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This study investigated the mediator role of cognitive emotion regulation strategies in the relationship between nature connectedness and stress. The stress levels of participants were measured using two different methods: a) perceived stress and b) cumulative cortisol levels, which were analyzed by using the 3 cm segment of hair closest to the scalp. One hundred twenty-three female college students aged between 18 and 25 years old were included in this study. After controlling the influence of negative reactivity as a temperamental characteristic, nature connectedness predicted adaptive emotion regulation strategies of emerging adults, which in turn predicted a decline in their perceived stress. However, nature connectedness was not linked to non-adaptive regulation strategies and hair cortisol concentration (HCC). These findings highlight the importance of investigating different features of stress and suggest the restorative power of nature connectedness, which particularly bolsters positive outcomes, such as adaptive regulation skills.

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... The study demonstrated that affect balance mediated the association between connectedness to nature and depression. In terms of recent research, individuals who have more connectedness to nature may maintain more adaptive emotion regulation strategies that in turn might lead to a decline in their negative outcomes (47). This path also indicated that social cohesion mediated the relationship between connectedness to nature and depression. ...
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Objectives In this study a serial multiple mediation model is tested to investigate the potential sequentially-mediating effect of affect balance and social cohesion on the association between connectedness to nature and life satisfaction or depression. Methods A total of 675 Chinese people from Jiangsu province living in rural low-income households participated in the study. The Connectedness to Nature Scale (CNS), the Positive Affect and Negative Affect Scale (PANAS), the Social cohesion scale (SCS), the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), and the Patient Health Questionnaires (PHQ9) were measured in this paper. Results Results indicated that the multiple serial mediation of affect balance and social cohesion on the association between connectedness to nature and life satisfaction was significant among the full-size sample, the adult-report, and the old people report, but that this effect is relatively small. Specifically, serial mediation accounted for 2.01, 1.69, 2.67% of the total effect explained by connectedness to nature on life satisfaction, while it accounted for 2.66, 2.35, 2.91% of the total effect explained by connectedness to nature on depression among the full sample population, adults, and old people, respectively. Conclusions The findings corroborate the important roles of affect balance and social cohesion in activating connectedness to nature. We discussed the possible ways that affect balance and social cohesion might enhance life satisfaction and decrease depression for Chinese people living in rural low-income households. We also discussed the limitations of this study. More mechanisms could be considered in future studies.
... Nature connectedness, as an important construct in sustainability research, refers to individuals' closeness and relatedness with the natural environment [30,31]. Nature connectedness is an important part in biophilia theory [10,32]. The biophilia theory asserts that humans have a fundamental need to connect with the natural environment and affiliate with other life forms in the natural world [10,11]. ...
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Mounting evidence shows that nature contact is associated with affective benefits. However, the psychological mechanisms responsible for these effects are not well understood. In this study, we examined whether more time spent in nature was associated with higher levels of positive affect in general, and lower levels of negative affect and rumination in general. We also conducted a cross-sectional mediation analysis to examine whether rumination mediated the association of nature contact with affect. Participants ( N = 617) reported their average time spent in nature each week, as well as their general levels of positive and negative affect, and the degree to which they typically engaged in rumination in daily life. We then used structural equation modeling to test our hypotheses. Our results support the hypothesis that nature contact is associated with general levels of affect, and that rumination mediates this association for negative affect, and marginally mediates this association for positive affect.
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Human interaction with nature is vital for physical health and mental well-being, and positions a community to be resilient to urban stressors. Yet urban development continues to put pressures on natural areas within urban boundaries. As a case in point, Seattle's largest park, Discovery Park, of over 500 acres, is often under threat of some form of development. The central question of this study was whether the benefits to visitors of Discovery Park depend, in no small measure, on the park's very size and relative wild landscape. Toward addressing this question, 320 participants provided written narratives (through our web portal) about the meaningful ways in which they interacted with nature at Discovery Park. Each individual narrative was then analyzed and coded using an Interaction Pattern (IP) approach, which provides characterizations of human-nature interaction that have ontogenetic and phylogenetic significance. Results revealed 520 Interaction Patterns (IPs). The most frequently occurring IPs clustered under the keystone IPs of Encountering Wildlife (27%), Following Trails (14%), Walking to Destination Spots in Nature (8%), Gazing out at the Puget Sound or Mountains (6%), Walking Along Edges of Beach or Bluffs (5%), and Walking with Dogs (4%). Results also revealed that visitors' meaningful interactions with nature in Discovery Park depended on the park's relative wildness. For example, (a) 77% of participants' IPs depended on Discovery Park's relative wildness; (b) of the participants who specified an especially meaningful experience with nature, 95% of them had an interaction that depended on Discovery Park's relative wildness; and (c) of the participants whose IPs were linked to other aspects of the nature in the park or to their own positive mental states, 95 and 96%, respectively, had an interaction that depended on Discovery Park's relative wildness. Discussion focuses on how human interaction with large and relatively wild urban parks helps reverse the trend of environmental generational amnesia, and a domination worldview, and thus should be prioritized in urban planning.
