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Argemone mexicana, a prickly plant commonly called as prickly poppy is found in sub tropical regions and is well known for its medicinal properties. Its potential as a medicinal plant has been practiced traditionally and been prescribed as medicines by Ayurvedic, Unani, Siddha and Homeopathic practices since several years. Each part of plant posses bio active compounds that help in curing ailments like HIV, malaria, ring worm infections, fungal infections, cancer etc. These activities have been studied in vivo and in vitro set up and results have been obtained in favor. Further, phytochemical evaluation has unveiled the presence of compounds like berberine, argemonine, protopine etc, which show curative actions and could be used for treatment of diseases with future preception. This review is a sum up of all literature available through the internet and was searched using keywords ‘Argemone mexicana’, ‘phytochemical importance of Argemone’ and many other exclusive words with respect to different activities scanned for reviewing. The references provided in the papers were also given a thorough look and retrieved the respected data from them too. ‘Scopus’, ‘Pubmed’, ‘Google Scholar’, ‘Research Gate’ were used to search for the relevant papers through different journals available. The literature has then been framed in a way with up gradation about Argemone mexicana and its promising affects seen with the potential of the plant which is still undiscovered but could be utilized as curative methods
e-ISSN:2581-6063 (online), ISSN:0972-5210Plant Archives Volume 21, No 1, 2021 pp. 40-49
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Sunanda Kulshrestha and Anjana Goel*
Department of Biotechnology, GLA University, Mathura, U.P, India
Argemone mexicana, a prickly plant commonly called as prickly poppy is found in sub tropical regions and is well known for
its medicinal properties. Its potential as a medicinal plant has been practiced traditionally and been prescribed as medicines
by Ayurvedic, Unani, Siddha and Homeopathic practices since several years. Each part of plant posses bio active compounds
that help in curing ailments like HIV, malaria, ring worm infections, fungal infections, cancer etc. These activities have been
studied in vivo and in vitro set up and results have been obtained in favor. Further, phytochemical evaluation has unveiled
the presence of compounds like berberine, argemonine, protopine etc, which show curative actions and could be used for
treatment of diseases with future preception. This review is a sum up of all literature available through the internet and was
searched using keywords ‘Argemone mexicana’, ‘phytochemical importance of Argemone and many other exclusive words
with respect to dierent activities scanned for reviewing. The references provided in the papers were also given a thorough
look and retrieved the respected data from them too. ‘Scopus’, ‘Pubmed’, ‘Google Scholar’, ‘Research Gate’ were used
to search for the relevant papers through dierent journals available. The literature has then been framed in a way with up
gradation about Argemone mexicana and its promising aects seen with the potential of the plant which is still undiscovered
but could be utilized as curative methods.
Keywords: Curative, Diseases, Medicinal Plant, Phytochemicals, Prickly Poppy
(Date of Receiving-09-09-2020 ; Date of Acceptance-28-11-2020)
Use of medicinal plants can be dated back to
ancient times when these were the only reliable source
of treatment of any disease. Use of plants as medicine
has been taken into practice since ages in literatures like
Ayurveda, Siddha and Unani. Each and every part of a
plant has some curative property for any particular disease
that could be thought of. According to WHO more than
60% of population still depends on plants as their primary
source of treatment specially the tribal population, people
living in villages or rural areas or other enthusiasts who
found this dependence on natural sources much benecial
in terms of side-eects (Khan and Bhadauria, 2017).
In this context, India, a biodiversity hotspot, a
country rich in plant resources traditional knowledge of
their usage could exploit the healing properties of plants
for their benet in health. In this row, Argemone mexicana
could be thought of one such plant with multi-dimensional
uses. It is a prickly plant commonly called ‘Mexican
poppy’ and ‘satynashi’ in hindi is found in US, India,
Ethopia, etc (Das and Misra, 1987). This is mainly found in
abundant places, near wells and road side. It is a wild type
on plant and prefers somewhat alkaline soil for its growth.
