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Issue 1 ISRA Journal Impact Factor 7.217 A Peer Reviewed (Refereed) International Research Journal International Journal of Health, Physical Education and Computer Science in sports ISSN 2231-3265 (On-line and Print) ISRA Journal Impact factor is 6.997

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International Journal of Health, Physical Education and Computer Science in sports ISSN 2231-3265 (On-line and Print) ISRA Journal Impact factor is 6.997. Journal published Quarterly for the months of March, June, September and December. IJHPECSS is refereed Journal. Index Journal of Directory of Research Journal Indexing, J-Gate, 120R etc. International Journal of Health, Physical Education and Computer Science in Sports is multidisciplinary peer reviewed journal, mainly publishes original research articles on Health, Physical Education and Computer Science in Sports, including applied papers on sports sciences and sports engineering, computer and information, health managements, sports medicine etc. The International Journal of Health, Physical Education and Computer Science in sports is an open access and print International journal devoted to the promotion of health, fitness, physical Education and computer sciences involved in sports. It also provides an International forum for the communication and evaluation of data, methods and findings in Health, Physical education and Computer science in sports. The Journal publishes original research papers and all manuscripts are peer review. Index Journal of Directory of Research Journal Indexing and J-Gate etc. The Indian Federation of Computer Science in Sports has been set up the objectives of Dissemination of scientific knowledge concerning computer science in sport and Physical Education. Providing a forum for the exchange of ideas among the Physical Educationists,Coaches,Sports Experts Etc. It is a Peer Reviewed (Refereed) International Research Journal.
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ISSN 2231-3265
(Online and Print)
www.ifpefssa.org
Volume - 40 No. 1
QUARTERLY
October 2020 to December 2020
International Journal
of Health, Physical
Education & Computer
Science in Sports
A Peer Reviewed (Refereed)
International Research Journal
Published by :
Indian Federation of Computer Science in Sports
www.ijhpecss.org & www.ifcss.in
Publication impact Factor I20R 4.005
ISRA Journal Impact Factor 7.217
Index Journal of
International Journal of Health, Physical Education and
Computer Science in Sports
ISSN 2231-3265
Volume 40; Issue 1
ISRA Journal Impact Factor 7.217
A Peer Reviewed (Refereed) International Research Journal
EDITORIAL BOARD
Chief Editor
Prof. Rajesh Kumar, India
Editors
Prof. Syed Ibrahim, Saudi Arabia
Prof. L.B. Laxmikanth Rathod, India
Associate Editors
Prof. P. Venkat Reddy, India
Prof. J. Prabhakar Rao, India
Prof. Quadri Syed Javeed, India
Dr. Kaukab Azeem, India
Prof. R. Subramanian, India
Members
Prof. Lee Jong Young, Korea
Prof. Henry C.Daut, Philippines
Prof. Ma. Rosita Ampoyas-Hernani, Philippines
Dr. Vangie Boto-Montillano, Philippines
Prof. Erika Zemkova, Slovokia
Dr. Lila Sabbaghian Rad, Iran
Prof. Bakthiar Chowdhary, India
Dr. Lim Boon Hooi, Malaysia
Dr. Le Duc Chuoung, Vietnam
Dr.Vu Viet Bao, Vietnam
Dr. Nguyen Tra Giang, Vietnam
Dr. Marisa P. Na Nongkhai,Thailand
Mr. Chenlei, China
M.K.A. Anoma Rathnayaka, Srilanka
Prof. G.L. Khanna, India
Prof. V. Satyanarayana, India
Dr. Bharath Z. Patel, India
Dr. M.S. Pasodi, India
Mr. Y. Emmanuel Shashi Kumar, India
Prof. B. Sunil Kumar, India
Prof. K. Deepla, India
Dr. C. Veerender, India
Dr. Rina Poonia, India
Dr. G. Shyam Mohan Reddy, India
ABOUT THE JOURNAL
International Journal of Health, Physical Education and
Computer Science in sports ISSN 2231-3265 (On-line and
Print) ISRA Journal Impact factor is 6.997. Journal published
Quarterly for the months of March, June, September and
December. IJHPECSS is refereed Journal. Index Journal of
Directory of Research Journal Indexing, J-Gate, 120R etc.
International Journal of Health, Physical Education and
Computer Science in Sports is multidisciplinary peer reviewed
journal, mainly publishes original research articles on Health,
Physical Education and Computer Science in Sports, including
applied papers on sports sciences and sports engineering,
computer and information, health managements, sports
medicine etc. The International Journal of Health, Physical
Education and Computer Science in sports is an open access
and print International journal devoted to the promotion of
health, tness, physical Education and computer sciences
involved in sports. It also provides an International forum
for the communication and evaluation of data, methods and
ndings in Health, Physical education and Computer science
in sports. The Journal publishes original research papers and
all manuscripts are peer review. Index Journal of Directory
of Research Journal Indexing and J-Gate etc. The Indian
Federation of Computer Science in Sports has been set up
the objectives of Dissemination of scientific knowledge
concerning computer science in sport and Physical Education.
Providing a forum for the exchange of ideas among the
Physical Educationists,Coaches,Sports Experts Etc. It is a Peer
Reviewed (Refereed) International Research Journal.
Publisher
Indian Federation of Computer Science in sports,
www.ijhpecss.org and www.ifcss.in under the auspices of
International Association of Computer Science in sports.
E-mail: rajesh2sports@gmail.com
i
International Journal of Health, Physical Education and
Computer Science in Sports
ISSN 2231-3265
Volume 40; Issue 1
ISRA Journal Impact Factor 7.217
A Peer Reviewed (Refereed) International Research Journal
CONTENTS
Research Articles
Mobile games and applications for high school level students as physical education E learning platform
M. Mohamed Prince ........................................................................................................................................................ 1
The effect of HRVB training on young soccer players’ skill performance
Sara Majlesi, Lim Boon Hooi, Pooya Nekooei, Kamran Hosseinzadeh Ghasemabad, Behzad Alemi,
Paria Nekouei .................................................................................................................................................................. 5
Correlations of anthropometric, body composition, somatotype variables, and
performance of elite male junior weightlifters
Bui T. Toai, Dao V. Thau, Pham C. Cuong, Vo C. Tuong .............................................................................................. 14
Effect of SAQ training and own body resistance training on selected physical fitness
parameters of intercollege male football players
K. Vishnuvardhan Reddy, L. B. Laxmikanth Rathod ..................................................................................................... 19
During COVID-19 the effect of Yoga training on vital capacity, body composition, and
flexibility on selected sports person of VNSGU, Surat
Pradeep Kumar Lenka................................................................................................................................................... 23
Promoting physical literacy in India
Amit Malik, A. Rakesh ................................................................................................................................................... 26
Coaching competency, commitment, and social-emotional competency as determinants
of collegiate sports coaching performance in the Philippines
Jerome Angelitud Port, Adonis David, Analin E. Porto, James Tangkudung ............................................................... 29
Impact of athletic training on selected motor variables
Jayalaxmi S. Havappagol, J. S. Pattankar .................................................................................................................... 36
The impact of COVID-19 on running events in Vietnam
Nguyen Thi Thuy Linh ................................................................................................................................................... 38
Assessment of physical literacy of primary grade pupils
Kathyrine V. Ramirez, Francis Jose S. Dela Cruz ......................................................................................................... 41
An analytical study of self-confidence and stress level among boxers and
judokas of Himachal Pradesh
Sanjay Sharm ................................................................................................................................................................. 45
ii
International Journal of Health, Physical Education and
Computer Science in Sports
ISSN 2231-3265
Volume 40; Issue 1
ISRA Journal Impact Factor 7.217
A Peer Reviewed (Refereed) International Research Journal
Effect of yogic practices and interval training on selected physiological variables among
high school boys
D. Satya Sridevi, Syed Kareemulla ................................................................................................................................ 48
Cognitive ability and sports participation: An analytical study of female intercollegiate
hockey players
Sanjay Sharma ............................................................................................................................................................... 51
Importance of psychological characteristics of athletes for peak performance
Yogamaya Panda ........................................................................................................................................................... 54
“Vitamin ‘D’ panacea of life” Understanding the need of the day
Maj S. Bakhtiar Choudhary, Ashad B. Choudary, Rajesh Kumar, Sahera Jamal ......................................................... 57
Health profiles of retired male and female sports persons of Karnataka state
Y. Nagaraja, B. Gajanana Prabhu ................................................................................................................................ 61
Effect of Fartlek training for development of aerobic fitness among B. Ped students
of Osmania University, Hyderabad
Baluguri Gopi ................................................................................................................................................................ 65
Comparison of explosive power among Basketball and Football players of Hyderabad
district in Telangana Sate
Ashish Chaudhari .......................................................................................................................................................... 67
A analytical study of injuries among athletes of Jawaharlal Nehru Technological
University Anantapur
Joji Reddy Boggula ....................................................................................................................................................... 69
Comparison of speed among Kabaddi and Kho Kho B. Ped players of Siddhartha
College of Physical Education, Osmania University
M. Janardhan ................................................................................................................................................................ 71
The effect of moderate intensity aerobic, strength, and interval training program on
HDL-C in young men
G. Syam Kumar ............................................................................................................................................................. 73
Coaching triathlon and structuring training for athletes
Shakeel Ahmad Shahid, Sania, Amina Gill ................................................................................................................... 76
Comparison on explosive power of legs among basketball and handball players of
Hyderabad District
Suramoni Rajini, Rajesh Kumar .................................................................................................................................... 82
iii
International Journal of Health, Physical Education and
Computer Science in Sports
ISSN 2231-3265
Volume 40; Issue 1
ISRA Journal Impact Factor 7.217
A Peer Reviewed (Refereed) International Research Journal
An analytical study of injuries among long-distance runners of Hyderabad
Nagubandi Raghu ...........................................................................................................................................................84
Comparison of abdominal strength among Football and Hockey Players of Nizamabad
District in Telangana State
S. Ravinder .....................................................................................................................................................................86
Effect of medicine ball exercises for the development of shoulder strength among B.Ped
students of KVM College of Physical Education, Kulkacherla, Osmania University
B. Mahendra Reddy ........................................................................................................................................................88
1
Mobile games and applications for high school level students
as physical education E learning platform
M. Mohamed Prince
Scholar, Department of Physical Education, Sree Sankaracharya University of Sanskrit, Kalady (Kerala), India
Received: 21-11-2020 Acceptance: 29-12-2020
INTRODUCTION
Meanwhile, a study published in pediatric obesity predicts
that India will have about 17 million obese children by
2025. Another study shows that about 97,000 children India
suer from type I diabetes. Poor eating habit and sedentary
lifestyle among children are two of the major reasons for the
declining levels of physical tness in children, leading to
childhood obesity, diabetes, and other lifestyle diseases. “It
is estimated that child 20 years from now is likely to suer
from diabetes and heart diseases which become unpreventable
during adulthood. They can be controlled” opines Dr. Arbinder
Address for correspondence:
M. Mohamed Prince,
E-mail: comandoprince@gmail.com
ABSTRACT
This paper discusses the features of Virtual Reality technology and the roles of VR technology in physical education teaching and training. To
prove the current health issues facing the children among the primary class conducted a data collection body mass index (BMI) of among the 5th
standard 35 male and female students of Sree Sarada Vidyalaya, Kalady, Kerala Senior Secondary School Kalady, the result was shocking most
of them are obese and overweight. I aim to improve the health making much interested to involve and participate in physical activities through
virtual reality game application because this age children’s are more familiar and much enjoying the mobile games they are not recommended
to play the old minor games this generation young children are very much the consumers of mobile application we must understood the desire.
Based on the nature of PE teaching and training, the application model of VR technology in this eld is constructed. For the features of VR
technology are including perception, presence, interactivity, and autonomy, it will be widely applied in PE teaching and training and play a
signicant role. Health-care experts are arguing that there is a need for an all-inclusive and result oriented tness for children in India. Children’s
health is becoming a matter of concern in globally. Being the second most populated country of the world, the situation is even more alarming in
India. Statistics provided by Indian journal of Endocrinology and metabolism shows that 5.74–8.82% school children in India are obese. In the
Pandemic situation, virtual cycling has key role providing physical tness and mental health. The truth is that although nearly everyone knows
they should workout and eat right, most students do not do it. They do their best for a few weeks or a month, and then give up and are back to
square one. The frustration continues. The biggest and most amazing benet of VR tness are that by creating an immersive, emotional, social
experience, you can make working out as addictive as your favorite sport, or video game. Virtual reality is a revolutionary concept for experiencing
the virtual world which does not have any physical existence using Head Mounted Display device. It is the factor to feel the environment with our
own customization. VR is completely safe and can give mesmerizing experience to the user. VR has a wide scope starting from small object to
the entire world which depends on the creativity of the environment designer. It can be used in many elds such as medical practices, healthcare,
driving simulation, nd gaming. In this paper, the product is meant for people who want to maintain their tness experiencing dierent environment
of their own choice. Nowadays, cycling in gym has become too generic, also in stationary cycle along with just paddling the intended product will
provide them a thrilling environment in which they will exercise more frequently and help them to maintain their health. VR provides completely
new level of human-computer interaction. Combination of physical exercise and digital games. Developed to transform monotonous practice
into a more enjoyable activity, these systems are being successfully used in dierent settings, including rehabilitation and sports training. Fun and
tness are now combined with various digital gaming products. We believe virtual reality platform can change the ordinary physical education
activities to extra-ordinary this ultimately the impact of VR can improve the physical and mental health school children’s among our nation.