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Undergoing stress can be advantageous when it leads to adaptation and growth; however, failure of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis to habituate (i.e., nonhabituation) involves continuing to become highly activated in response to repeated exposure of the same stimulus and is considered maladaptive. Although 50-75% of individuals assessed in a laboratory exhibit adaptive habituation to repeated stress, variability in habituation suggests psychological processes used in response to stress may play a role, such as emotion regulation (ER). Nonetheless, no research to date has investigated whether ER strategies affect HPA axis habituation. We investigated whether tendency to use two ER strategies, reappraisal and suppression, influenced HPA axis habituation among 84 healthy young adults (60.7% female; mean age = 24.8 years, SD = 6.0) exposed to a standardized experimental stress paradigm on two consecutive days. HPA axis stress responses were assessed using salivary cortisol concentrations. We also examined whether non-manipulated state ER strategies (i.e., those used by the participant during and following the stressor on the first day) modulated HPA axis habituation over and above trait-use in a subsample (N = 60). Trait, but not state, reappraisal was associated with stronger HPA axis habituation. Neither trait nor state suppression were significantly associated with HPA axis habituation. These findings expand our current understanding of how ER can affect stress-related health outcomes and suggest habitual reappraisal plays an important role in adaption of the HPA axis to stress.
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Emerging adulthood, viewed through the lens of life course health development, has the potential to be a very positive developmental stage with postindustrial societies giving adolescents and emerging adults a greater opportunity for choice and exploration but also greater challenges with greater educational and social role requirements. The loss of supports and structures offered by schools, families, and child- and family-oriented health and social services means that the emerging adult must rely more on his/her own resources in a less structured environment. This increased agency in the context of less structure is occurring as the human brain is still developing higher-level capacities such as executive functioning. The person-context interactions during EA are many and complex, leading to multiple different pathways through emerging adulthood. Those with sufficient economic and adult supports as well as personal resources and maturity will be more likely to choose well and embark on a positive trajectory during EA. Those lacking these resources, or those with physical and mental health or intellectual disabilities, may struggle during this period and experience a negative trajectory in the spheres of education, vocation, relationships, and health status. The life course health science of EA requires more detailed and deeper analysis of the relationship between family, peers, and societal supports and personal internal resources in order to help promote successful developmental trajectories during EA.
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Human amygdalae are involved in various behavioral functions such as affective and stress processing. For these behavioral functions, as well as for psychophysiological arousal including cortisol release, sex differences are reported. Here, we assessed cortisol levels and resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) of left and right amygdalae in 81 healthy participants (42 women) to investigate potential modulation of amygdala rsFC by sex and cortisol concentration. Our analyses revealed that rsFC of the left amygdala significantly differed between women and men: Women showed stronger rsFC than men between the left amygdala and left middle temporal gyrus, inferior frontal gyrus, postcentral gyrus and hippocampus, regions involved in face processing, inner-speech, fear and pain processing. No stronger connections were detected for men and no sex difference emerged for right amygdala rsFC. Also, an interaction of sex and cortisol appeared: In women, cortisol was negatively associated with rsFC of the amygdalae with striatal regions, mid-orbital frontal gyrus, anterior cingulate gyrus, middle and superior frontal gyri, supplementary motor area and the parietal-occipital sulcus. Contrarily in men, positive associations of cortisol with rsFC of the left amygdala and these structures were observed. Functional decoding analyses revealed an association of the amygdalae and these regions with emotion, reward and memory processing, as well as action execution. Our results suggest that functional connectivity of the amygdalae as well as the regulatory effect of cortisol on brain networks differ between women and men. These sex-differences and the mediating and sex-dependent effect of cortisol on brain communication systems should be taken into account in affective and stress-related neuroimaging research. Thus, more studies including both sexes are required.
