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Role of Ethical Marketing in Driving Consumer Brand Relationships and Brand Loyalty: A Sustainable Marketing Approach


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This research is focused on studying the impact of ethical marketing practices on value-adding product sustainability and customer brand relationship sustainability. It further investigates the consequent effects of value-adding product sustainability and customer brand relationship sustainability on brand loyalty. Data for this study were collected from a sample of 1500 customers having multiple interactions with goods and brands of retail organizations in Pakistan. We employed structural equation modeling (SEM) using SPSS 24.0 to analyze our data. The findings of this paper provide empirical support to the proposed relationships. More specifically, ethical marketing practices were found to have a significant impact on value-adding product sustainability and customer-value brand relationship sustainability. The findings also support a positive impacts of value-adding product sustainability and customer-value brand relationship sustainability on brand loyalty. This study provides some valuable implications for the theory and practice in that it identifies and empirically validates key ethical marketing factors affecting loyalty in business-to-consumer interactions. Besides, this study advocates implications for firms regarding some key aspects of ethical marketing practices that should be strengthened to achieve sustained brand loyalty.
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Role of Ethical Marketing in Driving Consumer Brand
Relationships and Brand Loyalty: A Sustainable
Marketing Approach
Muhammad Tanveer 1, *, Abdul-Rahim Ahmad 2, Haider Mahmood 3and Ikram Ul Haq 4
Citation: Tanveer, M.; Ahmad, A.-R.;
Mahmood, H.; Haq, I.U. Role of
Ethical Marketing in Driving
Consumer Brand Relationships and
Brand Loyalty: A Sustainable
Marketing Approach. Sustainability
2021,13, 6839.
Academic Editor: Shervin Hashemi
Received: 6 June 2021
Accepted: 12 June 2021
Published: 17 June 2021
Publisher’s Note: MDPI stays neutral
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1Prince Sultan University, Riyadh 11586, Saudi Arabia
2KFUPM Business School, Dhahran 31261, Saudi Arabia;
3Department of Finance, College of Business Administration, Prince Sattam bin Abdulaziz University,
Alkharj 11942, Saudi Arabia;
4King Abdullah International Medical Research Center, College of Dentistry,
King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh 11481, Saudi Arabia;
This research is focused on studying the impact of ethical marketing practices on value-
adding product sustainability and customer brand relationship sustainability. It further investigates
the consequent effects of value-adding product sustainability and customer brand relationship
sustainability on brand loyalty. Data for this study were collected from a sample of 1500 customers
having multiple interactions with goods and brands of retail organizations in Pakistan. We employed
structural equation modeling (SEM) using SPSS 24.0 to analyze our data. The findings of this paper
provide empirical support to the proposed relationships. More specifically, ethical marketing practices
were found to have a significant impact on value-adding product sustainability and customer-
value brand relationship sustainability. The findings also support a positive impacts of value-
adding product sustainability and customer-value brand relationship sustainability on brand loyalty.
This study provides some valuable implications for the theory and practice in that it identifies
and empirically validates key ethical marketing factors affecting loyalty in business-to-consumer
interactions. Besides, this study advocates implications for firms regarding some key aspects of
ethical marketing practices that should be strengthened to achieve sustained brand loyalty.
ethical marketing; extended marketing mix; consumer brand relationships; brand loy-
alty; sustainability
1. Introduction
Building strong customer relationships and loyalty is increasingly important for
companies in today’s rapidly changing marketing environment [
]. Developing sustained
brand loyalty has attained such a staggering attention because it helps firms in developing
advantages that are viable in the markets [
]. It has been observed that the attainment of
brand loyalty is based on programs related to the corporate marketing [
]. Typically,
brand loyalty is reflected in how customers evaluate the company’s outlook towards the
product evaluation and consumer-brand relations [
]. Certain studies have argued that
companies should give their brand message while considering social and environmental
problems, and sell their products to consumers [
]. Strategies focused on common
issues increase the interest of consumers in buying the products or services from such
companies. Given that modern societies require companies to be responsible and ethical to
their stakeholders. Therefore, the maintenance of consumer relationships and brand loyalty
are not easy to attain and pose major challenges to firms in today’s marketing environment.
Ethical marketing strategies have been studied for nearly all business areas which
are formulated to gain a competitive advantage [
]. A company’s ethical marketing
Sustainability 2021,13, 6839.