Although it is poisonous in nature and seeds were been
used with mustard seeds as an adulterant as observed cases
of food adulteration. Traditionally the plant has been taken
in use to cure fungal infections, skin disease, ringworm,
jaundice, etc by the folks. The oil from seeds has been used
to cure ulcers and intestinal infections, relieving of tooth
ache, treating scorpion sting etc (Shaukat et al., 2002;
Kala, 2005). Further with improvement in technology
and introduction of in vitro and in vivo experimentations
certain activities have also been studied exhibited by the
plant parts like anti-HIV, anti-malarial, anti-cancerous,
cytotoxicity etc. Active phytochemicals have been reported
from dierent parts of plants that are responsible for the
curative responses. They include alkaloids like berberine,
chlerytherine, sargurinanrine, fatty acids like palmitic
acid, oleic acid, etc (Merlin et al., 2007; Ji et al., 2011).
Morphological Description: Argemone mexicana
belonging to family Papavercaea is commonly called as
Mexican poppy; it is prickly, dicot plant. Its height vary
from 0.3 m to 1.2 m. Stem is green in color and oblong.
Leaves are green with white veins and yellow ower which
is terminal. A fruit is in oval capsule covered with prickles
all over. Whole plant is covered in prickles and hence it
got it name ‘prickly poppy’. This is a wild plant that grow
as a weed near road side, wells, abandoned lands, near
elds, agricultural waste lands etc. It prefers little alkaline
medium for growth and light sandy soil.
It is widely distributed in tropical and sub-tropical
countries like United States, Ethopia, Africa, Mexico and
Bangladesh and could be found widely in every part of
India (Zafar et al., 2010).
Sunanda Kulshrestha and Anjana Goel
Kingdom- Plantae
Subkingdom - Tracheobionta
Superdivision - Spermatophyta
Division- Magnoliophyta
Class- Magnoliopsida
Subclass- Magnoliidae
Order- Papaverales
Family- Papaveraceae
Genus- Argemone
Species- Argemone mexicana L
Vernacular names:
Its vernacular names are as follows:
Hindi- Satyanashi
Sanskrit- Kankkshiri
Kannada- Datturigidda
Konkani - Phirangi-dhutro
Malayalam- Ponnummattu
Marathi -Phirangi-dhotra
Tamil - Kudiyotti
Medicinal importance and uses: Further going
into chemical proling of the plant, several useful bioactive
compounds have been discovered till date. A large group
of phytochemicals belonging to the alkaloid group
have been screened including isoquinoline, berebrine,
protopine, chelerythrine and many more (Nakkady and
Shamma, 1998). Other groups found include phenolics
(tannic acid), amino acids (cysteine, phenylalanine), fatty
acid, avanoids etc (Sukumar et al., 1984; Dinda and
Bandyopadhyay, 1986). These bioactive compounds hold
medicinal importance and act accordingly on dierent
kinds of diseases is given in details below. The plant
have been used since ancient times to cure many disease
like tooth ache, scabies, malaria, snake bites, jaundice,
opthalmia, dropsy etc (Sharma et al., 2012). That was the
time when even the present studied and propagated science
and technology didn’t exist and medicinal treatment was
based only on practices and observation. Use of Argemone
mexicana has been reported in many diseases as shown in
table no 1.
In vitro evaluation of activities of dierent parts
of Argemone mexicana: The past experimentations and
researches that have supported the use of A. mexicana
in various kinds of ailments and conditions have been
described categorically below and represented in tabular
form in table no 2.