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Neighbourhood green space is positively associated with health. Stress reducing effects of nature might underpin this relationship, but researchers have often used objective stress measures to characterise acute responses to natural environments, or used self-reported measures in observational research. Hair cortisol concentration (HCC) is a novel non-invasive biomarker, with potential to improve our understanding of natural environments and chronic stress. We collected data from 132 healthy employed adults from the West Midlands region of the UK (June–Sept 2014). Data included socio-demographics, health, lifestyle perceived stress and stress appraisal. Postcode was used to determine overall deprivation (Index of Multiple Deprivation, IMD), material deprivation (% income deprived) and the amount of natural environment in participants’ home neighbourhoods. Hair samples (3 cm) were taken from the scalp and HCC was determined to reflect past three months of cortisol secretion. Separate linear regression models, adjusting for potential confounders, indicated that HCC-measured chronic stress was higher in participants who lived in areas that were more deprived overall (β = −.235, p = .008), more income deprived (β = −.219, p = .017), and lower area density of natural environment (β = −.212, p = .019). When income deprivation (i.e., material well-being) and natural environment were entered in the same model, associations for both were attenuated beyond significance (β = .168, p = .077 and β = −.160, p = .086, respectively). Overall, chronic stress measured by HCC was higher in areas with less natural environment. The relative contribution of neighbourhood natural environment, deprivation and other neighbourhood characteristics to chronic stress using HCC warrants further study in larger, more diverse samples.
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Subjective connection with nature, or nature relatedness, is similar to other environmental worldview measures in predicting sustainable attitudes and behaviors, yet is unique in predicting happiness. In two studies, the authors assessed the overlap between nature relatedness and other subjective connections (e.g., with friends or country) and examined these connections as a possible confound in explaining the link between nature relatedness and happiness. Study 1 adapted a measure of general connectedness and administered it to student (n = 331) and community (n = 415) samples along with multiple nature relatedness and happiness indicators. Study 2 examined more established measures of subjective connections in another community sample (n = 204). General connectedness predicted happiness well, yet nature relatedness remained a significant distinct predictor of many happiness indicators, even after controlling for other connections. Results support the notion that nature relatedness could be a path to human happiness and environmental sustainability, though confirming this causal direction requires additional research.
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Research suggests that contact with nature can be beneficial, for example leading to improvements in mood, cognition, and health. A distinct but related idea is the personality construct of subjective nature connectedness, a stable individual difference in cognitive, affective, and experiential connection with the natural environment. Subjective nature connectedness is a strong predictor of pro-environmental attitudes and behaviors that may also be positively associated with subjective well-being. This meta-analysis was conducted to examine the relationship between nature connectedness and happiness. Based on 30 samples (n = 8523), a fixed-effect meta-analysis found a small but significant effect size (r = 0.19). Those who are more connected to nature tended to experience more positive affect, vitality, and life satisfaction compared to those less connected to nature. Publication status, year, average age, and percentage of females in the sample were not significant moderators. Vitality had the strongest relationship with nature connectedness (r = 0.24), followed by positive affect (r = 0.22) and life satisfaction (r = 0.17). In terms of specific nature connectedness measures, associations were the strongest between happiness and inclusion of nature in self (r = 0.27), compared to nature relatedness (r = 0.18) and connectedness to nature (r = 0.18). This research highlights the importance of considering personality when examining the psychological benefits of nature. The results suggest that closer human-nature relationships do not have to come at the expense of happiness. Rather, this meta-analysis shows that being connected to nature and feeling happy are, in fact, connected.