Keywords: E-lerning, Obesity, Physical education, PlankPad, Virtual reality
International Journal of Health, Physical Education and
Computer Science in Sports
ISSN 2231-3265
Volume 40; Issue 1
ISRA Journal Impact Factor 7.217
A Peer Reviewed (Refereed) International Research Journal
Research Article
Prince: Mobile games and applications for high school level students as physical education e learning platform
2
Singal, CEO and Co Founder, Fittery. While health and tness
education provided in schools is seen as an important tool in
dealing with this health issue, experts have noticed that the
physical education programs being pursued by the schools
in India are either obsolete or inadequate in addressing the
emerging health challenges since they mostly revolve around
theoretical aspects or random sports. Education and health-care
experts point out that in India no more than 10% school going
children are into active and competitive sports.
This is because the schools tend to focus only on the diet of
the kids who are expected to represent the school at local,
regional, state and national level events, excluding a majority
of children who end up as faience – sitters in the PE periods.
Commenting on this Dr. Singal said, “It is a tragedy that still
many people continue to see physical tness as something that
is required only for athletes or sportsmen. However, they do
not realize that physical health is equally important academic
results too also an objective assessment of tness is a must
as that is the only way to know where the child is and where
the child ideally should be for his or her age and a gender.”
According to Dr. Bakul Parekh, Senior Paediatrician, “Fitness
in children can power them for a healthy future. Schools should
focus physical education and school health check-up’s around
physical literacy. It means that children should understand the
importance of exercises, tness, and sports. Hence, there is a
need for our PE to move beyond the romantic landscape of
sports t general tness for every child.” Home to the world’s
largest youth population, experts believe that India needs to
introduce a mass child tness program – a program that is
scientic, workable, accurate, and veriable aided by data
and technology.
To prove the current health issues facing the children’s among
the primary class, we conducted a data collection among
the 5th standard 35 male and female students of Sree Sarada
Vidyalaya, Kalady, Kerala, Senior Secondary School Kalady
the result was shocking.
PlankPad
PlankPad comes with a tting app with many games and
workouts. The app is synchronized with the PlankPad. The
movements you perform control the games. The app and the
gyroscope of your mobile device are in perfect sync with
the PlankPad. There is a game for everyone such as Candy
Monster, Duck Shoot, Pong Goal, Meteor Madness, Wave
Rider, and Snow Cruisin’. And in the future, there will be
even more. The games will challenge you to collect more and
more points and you will forget about the time. By playing
a game, your focus is more into the game than on counting
every second. This makes you plank much longer, reaching
your goals faster while the time ies by having fun. To play
the game you have to balance the PlankPad left and right. The
app and the gyroscope of your mobile device are in perfect
sync with the PlankPad. There is a game for everyone such
as: Candy Monster, Circles, Asteroids, Wave Rider, and Snow
Cruisin’. And in the future, there will be even more. The games
will challenge you to last much longer, collect points, save your
score, and compete with your family or friends.
The Plank Workouts
The PlankPad app includes a special workout section with
various exercises. Videos are showing many different
variations of the plank exercise that need to be followed.
The workouts support more dynamic plank training for more
advanced users. You just need to follow the exercises on the
screen and try to keep a correct posture. If you lose the plank
position, the app will notice and give you as hint on keeping a
better balance. It is a good idea to start with the games because
the workouts are way more intense and are aimed primarily
for more advanced users.
PlankPad App with Dierent Games and Workouts
This is a perfect tting app that synchronizes the PlankPad
between your smartphone. You can install it on your IOS and
Android smartphone or tablet. It comes with many dierent
workout challenges and games. To start an exercise, you just
need to download the app, place it on the straight aligned
PlankPad to synchronize and choose a game or a workout.
The app also teaches you to do the perfect plank. To play the
game you have to balance the PlankPad left and right. The
app and the gyroscope of your mobile device are in perfect
sync with the PlankPad. There is a game for everyone such
as: Candy Monster, Circles, Asteroids, Wave Rider, and
Snow Cruisin’. And in the future, there will be even more.
The games will challenge you to last much longer, collect
points, save your score, and compete with your family or
friends.
ISOMETRIC PLANK EXERCISE
Iso-metric exercise or iso metrics are a type of strength training,
in which the angle and muscle length do not change during
contradiction. Iso-metrics are done in static position rather
than being dynamic through a range of motion.
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The purpose of the study is to nd the comparative eect of
6 week ISO-metric exercise and plank gaming on the core
strength of students in the age group of 13–19 years
Prince: Mobile games and applications for high school level students as physical education e learning platform
3
DELIMITATIONS
The study is delimited to the following aspects,
• The study is dened to 40 male and 40 female students in
the age group of 13–19 years.
• The study is further delimited to the students of M.V.M
Residentional HSS Valayamkulam, Malappuram.
• The study is delimited to PlankPad gaming and iso-metric
training.
Limitations
The followings are the limitation of the study:
• Individual dierences among the subjects such as lifestyle,
daily routine, and other factor that may have inuence the
subject will remain as limitation of the study.
• The response of the subjects to 6-week plank gaming and
isometric training has been recognized as limitation of the
study.
Hypothesis
• It is hypothesized that there will be signicant increase in
the core strength of teenage school students undergoing
PlankPad gaming than iso-metric training.
Denition and Explanation of Terms
PlankPad
PlankPad combines a tness device with games and workouts
on your smartphone or tablet. It is the perfect solution if you
want to train your whole body. Planking is one of the most
eective workouts. It will get you in shape, make you lose fat
and gain muscles, even prevent back pain and can also relieve
it. PlankPad makes the plank workout more dynamic and way
more fun. The very eective plank exercise strengthens the
entire body. Arms, shoulders, back, abs, glutes, and legs are
trained simultaneously and highly ecient. PlankPad comes
with a tting app with many games and workouts. Your training
is much more fun. The app is synchronized with the PlankPad.
The movements you perform control the games and workouts.
The playful training distracts you and makes you last much
longer during the exercises.
PlankPad Gaming
PlankPad comes with a tting app with many games and
workouts. The app is synchronized with the PlankPad. The
movements you perform control the games. The app and the
gyroscope of your mobile device are in perfect sync with
the PlankPad. There is a game for everyone such as Candy
Monster, Duck Shoot, Pong Goal, Meteor Madness, Wave
Rider, and Snow Cruisin’. And in the future, there will be
even more. The games will challenge you to collect more and
more points and you will forget about the time. By playing a
game, your focus is more into the game than on counting every
second. This makes you plank much longer, reaching your
goals faster while the time ies by having fun.
ISO-metric Exercise
Iso-metric exercise or iso-metrics are a type of strength
training, in which the angle and muscle length do not change
during contradiction. Iso-metrics are done in static position
rather than being dynamic through a range of motion.
Signicance of the Study
• The study will help in highlighting the role of mobile
application for training students.
• The ndings of the study will be great signicance for coaches
and trainers to enhance the tness level of school students.
• The study will be helpful for physical education teachers
and coaches to evaluate their students.
• The result will denitely contribute to development of the
core strength.
Selection of Subjects
A total of forty (n = 80) male and female high school students will
be selected from the M.V.M Residentional HSS, Valayamkulam
Malappuram. The selected subject will be randomly divided into
two groups of twenty (n = 40) each. Group I will be administered
with Plank pad gaming and Group II will be administered with
iso-metric training. The age will range from 13 to 19 years.
Selection of Variable
Core strength will be tested appropriately,
The Plank Fitness Test
The plank test, also known as the Prone Bridge Test, is a simple
tness test of core muscle strength, and can also be used as a
tness exercise for improving core strength.
Purpose: The plank test measures the control and endurance
of the back/core stabilizing muscles.
Equipment required: Flat and clean surface, stopwatch,
recording sheets, and pen.
Pre-test: Explain the test procedures to the subject. Perform
screening of health risks and obtain informed consent. Prepare
forms and record basic information such as age, height, body
weight, gender, and test conditions. Perform a standard warm-up.
Procedure: The aim of this test is to hold an elevated position
for as long as possible. Start with the upper body supported o
the ground by the elbows and forearms, and the legs straight
with the weight taken by the toes. The hip is lifted o the oor
creating a straight line from head to toe. As soon as the subject
is in the correct position, the stopwatch is started. The head
should be facing toward the ground and not looking forward.
The test is over when the subject is unable to hold the back
straight and the hip is lowered.
Scoring: The score is the total time completed.
Prince: Mobile games and applications for high school level students as physical education e learning platform
4
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN
The students will be divided into two groups. Group I will
be administered with PlankPad gaming and Group II will be
administered with ISO metric training.
Reliability of the Data
The reliability of data will be measured by ensuring instrument
reliability and tester reliability.
Reliability of Instrument
The required instruments such as stopwatch, PlankPad, mobile
application use for the study will be standard ones and high quality
and of good working condition .their calibration were tested and
founded to be accurate enough to serve the purpose of this study
Tester Reliability
To ensure that the investigator is well versed with the
techniques of conducting the test, the investigator will have a
number of practice sessions in testing the procedure under the
guidance of an expert. All measurement will be taken by the
investigator under the supervision of an expert.
Orientation of the Subjects
Before administrating the test, the investigator will explain the
nature and purpose of the study to the subjects. The investigator
will demonstrate the test in a detailed manner. Each subject will
demonstrate the test in a detailed manner. Each subject will be
asked to perform as many trials and will be asked to familiarize
themselves with the rest.
STATISTICAL TECHNIQUE
The researcher wishes to use t-test to compare the dierence
between the initial and nal scores of the experimental group.
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5
The eect of HRVB training on young soccer players’ skill
performance
Sara Majlesi1, Lim Boon Hooi1, Pooya Nekooei2, Kamran Hosseinzadeh Ghasemabad2,
Behzad Alemi2, Paria Nekouei3
1Centre for Sport and Exercise Sciences, University of Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 2Department of Physical Education
and Sport Sciences, Faculty of Educational Studies, UPM University, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia, 3Department of Sport and
Health, University of Paderborn, Paderborn, Germany
Received: 22-11-2020 Acceptance: 23-11-2020
INTRODUCTION
HRV is the most important marker of the autonomic nervous
system (ANS) and also is a noninvasive way to identify ANS
imbalances. HRV dynamics are sensitive to changes in one’s
physiological and emotional state as positive and negative
emotions are distinguished by smooth or erratic heart rhythm
patterns, respectively, (McCraty and Tomasino, 2004). It has
been studied as an important marker of autonomic nervous
system (ANS) modulation (Achten and Jeukendrup, 2003; Park
et al., 2007; Sandercock, 2007). The ANS comprises two nely
balanced opposing systems: The sympathetic nervous system
(SNS), associated with the “ght or ight” response, and the
parasympathetic nervous system (PNS), associated with rest
and digestive activity (Lane et al., 2009; Thayer and Brosschot,
2005). Ecient functioning in a complex environment requires
a dynamic interplay between SNS and PNS, and this interplay
requires adequate prefrontal cortex (PFC) functioning, which
Address for correspondence:
Lim Boon Hooi,
E-mail: lboonhooi62@gmail.com
Research Article
International Journal of Health, Physical Education and
Computer Science in Sports
ISSN 2231-3265
Volume 40; Issue 1
ISRA Journal Impact Factor 7.217
A Peer Reviewed (Refereed) International Research Journal
ABSTRACT
The present study aimed to evaluate the inuence of heart rate variability biofeedback (HRVB) training on selected soccer skills performance. The
objective of this study was to evaluate the eect of HRVB on soccer players’ reactive motor skill test (RMST), sprint time, reactive agility, passing
time, and passing accuracy. Participants of this study were Malaysian high school soccer players (n = 32), with mean age of 15.21 ± 1.85, who were
assigned randomly into two groups: Experimental groups and control group. Each group had 16 players who were assigned randomly through
the shbowl method. A pre-test and post-test design was used in this study to evaluate the eect of training on the players’ skill performance. The
experimental group received HRVB training for 8 weeks in addition to their regular soccer training, while the control group only attended their
regular soccer training. The experiments developed in this study consisted of a 10-min breathing exercise using the Elite HRVB app to feedback
players’ breathing to 5.5–6 BPM resonant breathing. After the 8 weeks of training were completed, the RMST was administered to all participants
to measure the changes in their RMST, sprint time, reactive agility, passing time, and passing accuracy. The data were analyzed with a factorial
MANOVA test to evaluate the dierences within and between groups. Research questions of the study were supported, and statistically signicant
eects of experimental training on players’ performance were demonstrated. The multivariate results were statistically signicant dierences
between and within groups, F(5, 26) = 60.665, P ≤ 0.001, Wilks’ Λ = 0.079. Furthermore, the univariate interaction eects result showed that all
the dependent variables have statistically signicant dierences individually between experimental and control group as well as within experimental
group. There was a statistically signicant interaction eect between tests and type of intervention for RMST, F(1, 30) = 119.692, P = 0.001, sprint
time, F(1, 30) = 47.686, P = 0.001, reactive agility, F(1, 30) = 218.332, P = 0.001, passing time, F(1.30) = 42.354, P = 0.001, and passing accuracy,
F(1, 30) = 21.544, P = 0.001. The pre-test-post-test results showed that RMST, sprint time, reactive agility, passing time, and passing accuracy
were statistically dierence within experimental group. The ndings of this study provide evidence that 8 weeks of HRVB training signicantly
improved soccer players’ RMST, sprint time, reactive agility, passing time, and passing accuracy test results.
Keywords: Heart rate variability biofeedback, Soccer skills
Majlesi, et al.: The eect of HRVB training on young soccer players’ skill performance
6
is thought to be involved in the inhibition of SNS activation
(Friedman, 2007; Thayer and Lane, 2009). Attenuated SNS
and increased PNS influence are associated with a high
HRV, particularly the high-frequency component (HF), and
are associated with higher PFC activity (Lane et al., 2009).
Associations between ANS and PFC activity, using HRV and
cognitive performance, have previously been reported by some
researchers (Hansen et al., 2009; Thayer and Brosschot, 2005).