Sustainability 2021,13, 6839 2 of 17
practices affect the daily routine of consumer activity. Every company’s ethical marketing
practices are closely related to the purchase of products or services, regardless of whether
it is conscious of consumer purchasing power strengths and weaknesses. The importance
of ethics in the advancement of business sustainability, and general marketing issues
(including product safety, price tags and advertising) has duly been recognized by corporate
managers and vendors [
]. As an outcome, an economic behavior, whether ethical or
non-ethical, is inherently linked with a company’s overall reputation and assessment, and
stresses the fundamental factors in keeping the company competitive on the market [
Despite the apparent significant role of ethical marketing practices on relationship
building, product evaluation, and high-brand loyalty, only a few studies have examined the
effects of extended marketing mix elements (viz. product, price, place, promotion, person,
physical evidence, and packaging) on consumption and brand loyalty [
]. Moreover,
ethical marketing practice plays a significant role in improving consumer-firm ties, product
assessment, and brand loyalty [
]. Only a few studies have examined the role of
ethical marketing mix elements on such attitudinal and behavioral outcomes [
Moreover, the literature has explored the effects of extended marketing mix elements on
value-adding product sustainability and customer-brand relationship sustainability in B2C
transactions from an ethical marketing perspective [
]. Nevertheless, the focus of the
literature was on the 4Ps of the marketing mix in this regard. Hence, the present study
highlighted this literature gap and contributed by exploring the role of extended marketing
mix with the 7Ps approach from an ethical marketing perspective. The findings of this
study would be attractive for the companies to build an ethically rich culture, adopting
the proposed extended marketing mix with the 7Ps approach that offers fair and trust-
oriented transactions. Such an ethically sound approach can help companies facilitate
strong relationship building and brand loyalty, which eventually offers them a competitive
advantage to survive and sustain for the long term.
2. Theoretical Background
2.1. Ethical Marketing
In the literature, “ethics” describes concepts like good and evil, correct and false,
virtue and sin, justice and crime [
]. Ethics seeks to address the human moral issues.
The fields of moral psychology, descriptive ethics, as well as value theory are all connected
to ethical philosophy [
]. The words “ethics” or “morals” in the literature refer to a
collection of moral standards [
], values and beliefs and moral principles, such as moral
decisions, standards, norms and laws, and the essence and motivations that direct people to
behave a certain way [
]. Gaski [
] defined ethical marketing as “a code of morals and
conduct used in marketing practices”. Ethical marketing drives companies make marketing
decisions that are morally acceptable in terms of ties between marketing managers and
other stakeholders including customers, employees, competitors, and general public [
Ethical marketing is an important subject for both academia and practitioners because
ethical principles require companies abide by the minimum standards of liability and
conduct their marketing activities in ways that make business transparent and acceptable
to all [4651].
The significance of ethical marketing is further highlighted by the fact that consumers
in modern societies continue to require high-quality products and prefer socially renowned
brands even though they may aquire those products at higher prices [
]. Ethical marketing
typically contributes to a more culturally sensitive and socially conscious business culture.
Given that marketing is a big part of any business model, ethical marketing forms an
integral part of corporate ethics [
]. Built on the theoretical underpinnings of ethical
marketing, ethical practices should be applied while analyzing whether the product or the
service is portrayed accurately and factually in terms of cultural and social values. Ethical
marketing practices provide directions to managers and marketers on how to deal with an
ethical issue [
]. Certain researchers consider the use of moral principles in marketing
decisions a systematic approach.
Sustainability 2021,13, 6839 3 of 17
This study has considered practices encompassing ethics related to the extended
marketing mix elements, viz. product, price, place, promotion, person, physical evidence,
and packaging. Several scholars have highlighted the ethics approach of a marketing com-
bination. Ethics related to product decisions offer a competitive advantage and determine
if such products are detrimental to customers. The concept of proportion and justice is in-
cluded in price-related ethics. Ethical pricing should be equivalent to the advantage gained
from the product by the consumer [
]. Unreasonable pricing may influence the structure
of competition. Ethics related to place-specific decisions emerge largely in relationships
along distribution channels as some organizations sometimes follow ethical actions, in-
cluding abuse of power [
]. Promotional ethics issues can be analyzed in marketing
and personal sales. Promotional ethics covers questions of marketing, sales and public
relations [
]. Other examples of person-specific ethical issues include difficulties with
sales advertisements for customers by brokers and suppliers as well as conflicts with ad-
vertising media organizations. Physical evidence and packaging specific ethical approach
are directed towards a more socially conscious way of thinking; wherein adjustments are
made because of its concerns about the ethical issues such as child labor, working climate,
ties with third-world countries and environmental problems [6264].