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An individual's susceptibility to psychological and physical disorders associated with chronic stress exposure, for example, cardiovascular and infectious disease, may also be predicted by their reactivity to acute stress. One factor associated with both stress resilience and health outcomes is personality. An understanding of how personality influences responses to acute stress may shed light upon individual differences in susceptibility to chronic stress-linked disease. This study examined the relationships between personality and acute responses to stress in 125 healthy adults, using hierarchical linear regression. We assessed personality traits using the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ-BF), and responses to acute stress (cortisol, heart rate, blood pressure, mood) using a standardized laboratory psychosocial stress task, the Trier Social Stress Test. Individuals with high Negative Emotionality exhibited greater emotional distress and lower blood pressure responses to the Trier Social Stress Test. Individuals with high agentic Positive Emotionality exhibited prolonged heart rate responses to stress, whereas those with high communal Positive Emotionality exhibited smaller cortisol and blood pressure responses. Separate personality traits differentially predicted emotional, cardiovascular, and cortisol responses to a psychosocial stressor in healthy volunteers. Future research investigating the association of personality with chronic stress-related disease may provide further clues to the relationship between acute stress reactivity and susceptibility to disease.
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Objective: Depressive symptoms are a common mental health problem among young adults, but the physiological mechanisms that mediate between stress and depressive symptoms remain unclear. Accordingly, this exploratory study (1) examined how hair cortisol concentrations were associated with self-perceived stress and depressive symptoms in a sample of young adults and (2) tested whether hair cortisol could explain variance in depressive symptoms beyond perceived stress before and after controlling for levels of vigorous physical activity (VPA). Methods: The sample consisted of 42 exercise and health science university students (20 males, 22 females; mean age = 21.2 years). Cortisol concentrations were extracted from hair strands close to the scalp. Participants completed self-rating questionnaires about depressive symptoms and perceived stress. Results: Students with elevated hair cortisol levels tended to report lower depressive symptoms and lower perceived stress. Increased perceived stress was associated with higher depressive symptoms, and both hair cortisol and perceived stress predicted depressive symptoms after controlling for VPA. Conclusions: The present data suggest that elevated hair cortisol levels do not necessarily constitute a health risk. Hair cortisol measurement can serve as a noninvasive and painless biomarker of chronic stress and mental disorders; however, additional research is needed.
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Three studies examine the effects of exposure to nature on positive affect and ability to reflect on a life problem. Participants spent 15 min walking in a natural setting (Studies 1, 2, & 3), an urban setting (Study 1), or watching videos of natural and urban settings (Studies 2 & 3). In all three studies, exposure to nature increased connectedness to nature, attentional capacity, positive emotions, and ability to reflect on a life problem; these effects are more dramatic for actual nature than for virtual nature. Mediational analyses indicate that the positive effects of exposure to nature are partially mediated by increases in connectedness to nature and are not mediated by increases in attentional capacity. The discussion focuses on the mechanisms that underlie the exposure to nature/well-being effects.
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Environments shape health and well-being, yet little research has investigated how different real-world environmental settings influence the well-known determinant of health known as stress. Using a cross-over experimental design; this pilot study investigated the effect of four urban environments on physiological and psychological stress measures. Participants (N = 15) were exposed on separate days to one of the four settings for 20 min. These settings were designated as Very Natural; Mostly Natural; Mostly Built and Very Built. Visitation order to the four settings was individually randomized. Salivary cortisol and alpha-amylase; as well as self-report measures of stress; were collected before and after exposure to each setting. Gender was included as a variable in analysis; and additional data about environmental self-identity, pre-existing stress, and perceived restorativeness of settings were collected as measures of covariance. Differences between environmental settings showed greater benefit from exposure to natural settings relative to built settings; as measured by pre-to-post changes in salivary amylase and self-reported stress; differences were more significant for females than for males. Inclusion of covariates in a regression analysis demonstrated significant predictive value of perceived restorativeness on these stress measures, suggesting some potential level of mediation. These data suggest that exposure to natural environments may warrant further investigation as a health promotion method for reducing stress.
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Objective: To explore the role of cognitive emotion regulation (CER) in the association between parenting self-efficacy (PSE) and state anxiety in parents of children undergoing surgery. Method: In a prospective design, parents of 114 children admitted to hospital for planned surgical interventions completed self-report questionnaires assessing PSE, CER, and state anxiety. Mediational and moderational analyses were conducted to test competing theoretical models regarding the role of CER in the relationship between PSE and parents' anxiety. Results: The mediational model was rejected, whereas the findings supported a moderational model. The use of nonadaptive CER moderated the effect of PSE on parents' anxiety. Higher PSE only predicted lower postsurgery anxiety when low use of nonadaptive CER was present. Conclusions: Interacting cognitive factors contribute to parents' anxiety after a child's surgery. Both PSE and CER should be targeted in parent interventions promoting successful adjustments to surgery on children.