If an athlete’s ANS system is in ght-or-ight mode, the
variation between heart beats is low and if an athlete is in
a more relaxed state, the variation between their heart beats
is high. In fact, the healthier the ANS, the faster athletes are
able to switch gears to show more resilience and reaction. A
previous researches have shown a strong relationship between
low HRV and poor reactive agility and attention (Drozd et al.,
2010; Sutarto et al., 2010). Athletes who have a high HRV, have
better cardiovascular tness and are more resilient and exible
when facing stress (Drozd et al., 2010; Sutarto et al., 2010).
HRV provides personal feedback about athletes’ lifestyle and
helps to motivate those who are considering taking steps to
have a healthier life.
HRV is literally the variance in time between the beats of the
heart. Hence, if an athlete’s heart rate is 60 beats/min, it is
not actually beating once every second. Within that minute
there may be 0.9 s between two beats and, for example,
1.15 s between two others. The greater heart rate variability
is a sign that an athlete’s body is ready to execute at a high
level of performance (Sutarto et al., 2010). Therefore, if
an athlete’s body be under stressed, then there is very little
variability in their beat-to-beat heart rate but if their body is
relaxed and aerobically t and healthy, and then they will get
a lot of variability from their heart rate. In other words, the
heart’s ability to vary the duration of time between beats is
symptomatic of its ability to reect changes in the rest of the
athletes’ body. When athletes begin using a heart rate variability
monitor, they notice that their HRV varies greatly from day
to day. Rather than comparing athletes’ HRV to others, a
more practical use of HRV is to follow their own trends. For
example, if they are taking steps to improve their HRV, over
time they should see a gradual increase in their average heart
rate variability.
Sports match analyses have shown that more soccer goals
are scored towards the end of a game (Nekooei et al., 2019;
Pooya et al., 2016; Reilly and Gilbourne, 2003; Reilly and
Thomas, 1976; Reilly and Williams, 2003). This is largely due
to the detrimental eects of fatigue, which cause a decrease
in HRV which is highly associated with playing errors, and
also a debilitating eect from “mental fatigue” leading to
lapses in concentration, associated with poor decision making
and reactive agility (Reilly and Gilbourne, 2003; Reilly and
Thomas, 1976; Reilly and Williams, 2003). Players have to
decide quickly to pass, shoot, and change direction in a short
time. Good reactive agility to pass, shoot, and change direction
can help players decrease their playing errors. In addition to
their physical ability and physical training, the soccer players’
ANS plays an effective role. HRV biofeedback training
(HRVB) with an eect on ANS response may help players
improve their reactive agility and skill performance.
Biofeedback modalities are created to help athletes modulate
their autonomic responses such as HRV, skin temperature,
blood pressure, brain activity, and muscle contraction (Perry
et al., 2011). HRV training with biofeedback devices (HRVB)
are associated with improving sports performance with eects
on ANS (Björkstrand and Jern, 2013; Hedelin et al., 2001).
Therefore, it may help soccer players to reach autonomic
modulation, which leads to performance improvements. Soccer
players’ skill performance and reactive agility may improve as
a result of physiological balance in their ANS. Furthermore,
concurrent training of HRVB and PETTLEP video imagery
(mind and heart connection) can be a good invention to achieve
better reactive agility and skill improvement in the game.
In biofeedback training, the clinician assists the client in
identifying incoherent, or unhealthy biological responses, and
implements adaptive practices such as paced breathing, positive
self-talk, and emotional regulation (McCraty et al., 2001). The
goal of biofeedback training is to develop strategies to gain
voluntary control, or self-regulation of biological responses,
and to transfer this ability to everyday situations without any
instrumentation (Blumenstein et al., 2002). Biofeedback training
conducted with athletes has demonstrated a variety of results,
including the enhancement of self-control, the prevention, and
treatment of overtraining and athletic injuries, the reduction
of competition anxiety, and the encouragement of perceived
control (Sime, 2003). As a mental skills training technique, an
improvement in performance is the result of many biofeedback
treatment interventions (Sime, 2003; Werthner et al., 2013).
Study literatures showed that biofeedback training is
advantageous in reducing anxiety in athletes. However,
increasing self-condence should be the primary focus of
biofeedback training, as this ultimately enhances performance
(Davis and Sime, 2005). One of the most common techniques
for self-regulation is HRV biofeedback training (HRVB).
Heart rate variability (HRV) refers to an organism’s ability to
continuously adapt the interval between heartbeats to situational
requirements (Aubert et al., 2003). Physical strain or mental
stress results in a quickening of the heart rate, which falls again
during relaxation and recovery. HRV can be a good sign of
health status, stress tolerance, resilience, and biological age.
Restricted heart rate variability is a sign of liable health, burnout,
depressiveness, and a biological age that is higher than the actual
age (Drozd et al., 2010). Biofeedback is used to assist one in
developing an awareness of internal physiological processes
Majlesi, et al.: The eect of HRVB training on young soccer players’ skill performance
7
that are not consciously controlled (Perry et al., 2011). Through
a variety of feedback modalities, heart rhythm variability is
considered as a good indicator of the client’s psychological state
and physiological response (Sutarto et al., 2010).
The scientic study of the variability in heart rate is fairly
recent, and only in the past 10 years did it become possible to
train human beings to change the variability in heart rhythms.
Biofeedback practitioners have found that HRVB training can
increase HRV through several parallel training pathways. The
practitioner initially guides the subject to acquire three basic
skills: (1) Relax physically and emotionally, (2) reduce anxious
thoughts and negative emotions, and (3) engage in smooth full
diaphragmatic breathing. Although researchers contend that
HRVB training are eective means of enhancing performance
(Hedelin et al., 2001), there has not been a clear consensus
among them due to the limitations of psychological treatment
precluded, and still, there is a disagreement among researchers
as to whether HRVB training can be eective in improving
players’ skill performance. Thus, the present study attempted
to determine whether HRVB training improves young soccer
players’ skill performance in terms of reactive motor skill,
reactive agility, sprint time, passing time, and passing accuracy.
METHODS
Participants
The participants of the study were 32 young male Malaysian
high school soccer players (age mean: 15.21 ± 1.85) from an
international school, who played in the school team at the
time of the study. They were assigned randomly into two
groups, with 16 participants in each group, using the Fishbowl
technique. The participants had minimum 2 years of experience
in playing soccer at the school level. They did not have any
health and psychological issues and participated in the school’s
soccer training three sessions a week for approximately 2 h
per session. All participants and their guardians were informed
about the test procedure, and consent letters were provided for
all participants before conducting the study.
Equipment and Measurements
The equipment and material used in this study included reactive
motor skills test (RMST) designed to test the players’ passing
time, passing accuracy, speed, and reactive agility. Elite HRV
application (version 4.7) validated by Perrotta et al. (2017),
Polar H7 heart rate sensor validated by Electro (2016), timing
gates (Brower Timing System Speed Trap Ii) validated by
Shalfawi et al. (2010), soccer balls (Adidas Brazuca size 5),
headphones (Original Beats EP on-ear headphone), NEC
projectors, and an Apple iPad. A soccer eld and futsal court
were also used for practice and experimental measurements.
The equipment was internationally standard and calibrated
before the intended testing according to the manufacturers’
standardized procedures.
Data Collection
This study examined the eects of HRV biofeedback training
on soccer players’ skill performance. After gaining permission
from the high school authorities to conduct the study using their
facilities, and before the pre-test, the researcher explained the
importance of this research, dierent training objectives, training
length and procedure, of the RMST to the participants. On the
1st day, all participants were gathered in a sports hall and tested
after doing specic soccer warm-up compiled by the researcher.
RMST was performed to test the players’ sprint, passing time,
passing accuracy, and reactive agility at the pretest. Each
participant was performed the test for three times with 10 min
rest between, the best timing was recorded for each participant
for analysis. They were instructed to complete the test quickly
and accurately. The performance outcome was assessed
through the time spent on each section (sprint, passing, and
reactive agility) and also the total timing of the RMST. After
the pre-test, the participants were assigned to two groups and
the HRV biofeedback training was implemented before players’
usual soccer practice for 8 weeks in the experimental group
twice a week. All players had their usual soccer practice after
school three times a week.
In the rst training session, the researcher explained HRV,
HRVB training, and why HRVB training might help the players
improve their performance through a PowerPoint presentation.
The participants were instructed about their rst session of
HRVB training with the Elite HRV app, installed on iPads.
Then, before their usual soccer practice, they had a session of
HRVB training twice a week using the Elite HRV app connected
to a polar belt (model: H7) to capture accurate R-R interval
with Elite HRV. The training involved 10 min of breathing
exercise using Elite HRV as it showed a blue and green circle
to feedback players’ breathing by decreasing and increasing the
size and using audio feedback according to 5.5-6 BPM resonant
breathing exercises. The training duration was calculated based
on the literature (Lehrer et al., 1997; Lehrer et al., 2000; Moss,
2004). After HRVB training, players were sent to have their
usual soccer training on the eld. Participants in the control
group had their usual soccer training organized and supervised
by their school soccer coach and researcher. In the post-test
phase of the study, the researcher implemented the exact
procedure of the pre-test evaluation with the participants who
had participated in all training sessions. Finally, the collected
data during pre-test and post-test phases of the study were
analyzed to determine the eectiveness of the HRVB training
on the participants’ performance of selected soccer skills.
RESULTS
Descriptive Statistics
Before the inferential analysis of the data, the descriptive
statistics including normality test, homogeneity of variance
Majlesi, et al.: The eect of HRVB training on young soccer players’ skill performance
8
test, and equality of groups at pre-test, were computed
using exploratory data analysis. This analysis aimed to test
the normal distribution of the variables and homogeneity
of variance between groups before conducting inferential
analyses. Then, inferential analysis of the data including paired
and independent samples t-test was conducted to answer the
research questions of this study [Table 1].
A normality test was run to evaluate the normal distribution
of players in groups. To this end, the Shapiro–Wilk test was
interpreted. As it is shown in Table 2, the assumption of
normality for all dependent variables was satised for both
groups, as assessed by Shapiro-Wilk’s test (P > 0.05).
Homogeneity of Variables
The Levene’s test was used for determining equality of variance
in the groups. It tests whether the variances of two samples are
approximately equal, so it tests our assumption of homogeneity
of variance. As it is shown in Table 3, the groups’ variances
are not signicantly dierent, so equal variances are assumed,
and in this case, the probability is even >0.01. The assumption
of homogeneity of variance has been met for both groups at
pre-test.
Inferential Analysis
A factorial MANOVA was conducted. Due to having a
repeated-measures variable that has only two levels, the
sphericity assumption is met in this study. As presented in
Table 4, the results of the multivariate test show that there were
statistically signicant dierences between and within groups
and also there was a statistically signicant interaction eect
between tests and groups of intervention, F(5, 26) = 60.665,
P ≤ 0.001, Wilks’ Λ = 0.079.
As the univariate interaction eects in Nekooei, 2019. Show
all the dependent variables have statistically significant
dierences individually between and within groups. There was
a statistically signicant interaction eect between tests and
type of intervention for total time score, F(1, 30) = 119.692,
P = 0.001, sprint time, F(1, 30) = 47.686, P = 0.001, Reactive
Agility, F(1, 30) = 218.332, P = 0.001, passing time, F(1.30)
= 42.354, P = 0.001, and passing accuracy, F(1,30) = 21.544,
P = 0.001 [Table 5].
Eect of HRVB Training on Soccer Skill
Performance
As presented in Table 6, the results of within-group
comparison in all reactive agility skill parameters showed
statistically significant differences. According to Table 6,
the players’ total time value is MD = 0.771, P <0.001,
sprint time MD = 0.091, P < 0.001, reactive agility time
MD = 0.244, P < 0.001, passing time MD = 0.436, P < 0.001,
and passing accuracy MD = 0.186, P < 0.001 for group HRVB
that shows there was a statistically signicant dierence between
pre-test and post-test in all of the RMST parameters including
total time in the experimental group, while the value for control
group was total time value is MD = 0074, P < 0.109, sprint
time MD = 0.013, P < 0.111, reactive agility time MD = 0.014,
P < 0.221, passing time MD = 0.047, P < 0.277, and passing
accuracy MD = 0.094, P < 0.617, which was not statistically
signicant. The mean of HRVB group at pre- and post-test
shows that the players’ reactive motor skill performance in
all of the parameters including total time were improved after
8 weeks of experimental training in the treatment group.
Table 1: Descriptive analysis of dependent variables
Group H Group C
Mean SD Mean SD
RMST time pre-test 7.71 0.17 7.75 0.17
RMST time post-test 6.94 0.28 7.67 0.18
Sprint time pre-test 1.36 0.03 1.37 0.04
Sprint time post-test 1.26 0.03 1.35 0.06
Reactive agility pre-test 1.92 0.11 1.94 0.08
Reactive agility post-test 1.67 0.11 1.93 0.09
Passing time pre-test 4.44 0.03 4.44 0.04
Passing time post-test 4 0.24 4.4 0.05
Passing accuracy pre-test 4.13 1.12 4.16 1.21
Passing accuracy post-test 5.44 1.03 4.25 1.39
Table 2: Shapiro–Wilk’s normality test
Group Group H Group C
Statistic P value Statistic P value
RMST time pre 0.979 0.957 0.974 0.892
RMST time post 0.972 0.863 0.951 0.511
Sprint time pre 0.895 0.067 0.953 0.539
Sprint time post 0.951 0.505 0.973 0.885
Reactive agility pre 0.97 0.837 0.964 0.726
Reactive agility post 0.892 0.06 0.946 0.435
Passing time pre 0.954 0.562 0.945 0.414
Passing time post 0.956 0.59 0.947 0.446
Passing accuracy pre 0.915 0.142 0.923 0.191
Passing accuracy post 0.859 0.019 0.819 0.005
Table 3: Test of homogeneity of variances
Test of homogeneity of variances
Levene’s statistic P value
RMST time 1.505 0.222
Sprint time 2.308 0.086
Reactive agility 1.752 0.155
Passing time 2.318 0.085
Passing accuracy 0.174 0.913
Majlesi, et al.: The eect of HRVB training on young soccer players’ skill performance
9
Table 4: Multivariate test
Eect Value F df Error df Sig.
