.62%), crude protein (30.71 %), crude fibre (6.47%), ash (5.08%) and energy (383.26 Kcal/g). Mineral analysis of PASO showed that it contains calcium, potassium, potassium, magnesium, sodium, manganese, zinc, copper and iron at 403.8 mg/100g, 606.1 mg/100g, 142.8 mg/100g, 281.3 mg/100g, 101.7 mg/100g, 38.56 mg/100g, 19.10 mg/100g, 42.28 mg/100g and 14.93 mg/100g respectively. Amino acid such as lysine (4.18 g/100g), histidine (2.31 g/100g), arginine (4.85 g/100g), aspartic acid (8.61 g/100g), threonine (2.80 g/100g), serine (3.11 g/100g), glutamic acid (11.44 g/100g), proline (3.29 g/100g), glycine (3.47 g/100g), alanine (5.22 g/100g), cystine (1.08 g/100g), valine (4.72 g/100g), methionine (1.40 g/100g), isoleucine (3.22 g/100g), leucine (8.31 g/100g), tyrosine (2.40 g/100g), tryptophan (0.90 g/100g) and phenyl alanine (3.85 g/100g) were found to be abundant in PASO. Vitamin analysis of the test material shows that vitamin E had the highest concentration of 11.67 mg/100g followed by vitamin C (8.56 mg/100g), vitamin A (0.55 mg/100g), vitamin D (0.33 mg/100g), vitamin B 3 (0.25 mg/100g), vitamin B 1 (0.21 mg/100g), vitamin B 12 (0.20 mg/100g), vitamin B 6 (0.18 mg/100g), vitamin B 5 (0.10 mg/100g), vitamin B 2 (0.08 mg/100g), vitamin K (0.08 mg/100g) and vitamin B 9 (0.06 mg/100g) respectively. It was concluded that PASO is rich in several nutrients that have numerous health benefits including tissue maintenance, coordination of body functions and other biochemical and physiological functions in the body.
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There is a global increasing awareness on the use of medicinal plants as organic alternatives to antibiotics due to the presence of phytochemicals in them to curb the dangers of antimicrobial resistance, environmental pollution and presence of toxic residues in animal products.This experiment was conducted to evaluate the influence of Anogeissusleiocarpus stem bark extract (ALSB) on the fatty acid composition in meat of broiler chickens. 600 1-day-old broiler chicks (Cobb 500) of mixed sex were randomly assigned to 6 dietary treatments (T1, T2, T3, T4, T5 and T6) of 5 replicates consisting of 20 birds each in a completely randomized design (CRD), The experiment lasted for 56 days, feed and water was fed ad libitum and other management practices were carried out throughout the period of the experiment. Birds in T1 and T2 were fed basal diet with 1.25 g and 1.50 g Oxytetracycline/liter of water while T3, T4, T5 and T6 were fed basal diet with 20, 40, 60 and 80 ml/liter Anogeissusleiocarpus stem bark extract (ALSB) respectively.The results showed that significant (P<0.05) differences were observed in saturated fatty acid (SFA), polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) and omega-6/omega-3 ratio (n-6: n-3) values obtained in the breast and meat composition. Saturated fatty acid (SFA) in breast meat was highest in T1 and T2 (53.10 % and 49.90 %), intermediate in T3 and T4 (40.90 % and 40.02 %) and lowest in T5, T6 (35.92 % and 35.90 %) (P < 0.05). Similarly SFA in thigh meat was maximum at T1 and T2 (50.80 %, 50.60 %), midway T3, T4 (42.11, 41.00 %) and minimum T5, T6 (32.08, 32.00 %) (P < 0.05).PUFA was highest among birds fed (ALSB). It can be concluded that feeding broilers up to 400 mg/kg highly influenced the composition of fatty acid in broiler meat.