Considering these arguments, this study intends to build a theoretical framework that
explains the relationship of the above discussed extended marketing mix elements from an
ethical perspective with some specific consumer behavioral outcomes, which we discuss in
the following sections.
2.2. Consumer-Value Brand Relationship Sustainability
To illustrate the common elements of relationship sustainability (RS) which have
evolved over the past few decades are relationship marketing and branding [
]. There-
fore, it is important to analyze the recent branding context description for consumer product
identification (CPI). The questions arising with respect to its nature and its connection to
RS are equally important. The significance of the relationship between brand and customer
are reflected by various terms viz. brand influence, brand identity, personal relationships,
brand trust, brand interdependence, and brand loyalty. From a sustainable relationship
perspective, if customers are happy, it leads to an increase in the potential of the brand in
particular as well as the company in general [
]. Previous models of this relationship
provide hierarchical aspects of the cognitive, affective and conative elements. This means
that connections between customers and brands are formed and maintained over a period
of time. The main factors influencing the quality of brand relations between customers
include acquisition experience, emotional experience, experience in action, cognitive con-
victions, and brand commitment [
]. Prior research suggests that in order to enhance the
consumer-brand relationship and strengthen the moral aspect and ethical relationships of a
business with its consumers, factors specific to the quality of a consumer-brand connection
need to be considered [
]. Consumer brand partnership sustainability is an alliance
created through a mechanism in which customers and brands play their part and engage on
a marketplace, as two equal parties. Relationship marketing theory further propounds that
a product can longer win a customer’s favor through just quality, rather customers often
look for brands that focus on building an engaging and sustainable relationship with them.
2.3. Brand Loyalty
Scholars have investigated the concept of brand loyalty across contexts extensively
over the past few decades [
]. The concept of loyalty is used in different situations
and, therefore, varies across contextual dimensions. Different conceptualizations of brand
loyalty have been offered by scholars over time. For instance, brand loyalty is “the proba-
bility that a consumer will purchase or recommend a particular product or service” [
Similarly, the 1999 Oliver in defined loyalty as “a deeply held commitment to re-buy or
repatronize a preferred product or service consistently in the future, despite situational
influences and marketing efforts having the potential to cause switching behavior” [
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Furthermore, some scientists consider brand loyalty to be a strong commitment to dispos-
ing, contributing to customers avoiding situational pressures and marketing strategies that
may help to brand change. The commitment to action is demonstrated by the customer ’s
true buying conduct towards a certain brand. Products may have the potential to engage
customers and to make them feel emotionally attached [
]. Customer beliefs and
perceptions build brand images, and this has an effect on the way they view brands they
come in contact with. Therefore, companies cannot just rely on informing customers about
their products/services, rather they also have to provide exceptional customer experiences
to make them sustainably loyal over a period of time [
]. This loyal base of customers will
serve as a sustainable competitive advantage for companies across industries.
2.4. Contribution of the Present Study
The literature has signified the role of ethics in basic marketing principles [
Hence, marketing ethics should satisfy all business stakeholders [
]. Therefore, a majority
of the literature has investigated the role of ethical marketing in satisfying the business
stakeholders [
]. The literature has also integrated ethical marketing with overall
corporate ethics [
]. Ethical marketing may win the customer’s confidence, which
would help develop a sustainable relationship between brand and customer [
]. A
vast literature has investigated the role of ethical standards in extended marketing mix
elements on brand loyalty [
], on the attitudinal and behavioral outcomes [
], and
on the customer-brand relationship sustainability in B2C transactions [
]. However,
the literature has investigated the ethical marketing in limited marketing mix elements.
This present study extended the scope of empirical literature, focusing on the 7 Ps, i.e.,
product, price, place, promotion, person, physical evidence, and packaging, in the extended
marketing mix to improve consumer brand relationship sustainability. The literature
has floated the ethical marketing implications for a limited extended marketing mix.