Between subjects
Intercept Wilks’ Lambda 0.000 32223.549b 5.000 26.000 0.000
Group Wilks’ Lambda 0.098 48.059b 5.000 26.000 0.000
Within subjects
Tests Wilks’ Lambda 0.059 82.560b 5.000 26.000 0.000
Tests*Group Wilks’ Lambda 0.079 60.665b 5.000 26.000 0.000
Table 5: Univariate tests
Source Type III sum of squares df Mean square F Sig.
Tests
Total time 2.860 1 2.860 176.243 0.000
Sprint time 0.044 1 0.044 85.114 0.000
Reactive agility time 0.265 1 0.265 273.663 0.000
Passing time 0.934 1 0.934 65.204 0.000
Passing accuracy 7.910 1 7.910 28.683 0.000
Tests * Group
Total time 1.943 1 1.943 119.692 0.000
Sprint time 0.024 1 0.024 47.686 0.000
Reactive agility time 0.212 1 0.212 218.332 0.000
Passing time 0.606 1 0.606 42.354 0.000
Passing accuracy 5.941 1 5.941 21.544 0.000
Error (tests)
Total time 0.487 30 0.016
Sprint time 0.015 30 0.001
Reactive agility time 0.029 30 0.001
Passing time 0.430 30 0.014
Passing accuracy 8.273 30 0.276
Furthermore, as shown in Table 7, a comparison between
groups shows that there is a statistically signicant dierence
between groups in all four component of reactive motor skill
performance including total time after 8 weeks of experimental
training. As it showed in Table 7, there were no any signicant
dierences between groups in the pretest. The posttest value
for group H versus Group C of the players’ total time was
MD = −0.738, P < 0.001, sprint time MD = −0.89, P < 0.001,
reactive agility time MD = −0.254, P < 0.001, passing time
MD = −0.398, P < 0.001, and passing accuracy MD = 1.188,
P < 0.01. Hence, there was a statistically signicant dierence
between the experimental group and the control group after
8 weeks HRVB training. This suggests that HRVB training had
a signicant eect on players’ reactive motor skill component
including total time.
The results presented above show that there were signicant
dierences in all of the RMST component scores within and
between groups, suggesting that HRVB intervention was positively
eective on soccer players skill performance within the treatment
group and also between the treatment and control groups.
DISCUSSION
This study examined the eect of HRVB training on soccer
players’ skill performance using RMST that measured sprint
time, reactive agility, passing time, and passing accuracy. The
research results showed that RMST component time including
total time signicantly improved within the experimental group
after 8 weeks of HRVB training. Therefore, reactive agility
time, sprint time, passing time, and passing accuracy improved
in the experimental group, and these improvements aected
total RMST time positively. The ndings of this study are in
line with the evidence from the previous research that shows
HRVB training can improve sprint, passing time, passing
accuracy, and reactive agility (Grillo et al., 2020; Kiviniemi
Majlesi, et al.: The eect of HRVB training on young soccer players’ skill performance
10
Table 6: Reactive motor skill within group comparisons
Pairwise comparisons within group
Measure Mean dierence (I-J) Std. Error Sig.b95% Condence interval for dierenceb
Lower bound Upper bound
Total time
HRVB Pre Post .771* 0.045 0.000 0.679 0.863
Control Pre Post 0.074 0.045 0.109 -0.018 0.166
Sprint time
HRVB Pre Post .091* 0.008 0.000 0.075 0.108
Control Pre Post 0.013 0.008 0.111 -0.003 0.029
Reactive agility time
HRVB Pre Post .244* 0.011 0.000 0.221 0.266
Control Pre Post 0.014 0.011 0.221 -0.009 0.036
Passing time
HRVB Pre Post .436* 0.042 0.000 0.350 0.523
Control Pre Post 0.047 0.042 0.277 -0.040 0.133
Passing accuracy
HRVB Pre Post -1.313* 0.186 0.000 -1.692 -0.933
Control Pre Post -0.094 0.186 0.617 -0.473 0.285
Table 7: Reactive motor skill between group comparisons
Pairwise comparisons between group
Measure Mean dierence (I-J) Std. Error Sig.b95% Condence interval for dierenceb
Lower bound Upper bound
Total time
Pre-test HR Control −0.041 0.060 0.499 −0.164 0.082
Post-test HR Control −0.738* 0.083 0.000 −0.907 −0.569
Sprint time
Pre-test HR Control −0.011 0.013 0.429 −0.038 0.016
Post-test HR Control −0.089* 0.017 0.000 −0.123 −0.055
Reactive agility time
Pre-test HR Control −0.024 0.035 0.501 −0.095 0.047
Post-test HR Control −0.254* 0.034 0.000 −0.324 −0.184
Passing time
Pre-test HR Control −0.009 0.013 0.517 −0.036 0.019
Post-test HR Control −0.398* 0.061 0.000 −0.523 −0.273
Passing accuracy
Pre-test HR Control −0.031 0.411 0.940 −0.871 0.809
Post-test HR Control 1.188* 0.433 0.010 0.304 2.071
et al., 2007; Saha et al., 2013). This study conrmed the nding
that improvement in each skill of the RMST will lead to an
overall improvement in RMST (Bullock et al., 2012).
The results of this study showed significant sprint time
improvement in HRVB group. It means that HRVB intervention
improved players’ sprint after 8 weeks, so it is an eective
training method to be used by the coaches to improve soccer
players’ sprint time. In a study by Kiviniemi et al. (2007), 30
club runners were divided into three groups, one group was
given a coach-designed training program, one group served
as the control, and the third one had their training intensity
Majlesi, et al.: The eect of HRVB training on young soccer players’ skill performance
11
guided by daily HRV readings. Although both coached and
HRV groups showed improvements in maximum running
speed (and speed at aerobic threshold), the improvements
were significantly larger in the HRV group, which was
also the only group to show an increase in VO2 peak. The
findings of the present study support the findings of the
above-mentioned research related to sprint time improvement.
In addition, Oliveira et al. (2013) investigated the changes
in physical performance in high-level futsal players and
showed signicant improvement in players’ speed after they
received HRVB training. Furthermore, Benítez-Flores et al.
(2019) reported that HRVB training had a signicant eect
on sprint time. Although the ndings of the present study
show less speed improvement compared to other skills, they
still support previous research ndings on HRVB training and
speed improvement. The results of the current study, which
showed improvement in players’ sprint after HRVB training,
are in line with the ndings of (Benítez-Flores et al., 2019;
Kiviniemi et al., 2007; Oliveira et al., 2013). However, most
of the previous researchers emphasized the need for further
research on HRVB training regarding its impact on athletic
performance (Goessl et al., 2017).
This study also investigated the eects of HRVB intervention
on reactive agility and whether reacting to unpredictable stimuli
could be improved using this intervention. The results showed
signicant improvements in players’ reactive agility as a result
of HRVB training in the experimental group of the study. The
HRVB group showed signicant improvements in players’
reactive agility after receiving HRVB training for 8 weeks.
HRVB training can reduce stress which may result in better
decision making and reactive agility during the competition
(Goessl et al., 2017). Therefore, it can be recommended for
soccer players and athletes to use HRVB training along with
their physical practice. One goal of this study was to apply
HRVB training using Elite HRV application to improve players’
reactive agility as the past researchers did not examine the
eects of HRVB on soccer players’ reactive agility. In fact, the
current study reports new ndings about the eect of HRVB
training on soccer players’ reactive agility. However, some
previous studies on HRVB training and reactive agility in other
sports are supported by the ndings of this study (Goessl et al.,
2017; Iftikhar et al., 2018; McNeil et al., 2019).
The Heart Math Institute’s research has shown that HRVB
training helps athletes reach the state of coherence and
generating sustained positive emotions facilitates a body-wide
shift to a specic, scientically measurable state (Edwards
et al., 2015). This state is termed psychophysiological
coherence because it is characterized by increased order and
harmony in both our psychological (mental and emotional)
and physiological (bodily) processes. Psychophysiological
coherence is the state of optimal functioning. Research shows
that when we activate this state, our physiological systems
function more eciently, we experience greater emotional
stability, and we also have increased reaction, mental clarity and
improved cognitive function. Physiologically, the coherence
state is marked by the development of a smooth, sine-wave-like
pattern in the heart rate variability trace. This characteristic
pattern of heart rhythm coherence is what the Elite HRV
application measures and quanties and is an indicator of
psychophysiological coherence and important physiological
changes occur in this state of coherence. It also shows that
a number of important physiological changes occur during
coherence. The two branches of the ANS synchronize with
one another, and there is an overall shift in autonomic balance
toward increased parasympathetic activity. There is also
increased physiological entrainment as a number of dierent
bodily systems are synchronized to the rhythm generated by the
heart. Finally, there is increased synchronization between the
activity of the heart and brain (Edwards et al., 2015). Therefore,
athletes’ heart and brain are synchronized as a result of HRVB
training, which increases their coherence before receiving other
types of training.
The ndings of this study also showed that HRVB training
improved the players’ passing accuracy and passing time
in the experimental group. This nding is in accord with
the ndings of the previous studies that revealed signicant
improvements in athletes’ passing performance and accuracy
after receiving HRVB training. The previous research ndings
on HRVB training showed increase in players’ concentration,
thus better concentration helps players enhance their passing
time and passing accuracy in the game (Kiss et al., 2016).
The goal of HRVB training is for athletes to gain control and
awareness over their breathing during the training and they
should be able to apply this knowledge without using any
application or device after the training. The ndings of the
present study support some studies which have investigated
the eect of HRVB training on athletes’ performance. In
fact, considerable evidence links the ndings of this study
regarding HRVB training and performance improvements to
the ndings of previous studies. A study conducted by Saha et
al. (2013) examined the eect of dierent biofeedback training
on soccer skill performance. The ndings showed signicant
improvement in soccer juggling and passing performance in
the heart rate biofeedback training group. Moreover, Morgan
and Mora (2017) published a review of the studies on the
eect of heart rate variability biofeedback training (HRVB)
on sports performance. They reported that all previous studies
had small sample sizes. In almost 85% of the studies, even with
six participants, HRVB training helped athletes to improve
their psychophysiological variables. Therefore, 16 participants
were recruited in the current study to ll the research gap.
However, this review concluded that despite the limited amount
of experimental studies, HRVB is an eective, easy-to-learn,
easy-to-apply, and safe method for both coaches and athletes
to improve sport performance (Morgan and Mora, 2017).
Majlesi, et al.: The eect of HRVB training on young soccer players’ skill performance
12
CONCLUSION
The ndings of the current study show that 8 weeks of HRVB
training had a signicant within- and between-group eect
on the soccer players’ RMST, passing time, passing accuracy,
and reactive agility. The use of biofeedback devices in sport
is limited because they are not easy to use and most of
modalities need an expert to run the training or test. The other
reason is that most of the biofeedback devices are expensive
and not easy to carry everywhere. This study used Elite
HRV biofeedback application which is easy to install on the
computer or smartphone and there is no need to run the test
by an expert. The application is connectable to Polar belt H7
to receive a reliable and valid heartbeat. Coaches and athletes
can benet from this application which is very convenient
to use with a reasonable price. After HRVB training athletes
learn how to gain control over their heartbeat by following
the application’s breathing feedback which helps the athlete
to become ready to receive other types of training. HRVB
training has been reported to lead to stress reduction and
improvement in players’ decision-making skill which leads
to performance improvement, but this improvement may vary
depending on the skill and sport.
This study proved the eectiveness of 8 weeks of HRVB
training on young soccer players’ skill performance. However,
more longitudinal studies of physiological and psychological
aspects of athletes’ performance are needed to inform future
interventions about the most eective constructs on which to
focus for each level of performance. It is also recommended
to conduct interventional studies with higher number of elite
players to extend the ndings of longitudinal studies and
provide a deeper understanding of the psychological eects
of training on athletes’ performance. Finally, regarding the
ndings of this study, coaches and players are encouraged to
include HRVB training in their training protocols to further
improve athletic performance in dierent elds of sport.
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14
Correlations of anthropometric, body composition, somatotype
variables, and performance of elite male junior weightlifters
Bui T. Toai1, Dao V. Thau1, Pham C. Cuong1, Vo C. Tuong2
1Ho Chi Minh City Sports University, Viet Nam, 2Ho Chi Minh City National Sports Training Center, Viet Nam
Received: 26-11-2020 Acceptance: 31-12-2020
INTRODUCTION
Humans show variability in the kinds of characteristics,
including body morphology that predisposes to sporting
success (Olds, 2009). The transmission of successful sporting
adaptations, including body size and shape characteristics,
which have been labeled “morphologic optimization”
(Norton et al., 1996), has both cultural and genetic facets.
Anthropometric success characteristics are not xed within
the athlete group; they are constantly evolving as a response to
changes in the sporting and external environment (Olds, 2009).
Talent identication usually monitors several parameters, one of
which is anthropometry. There are a variety of anthropometric
techniques that are used in talent identication (Khaled, 2013).