Anti-microbial activity: A.mexicana has been a
plant that has been in used since years even by the tribal
for its established use as an anti-microbial agent. The
crude extracts of plant consist of chemicals that are likely
to induce toxic activities against microbes. Rahman et al.,
2009 studied crude stem hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate
and alcohol extracts against food borne gram negative and
positive bacteria like Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus
aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Clostridium botulinum,
Clostridium perfringens, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas
aeruginosa and Salmonella typhimurium. On the other
hand in the same year Singh et al,. 2009 used extact from
the seeds to study activity against E. coli, P. aeroginosa,
Enterococcus sp. Salmonella typhi, and S. aureus.
Chloroform extract was used and results were foun to be
Fruit of A.mexicana waa also used wirh 50%
aqueous methanolic extract which showed positive result
in inhibition of Klebsiella oxytoca, Vibrio damsella,
Enterobactor aerogens and E. coli (Jain et al., 2012).
Similar ndings were reported by Pandey and Karanwal,
2011 and Bhardwaj et al., 2012 that advocated use of
ethanolic exctracts of seeds showing signicant anti-
bacterial activities against P. aeruginosa, E. coli and S.
Ethanolic extracts of A.mexicana were found
to have anti- bacterial potential against Streptococcus
mutans and Porphyromonas gingivalis that cause oral
cavity infection (Rosas-Pinon et al., 2012). Leaf extracts
(acetone, methanol, ethanol, aqueous) were found to work
on drug resistant strain of P. aeruginosa (Sahu et al.,
2012) chloroform extract of leaves, stem and roots were
also found to show activity against E. coli, Klebsiella
pneumoniae, Bacillus cereus and S. aureus that too were
drug resistant (Alagesaboopathi and Kalaiselvi, 2012).
Alkaloid N-demethyloxysanguinarine was found
to be the main responsible phytochemical responsible
for such activity. Other studies included Streptococcus
agalactiae, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus
and Klebsiella pneumonia getting resisted by aqueous
and alcoholic extract of leaves (Doss et al., 2012).
Whereas, water borne pathogens like E. coli, Shigella sp.,
Staphylococcus sp. and Salmonella sp were found to get
resisted by petroleum ether, acetone, ethyl acetate extracts
of leaves and stem (Rahman et al.,2009).
Wound healing activity: Use of Argemone
mexicana has been taken into use since ages for curing
of external wounds. This was experimented by Ghosh and
group in 2005 that evaluated the wound healing activity
of leaf extract and latex on incision and excision type
of wounds (Ghosh et al.,2005). As per the investigations
carried out, it was seen that after 12 days of post wounding
A panoramic view on Argemone mexicana: its medicinal importance and phytochemical potentials.
period, signicant wound healing activity was observed
which was although not as eective as the standard
nitrofurazone but still has shown visible aects. Wound
healing and antimicrobial activity Argemone mexicana in
experimental rats were reported (Dash and Murthy, 2011) .
Impotency/anti-fertility activity: The seeds of
Argemone mexicana could be utilized to create impotency
or can act as natural anti-fertility with the administered
doses. It was studied in spermatogenesis in dogs. With the
administration of seed extract, inhibitory activity of late
spermatids at stage 3 was observed in dogs. A decrease
of 95-97% in spermatid count was also observed in
experiments carried by Gupta et al., 1990 (Gupta et al.,
Larvicidal and Chemostiraant activity:
Larvicidal activity of any compounds is a thing that could
be exploited espically in the season that favours mosquito
breeding leading to fever transmitted by them. Larvicdal
property has been studied in A. aegypti and culex. A
siginicant LC50 activity has been noted for 2nd-3rd 4th
instar larvae of these mosquiots using acetone fraction
of petroleum ether extract at both natural and laboratory
conditions (Sakthivadivel and Thilagavathy, 2003;
Sakthivadivel et al., 2012).
Mollusicidal activity: Fatal activity on snail has
been observed by Singh and Singh, 1999 from the seed
extract of A.mexicana. protopine and sanguinarine from the
seeds were identied to act deadly on snails by decresing
the level of proteins, DNA, RNA in nervous tissue of
Lymnaea acuminate. Seed powder could be used to contol
snail population and cause death (Singh and Singh, 1999).