However, the present study provided more holistic view of the extended marketing mix
in the theoretical debate of ethical marketing. Moreover, it also opens the doors for
practitioners to adopt the greater dimensions of managerial and marketing tools to win
the customer loyalty in the campaigns of their brands to accelerate the consumer brand
relationships sustainability.
3. Conceptual Model and Hypothesis Development
Marketing mix strategy explains how a company offers services and products to
satisfy the requirements of divisions of the target market [
]. Marketing strategy with
ethical perspectives concern with the righteous behavior and high minded beliefs that
enlighten the venture which is marketable so that marketing strategies are applicable
for ethical deliberations. Problems in ethical marketing take place further continually in
such zones where legitimate acts can be sometimes immoral or in which the lawfulness or
morality of actions is undetermined [
]. In order to create positive effects on consumers and
brands relationship sustainability, the role of marketing ethics has become progressively
important because of this uncertainty in those regions [
]. For increasing the trust
between multiple stakeholders of the company (including customers), the superior level of
ethical authority leads [80,81].
Consumers and brands interact with each other continually [
]. The relational value
that a company offers through ethical marketing practices determinses the intellectual and
psychological procedure that enhances the interaction between customers and the brand on
a sustainable basis. Correspondingly, in this study we deal with a proximity point between
the ethical marketing practice and customer value-brand relationship sustainability because
consumers estimate the brand and builds the relationship sustainability through some
processes in which experience and interaction with the brands occur. Extended marketing
mix often serves as the first contact impression through which customers know a brand and
come in terms with it [11,16]. Consumers observe the ethical marketing practices because
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it is the most visible in a brand’s manifold schemes and play important role in shaping
consumer perceptions towards a brand [8588].
Prior studies reveal that ethical problems in marketing have involved issues pertaining
to product safety and quality, price fixing, deceptive promotions, illegal product placement,
child labor and unfair person treatment, misleading information provided through fake
physical evidence and packaging [
]. Such ethical issues revolving around fairness
and human resource management affect subjective evaluations of product, and relationship
value of customers [
]. Fraudulent prices are main cause of misleading the consumer’s
basic features to purchase, so that is why to improve the relationship between brands
and consumers, right prices are needed to be set in the marketplace. Information about
product should be truthful to maintain the relationship with customer because negative
effects of displays could lead to unreasonable decisions by consumers [
]. It is
suggested that ethical marketing practices related to the marketing mix elements could
lead to favorable decisions by consumers which may further derive positive outcomes for
the company/brand. Ethical marketing practices results in a more socially responsible
and sensitive business community which eventually has the potential (in both the short
and long run) to benefit the society as a whole [
]. Building upon these arguments,
it is suggested that positive relationship occurs through a company’s/brand’s ethical
marketing practice and their customer value-brand relationship sustainability. Therefore,
we hypothesize the following:
Hypothesis 1a (H1a).
Product-associated ethics shows a positive effect on customer value-brand
relationship sustainability.
Hypothesis 1b (H1b).
Price-associated ethics shows a positive effect on customer value-brand
relationship sustainability.
Hypothesis 1c (H1c).
Place-associated ethics shows a positive effect on customer value-brand
relationship sustainability.
Hypothesis 1d (H1d).
Promotion-associated ethics shows a positive effect on customer value-
brand relationship sustainability.
Hypothesis 1e (H1e).
Person-associated ethics shows a positive effect on customer value-brand
relationship sustainability.
Hypothesis 1f (H1f).
Physical evidence-associated ethics shows a positive effect on customer
value-brand relationship sustainability.
Hypothesis 1g (H1g).
Packaging-associated ethics shows a positive effect on customer value-brand
relationship sustainability.
Value-adding product sustainability should persuade customer’s wishes and demands
in which safety of the product, well-being levels and habitats take place. The brands that
convey ethical values with responsible behavior are the brands which are surrounded
by high quality products and are chosen by the customer. Regarding the idea of product
sustainability, this is referred to as the personalized sustainability that customers expect
in the product. The brand that organizes the responsible actions for marketing in their
products and services, receive warm respect and trust from their customers as well as
from their shareholders [
]. Companies can achieve sustained benefits and trust from
their customers only when their deals and agreements are based on the ethical marketing
practices with their interested parties. As an outcome, customers prefer brands that are
perceived to deliver ethical values and behave responsibly [
]. Based on these arguments,
we suggest a positive association between a brand’s ethical marketing practices with their
value adding product sustainability. So, we propose the following hypotheses:
Sustainability 2021,13, 6839 6 of 17
Hypothesis 2a (H2a).