The data on the three components of somatotype, endomorphs,
mesomorphs, and ectomorphs originate from Sheldon (Sheldon
et al., 1940) and were approved and modied by American
Scientists, Heath and Carter. The above authors, on the basis
of certain anthropometric parameters, determined somatotype
using formulas, tables, and nomograms. The endomorphic
component is associated with the amount of body fat, muscle
mass (MM) with mesomorphic, ectomorphic, and the ratio
of height and weight. If one of the components is dominant,
then it is a “pure type” (endomorph 7-1-1, 1-7-1, and 1-1-
7 mesomorphic ectomorphic). Success in many different
sporting activities would most likely be dependent in part on
body type and composition. According to Carter and Ackland
(1994), in strength-speed sports, the body fat values are lower
when compared to sports, in which the training is focused on
kinetic abilities. A distinctive combination of muscle strength,
explosive power, endurance, and weightlifting technique
needed for successful performance in the prole of somatotype
(Kraemer and Koziris, 1994; Andrew et al., 2006). Mesomorphs
may be more appropriated in sports that require strength for each
individual sports requirement anthropometric and physical skill.
As a consequence, those responsible for talent identication
for other sports might also be interested in these characteristics
Address for correspondence:
Bui T. Toai,
E-mail: buitrongtoai2016@gmail.com
Research Article
ABSTRACT
The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlations of anthropometric, body composition, and somatotype variables with the lifting
performance of six national male junior weightlifters (mean ± SD: age 15.67 ± 1.97 years, height 161.7° 2.1 cm, and weight 60.77° 3.1
kg). The subject volunteered for and gave written informed consent to participate in this study, which was approved by Ho Chi Minh
city Sports University and Ho Chi Minh city National Sports Training Center. Results showed that the snatch and clean and jerk record
signicantly correlated with thumb length, shoulder width, hip width, and chest circumference (P < 0.05). The results also revealed that
the clean and jerk records and snatch records signicantly correlated with fat-free mass (r= 0.840 and r = 0.374; P < 0.05) as well as
muscle mass (r = 0.871 and r = 0.838; P < 0.05). There were strong correlations signicantly existing between performance (snatch, and
clean and jerk record) and Mesomorphs (r = from 0.984 to 0.965) and strong correlations between performance (snatch, and clean and
jerk record) and Endomorphs but that were not statistical signicant (r = −0.677–−0.741); there were no correlations signicantly dierent
(P > 0.05) between performance (snatch, and clean and jerk record) and Ectomorphs (r = −0.22–−0.27). These ndings indicate that
these variables should be used to evaluate the eects of training and to predict performance for Viet Nam elite male junior weightlifters.
Keywords: Anthropometric, Body composition, Correlation, Ectomorphs, Elite weightlifter, Endomorphs, Heath – carter, Mesomorphs
International Journal of Health, Physical Education and
Computer Science in Sports
ISSN 2231-3265
Volume 40; Issue 1
ISRA Journal Impact Factor 7.217
A Peer Reviewed (Refereed) International Research Journal
Toai, et al.: Correlations of anthropometric, body composition, somatotype variables, and performance of elite male junior weightlifters
15
(Fry, 2006). Weightlifting is one of the most powerful athletic
activities, performance consisting of snatch and clean and
jerk lifting. The relationship between lifting performance and
body mass is not linear. This relationship has been frequently
studied in Olympic Games (Cleather, 2006). Sánchez-Muñoz
(2012) suggested that the measurement of anthropometry
and somatotype is a crucial tool in the search for information
to assist coaches and athletes in the quest for success at the
highest level in weightlifting. According to these results,
the purpose of this study was to evaluate the correlations
of anthropometric and body composition variables with
performance (snatch and clean and jerk) of Viet Nam elite
male junior weightlifters.
METHODS
Experimental Design and Subjects
Six national junior male weightlifters (mean ± SD: age
15.67 ± 1.97 years, height 161.7° 2.1 cm, weight 60.8°
3.2 kg) volunteered for and gave written informed consent to
participate in this study, which was approved by Ho Chi Minh
city Sports University and Ho Chi Minh City National Sport
Training Center. These athletes were professional weight lifters
with average 3 years lifting experience.
Tools and devices used are as follows: Body Composition
including BMI, Body fat%, fat mass, fat-free mass (FFM), and
MM analyzer by in body MC780MA – 2013. Anthropometric
variables including Height, Weight, Sitting height, Arm length,
Thumb length, Middle-nger length, Leg length, Foot length,
Shoulder width, Hip width, and Chest circumference. Basic
ten anthropometric dimensions are needed to calculate the
anthropometric somatotype: Body height (cm), body weight
(kg), four skinfolds (triceps, subscapular, supraspinale, and
medial calf), two bone breadths (epicondyle arhumerus and
femur), and two limb girths (arm exed and tensed, calf).
The following descriptions are adapted from Carter et al.
(1990). Further details are given by Ross and Marfell-Jones
(1991), Carter (1996), Ross et al. (1999), Duquet and Carter
(2001), and the ISAK Manual (2001). To gain the data, we
used a standard Martin anthropometric set, consisting of a
scale, a little adjustable caliper, a skinfold caliper measuring
and a rolling meter. The Snatch and clean and jerk records,
anthropometric, body composition, and somatotype variables
were measured in the pre-competition phase.
Statistical Analysis
The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics for
anthropometric, body composition, somatotype, and
performance variables. Pearson correlation coecient (r)
was analyzed for nding the correlation of anthropometric,
body composition, somatotype variables with the lifting
performance. SPSS was used to apply formulas statistical by
calculating: Average, standard deviation, and correlation.
RESULTS
Table 1 list the variables (mean ± SD) describing 11 anthropometric
variables, ve body composition variables and lifting performance
(Snatch and Clean and Jerk) of subjects.
Table 2 list the variables (mean ± SD) describing somatotype
variables of subjects.
Results showed that the clean and jerk and snatch records
signicantly correlated (P < 0.05) with thumb length (r = 0.880
and r = 0.845), shoulder width (r = 0.866 and r = 0.825), hip width
(r = 0.869 and r = 0.900), and chest circumference (r = 0.825 and
r = 0.873). The results also revealed that the clean and jerk
records and snatch records signicantly correlated with fat-free
mass (r = 0.840, and r = 0.374; P < 0.05) as well as MM (r = 0.871
and r = 0.838; P < 0.05) [Tables 3 and 4].
The result showed that: There were high correlations between
performance (snatch, clean and jerk record) and Meso (r =
0.984–0.965) and were signicant dierent P < 0.05; there
were not correlations signicant dierent P > 0.05 between
Table 1: Descriptive Statistics for Anthropometric,
body composition variables and lifting performance
Variables Means±SD
Height (cm) 161.7±2.1
Weight (kg) 60.77±3.1
Sitting height (cm) 88.1±1.1
Arm length (cm) 66.73±1.09
Thumb length(cm) 6.30±0.21
Middle nger length (cm) 7.70±0.27
Leg length (cm) 87.77±1.10
Foot length (cm) 24.43±0.86
Shoulder width (cm) 37.55±1.39
Hip width (cm) 27.18±1.37
Chest circumference (cm) 84.83±2.02
BMI (kg/m2) 23.4± 1.5
Body fat (%) 12.0± 3.8
Fat Mass (kg) 7.3±2.5
Fat-free mass (kg) 52.3±1.9
Muscle mass (kg) 50.4±1.29
Snatch (kg) 90.5±20.1
Clean and Jerk (kg) 111.7±23.5
Table 2: Descriptive statistics for somatotype variables
Variables Means±SD
Endo 3.4±1.6
Meso 4.7±1
Ecto 1.5±0.8
Toai, et al.: Correlations of anthropometric, body composition, somatotype variables, and performance of elite male junior weightlifters
16
performance (snatch, clean and jerk record) and Endomorphs
(r = −0.677–−0.741); Ectomorphs (r=−0.22–−0.27).
DISCUSSION
The results revealed there was a strong positive correlation
between weightlifters’ performance and shoulder width, hip
width, and chest circumferences. The result of this study
consistent with Siahkouhian (2010) ndings who showed that
signicant positive correlations of shoulder circumference
and chest circumference with the snatch, clean and jerk,
indicate that these variables are important predictors to predict
performance for a weightlifter. Strong correlations of Thumb
length with the performance of the subjects is notable, it may
be related to hand grip ability, which is rather important for
lifting technique. It should be continued with future studies
before coming to an exact conclusion.
The present study showed negative correlations of % body
fat and fat mass with the performance of weightlifters. This
result was in contrast with ndings of Stone et al. (2005), but
consistence with the result of Siahkouhian (2010). Negative
correlations of % body fat and fat mass, as well as other
anthropometric variables, with the performance of the subjects
which may be due to the small number of the subject.
The results showed that the clean and jerk and snatch
performance strong signicantly correlated with FFM and MM
consistent with the result of Siahkouhian (2010), appropriate
with the statement of Heyward and Stolarczyk (1996) a large
MM is important during strength and power records.
This study found a correlations coecient between somatotype
variables and the snatch, clean and jerk record performance.
Smerecká (2014, cited in Urban, 2010) “Based on the
anthropometric indicators, we gain the quantitative data about the
individual body segments and on the basis of the morphological
state of an individual, so-called merfo-phenotype, we can, to
some extent, predict his/her performance.” Orvanova (1984;
1986) showed that somatotype components to discriminant
analyses of dierences between the best and worst performers
by weight classes, the author noted that mesomorphs had
the highest rating throughout the series. The somatochart in
Carter (1990, cited in Boennec, 1980) shows that ten out of
12 French weight lifters were endo-mesomorphs or extreme
endo-mesomorphs. The approximate mean was 2.5-6.5-1.5.
The young Cubans were endo-mesomorphic and their 5.6 in
mesomorphs is the highest of all the 12-year-old sports groups.
Orvanova (1990) studied on the body shape of weightlifters,
her studied showed that weightlifter in the lighter weight
classes are found to be ectomorph or balanced mesomorphs,
while those in the heavier weight classes tend to be mesomorph
endomorphs.
According to Carter (1990) mean somatotype of Word Elite
Weightlifter, he combined the data from the 1960, 1968, and
1976 Olympics into four weight categories, he found the higher
the weight class the higher the endomorphs and mesomorphs
and the lower the ectomorphs. This trend is seen in the data
for each Olympics and for data from Venezuela, Cuba, and
CSSR. Mesomorphs averages about 6–7 in the lighter weight
classes and 8–9 in the heaviest classes. The top-class lifters
are balanced mesomorphs at the lighter weights and extreme
endomorphs in the heaviest weights [Figure 1].
According to Carter (1990), the under 60 kg class had
mesomorphs averages 6.9, this class is similar to Vietnam
junior male weightlifters.
Table 3: The correlation coecient between
anthropometric, body composition variables and
performance (clean and jerk and snatch records)
Variables Clean and Jerk
record (kg)
Snatch record
(kg)
Anthropometric
Height (cm) 0.492 0.483
Weight (kg) 0.471 0.558
Sitting height (cm) 0.525 0.51
Arm length (cm) −0.574 −0.552
Thumb length(cm) 0.880* 0.845*
Middle nger length (cm) 0.47 0.409
Leg length (cm) −0.599 −0.582
Foot length(cm) −0.766 −0.717
Shoulder width(cm) 0.866* 0.825*
Hip width(cm) 0.869* 0.900*
Chest circumference (cm) 0.825* 0.873*
Body composition
BMI (kg/m2) 0.157 0.231
Body fat (%) −0.377 −0.348
Fat mass (kg) −0.302 −0.265
Fat-free mass (kg) 0.840* 0.870*
Muscle mass (kg) 0.871* 0.838*
*Correlation is signicant at the level of P<0.05
Table 4: The correlation coecient between
Somatotype variables and performance (clean and jerk
and snatch record)
Variables Clean and Jerk record (kg) Snatch record (kg)
Endo −0.741 −0.677
Meso 0.984* 0.965*
Ecto −0.22 −0.27
*Correlation is signicant at the level of P<0.05
Toai, et al.: Correlations of anthropometric, body composition, somatotype variables, and performance of elite male junior weightlifters
17
The result of this study showed that most of the athletes are on
the Mesomorph-Endomorph category of the somatochart, the
mean somatotype variables of post-season were 3.4-4.7-1.5.
This data recorded the high correlation between performance
(snatch, clean and jerk event) and Meso (r = 0.984–0.965)
were signicantly dierent P < 0.05; therefore, mesomorphs
variable should be used to evaluate the eects of training and to
predict performance for junior male weightlifters. This nding
is consistent with previous studied. However, the somatotype
of Vietnam junior male weightlifters needs to increase more
mesomorphs.
CONCLUSION
Thumb length (cm), shoulder width (cm), hip width (cm), chest
circumference (cm), FFM (kg), MM (kg), and mesomorphs
signicantly correlated with the snatch and clean and jerk
records (P < 0.05). These variables should be used to evaluate
the eects of training and to identication for Viet Nam male
junior weightlifter.
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weightlifter (2017 – black point). Olympics, (1960–1976) 1: <60 kg (1968); 2: 60–79,9 kg; 3: 80–99,9 kg; 4: 100+ kg (Carter, 1984b); 5:
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16: China, 1984 (Zeng, 1985); 17: Brighton Polytechnic (Bale, 1986); 18: South Australia Power lifters (Withers et al., 1986)
Toai, et al.: Correlations of anthropometric, body composition, somatotype variables, and performance of elite male junior weightlifters
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19
Eect of SAQ training and own body resistance training
on selected physical tness parameters of intercollege male
football players
K. Vishnuvardhan Reddy1, L. B. Laxmikanth Rathod2
1Research Scholar, Department of Physical Education, Osmania University, Hyderabad, Telangana, India, 2Dean, Faculty of
Education and Principal, Nizam College, Osmania University, Hyderabad, Telangana, India
Received: 28-11-2020 Acceptance: 22-12-2020
INTRODUCTION
Football is one of the most popular ball games in the
world, involving a number of individuals and audiences.