Anti- – oxidant activity: Dierent extracts from
leaves and roots have been reported to exhibit scavenging
activities. Roots were been tested against DPPH (85.17%),
ABTS (75.27%) and H2O2 (84.25%) radicals and activity
was seen on other hand leaves were reported to exhibit
superoxide anion scavenging activity by Nitro blue
tetrazolium assay (Bhardwaj et al., 2011).
Cytotoxic activity: Uddin and group in 2011 tested
extract from leaves to exhibit cytotoxic activites against
human cancer cell lines (AGS, HT-29, MDA-MB-435S)
with the help of MTT assay. Methaolic extracts was found
to be most ecient in comparison to others and showed
feasible amount of acitivty against MDA-MB-435S cell
lines. Other lines tested by Chang et al., 2003 included
HONE-1 and NUGC cancer cell lines and alkaloids like
angoline, chelerythrine, N-demethyloxysanguinarine etc
were the most active types causing the cytotoxic eect.
Anti-diabetic activity: Rout et al., 2011
experimented extract from aerial parts of A. mexicana
on diabetic rats. It showed hypoglycemic ecacy in the
rats that were administered with the aqueous extract of
aerial part of plant. Reduction in glucose level, creatinine,
urea, cholesterol and triglyceride values were observed as
results with the gaining of lost body weight. A doses of
400 mg/kg was found to be eective and comparable to the
standard drug for diabetes that is metformin which shows
ecacy with the dose of 300mg/kg body weight and hence
the result seem to be satisfactory.
Hepato-protective activity: Das et al., 2009
examined the anti- hepatoprotective activity of aqueous
extract of stem of A.mexicana in male albino wistar rats
induced with carbon tetrachloride. The extract was found
to be useful to decrese serum asparate transaminase,
alanine aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase levels
in the rats. Another group of researchers used crude leaf
powder to demonstrate activity against CCl4-induced
hepatotoxicity and found signicant increase in ASAT/
GOT (aspartate aminotransferase), ALAT/GPT (alanine
aminotransferase) and ALP (alkaline phosphate) while
decrease in total bilirubin (TBIL) and direct bilirubin
(Sourabie et al., 2019).
Anti-HIV: Methanolic extract isolated from air
dried plant of A mexicana was found to show anti- HIV
activity against H9 lymphocytes (Leyva-Peralta et al.,
Anti-fungal activity: Seed extracts from
A.mexicana was found to be fungitoxic against fungal
strains like Trichophytan mentagrophytes, leaf extract
exhibit activity against fruit pathogens like Alternaria
alternata, Dreschlera halodes, and Helminthosporium
speciferum (Srivastava and Srivastava, 1998).
Nematicidal: Seed oil from A.mexicana was
reported to kill Meloidogyne incognita larvae in only 17
mins.. Reduction in nematode infections in roots and soil
was observed after application of aqueous mixture (0.2%)
with leaves of Hibiscus esculentus inoculated with M.
incognita which supported as an evident in the nematicidal
property of A.mexicana (Nath et al., 1982). The plant
extract was tested and reported to kill the nematode
population in eld where larvae was found to bloom.
Vasoconstrictor and vasorelaxant: The vascular
eect of methanolic extracts from aerial parts of A.
mexicana was observed by Paez-Sanchez and coworkers
in 2006 in aortic lines of rats. It was found that relaxation
from contraction was induced in a contraction dependent
way. It could be concluded with the experiment that a
direct eect is laid upon smooth muscle by the adrenergic
Anti-feedant: Petroleum ether and aqueous leaf
extracts of A. mexicana was found to exhibit signicant
anti- feedant activity against second stage larvae of
Henosephilachna vigintiocto puncata (Gacche et al.,2011).