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Plants are one of the numerous gifts of nature, they are loaded with several bioactive chemicals or phytochemicals as part of their normal metabolic activities. The beneficial effects of phytochemicals could be attributed to their antimicrobial, antiviral, antifungal and antioxidant properties. The use of medicinal plants (herbs, spices and their extracts) as organic alternatives have increased due to the increasing awareness on food safety and the dangers on the indiscriminate use of antibiotics. Herbs are cheap, easily available and produce no toxic residue on final products from animals when compared with antibiotics. Phytochemicals (such as flavonoids, phenols, saponin, alkaloids etc.) performs multiple biological activities in animals, such activities include improving performance, increased proliferations of immune cells, relief from intestinal challenge, reduction in oxidative stress, reduced mortality and increased antibody titers. The efficacy of these bioactive chemicals and results obtained from animals depends on extraction method, stage and age of plants, geographical location, species or breeds of animals, management methods and concentrations administered. So many potential abound in the use of medicinal plants and it was even recommended by the European Union (2006) as botanical alternative to antibiotics. Therefore, this review focuses on ways to bridge the gap between food safety and animal production.
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Medicinal plants contain substances with high therapeutic value because they contain multiple bioactive chemicals. Chemical analysis of Indigofera tinctoria leaves, stem bark and roots was evaluated. The result revealed that proximate composition of Indigofera tinctoria leaves contained 12.49 % moisture content (M.C), 87.51 % dry matter (DM), 30.53 % crude protein (CP), 19.02 % crude fibre (CF), 2.44 % ether extract (EE), 13.86 % ash, 36.59 % carbohydrate (CHO) and 254.1 kcal/100g energy (ME). Indigofera tinctoria stem bark contained M.C (6.40 %), DM (93.60 %), CP (5.11 %), CF (54.49 %), EE (2.00 %), ash (10.42 %), CHO (29.98 %) and ME (156.0 kcal/100g). Indigofera tinctoria roots contained MC, DM, CP, CF, EE, ash, CHO and ME at 10.04 %, 89.60 %, 8.22 %, 40.88 %, 1.21 %, 8.43 %, 42.47 % and 210.0 kcal/100g respectively. Vitamin analysis showed that Indigofera tinctoria leaves, stem bark and roots contained β- carotene (8.45, 2.88 and 5.11 mg/100 g), Vitamin B1 (1.94, 0.33 and 1.00 mg/100 g), Vitamin B2 (0.71, 0.21 and 0.50 mg/100 g), Vitamin B3 (0.66, 0.34 and 0.48 mg/100 g), Vitamin B6 (0.32, 0.21 and 0.30 mg/100 g), Vitamin B7 (0.63, 0.01 and 0.16 mg/100 g), Vitamin B9 (0.26, 0.10 and 0.18 mg/100 g), Vitamin B12 (0.21, 0.03 and 0.10 mg/100 g), Vitamin C (14.0, 3.56 and 9.44 mg/100 g), Vitamin D (0.10, 0.01 and 0.06 mg/100 g) and Vitamin K (0.17, 0.07 and 0.12 mg/100 g). Amino acid analysis revealed the presence of threonine, leucine, lysine, valine, tryptophan, glycine, phenylalanine, histidine, methionine, alanine, serine, proline, aspartate, glutamic acid, tryrosine and cysteine in Indigofera tinctoria leaves, stem bark and roots at (7.65 %, 1.22 % and 3.03 %), (5.76, 1.09 % and 2.46 %), (3.11 %, 1.21% and 2.00 %), (7.21 %, 3.53 % and 4.09 %), (1.45%, 0.03% and 1.00 %), (4.76 %, 0.08 % and 2.33 %), (6.33 %, 2.45 % and 3.49 %), (7.42 %, 2.00 % and 3.00 %), (3.49 %, 0.01 % and 2.00 %), (2.41 %, 0.56 % and 1.20 %), (5.23 %, 1.22 % and 1.76 %), (2.87 %, 0.57 % and 1.00 %), (5.32 %, 2.11 % and 3.56 %), (9.66 %, 4.21 % and 5.11 %), (2.45 %, 0.57 % and 1.67 %) and (1.85 %, 0.81 % and 0.89 %) respectively. It was concluded that Indigofera tinctoria leaves, stem bark and roots are loaded with significant quantity of nutrients, vitamins and amino acid (leaves ˃ roots ˃ stem bark).