At the turn of the 21st century, the Union of International
Football Associations announced that there were around
250 million members and more than 1.3 billion people
interested in football. This is a most competitive sport in
the world that needs a high level of physical, physiological
and psychological tness. Psychological traits play an
important role in ensuring that athletes produce excellent
outcomes in competitive athletics, aside from naturally
gifted physical qualities. Literature on physical tness
and sports has shown this in recent years. Physical,
psychological, and environmental inuences – in addition
to tness, physics, and movement skills, there are also
a variety of psychological factors, such as intelligence,
attitude, determination, stress, anxiety, and violence, which
have a critical eect on the performance of sportsmen in
high-level competitions.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
To facilitate the study, 19 Intercollegiate Male Football
Players were selected as subjects who Participating Osmania
University intercollege Football Tournament, Hyderabad,
Telangana. The study would be conned to Intercollege Male
Football Players between the age group of 18–22 years.
Address for correspondence:
K. Vishnuvardhan Reddy,
E-mail: vishnuvardhanreddy939@gmail.com
ABSTRACT
The aim of the study was to nd out the Eect of SAQ Training and Own Body Resistance Training on Selected physical tness Parameters
of Intercollege Male Football Players. For this purpose of the study, the 19 intercollege Male football players from aliated college of
Osmania University, Hyderabad, Telangana. The age of the subjects was 18–22 years. The selected sixty Intercollege male football players
were randomly assigned to one or four groups: SAQ training (n = 30, ISAQT), Isolated Own Body Resistance training (n = 30, IOBRT), and
Combined and a control group (n = 30, CG). The performance parameters such as speed and agility were delimited as dependent variables.
All the performance parameters were tested with standardized testing tools. The duration of the training intervention was delimited to
3 days per week for 6 weeks. The selected performance parameters were tested with standardizes test items. The collected pre- and post-
test data were statistically analyzed using the analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) to determine the dierences, if any among the groups on
selected dependent variables separately. Whenever they obtained “F” ratio for adjusted post-test was found to be signicant, the Sche’s
post hoc test was applied as a post hoc test to nd out the paired mean dierences, if any the 0.05 level of condence was xed as the
level of signicance to test the “F” ratio obtained by the ANCOVA, which was considered appropriate. The results clearly proved that
the selected trainings signicantly shown the improvement on selected performance parameters owing to 6 weeks of training purpose.
Keywords: SAQ, Own body resistance
International Journal of Health, Physical Education and
Computer Science in Sports
ISSN 2231-3265
Volume 40; Issue 1
ISRA Journal Impact Factor 7.217
A Peer Reviewed (Refereed) International Research Journal
Research Article
Reddy and Rathod: Eect of SAQ training and own body resistance training on selected physical tness parameters of intercollege male
football players
20
Dependent Variables
1. Speed
2. Agility.
Independent Variables
1. Isolated SAQ training
2. Isolated Own Body Resistance training.
Experimental Design
The selected subjects were divided into four groups, experimental
Group 1, experimental Group 2, and control group. Each group
consisting of 30 Male Football Players: Experimental Group 1
was assigned as isolated SAQ training (n = 30, ISAQT),
Experimental Group 2 was assigned as isolated own body
resistance training (n = 130, IOBRT), and Group 3 control group
(n = 30, CG). were not given any special treatment and were
under strict supervision of the investigator. Before experimental
treatment, all the subjects were measured of their selected
Performance Parameters such as speed and agility. This formed
pre-test scores. After 6 weeks experiments to the experimental
groups on respective training, all the four groups were tested on
criterion variables selected, which formed post-test scores. The
dierence between pre- and post-test scores was considered as
the eect of varied respective experimental treatments. Analysis
of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to nd out the signicant
dierences if any, among the groups for each variable separately.
The Schee’s test was applied as post hoc test whenever the “F’
ratios of the adjusted post-test means were found to be signicant
at 0.05 level of condence.
Results on Speed
As shown in Table 1, the obtained pre-test means on speed on
SAQ Training group was 7.04, isolated own body resistance
training group was 7.01, and control group was 7.00. The
obtained pre-test F value was 0.11 and the required table F
value was 3.16, which proved that there was no signicant
dierence among initial scores of the subjects.
The obtained post-test means on speed on SAQ training group
was 6.63, isolated own body resistance training group was 6.76,
and control group was 7.43. The obtained post-test F value
was 23.41* and the required table F value was 3.16, which
proved that there was signicant dierence among post-test
scores of the subjects.
Taking into consideration of the pre-test means and post-test
means adjusted post-test means were determined and ANCOVA
was performed and the obtained F value 43.64* was greater
than the required value of 3.16 and hence it was accepted that
there was signicant dierences among the treated groups.
Since signicant dierences were recorded, the results were
subjected to post hoc analysis using Schee’s Condence
Interval test. The results are presented in Table 2.
The post hoc analysis of obtained ordered adjusted means
proved that there was signicant dierences existed between
SAQ Training group and control group (MD: 0.84). There
was signicant dierence between Own Body Resistance
Training group and control group (MD: 0.68*). There was
no signicant dierence between treatment groups, namely,
SAQ Training group and Own Body Resistance Training
group. (MD: 0.15).
The ordered adjusted means were presented through bar diagram
for better understanding of the results of this study in Figure 1.
Table 1: Computation of analysis of covariance of pre-test and post-test on speed scores of SAQ training and isolated
own body resistance training and control groups
SAQ
training
Own body resistance
training
Control
group
Source of
variance
Sum of
squares
df Mean
squares
Obtained F
Pre test mean 7.04 7.01 7.00 Between 0.03 2 0.01 0.11
Within 11.54 87 0.13
Post test mean 6.63 6.76 7.43 Between 11.22 2 5.61003 23.41*
Within 20.85 87 0.24
Adjusted post test mean 6.61 6.76 7.45 Between 12.01 2 6.00 43.64*
Within 11.83 86 0.14
Mean di 0.42 0.25 0.43
Table F-ratio at 0.05 level of condence for 2 and 87 (df) = 3.10, 2 and 86 (df) 3.10. *Signicant
Figure 1: Bar diagram on ordered adjusted means on speed
Reddy and Rathod: Eect of SAQ training and own body resistance training on selected physical tness parameters of intercollege male
football players
21
Results on Agility
As shown in Table 1, the obtained pre-test means on Agility on
SAQ Training group was 9.73, Isolated Own Body Resistance
Training group was 9.71, and control group was 9.92. The
obtained pre-test F value was 1.52 and the required table F
value was 3.16, which proved that there was no signicant
dierence among initial scores of the subjects.
The obtained post-test means on Agility on SAQ Training
group was 9.16, Isolated Own Body Resistance Training group
was 9.17, and control group was 10.09. The obtained post-test
F value was 34.26* and the required table F value was 3.16,
which proved that there was signicant dierence among
post-test scores of the subjects [Table 3].
Taking into consideration of the pre-test means and post-
test means adjusted post-test means were determined and
ANCOVA was performed and the obtained F value 36.31*
was greater than the required value of 3.16 and hence it was
accepted that there were signicant dierences among the
treated groups.
Since signicant dierences were recorded, the results were
subjected to post hoc analysis using Schee’s Condence
Interval test. The results are presented in Table 4.
The post hoc analysis of obtained ordered adjusted means
proved that there was signicant dierences existed between
SAQ training group and control group (MD: 0.83*). There was
signicant dierence between Own Body Resistance Training
group and control group (MD: 0.81*). There was no signicant
dierence between treatment groups, namely, SAQ Training
group, and own body resistance training group. (MD: 0.02).
The ordered adjusted means were presented through bar
diagram for better understanding of the results of this study
in Figure 2.
Table 2: Schee’s condence interval test scores on speed
Means Required CI
SAQ training Isolated own body resistance training Control group Mean dierence
6.61 6.76 0.15 0.24
6.61 7.45 0.84* 0.24
6.76 7.45 0.68* 0.24
*Signicant
Table 3: Computation of analysis of covariance of pre-test and post-test on agility scores of SAQ training and isolated
own body resistance training and control groups
SAQ
training
Isolated own body
resistance training
Control
group
Source of
variance
Sum of
squares
df Mean
squares
Obtained F
Pre test mean 9.73 9.71 9.92 Between 0.79 2 0.39 1.52
Within 22.51 87 0.26
Post test mean 9.16 9.17 10.09 Between 17.12 2 8.55985 34.26*
Within 21.74 87 0.25
Adjusted post test mean 9.19 9.21 10.02 Between 13.01 2 6.51 36.31*
Within 15.41 86 0.18
Mean di 0.57 0.55 0.17
Table F-ratio at 0.05 level of condence for 2 and 87 (df)=3.10, 2 and 86 (df) 3.10. *Signicant
Table 4: Schee’s condence interval test scores on agility
Means Required C I
SAQ training Isolated own body resistance training Control group Mean dierence
9.19 9.21 0.02 0.27
9.19 10.02 0.83* 0.27
9.21 10.02 0.81* 0.27
*Signicant
Reddy and Rathod: Eect of SAQ training and own body resistance training on selected physical tness parameters of intercollege male
football players
22
DISCUSSION
The results of this study revealed that there was a signicant
dierence in speed and agility due to 6 weeks of SAQ training
and own body resistance training group. From the results of
the present study and literature, it is concluded that dependent
variable such as speed and agility was signicantly improved
due to the SAQ training and own body resistance training.
CONCLUSIONS
Within the limitations and delimitations of the study, the
following conclusions were drawn. It was concluded that SAQ
training and own body resistance training signicantly altered
such as, speed and agility of the college level male football
players. Comparing between the treatment groups and it was
found that SAQ training was better than own body resistance
training group. The results of the present study show that it is
possible to develop speed and agility by means of a 6-week
SAQ training and own body resistance training program.
REFERENCES
Jovanovic M, Sporis G, Omrcen D, Fiorentini F. Eects of speed,
agility, quickness training method on power performance in elite
soccer players. J Strength Cond Res 2011;25:1285-92.
Mathavan SB, Praveen A. Eect of core training and plyometric
training on selected performance variables for shooting and
dribbling among men football players. Int Interdiscip Res J
2015;5:228-33.
Mathavan SB. Short term training programme’s impact on the
variables of dribbling and kicking performance among university
men soccer players. Int J Sports Phys Educ 2015;1:23-8.
Figure 2: Bar diagram on ordered adjusted means on agility
23
During COVID-19 the eect of Yoga training on vital capacity,
body composition, and exibility on selected sports person of
VNSGU, Surat
Pradeep Kumar Lenka
Assistant Professor, Prof. V. B. Shah Institute of Management, R. V. Patel College of Commerce, V. L. Shah College of
Commerce and Sutex Bank College of Computer Applications and Science, Surat, Gujarat, India
Received: 30-11-2020 Acceptance: 30-12-2020
INTRODUCTION
Yoga originated in India. It has a very old history, can be
said farmly about the origin of Yoga. It can be said that yoga
originated in India. On the basis of secondary sources, it can
allude that yoga originated approximately 3000 BC in India.
The rst book on yoga was written by Maharshi Patanjali in
147 BC. In fact, yoga is derived from the Sanskrit word Yuj
which means Union and join. So most of the people have not
been leading a happy and peaceful life. It has signicance in
the life of human beings.
Today’s life is full of stress and strain and tension and nervous
irritability of hunger and excitement. Anyone who puts into
practice a few of the elementary principles of yoga will be far
better equipped to cope with his Complex existence.
Yoga comes from the Sanskrit word Yuj which means to join
together Unify and to unite. Yoga has existed from ancient
times but was integrated and simplied by Patanjali in the 15th
AD century. With the help of yogic exercise, the exibility or
elasticity of our body and makes the body more active and
supple. The concentration will be the greater the advantage
to the body and mind. Increase the practice, the body will
become more and more elastic and exible day by day. Swami
Vivekananda (1887–1963) points out that after doing the yogic
exercise the human body is more powerful as the human
“AURA” is more. They found that human “AURA” is clearer
and gain exibility after yogic exercises or activities. In modern
civilization, Asanas are generally practiced in form of exercise.
Through the practice of Asana, one can achieve the organic
and functional promotion of health tness (Vinekar 1975).
METHODOLOGY
To achieve the purpose of the study, 15 men are selected
in experimental groups to practice the selected Asana and
International Journal of Health, Physical Education and
Computer Science in Sports
ISSN 2231-3265
Volume 40; Issue 1
ISRA Journal Impact Factor 7.217
A Peer Reviewed (Refereed) International Research Journal
ABSTRACT
The present study is to nd out the eect of selected Asana and Pranayam on vital capacity, body composition, and exibility of selected
sports person of VNSGU, Surat. The sample of 30 sportspersons ranged between the age of 18 and 26 years. The selected subjects were
divided into two groups that are 15 as the experimental group and 15 as a control group. In the present study, purposive – random sampling
technique was used to select the sample. After assessment of pre-test on both groups, then-experimental treatment was given. Asana and
Pranayam were conducted for 6 weeks. After the completion of 6 weeks of training, the post-test (major test) was conducted to know
the signicant dierence between both groups (experimental and control). The “t”-test was applied to analyze the data. The statistically
signicant eect of Asanas and Pranayam conditioning training was tremendous improvement found on body composition, vital capacity,
and exibility on selected sports persons of VNSGU Surat as compared to control group, at 0.5 level of signicance.
Keywords: Asanas, Pranayam, conditioning.
Research Article
Address for correspondence:
Dr. Pradeep Kumar Lenka,
E-mail: pradeepkumarlenka@gmail.com
Lenka: During COVID-19 the eect of Yoga training on vital capacity, body composition, and exibility on selected sports person of
VNSGU, Surat
24
Pranayam. A purposive sample technique was used to select
the subjects in a group, age between 18 and 26 years.
Variable and Instrument
For measuring body composition, the body composition
analyzer and BMI norms table were used. The BMI was
calculated easily from the following formula BMI = (weight in
kg/square o height in meters), Vital capacity measuring peak
ow meter and exibility measuring sit and reach bench test
as far as experimental training is concern the 6-week Asana
and Pranayam training was conducted in a systematic manner.