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Abstract: Wilson's (1984) biophilia hypothesis predicts that people's psychological health is associated with their relationship to nature. Two studies examined associations among nature connectedness, well-being, and mindfulness in samples of undergraduate students while socially desirable responding was con-trolled. Significant associations emerged among measures of nature connectedness and indices of well-being (in Study 1 and Study 2) and mindfulness (in Study 2). Results are discussed in relation to possible mediators and moderators of the association between nature connectedness and mental health.
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To the best of our knowledge, there is not any questionnaire in Turkish measuring adult temperament that could be used both with the community as well as with clinical samples. Thus, the purpose of the study was to translate The Adult Temperament Questionnaire-Short Form (ATQ, Evans and Rothbart, 2007), which has already been translated into several languages, to Turkish and to examine the reliability and validity of the Turkish version. The Adult Temperament Questionnaire was translated into Turkish through translation and back-translation method. The questionnaire was distributed to 462 university students and adults who were from different socioeconomic statuses and professions in Ankara. The age of participants ranged from 18 to 65 years and the mean of their ages was 22.97 years. In addition, 274 (%59.3) of them were females, 188 (%40.7) of them were males. Exploratory factor analysis was performed to examine construct validity, and also internal consistency reliabilities were calculated. Five factors, namely Impulsive Negative Affect (α = .77), Sensory Sensitive Negative Affect (α = .80), Extraversion (α =.75), Effortful Control (α =.75), and Sensitivity (α =.83), were extracted after exploratory factor analysis like in the original scale. Impulsive Negative Affect includes frustration and inhibitory control; Sensory Sensitive Negative Affect includes discomfort and high-intensity pleasure; Extraversion includes positive affect and sociability; Effortful Control includes attentional control and activation control; and Sensitivity includes general perceptual sensitivity, associative perceptual sensitivity, affective perceptual sensitivity, and sadness. Internal consistency coefficients range from .60 to .79. The correlations between the factors of temperament scale and personality traits were significant and ranged from .19 to .59. The current findings suggest that acceptable levels of reliability and validity were exhibited by The Adult Temperament Questionnaire-Turkish version. Thus, this scale can be used with Turkish samples.
Article
The innate relationship that humans share with the natural world is becoming increasingly strained. Our connection to nature - reflected through the psychological construct of nature connectedness - has been shown to benefit areas of physical and mental well-being: of which, several relationships are thought to be mediated by ones' adaptive ability to regulate emotion. Emerging research has also indicated that nature connectedness and proficiency in emotion regulation share inverse relationships with deviant personality traits, such as psychopathy. However, it remains to be seen whether psychopathy, specifically, has a moderating role on the association between nature connectedness and emotion regulation. A total of 309 participants completed an online survey whereby they were asked to self-report nature connectedness, emotion regulation strategy use, and psychopathy. Pearson correlations indicated a positive association between scores on nature connectedness and the use of cognitive reappraisal, but not expressive suppression strategies: a relationship found to be weaker in individuals scoring higher in psychopathy through moderation analysis. Evidence reported here supports our hypotheses and indicates the necessity to acknowledge a more diverse array of personality constructs both when discussing the potential benefits of nature connectedness and when testing the efficacy of nature-based interventions as a means of bringing about health- and well-being-related change.
Article
This study assesses the effectiveness of incorporating the beneficial effects of exposure to nature in a 3-week mindfulness programme. Participants (n = 122) were randomly assigned to one of two intervention groups (mindfulness, relaxation group) under different simulated environmental conditions (two natural, two non-natural environments) during an intervention lasting three weeks. The participants in the mindfulness group were asked to attend a weekly 1-h mindfulness programme. The relaxation group also spent 1 h per week on relaxation activities of their choice (e.g. reading books or magazines). Participants' wellbeing outcomes and nature connectedness were measured before and after the three-week intervention, and at one-week follow-up. The findings show that the mindfulness programme was more effective when carried out in a natural environment. In addition, the mindfulness group in natural environments continued to improve even after the intervention was completed. This study offers valuable insights into the benefits of combining a wellbeing intervention with exposure to nature.