Product-associated ethics shows a apositive effect on value adding product
Hypothesis 2b (H2b).
Price-associated ethics shows a positive effect on value adding product
Hypothesis 2c (H2c).
Place-associated ethics shows a positive effect on value adding product
Hypothesis 2d (H2d).
Promotion-associated ethics shows a positive effect on value adding product
Hypothesis 2e (H2e).
Person-associated ethics shows a positive effect on value adding product
Hypothesis 2f (H2f).
Physical-associated ethics shows a positive effect on value adding product
Hypothesis 2g (H2g).
Packaging-associated ethics shows a positive effect on value adding product
Customers always observe the brand’s marketing strategies because it is one of the
most perceptible fields [
]. Moreover, customers nudge the brand by applying mutual
and emotional standards to activities, companies and stories when they chose a brand.
Later on, a customer value-brand relationship builds up. Customers mostly evaluate the
brand and prefers based on their experiences rather than the particular characteristics
of the product. Brand loyalty also has a major role in the establishment of the brand’s
asset. Previous studies show that the brand loyalty and sustainability improve focusing
with the B2C connection perfectly [
]. Maintaining the high quality of customer-brand
relationship is a major aim of branding because relationship between customer and brand
provides a sustainable competitive advantage to the companies.
Previous studies reveal that customers are always satisfied with the positive effects
of product quality [
]. Also, the value of the product is intimately significant to the
customer’s contentment and trust because product’s value can be seen as the dissimilarity
between general and unexplored standards. When customers build a relationship with
the brand due to its favorable brand experience and the sustained product value, it drives
customers to develop loyalty intentions and stay with the brand for a longer period
of time [
]. Therefore, value-brand relationship sustainability and value adding
product sustainability play a dominant role on brand loyalty [
]. Hence, we propose the
following hypotheses:
Hypothesis 3 (H3).
Customer value-brand relationship sustainability have a positive effect on
brand loyalty.
Hypothesis 4 (H4). Value adding product sustainability has a positive effect on brand loyalty.
Based on the above hypotheses, we developed our research model as shown in
Figure 1below.
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more than once. After researchers and professors checked whether there is any conceptual
errors or limitations in our questionnaire, we distributed our survey. The questionnaire
consisted of two parts; the first part comprised the demographic questions and the second
part was about the ethical marketing practices and other constructs under consideration.
Figure 1. Proposed conceptual model.
The demographic profile of the participants in which their gender, age, education
and household income is shown is presented in Table 1.
Table 1. The demographic profile.
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Male 762 50.8 50.8 50.8
Female 738 49.2 49.2 100.0
Total 1500 100.0 100.0
20–29 years 332 22.1 22.1 22.1
30–39 years 461 30.7 30.7 52.9
40–49 years 442 29.5 29.5 82.3
50 or above 265 17.7 17.7 100.0
Total 1500 100.0 100.0
school 418 27.9 27.9 27.9
college 673 44.9 44.9 72.7
university 409 27.3 27.3 100.0
Total 1500 100.0 100.0
Figure 1. Proposed conceptual model.
4. Methodology
4.1. Questionnaire Development and Data Collection
The questionnaire in this study was based on independent and dependent variables.
We use a non-probability snowball sampling technique. We use this technique for two
reasons. First, we did not know the exact size of the population at the start of sampling.
Secondly, we expected to have more respondents once we contacted any respondent. We
collected 1500 participants from Islamabad—the capital city of Pakistan—who answered
the questions. These participants were contacted and asked to participate in the survey by
telephone calls. The participants in this survey were any brand’s customers who have an
understanding of the brand’s ethical practices and had involvement with their outcomes
more than once. After researchers and professors checked whether there is any conceptual
errors or limitations in our questionnaire, we distributed our survey. The questionnaire
consisted of two parts; the first part comprised the demographic questions and the second
part was about the ethical marketing practices and other constructs under consideration.
The demographic profile of the participants in which their gender, age, education and
household income is shown is presented in Table 1.
Sustainability 2021,13, 6839 8 of 17
Table 1. The demographic profile.