6 weeks training program of selected Asanas and Pranayama
on body composition, vital capacity, and exibility following
SURYA NAMASKAR
Asana
1. Chakrasan,
2. Paschimottanasana,
3. Sarbhanga Asana,
4. Ardha matsyendrasana,
5. Halason,
6. Pawanmuktasana,
7. Salabhashan,
8. Bhujangasan,
9. Utthan padasana
10. Dhanurasana
Pranayam
(1) Anulom vilom, (2) Kapalbhati, (3) Bbhastrika, (4) Bhramri
Note:
Warm-ups, stretching exercise, daily works were selected
as a limitation.
As training program had been continuous we would
increase load.
Each Asana Teken only 1 min and total number of Asana
was 10.
Each session had been 60 min time duration.
Procedure
For the measurement of body fat percentage as a pre-test,
these subjects were divided into two equal groups that are 15
as the experimental group and 15 as the control group. Body
fat percentage was measured by body composition analyzer
and WHO’s BMI norms table. The BMI was calculated easily
from the following formula BMI = (weight in kg/square of
height in meters).
The “t” test to analyze the data. The t-test was used to determine
the eects of selected Asanas and Pranayam training on BMI,
vital capacity, and exibility. Further, the level of signicance
was set at 0.05 levels.
Signicance of Dierence
Groups Pre-test Post-test Mean t
Control 16.23 16.28 0.05 2.59*
Experimental 19.70 21.03 1.33
Signicant at 0.05 level. t 0.05(28) = 2.048
It is observed that the calculated “t” (2.59) is more than
the tabulated “t” (2.048). Hence, it may be considered that
there was a signicant dierence found in body mass index
percentage between pre-test and post-test of the experimental
group at 0.05 level of condence.
Signicance of Dierence (Fat)
Groups Pre-test Post-test Mean T
Control 8.66 8.56 0.08 1.18
Experimental 10.48 10.90 0.42
Signicant at 0.05 level t 0.05(28) = 2.048
It is observed from the calculated “t” (1.18) is less than the
tabulated “t” (2.048). Hence, it may be considered that there
was no signicant dierence found in fat percentage between
pre-test and post-test of the experimental group at 0.05 level
of signicance.
Signicance of Dierence (Water)
Groups Pre-test Post-test Mean t
Control 29.37 29.42 0.05 3.99*
Experimental 33.22 34.32 1.1
Signicant at 0.05 level t 0.05 (28) = 2.048
It is observed from that the calculated “t” (3.99) is more than
the tabulated “t” (2.048). Hence, it may be considered that
there was a signicant dierence found in total body water
between pre-test and post-test of experiment group at 0.05
level of signicance.
Signicance of Dierence (Vital Capacity)
Group Pre-test Post-test Mean t
Control 373.06 374.33 1.27 6.07*
Experimental 433.33 470.2 36.87
Signicant at 0.05 level t 0.05 (28) = 2.048
It is observed from that the calculated “t” (6.07) is more than
the tabulated “t” (2.048). Hence, it may be considered that
there was signicant dierence found vital capacity percentage
between pre-test and post-test of experimental group at 0.05
level of signicance.
Signicance of Dierence (Flexibility)
Group Pre-test Post-test Mean t
Control 18.26 18.53 0.27 13.24*
Experimental 22.6 25.8 3.2
Signicant at 0.05 level t 0.05 (28) = 2.04
Lenka: During COVID-19 the eect of Yoga training on vital capacity, body composition, and exibility on selected sports person of
VNSGU, Surat
25
It is observed that the calculated “t” (13.24) is more than the
tabulated “t” (2.048).
Hence, it may be considered that there was a signicant
dierence found in exibility percentage between pre-test and
post-test of the experimental group at 0.05 level of signicance.
DISCUSSION
On the basis of the obtained results, it has been observed that
there was no signicant dierence found in the results of the
pre-test. Results also revealed that there was no signicant
dierence found in fat percentage scores between pre-test of
the experimental and control group and Asana and Pranayam is
eective on body mass index, total body water, Vital capacity,
and exibility relieved by post-test score.
CONCLUSIONS
Within the limitation of the study, it was concluded that there
were signicant similarities found between the control group
and experimental group in body mass index, water, vital
capacity, and exibility. However, no signicant dierence
found in selected variables of the control group. After long
practice asana and Pranayama are very important for reducing
fat in the body and very useful for other selected variables
of this study. During COVID-19 also it is eective on sports
person of VNSGU, SURAT, as well as for others.
REFERENCES
1. Pal S, Dass AD. Yogasana and Sadhana, Bharatiya Yoga
Sansthan; 1980.
2. Joshi KS. Yoga and Nature Care Therapy. New York: Sterling
Publishers Private Limited; 1991.
3. Bal BS, Kaur PJ. Eects of selected asanas in Hatha yoga on
agility and exibility level. J Sports Health Res 2009;1:75-87.
4. Patrick WN. The Facts of Obesity, USA; 2013. p. 1. Available
from: http://www.medicalcenter.com.
5. Available from: http://www.web.mit.edu/tkd/stretch/stretching_3.
html.
6. Available from: https://www.yogajournal.com/article/practice-
section/what-science-can-teach-us-about-exibility.
26
Promoting physical literacy in India
Amit Malik1, A. Rakesh2
1Vice President, Strategy, Knowledge Management and Partnership, Elms Sports and Reliance Foundation, 2Department of
Physical Education, Gulbarga University, Kalburagi, Karnataka
Received: 06-12-2020 Acceptance: 29-12-2020
INTRODUCTION
The term “physical literacy” describes the motivation,
condence, physical competence, knowledge, and understanding
that individuals progress, all through their existence. Physical
literacy encloses long way greater than physical training in
schools or sports coaching. It presents a holistic and a broader
understanding of lifelong engagement in physical activities. It
looks at holistic development for each individual through their
unique lifelong journeys. The current understanding of physical
literacy in lot of current literature is around physical competency
and fundamental movements more. However, physical literacy
is much more than these understandings. It is lifelong concept
for each individual to ourish themselves.
Physical literacy develops the individual through variety,
diversity, and experiences in various environments. There is
no xed outcome state as “physically literate.” Rather it is
a journey which is from birth till death. There are dierent
experiences and milestones in the journey. However, individual
journey is considered as precious as individual lives. It is
not about reaching a dened goal/end state. It is more about
lifelong exploration and engagement in physical activities.
For developing physical literacy, childhood is the best time.
Meaningful and enriched experience during early years has
a strong impact on connection of physical activities with an
individual. During physical education classes, students have
a golden period to develop physical literacy components.
Experience in each class and for each student, contributes
immensely to the individual physical literacy journeys of all
students. There is a critical opportunity and responsibility
for key stakeholders to create an environment for fostering
physical literacy journeys of all students.
Physical literacy in the current years has not been given its
due importance to more focus on academics. Furthermore,
within physical education, elitism, and champion-making are
Address for correspondence:
Amit Malik,
E-mail: amitmalik22@gmail.com
International Journal of Health, Physical Education and
Computer Science in Sports
ISSN 2231-3265
Volume 40; Issue 1
ISRA Journal Impact Factor 7.217
A Peer Reviewed (Refereed) International Research Journal
ABSTRACT
“Physical Literacy” word has many denitions across the world. However, as per holistic denition by International Physical Literacy
Association, it is motivation, condence, knowledge, and understanding to value and engage in physical activities throughout the life.
Physical literacy is not just the development of fundamental movement and sport skills, but it is much more than that. It is holistic concept
for everyone and throughout the life. In school environment, concept propagates holistic, enriched, and meaningful experiences for each
child to help them progress in their physical literacy journeys. Physical literacy also includes the ability to “read” what is going on in
particular situations/environments and interacting appropriately as a whole being. The need to promote physical literacy is largely due to the
increase in lifestyle diseases, decreasing physical activity levels, lack of focus on individual experiences in physical activity settings, and
elitist tone in physical activity settings. While concept has been promoted at global level for past one decade, it got promoted in past 5 years
through Pullela Gopichand and his team. From 2016 to 2017, team worked on various initiatives to promote physical literacy. A lot of other
entities are also promoting the cause. Physical Literacy Movement is benecial for all Indians for life-long health and good quality of life.
Keywords: Motivation, Physical activity, Physical literacy
Research Article
Malik and Rakesh: Promoting physical literacy in India
27
getting more and more prominence. Thus, while the number of
champions is increasing, numbers of children, being left out of
physical activities, is also increasing. Unhappy experiences in
physical education and sports are leading lot of lifelong health
issues in the society at large.
In this post, we are going to look at a clear understanding
of physical literacy and why it is so important for children
today. We also look at the physical literacy situation in
India.
PHYSICAL LITERACY IN INDIA
Physical literacy, as a concept, is not new in India. India’s rich
cultural heritage and ancient literature on body, mind, and soul
is a testimony to “monism” (oneness) concept, pillar of physical
literacy. As Indians, we always had movements in our culture.
Whether going to religious places, bending to elders, celebrations
in families; all had physical movements an integral part.
However, in current times, culture of physical literacy is
losing its prevalence. While there can be many factors
(industrialization, nature of jobs, lifestyle, etc.), the future for
our children on current trends looks worrisome.
• According to the World Happiness Report published by the
UN Sustainable Development Solutions Network, India
is ranked 140 out of 156 countries. Various factors that
determine the happiness levels of a country include life
expectancy, social support, income, freedom, trust, health,
and generosity, among others.
• India is ranked 130 among 189 countries in the latest
Human Development Index (HDI) released by the United
Nations Development Programme. The HDI is a summary
measure for assessing long-term progress in three basic
dimensions of human development: a long and healthy
life, access to knowledge, and a decent standard of living.
• The burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) is
rising in India due to the change in lifestyle of the country’s
population. As per one research, NCDs account for 53%
of all deaths in India. A major portion of NCDs includes
cardiovascular diseases (24%), followed by respiratory
diseases (11%), other NCDs (10%), and injuries (10%).
As a result, out-of-pocket expenditure associated with the
acute and long-term eects of NCDs is high, resulting
in catastrophic health expenditure for the household. A
national survey conducted in India found that spending
on NCDs accounts for 5.17% of the total household
expenditure. According to a macroeconomic analysis, it is
estimated that every 10% increase in NCDs is associated
with a 0.5% decline in the annual economic growth. The
income loss due to hypertension is the highest, followed by
diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. The macroeconomic
impact of NCDs is profound as they cause loss of
productivity and decrease in the gross domestic product.
• The increase in NCDs is leading to genetic dispositions
of the future generations. One study in Canada showed
that this generation of children may live 5 years lesser
than the current adults. With the shift in human lifestyle,
health issues are on the rise (malnutrition, underweight,
lack of sanitation and quality healthcare, immunization,
etc.), and children are at a very high risk of leading an
unhealthy life.
• Moreover, mental health issues among the youth are on
the rise, and drug/alcohol abuse has also increased among
this group.
Furthermore, learning outcomes of education are not very
desirable. A lot of focus in today’s education system is on
memorization and rote learning. This education system is,
by design, ensuring long-term inactivity in children. Elitism
(physical activity is for top layer only) is getting more popular.
Body image is also adding to this issue. There are many training
and tness centers these days. However, it is not sure whether
these are impacting lifelong physical literacy journeys of all
the participants enrolling there. Physical literacy is not about a
short-term goal of 3 kg weight loss. While, this may be initial
motivation for an individual; however, the experience of tness
classes needs to provide such an experience that each individual
is internally motivated to keep active for life.
Before beginning a particular exercise, one needs to understand
individual capabilities and interests; and most important past
perceptions/experiences in various physical activity settings.
With consideration of above, every physical activity (along with
experiences doing it) accounts in the physical literacy journeys.
Similarly, in schools and communities, play areas and playing
habits are shrinking every day. At the same time, physical
activity interest is seen growing in older population due to
health issues. Thus, reaction is denitely happening but pro-
active actions from younger ages are the most critical step to
address.
Current habits (technology, nutrition, socialization, physical
activities, etc.) is a good reection on what is considered
important and for what “time is not available.” It may be due
to lack of understanding on “what is valuable for a full-lling
and quality of life.” Thus, while symptoms are available to us
through various data points, only prescriptive solutions such
as 30 min/day activities, tness benchmarks, and others are
being shared.
However, there lies a deep question “why people are not
active” when research has proven that it makes us happy and
healthy, which is goal of everyone. There lies the answers and
cross-questions provided by physical literacy concept: “Are
physical activities sessions enjoyful and engaging?”, “do my
past experiences drive me to look forward for engagement in
Malik and Rakesh: Promoting physical literacy in India
28
physical activities?”, “do I value physical activities for a good
quality of life?”, “am I motivated to do physical activities
every day?”, “do I feel condent performing various physical
activities?”. In these questions, there are answers hidden that
why people are not active.
Physical literacy as a holistic concept is defined as by
International Physical Literacy Association (IPLA).
“Physical literacy can be described as the motivation, condence,
physical competence, knowledge and understanding to value and
take responsibility for engagement in physical activities for life.”
Physical Literacy in India
As per book by Margaret Whitehead “physical literacy across
in the world”, Pullela Gopichand et al. had reached out to
IPLA in 2016. IPLA reported this event. Afterward, Gopichand
et al. has been advocating and implementing physical literacy
across India through various programs. Their main focus is
on including physical literacy as a key component within
education system. Team also utilized physical literacy concept
in Andhra Pradesh sports policy. Furthermore, Gopichand
academy physical literacy days in Hyderabad. Gopichand
also advises ELMS Sports foundation to promote vision of
physical literacy. Gopichand’s work on physical literacy has
been covered by Olympic channel as well.