Anti-cancerous: Extracts from leaves specially
have been reported to possess anti-cancerous activity
against human cell lines of HeLa-B75, HL-60 and PN-
15. Methanolic extract of leaves has shown considerable
amount of activity against HeLa and MCF-7 cancer cell
Sunanda Kulshrestha and Anjana Goel
evaluated using the MTT assay. The nature of activity was
also found to be apoptotic not necrosis which could be
predicted under the inuence of avanoid and alkaloids
present (Gacche et al., 2011; Gali et al., 2011).
Anti-inammatory activity: Notable and
signicant anti-inammatory activity has been observed
with addition to analgesic activity on rats by the ethnolic
extracts of leaves. Cysteine, phenylalanine could be held
responsible for the activity (Sukumar et al., 1984).
Anti-helminthic activity: The aqueous plant
extract showed signicant action against Indian earthworm
or Pheritima posthuman (Jaliwala et al., 2011). This
experiment was carried on at a dose dependent manner and
anti-helminthic activity was observed at a concentration
of 100mg/ml. Another helminthes that was used as the
experimental model was Ascardia galli and signicant
activities were seen against this too.
Immunomodulatory activity: Argemone
mexicana was reported to decrease the cell mediated
immune response in albino rats (Goel et al., 2008). But
increased humoral response against Salmonella antigen
was found in chicken model (Varshney et al., 2013).
Miscellaneous activities reported: Other
miscellaneous activities have also been reported by
some reporters including anti-asthmatic, anti-stress, anti-
malarial etc. A dose-escalating clinical trial was performed
by using decoction of A.mexicana and was given 3 times a
day. All patients had symptom and infection of Plasmodium
falciparum and at 14th day, the results could be seen in
all patients including children to meet out the infection
in body. Other activities reported includes applications
in neuropharamacology, the plant was found to relaxant
activity on mouse and extracts showed potency for central
nervous system showing analgesic, anxiolytic and sedative
eects (Amartha and Chaudhari, 2011). Similarily aqueous
extracts showed decrease in leucocytes and eosinophils
responsible fpr anti-stress and anti-allergic activity in a
work done by Piacente in 1997 (Piacente et al., 1998).
Toxicity: As mentioned, Argemone mexicana is a
wild and toxic plant and its safety and toxicity evaluation
are a necessary point to deal with. Works showed plant
extracts inhibit acute toxicity when administered IP. Seeds
oil of plant has an alkaloid sanguinarine that induce the
toxic eect (Ibrahim and Ibrahim, 2009). The compound
is inconvertible by redox process and can cause glaucoma
and epidemic dropsy (Verma et al., 2001). The process
of toxicity is still not understood but it is believed that
the sanguinarine present interferes with the oxidation of
pyruvic acid and accumulate causing dilation in capillaries
and arterioles (Husain et al., 1999). It is also reported to be
hepatotoxic in rats and increase the activity of SGPT and
SGOT (Dalvi, 1985).
In a case highlighted, people used to mix mustard
oil (Brassica nigra) with argemone oil but this could
lead to epidemic dropsy even if consumed for short time
period. This could cause serious threat to human health
(Challagundla et al., 2007).
Argemone mexicana, a wild plant with prickly
spines all over the surface is found to be growing at abundant
and moist place, near wells, road, etc. It has been found
to hold a treasure of phytochemicals that have medicinal
potentials and could be used to deal with ailments. Most
important factors behind using of phytochemicals for
treatment are the approach by every kind to economical
section of the society and null- side eects that could be
seen in contrast to the allopathic medicines administered.
Experimental studies have supported the use of A. mexicana
eective in many diseases as mentioned in the review but
also at the same time, the point of safety evaluation could
also be taken into consideration as it being a toxic plant.
The seeds were used as adulterants with the mustard seeds
after the incident was highlighted few years back. This
gathered information about the plant could help future
researchers for the work related to use and development
of pharmacological drugs that could be pocket friendly
and easily available with good amount of eciency, this
could be anticipated in future. Systematic researches in all
relevant aspects could help to achieve the goal.