Article
Stress is associated with the development of mental disorders such as depression and psychosis. The ability to regulate emotions is likely to influence how individuals respond to and recover from acute stress, and may thus be relevant to symptom development. To test this, we investigated whether self-reported emotion regulation predicts the endocrine, autonomic, affective, and symptomatic response to and recovery from a stressor. Social-evaluative stress was induced by the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) in N = 67 healthy individuals (53.7% female, Mage = 29.9). Self-reported habitual emotion regulation skills were assessed at baseline. We measured salivary cortisol, heart rate, negative affect, state depression and state paranoia at three time points: pre-TSST, post-TSST, and after a 10 min recovery phase. Repeated-measures ANOVA showed all indicators to significantly increase in response to the stressor (p < .001) and decrease during the recovery phase (p < .001), except for salivary cortisol, which showed a linear increase (p < .001). The habitual use of maladaptive emotion regulation (e.g., rumination, catastrophizing) significantly predicted an increased affective and reduced cortisol response. Adaptive emotion regulation (e.g., acceptance, reappraisal) was not predictive of the stress response for any of the indicators. Neither type of emotion regulation predicted response during the stress recovery phase. Individuals who habitually resort to maladaptive emotion regulation strategies show a stronger affective and a blunted endocrine stress response, which may make them vulnerable to mental health problems. However, further research is needed to identify the full scope of skills required for effective stress-regulation before this knowledge can be used to develop effective prevention programs.
Article
Previous research indicates that sleep difficulties and stress are prevalent in college students. The main aim of the current study was to investigate the role of repetitive negative thinking (RNT), cognitive emotion regulation, and negative affect as mediators of the relationship between stress and sleep difficulties. We also intended to analyse the associations between all these variables and the gender differences. A sample of 549 college students completed self-report measures assessing the mentioned variables. Descriptive and correlational analyses showed significant differences between genders. In total sample, sleep difficulties were positively associated with perceived stress, negative affect, RNT and cognitive emotional strategies (rumination, self-blaming, catastrophizing, and acceptance). Mediation analyses suggested that in addition to the direct effect of stress on sleep difficulties, rumination and negative affect were mediators in this relationship (after controlling gender). RNT did not mediate this association; however it was significantly associated to rumination and/or negative affect. These findings suggest that the effect of stress on sleep difficulties is strengthened by rumination and/or negative affect. The negative impact of RNT (content free) only occurs if associated to rumination and/or negative affect.
Article
Individual differences in the habitual use of emotion regulation strategies may play a critical role in understanding psychological and biological stress reactivity and recovery in depression and anxiety. This study investigated the relation between the habitual use of different emotion regulation strategies and cortisol reactivity and recovery in healthy control individuals (CTL; n = 33) and in individuals diagnosed with social anxiety disorder (SAD; n = 41). The tendency to worry was associated with increased cortisol reactivity to a stressor across the full sample. Rumination was not associated with cortisol reactivity, despite its oft-reported similarities to worry. Worry and rumination, however, were associated with increased cortisol during recovery from the stressor. The only difference between CTL and SAD participants was observed for reappraisal. In the CTL but not in the SAD group, reappraisal predicted recovery, such that an increased tendency to reappraise was associated with greater cortisol recovery. These results suggest an important role of the habitual use of emotion regulation strategies in understanding biological stress reactivity and recovery.
Article
The analysis of hair cortisol concentrations (HCC) is a relatively new strategy to measure long-term cumulative cortisol levels, which is increasingly used in psychoneuroendocrinological research. Here, we conduct a first comprehensive meta-analysis of HCC research based on aggregated data from a total of 124 (sub)samples (66 independent studies; total N = 10,289). We seek to answer two central questions: (i) Which covariates and basic features of HCC need to be considered in future research? (ii) What are the main determinants of HCC in terms of chronic stress exposure and mental health? Concerning basic characteristics, our findings identify several covariates to be considered (age, sex, hair washing frequency, hair treatment, oral contraceptive use), confirm a decline of HCC from the first to the second proximal 3 cm hair segment, and show positive associations between HCC and short-term salivary cortisol measures. Regarding chronic stress, we show that stress-exposed groups on a whole Exhibit 22% increased HCC. This long-term cortisol hypersecretion emerges particularly when stress is still ongoing at the time of study (+43% HCC) but is not present in conditions of past/absent stress (-9% HCC, n.s.). We also report evidence for 17%-reduced HCC in anxiety disorders, such as PTSD. Interestingly, no consistent associations with mood disorders and self-reports of perceived stress, depressiveness or social support are found. However, our findings reveal positive associations of HCC with stress-related anthropometric (body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio) and hemodynamic measures (systolic blood pressure). These meta-analytic results are discussed in the light of their practical implications and important areas for future inquiry are outlined.