At the same time, there are a number of organizations
advocating physical literacy. As per internet search, mainly
these are Tata trusts, Indian Physical Literacy Foundation,
Sportz village and zoomer.
Out Come and Recommendations
For a lifelong happy, healthy and ourishing population, there is
a strong need to adopt physical literacy in the country. Current
issues and future aspirations have to be aligned to physical
literacy. As a concept, its for everyone and they can start their
physical literacy journey anytime during their life time. We
need to create a positive environment where physical activity
participation by each individual is valued and promoted.
For our grassroots and youth sports, we need to look beyond
medals and talent; and focus on amazing potential of each
individual for a good quality of life. To promote physical
literacy is a considerably important goal of physical education
in current situation.
REFERENCES
1. Available from: https://www.nia.nih.gov/health/four-types-
exercise-can-improve-your-health-and-physical-ability.
2. Available from: https://www.humankinetics.me/2018/06/27/
what-is-physical-literacy.
3. Available from: https://www.elmssportsfoundation.org.
4. Available from: https://www.physical-literacy.org.uk.
5. Whitehead M. Physical Literacy: Throughout the Lifecourse
(Routledge Studies in Physical Education and Youth Sport).
England: Routledge; 2010.
6. Available from: https://www.businesstoday.in/current/world/
indias-happiness-ranking-drops-to-140-way-behind-pakistan-
china-bangladesh/story/330018.html.
7. Available from: https://www.in.undp.org/content/india/en/home/
sustainable-development/successstories/india-ranks-130-on-
2018-human-development-index.html.
8. Available from: https://www.thehindubusinessline.com/news/
science/ncds-account-for-53-of-the-disease-burden-in-india-
study/article9187723.ece.
9. Available from: http://www.ijph.in/article.asp?issn=0019-557x;
year=2018;volume=62;issue=4;spage=302;epage=304;aulast=k
undu.
10. Available from: https://www.youtube.com/
watch?v=bmolzrqtaba.
11. Sunitha S, Gururaj G. Health behaviours and problems among
young people in India: Cause for concern and call for action.
Indian J Med Res 2014;140:185-208.
12. Available from: https://www.physical-literacy.org.uk/blog/
physical-literacy-gaining-fantastic-momentum-andre-pradesh-
india.
13. Available from: http://www.pldays.com/index.html.
14. Available from: https://www.olympicchannel.com/en/stories/
news/detail/indian-badminton-coach-pullela-gopichand-
physical-literacy.
15. Physical Literacy across the World by Margaret Whitehead.
29
Coaching competency, commitment, and social-emotional
competency as determinants of collegiate sports coaching
performance in the Philippines
Jerome Angelitud Porto1, Adonis David2, Analin E. Porto1,3, James Tangkudung4
1Institute of Physical Education and Athletics, University of Santo Tomas, Manila, Philippines, 2Graduate Research Oce,
Philippine Normal University, Manila, Philippines, 3Research Center for Social Sciences and Education, University of Santo
Tomas, Manila, Philippines, 4Professor, Graduate Programs in Physical Education, Universitas Negeri Jakarta, Jakarta, Indonesia
Received: 02-12-2020 Acceptance: 31-12-2020
INTRODUCTION
Sports coaches play a central role in guiding the sport
participation, performance, and the development of athletes
as part of the sport programs of clubs, schools, national sports
associations, and other government and non-government
organizations. Sports coaches help athletes develop their full
potential. They are responsible for training in a particular sport
by analyzing their performance, instructing them in relevant
skills, and providing encouragement (France, 2009).
Coaching can also contribute to social aims by promoting
active participation among individuals to engage in healthy
lifestyle; uniting citizens behind a common entity; and
generating economic activity through employment, education,
purchase of equipment, use of facilities, and attendance at
events (International Sport Coaching Framework, 2012). This
shows that sports coaching role is diverse which demands
them to fulll a variety of roles such as educator, guidance
counselor, sport psychologies, business manager, public
relation ocer, and other signicant roles that contribute to
the holistic development of an athlete.
Coaching is a very complex and demanding profession. It
requires much technical and personal skill and a sound sports
philosophy. Most good coaches discover that their philosophy,
beliefs, and principles serve as a guide for many decisions that
have to be made in the training and supervision of athletes
(Elmer, 2001). Many sports organizations globally recognize
Address for correspondence:
Jerome Angelitud Porto,
E-mail: japorto@ust.edu.ph
Research Article
International Journal of Health, Physical Education and
Computer Science in Sports
ISSN 2231-3265
Volume 40; Issue 1
ISRA Journal Impact Factor 7.217
A Peer Reviewed (Refereed) International Research Journal
ABSTRACT
Sports coaches play a central role in guiding the sport participation, performance, and the development of athletes. Coaching promotes
values and character formation among athletes during training and actual competition. This study determined the eect of coaching
competency, social-emotional competency, and commitment to sports coaching performance. The researcher utilized a descriptive multiple
correlational research design. Respondents are 100 coaches from the University Athletics Association of the Philippines. Data were analyzed
using multiple regressions through a pathway analysis. The results of the study revealed that Coaching Competency has no positive direct
eect on Sports Coaching Performance. However, Social Emotional Competency and Commitment has a positive direct eect on Sports
Coaching Performance (β =0.220; β = 0.386). The results further reveal that Coaching Competency and Social Emotional Competency
has a positive direct eect on Commitment (β = 0.513; β = 0.038, P > 0.001). A positive direct eect of Coaching Competency to Social
Emotional Competency was indicated as well. The constructs of the study revealed the huge role of Commitment in Sport Coaching
Performance. Hence, it is recommended to institutionalize the creation of a National Competency Standards for Sports Coaching as well
as Code of Ethics for Sports Coaches to dignify the sport coaching discipline in the Philippines.
Keywords: Coaching competency, Commitment, Social-emotional competency, Sport coaching, Sport coaching performance
Porto, et al.: Coaching competency, commitment, and social-emotional competency as determinants of collegiate sports coaching
performance in the Philippines
30
that sports coaches have a responsibility to improve and expand
their own capabilities on an ongoing process. Indeed, to fully
meet the needs of the athletes and increase their knowledge
and competence in a broad range of areas, coupled with the
increasing demands and requirements, the sports coaching
profession worldwide needs to be viewed empirically to set
higher value for the profession which has seen its importance
in its overall participation in the sports industry (France, 2009).
Sports coaching competency is considered as a leading issue
in the eld of management and psychology (Liu and Xiaoshu,
2009). It pertains to skills, knowledge, and behaviors that lead
to successful performance (Senior Civil Service Competency
Framework). Competency theory (Gross, 2005) can be applied
in seeking coaching competency. Sport coaching may be highly
regarded as skill competency but not so much of metacognitive
ability. However, aside from the knowledge of the sport, a
coach competency in terms of strategy and decision making
skills is very important and this require metacognitive ability.
Consequently, metacognitive ability of the coach will initiate
self-recognition of his or her inadequacies and therefore will
likely to always seek personal development through training
or additional skill acquisitions.
Self-Ecacy Theory (Bandura, 1994), on the other hand,
emphasizes human capacity, pathology of optimism and positive
psychology perspectives as a whole. According to Bandura, self-
ecacy can be developed through mastery experiences, social
modeling, social persuasion, and states of physiology. Coaching
competency can likewise be anchored on this theory because
it emphasizes on human capacity, mastery experiences, self-
enhancing, and decisional function where one always choose
environments that are best suited for growth and development.
A competent coach can be positive role-models, resourceful
social-networks, and providers of nurturing environments.
Hence, enhancing one’s competency to improve productivity
does not always equate to skill or mastery acquisition. It is
also a balance of other psychological factors. According to
Kajtna and Baric (2009), successful coaches are also focused
on their athletes’ emotions and needs, inclined to democratic
leadership and are ready to talk about professional problems.
These elements largely pertain to social emotional competency
which is also dened as a learned capacity, based on emotional
intelligence, which contributes to eective performance at
work (Boyatzis, 2013).
Another psychological construct related to sport coaching is
commitment (Scanlan, 1993, O’Reilly and Chatman, 1986)
Lyle (2002) established key criteria of commitment in the
coaching process. Among these are: Stability, intensity of
engagement, goal orientation, control of variables, planned
progression, and personal development. Though considered
as a psychological construct, commitment can be associated
with high-performance coaching since full engagement of the
coaching process is achieved through the criteria mentioned
(Larson and Richburg, 2003).
Thus, sports performance is generally considered to be governed
by a range of interacting physiological, biomechanical, and
psychological variables, among others (Glazier, 2015).
Thus, this study determined the eect of coaching competency,
social-emotional competency, and commitment to sports
coaching performance. It is the researcher desires to extend
his contribution to the sports coaching career in the Philippines
and in the world.
Today, sports participation and performance have a great
impact in dierent sectors in the society. This impact could
be considered as factors affecting the sports coaching
performance. This includes coaching competency, social-
emotional competency, and commitment.
RESEARCH METHODS
The researcher used a descriptive multiple correlational
research design. According to Glass & Hopkins (1984),
descriptive research involves gathering data that describes
pertinent variables of the study; multiple correlational
research, on the other hand, is dened as a type of non-
experimental research in which the researcher measures the
relationship between three or more dependent variables and
further determine their eects on a dependent variable (Price,
Jhangiani and Chiang, 2013). The constellation of the research
is shown in Figure 1.
Using the multiple correlational designs, the researcher aims
to determine a positive association between the independent
variables of the study such as: Coaching competency, social-
emotional competency, and commitment. Further, the research
aims to predict a direct positive eect of the independent
variables to the dependent variable which is sport coaching
performance measured based on team standing in Season 79 of
the University Athletic Association of the Philippines (UAAP).
The population that the researcher studied includes the
collegiate coaches of the UAAP. The researcher utilized the
Non-Probability Sampling Technique. In non-probability
sampling, there is no random selection of cases from the
population. The samples or subjects that are needed are merely
taken or selected for a certain purpose of the study (Gravetter,
2008). A total of 100 coaches participated in the study. Each of
the UAAP participating school was represented in the study.
The variables of the study – Coaching Competency,
Commitment and Social Emotional Competency – were
measured using a 43-item questionnaire. There are 25 items
Porto, et al.: Coaching competency, commitment, and social-emotional competency as determinants of collegiate sports coaching
performance in the Philippines
31
on Coaching Competency which was divided into four
domains: (1) Knowledge of the Sport; (2) Leadership Personal
and Professional Qualities; (3) Coaching Performance and
Experience; and (4) Communication Skill. There are ten items
on commitment which was also divided into two domains:
(1) Motivation and (2) Involvement Opportunities. Finally,
there are eight items on compassion with two domains: (1)
Interpersonal and Intrapersonal Skills and (2) Character
Building.
Content validation of the instrument was done by panel of
evaluators namely: one (1) sports psychologist, three (3)
National coaches, and two (2) sports directors. The main
purpose of this stage is to determine the validity of the items of
the questionnaire. Further, the construct validity and reliability
of the instrument was established using Cronbach alpha
reliability coecients and by factor analysis using principal
component measures. All variables showed high Cronbach
alpha coecients. Principal component analysis yielded eight
indicators with Eigenvalues greater than 1.0. Table 1 shows
the results of the analysis.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Result of path analysis is shown in Table 2 where regression
weights are obtained. It is evident from the result that Coaching
Competence and Social Emotional Competence has an
inuence on Commitment (β = 0.275, P < 0.001; β = 0.529,
P < 0.001). Commitment, on the other hand, inuences Sports
Coaching Performance (β = 0.386, P < 0.05). Moreover, a
relationship exists between Coaching Competence and Social
Emotional Competence (β = 0.407, P < 0.001).
Hypothesis 1: Coaching Competency has no
Positive Direct Eect on Sports Coaching
Performance
Based on the result presented it does not support H1; therefore,
coaching competency has no direct positive eect on sports
coaching performance (β = 1.656, P > 0.05). Coaching
competency is dened as coach ability to aect athletes’ learning
and performance (Myers, Feltz, Maier, Wolfe and Reckase,
2006a). Coach has an ability to inuence athletes on their
learning sports skills which could lead to a better performance.
According to Glazier (2015), sports performance is considered
to be governed by a range of interacting physiological,
biomechanical, and psychological variables, among others. The
UAAP Coaches do not just focus on their coaching competency
but rather integrate it to other areas on sports coaching. This
validates the result of this study which coaching competency has
no eect and not solely predicts sports coaching performance.
Sports performance has dierent predictors such as coach-
athlete relationship (Riemer and Chelladurai 1998; Jowett 2008),
Commitment (Scanlan, 1993), and many others. According to
Douge and Hastie (1993), the coaching eectiveness depends
on what the athlete desires to get out of the program which
may be associated with the sports competency of a coach. This
only shows that coaching competency is not the only factor that
predicts sports coaching performance but rather contributory
and to be unied in dierent areas to have better individual or
team sports performance.
Hypothesis 2: Social Emotional Competency has an
Eect on Sports Coaching Performance
Result of regression weights does not support H2; hence,
social emotional competency has no positive direct eect on
sports coaching performance (β =0.220, P > 0.05). According
Figure 1: Research Model
Table 1: Cronbach alpha coecients of the variables
Variables Alpha Standardized Item Alpha
Coaching Competence 0.950 0.953
Commitment 0.934 0.942
Social-Emotional
Competence
0.921 0.925
Table 2: Standardized regression weights of variables
Path Estimate SE CR P
Commitment – Coaching
Competence
0.275 0.094 3.441 ***
Commitment – Social
Emotional Competence
0.529 0.077 6.619 ***
Sports Coaching
Performance – Social
Emotional Competence
0.024 1.045 0.210 0.834
Sports Coaching
Performance – Coaching
Competence
0.151 1.112 1.489 0.136
Sports Coaching
Performance –
Commitment
0.386 1.129 3.209 0.001*
Social Emotional