Argemone mexicana has been identied as a
plant with wide spectrum use and most important use as
an indigenous medicine. Several applications have been
discussed in the review that favors the medical application
of the plant. Being a wild plant it is easily procurable and
available in abundance in the season. Belonging to the
Papavercaea family or the poppy family, it is commonly
known as Mexican poppy and has been taken into use
as a traditional medicine to cure skin infections, tumors,
malaria, warts. Rheumatoid pain and the list continues, the
plant is found to be eecient in pharmaceutical aspects
tooand hence several more researches were and are been
carried out to unveil many more uses of the plant which
was supported by experimentation including activities
like Anti- HIV, Anti-fertility, Anti-cancerous, etc and the
concluding results were found to be positive. The plant is
rich in alkaloids and also contains many kinds of phenols,
avanoids, carboxylic acid, amino acids etc. All are
distributed over the, plant parts but some have exclusive
existence amongst the parts of the plant. Apart from the
uses A. mexicana has also been identied as a toxic plant,
its safety evaluation is also a point to be considered. Hence,
up-to date information about the plant has been tried to
assemble in the review.
The authors declare no conict of interest
A panoramic view on Argemone mexicana: its medicinal importance and phytochemical potentials.
Name of plant part Traditional use Reference
Whole plant
Used to cure malaria, leprosy, leucoderma, leucorrheoa, skin disease,
bronchitis, whopping cough, itches, mild pain killer, guinea-worm infes-
tation, purgative, dental disorder, cold sores, dysentery, rheumatism pain,
inammation, fever, piles, tumor, worm infection, snake venom, scorpion
bite, photophobia, warts
Minu et al., 2012
Used to cure Malaria, ulcer, blood circulation, cholesterol level mainte-
nance, stomach ache, warts, cold sore, used in baths to help in muscle pain,
skin infection
More and Kharat, 2016
Use to treat leprosy, skin disease, wounds, fungal infections, cough, chest
pain, to stimulate uterine stimulation, used as anti-dote for all types of
poisoning, malarial fever, vaginal discharge, liver problems
Brahmachari et al., 2010
Used as anti-dote for all kinds of poisoning specially snake poisoning, used
to relive toothache, help in inammation, warts, cold sores, wound healing,
, ulcers, itches, intestinal infection, conjunctivitis, asthma
Kala, 2005
Used to treat boils, dermatitis, scorpion sting, wound dressing, as disin-
fectant for open wounds, for blisters, eye infection, skin disease, ulcer,
conjunctivitis, is massaged on body for rheumatic pain
Agra, 2007
Name Of Phytochemical Part of Plant Biological activities References
11-Oxo Octacosanoic Acid Seeds Not reported Gunstone et al., 1977
11-Oxo Triacontanoic Acid Seeds Not reported Fletcher et al., 1993
13-Oxoprotopine Aerial Parts Colon cancer Singh et al., 2012
5,7-Dihydroxy Chromone-7-Neo-
Seeds Not reported Bhardwaj et al., 1982
6-Acetonyl Dihydrochelerythrine Whole plant Anti- HIV Chang et al., 2003
8-Methoxy Dihydrosanguinarine Seeds Colon cancer Chang et al., 2003
9-Oxo Octacosanoic Acid Seeds Anti-microbial Gunstone et al., 1977
Adenine Aerial Parts Not reported Chang et al., 2003
Adenosine Aerial Parts Not reported Chang et al., 2003
Allocryptopine Whole Plant Anti-malarial Avello Simoes Pires, 2009
Angoline Whole Plant Cytotoxic, Anti- canerous (nasopha-
ryngeal, breast, cervical)