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Plants are the cheapest and indispensable constituents of human diets supplying the body nutrients (carbohydrates, protein, fats, amino acids, vitamins) necessary for growth and body development. Therefore, this work was designed to examine the proximate and mineral composition of Pentadiplandra brazzeana stem bark (PBSB). Proximate composition of PBSB revealed the presence of 8.75 % moisture, 91.25 % dry matter, 6.43 % crude protein, 41.03 % crude fibre, 5.70 % ether extract, 12.11 % ash, 17.82 (g/100 g) carbohydrates, 0.47 % total reducing sugar and 632.2 Kj/100g energy respectively. Results on mineral analysis shows that PSSB is abundant in calcium (73.84 mg/100g) followed by phosphorus (41.55 mg/100g), magnesium (32.56 mg/100g), sodium (28.11 mg/100g), zinc (17.56 mg/100g), manganese (10.88 mg/100g), potassium (9.47 mg/100g) and copper (2.33 mg/100g). In order of mineral abundance in PBSB Ca ˃ phosphorus ˃ magnesium ˃ sodium ˃ zinc ˃ manganese ˃ potassium ˃ copper. It was concluded that PBSB is low in protein, energy and some minerals (copper and potassium).
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An enzyme which catalyzes the dismutation of superoxide radicals (O2·⁻ + O2·⁻ + 2H⁺ → O2 + H2O2) has been purified by a simple procedure from bovine erythrocytes. This enzyme, called superoxide dismutase, contains 2 eq of copper per mole of enzyme. The copper may be reversibly removed, and it is required for activity. Superoxide dismutase has been shown to be identical with the previously described copper-containing erythrocuprein (human) and hemocuprein (bovine). Stable solutions of the superoxide radical were generated by the electrolytic reduction of O2 in an aprotic solvent, dimethylformamide. Slow infusion of such solutions into buffered aqueous media permitted the demonstration that O2·⁻ can reduce ferricytochrome c and tetranitromethane, and that superoxide dismutase, by competing for the superoxide radicals, can markedly inhibit these reactions. Superoxide dismutase was used to show that the oxidation of epinephrine to adrenochrome by milk xanthine oxidase is mediated by the superoxide radical. An assay of several tissues indicates that superoxide dismutase is widely distributed within mammalian organisms.
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Carotenoids comprising carotenes and oxycarotenoids as two main groups, are fat-soluble pigments widely distributed in nature. The distinctive pattern of alternating single and double bonds in the polyene backbone are responsible to quench reactive oxygen species (ROS), while the nature of specific end groups on carotenoids influence their polarity. Antioxidants help to control free radicals by quenching them by donating electrons to molecules before they damage other biomolecules of the cell or by reducing their energy or stopping their formation by interrupting oxidizing chain reaction. Scavenging of free radicals occurs by gaining its "missing" electron by removing an electron from another molecule or to adding itself to another molecule in its attempt to pair single electron, forming an adduct. In either case, the electron-rich character of carotenoids makes them attractive to radicals, thus sparing other cell components (DNA, RNA, carbohydrates, lipids, proteins) from damage. Carotenes along with xanthophylls, astaxanthin, lycopene and lutein seem to offer protection against lung, colorectal, breast, uterine and prostate cancers. They help to prevent heart disease, supplementation along with vitamin C and E reduce the risk of developing diabetes and to fight against Alzheimer's disease. They are generally regarded as safe (GRAS) but increased consumption of carotenoids may cause the skin to turn orange or yellow, known as "carotenodermia. " This occurrence is completely benign and is unrelated to jaundice that results from liver disease or other causes. Although it is tempting to formulate a cocktail of carotenoids with a desire to provide a full spectrum of health benefits but it is desired to take into consideration the health benefit to be targeted specifically.