Article
Rumination is a maladaptive form of emotion regulation associated with psychopathology. Research with adults suggests that rumination covaries with diurnal cortisol rhythms, yet this has not been examined among adolescents. Here, we examine the day-to-day covariation between rumination and cortisol, and explore whether trait rumination is associated with alterations in diurnal cortisol rhythms among adolescent girls. Participants (N = 122) provided saliva samples 3 times per day over 3 days, along with daily reports of stress and rumination, questionnaires assessing trait rumination related to peer stress, and diagnostic interviews assessing depression and anxiety. Greater rumination than usual during the day was associated with lower cortisol awakening responses the following morning, but this effect was not significant after accounting for wake time and an objective measure of adherence to the saliva sampling protocol. Trait rumination was associated with lower average cortisol levels at waking and flatter diurnal slopes, accounting for wake time, protocol compliance, and other factors. These patterns may help to explain why rumination is related to the development of psychopathology.
Book
What are the basic dimensions of temperament? How does temperament influence children's relationships to their physical and social worlds and their behavior and adjustment across the lifespan? In this book, Mary Rothbart comprehensively examines the role of temperament in the development of personality and psychopathology.
Article
This study focused on whether one's perceived connection to the natural world correlates with one's subjective sense of psychological resilience. Analysis of survey questionnaire responses of 150 participants from a major metropolitan area of the Pacific Northwest yielded a moderate positive correlation between scores on the Connectedness to Nature Scale and the Resilience Scale for the entire sample. Results varied by data collection site, suggesting socioeconomic status as a possible moderating variable. Generalizability of these results is limited by self-selection bias and underrepresentation of certain segments of the population. Results are considered within the context of community mental health leadership.
Article
Urbanization, resource exploitation, and lifestyle changes have diminished possibilities for human contact with nature in urbanized societies. Concern about the loss has helped motivate research on the health benefits of contact with nature. Reviewing that research here, we focus on nature as represented by aspects of the physical environment relevant to planning, design, and policy measures that serve broad segments of urbanized societies. We discuss difficulties in defining "nature" and reasons for the current expansion of the research field, and we assess available reviews. We then consider research on pathways between nature and health involving air quality, physical activity, social cohesion, and stress reduction. Finally, we discuss methodological issues and priorities for future research. The extant research does describe an array of benefits of contact with nature, and evidence regarding some benefits is strong; however, some findings indicate caution is needed in applying beliefs about those benefits, and substantial gaps in knowledge remain. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Public Health Volume 35 is March 18, 2014. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/catalog/pubdates.aspx for revised estimates.
Article
The Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (CERQ; Garnefski et al., Personality and Individual Differences, 30, 1311–1327, 2001) is a multidimensional questionnaire that was developed to assess cognitive emotion regulation strategies people use after experiencing negative life events or situations. The purpose of the present study was to develop a Turkish version of the CERQ and to examine its psychometric properties in a sample of Turkish university students. The English version of the CERQ was translated and back-translated prior to its administration to 396 participants recruited from several universities in Turkey. Internal consistency, test-retest reliability, inter-scale reliability, construct and criterion-related validity of the Turkish version were analyzed. The results indicated that the data collected with the Turkish version do also support the original nine-factor model; with reliability and validity measures comparable to the original one.
Article
The purpose of the study was to determine the degree of stress perceived by students at two community colleges in southern Illinois. The Perceived Stress Scale was used to gather data from 212 students enrolled in regularly scheduled psychology classes. Of the students, 75% were in a moderate stress category; 12% in a high stress category, and 13% in a low stress category. Women students were more stressed than men; there were no statistically significant differences between traditional and nontraditional students. The most often used activities to cope with stress included talking to family and friends, leisure activities, and exercising. Less desirable coping strategies were drinking alcohol, smoking, and using illegal drugs. Suggestions for community college personnel to use in assisting students cope with stress are discussed.