Brahamchari et al., 2013
Arachidic Acid Whole plant Not reported Badami & Gunstone, 1962
Argemexicaine Whole Plant Anti-microbial Chang et al., 2003
Argemexirine Whole Plant, Aerial Parts Anti-microbial Singh et al., 2010
Argemonic Acid Whole Plant Anti-microbial Rukmini, 1975
Argemonine Plant Resin Leukemia, B-cell lymphoma, cervi-
cal cancer,
Leyva-Peralta et al., 2015
Argenaxine Cytotoxic Chang et al., 2003
Argenaxine Aerial Part Cytotoxic, anti- cancerous (Gall
bladder, Breast cancer)
Chang et al., 2003
Arnottianamide Whole Plant Not reported Chang et al., 2003
Benzoic Acid Seeds Anti-microbial Dwivedi et al., 2008
Benzphetamine N-Demethylase Seeds Anti-microbial Chang et al., 2003
Berberine Apigeal Parts And Seeds Anti-fertility, Anti-malarial,
Anti-cancerous (for ovarian, lung,
breast, cervical and Leukemia)
Avello Simoes Pires, 2009; Tan et al.,
Caeic Acid Seeds Anti-oxidant Singh et al., 2010
Cheilanthifoline Apigeal Parts Anti-inammatory Israilov et al., 1986; Haisova & Sla-
vik, 1975; Shamma, 1972
Chelerythrine Whole Plant Cytotoxic, Anti-canerous (Gastric,
nasopharyngeal and breast)
Almeida et al.,2017
Table no 1: Traditional uses of Argemone mexicana
Table no 2: Phytochemicals reported in Argemone mexicana with reported biological activities
Sunanda Kulshrestha and Anjana Goel
Name Of Phytochemical Part of Plant Biological activities References
Cinnamic Acid Seeds Anti-oxidant, Anti-inammatory,
Dwivedi et al., 2008
Columbamine Whole Plant Anti-inammatory Singh et al., 2010
Coptisine Whole Plant Anti-inammatory Singh et al., 2010
Cryptopine Whole Plant Anti- fertility, Anti-oxidant Haisova & Slavik, 1975
Cysteine Leaves Anti-inammatory, analgesic Sukumar et al., 1984
Dehydrocheilanthifoline Whole Plant Not reported Chang et al., 2003
Dehydrocorydalmine Whole Plant Anti- cancerous (colon), Anti-fun-
Singh et al., 2010
Dihydrocoptisine Whole Plant Anti-inammatory, Vasoconstrictor
and vasorelaxant
Singh et al., 2010
Dihydropalmatine Hydroxide Seeds Anti- fertility Gupta et al., 1990
Dihydrosanguiranine Whole Plant Anti-microbial Chang et al., 2003
Eriodictyol Seeds Anti-inammatory, Anti-oxidant Harborne & Williams, 1983
Ferulic Acid Seeds Anti-oxidant, Anti-inammatory,
Anti-microbial, Anti-allergic, Hepa-
toprotective, Anti- cancerous
Singh et al., 2012
Hentriacontane-3,20-Diol Flowers Anti-microbial Brahmachari et al., 2010
Higenamine Aerial Part Cytotoxic , Anti- Cancerous (Gall
bladder, Breast cancer)
Iqbal et al., 2017
Isocorydine Apigeal Parts Anti- cancerous (Hepatic), Anti-ox-
Israilov et al., 1986
Isorhamnetin Flowers Anti-oxidant, Anti- cancerous, An-
ti-microbial, Anti-inammatory
Rahman & Ilyas, 1962
Leaves, Flowers Anti-oxidant Chang et al., 2003
Flowers Anti-oxidant, Anti- cancerous Rahman & Ilyas, 1962
Jatrorrhizine Whole Plant Colon cancer Singh et al., 2010
Linoleic Acid Not reported Badami & Gunstone, 1962
Luteolin Seeds Anti-oxidant, Anti- cancerous Harborne and Williams, 1983
Mexicanic Acid Aerial Parts Anti-oxidant, Anti- cancerous,
Dinda & Banerjee, 1987
Mexitin Aerial Parts Not reported Singh et al., 2012
Muramine Whole Plant Not reported Nakkady et al., 1988
Myristic Acid Seeds Anti-oxidant Rukmini, 1975
N-Demethyloxysanguinarine Seeds Cytotoxic Chang et al., 2003
Nor-Chelerythrine Whole Plant Anti- cancerous Haisova & Slavik, 1975
Nor-Sanguinarine Whole Plant Cytotoxic Tripathi et al., 1999
Oleic Acid Seeds Not reported Badami & Gunstone, 1962
O-Methylzanthoxyline Whole Plant Anti-oxidant, Anti- cancerous, An-
ti-microbial, Anti-inammatory
