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Small Selectivities Matter: Lifting the Burden of Empty Samples

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The history of histograms is long and rich, full of detailed information in every step. It includes the course of histograms in di#erent scientific fields, the successes and failures of histograms in approximating and compressing information, their adoption by industry, and solutions that have been given on a great variety of histogram-related problems. In this paper and in the same spirit of the histogram techniques themselves, we compress their entire history (including their "future history" as currently anticipated) in the given/fixed space budget, mostly recording details for the periods, events, and results with the highest (personally-biased) interest. In a limited set of experiments, the semantic distance between the compressed and the full form of the history was found relatively small! 1 Prehistory The word `histogram' is of Greek origin, as it is a composite of the words `isto-s' (###os) (= `mast', also means `web' but this is not relevant to this discussion) and `gram-ma' (####) (= `something written '). Hence, it should be interpreted as a form of writing consisting of `masts', i.e., long shapes vertically standing, or something similar. It is not, however, a Permission to copy without fee all or part of this material is granted provided that the copies are not made or distributed for direct commercial advantage, the VLDB copyright notice and the title of the publication and its date appear, and notice is given that copying is by permission of the Very Large Data Base Endowment. To copy otherwise, or to republish, requires a fee and/or special permission from the Endowment.
a rber, N. May, W. Lehner, P. Große, I. Mü ller, H. Rauhe, and J. Dees. The SAP HANA database -- an architecture overview
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Accessed: 2020-07-02. Reference for SAP HANA Platform 2.0 SPS 04
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