Article
Five-month-old infants characterized as low or high on temperamental negativity participated with their mothers in the still-face paradigm. Compared to low negative infants, high negative infants displayed greater negative engagement during reunion suggesting that infant temperament significantly contributes to individual differences in the still-face effect.
Article
People may behave in environmentally friendly ways because they gain psychologically from their experiences in natural environments. Psychological benefits of nature experience may also underlie concerns about personally harmful effects of environmental problems. Cross-sectional survey data from 1413 Norwegian adults were used to assess the relationship between use of natural environments for psychological restoration and ecological behaviour, as mediated by personal environmental concern. Mediation tests with hierarchical regression analyses provided evidence of partial mediation; the use of natural environments for restoration remained a significant predictor of ecological behaviour after the entry of environmental concern into the analysis. These associations held independently of age, gender, education, household income, size of community of upbringing, size of community of current residence and distance of current residence from an outdoor recreation area. Among sociodemographic variables, only gender had a significant association with the use of natural environments for restoration, suggesting that their use transcends several important social categories in Norway. In short, positive experiences in natural environments may promote ecological behaviour.
Article
a b s t r a c t Life is full of stressful events. However, while some individuals are negatively affected by stress, others are more resilient to its effects. The factors that contribute to variability in stress resilience are not fully understood. Here, we tested the hypothesis that trait reappraisal would be associated with greater stress resilience to a first-time tandem skydive. Specifically, we expected measures of ''anxiety'' to be lower and measures of ''euphoria'' to be higher in high trait reappraising individuals. Our findings that trait reap-praisal is negatively correlated with stress reactivity as measured by cortisol, heart rate, and self-report state anxiety, but positively correlated with self-report state euphoria suggest that individuals high in trait reappraisal are more stress resilient. Published by Elsevier Inc.
The study aims to explore the sources of stress in American college students who had been treated for depression and to discern their coping mechanisms. A phenomenological approach using Seidman's guide to in-depth qualitative interviews using a three-part approach was used in the study. Online in-depth interviews utilizing e-mail with asynchronous communication were used. Sources of stress included roommate issues, academic problems, financial and career concerns, and pressure from family. Exercise, talking to friends, self-talk, deep breathing, journaling, marijuana use, and listening to music were common coping mechanisms. College students who have been treated for depression are under increasing stress today from a variety of sources. Nonmedical methods of coping were often cited as more effective than medication therapy.
Article
Theory and research dealing with place identity and restorative environments have for the most part proceeded independently. Assuming that emotional- and self-regulation are processes underlying the development of place identity, and that a person's favorite place is an exemplar of environments used in such regulation processes, the present study goes beyond preliminary observations about restorative aspects of favorite places to consider how individuals evaluate their favorite places using terms set out in restorative environments theory. Finnish university students (n=78) evaluated the central square of their city (Tampere) and favorite and unpleasant places of their own designation using the Perceived Restorativeness Scale (PRS), an instrument based on attention restoration theory. Consistent with notions of self-regulation, PRS subscale scores for Being Away, Fascination, Coherence, and Compatibility were all high in the favorite place evaluations, but Coherence and Compatibility were reliably higher than Being Away, which was in turn reliably higher than Fascination. Also, PRS subscale scores for the favorite places were reliably higher than those for the central square, which were in turn higher than those for the unpleasant places. Furthermore, differences were also found in self-reported emotional states associated with each place. The discussion suggests ways to develop further mutually reinforcing relations between restorative environments research and research on place identity.
Article
A key aim of social psychology is to understand the psychological processes through which independent variables affect dependent variables in the social domain. This objective has given rise to statistical methods for mediation analysis. In mediation analysis, the significance of the relationship between the independent and dependent variables has been integral in theory testing, being used as a basis to determine (1) whether to proceed with analyses of mediation and (2) whether one or several proposed mediator(s) fully or partially accounts for an effect. Synthesizing past research and offering new arguments, we suggest that the collective evidence raises considerable concern that the focus on the significance between the independent and dependent variables, both before and after mediation tests, is unjustified and can impair theory development and testing. To expand theory involving social psychological processes, we argue that attention in mediation analysis should be shifted towards assessing the magnitude and significance of indirect effects.