Chang et al., 2003
Oxyberberine Whole Plant Anti- cancerous (Colon), Anti-fun-
More and Kharat, 2016
Oxyhydrastinine Whole Plant Anti-oxidant Nakkady et al., 1988
Palmitic Acid Seeds Not reported Badami & Gunstone, 1962
Pancorine Aerial Part Cytotoxic, Anti- cancerous (Gall
bladder, breast)
Chang et al., 2003
Phenylalanine Leaves Anti-inammatory, analgesic Sukumar et al., 1984
Protoberberine Apigeal Parts And Seeds Anti-cancerous (Ovarian cancer,
breast cancer, lung cancer, gastric
cancer,cervical cancer)
Jing and Zhengwei, 2008
Protomexicine Aerial Parts Colon cancer Singh et al., 2012
Protopine Anti- fertility, eect on guinea pig
ileum, , Mollucicidal
Singh & Singh, 1999; Avello Simoes
Pires, 2009
A panoramic view on Argemone mexicana: its medicinal importance and phytochemical potentials.
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Full-text available
Cancer is a frightful disease and represents one of the biggest health-care issues for the human race and demands a proactive strategy for cure. Plants are reservoirs for novel chemical entities and provide a promising line for research on cancer. Hitherto, being effective, chemotherapy is accompanied by certain unbearable side effects. Nevertheless, plants and plant derived products is a revolutionizing field as these are Simple, safer, eco-friendly, low-cost, fast, and less toxic as compared with conventional treatment methods. Phytochemicals are selective in their functions and acts specifically on tumor cells without affecting normal cells. Carcinogenesis is complex phenomena that involves many signaling cascades. Phytochemicals are considered suitable candidates for anticancer drug development due to their pleiotropic actions on target events with multiple manners. The research is in progress for developing potential candidates (those can block or slow down the growth of cancer cells without any side effects) from these phytochemicals. Many phytochemicals and their derived analogs have been identified as potential candidates for anticancer therapy. Effort has been made through this comprehensive review to highlight the recent developments and milestones achieved in cancer therapies using phytomolecules with their mechanism of action on nuclear and cellular factors. Furthermore, drugs for cancer treatment and their limitations have also been discussed.
Full-text available
Background: Medicinal plants are widely used to treat infectious diseases, metabolic disorders and cancer. Argemone mexicana L. (A. mexicana), commonly found on desolate land of Marathwada (Maharashtra, India) has been used to treat oral cavity infections. Methods: In this study, cold aqueous and methanolic extracts were prepared from A. mexicana stem and leaves. These extracts were tested for their antifungal and anticancer activities. The antifungal activity was tested using the agar well diffusion method, while the anticancer activity against immortalized cell lines was assessed by trypan blue assay. Results: It was observed that both cold aqueous and methanolic extracts of A. mexicana stem and leaves inhibited the growth of Mucor indicus, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger and Penicillum notatum. Antifungal activity of the extract was comparable to that of Amphoterecin-B. A. mexicana extracts had a cytotoxic effect on A549, SiHa and KB immortalized cell lines that were similar to that of berberine. Conclusion: The A. mexicana leaf and stems exhibit strong antifungal and anticancer potential.