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Male 762 50.8 50.8 50.8
Female 738 49.2 49.2 100.0
Total 1500 100.0 100.0
20–29 years 332 22.1 22.1 22.1
30–39 years 461 30.7 30.7 52.9
40–49 years 442 29.5 29.5 82.3
50 or above 265 17.7 17.7 100.0
Total 1500 100.0 100.0
school 418 27.9 27.9 27.9
college 673 44.9 44.9 72.7
university 409 27.3 27.3 100.0
Total 1500 100.0 100.0
Household income
up to 30,000 273 18.2 18.2 18.2
30,000–39,000 444 29.6 29.6 47.8
40,000–49,000 485 32.3 32.3 80.1
above 50,000 298 19.9 19.9 100.0
Total 1500 100.0 100.0
4.2. Research Instrument
This study borrowed items from previously developed scales (for example, [
and made minor modifications to fit to the context. Ethical marketing practices are a
base in this study which is set up on the righteous and behavioral standards in expressed
marketing practices in the marketplaces [
]. In this study, the marketing mix strat-
egy from ethical perspectives, is categorized as product-ethics, price-ethics, place-ethics,
promotion-ethics, person-ethics, physical-ethics, and packaging-ethics. Questions pertain-
ing to marketing mix elements were based around product-related ethics such as product’s
package, branding, and warranty of the product (e.g., the sample item is whether the
company/brand offers a warranty to cover any faults). Price-related ethics comprises
the pricing policy which shows if illegal prices or false prices are being used (the sample
item includes if the company/brand refrains from using predatory pricing). Place-related
ethics comprises the sales strategy, extent of collaboration and the transactions degree with
sample item reading as “the company/brand refrains from controlling transactions by
abusing its status”. Promotion-related ethics based on the advertising companies with legal
notices or with the leading and non-deceptive aspects (e.g., the company/brand refrains
from providing false and exaggerated advertisements). Person-related ethics promotes
the righteous principles that control the person’s behavior and their activities (e.g., the
employees of the company/brand treat its customers well). Physical-related ethics refers to
the physical ambiance and workplace-related decor that promotes the service experience
as well as human rights (e.g., the company/brand offers a great physical presence and
environment). Packaging-related ethics is a role of company’s branding and marketing
policies in the message sent by company through packaging (e.g., the company/brand uses
environmentally friendly materials for packaging its products and refrains from making
fake promises through its packaging). There were a total of 25 items related to ethical
marketing mix elements with five questions on product ethics, four questions on price
ethics, four questions on place ethics, three questions on promotion ethics, three questions
on person ethics, three questions on physics ethics, and three questions on packaging
ethics [92,93,96,97].
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We measured customer value-brand relationship sustainability with 12 questions with
sample items like: “I really like to talk about the company/brand with others” [
Value-adding product sustainability defines the perception of the customer regarding
products and its overall supremacy and leadership, which was measured using four
questions, with a sample item reading as “this company’s/brand’s product has a unique
design” [
]. Brand loyalty was measured with five questions (e.g., I am loyal to this
company/brand). We used 5-point Likert-scales range from 1 = strongly disagree to
5 = strongly agree to measure the various constructs of this study.
5. Data Analysis
5.1. Measurement Model
In our study we used the SPSS software version 22nd IBM for all the analysis. We
tested the hypotheses, the goodness of fit test and also verified the exploratory factor
analysis of the proposed measurement model. We also examined the relationship between
each construct employing structure equation modeling. First, we performed an exploratory
factor analysis (EFA) which showed the validity and reliability of the ethical marketing
constructs. Cronbach’s alpha was used for this purpose because it is the most commonly
used method when researchers have multiple Likert questions in a questionnaire. Cron-
bach’s alpha determines the covariance between constructs [
], the relationship should be
greater the 0.7 because it shows that the relationship is sufficiently reliable. Tables 2and 3
below show the results.
Table 2. Results of consistency on the construct.
Constructs Items Cronbach’s Alpha
Product ethics 5 0.751
Price ethics 4 0.769
Place ethics 4 0.810
Promotion ethics 3 0.799
Person ethics 3 0.902
Physical ethics 3 0.658
Packaging ethics 3 0.973
CVBRS 12 0.836
VAPS 4 0.817
BL 5 0.796
Note: CVBRS = Customer value brand relationship sustainability, VAPS = Value adding product sustainability,
BL = Brand loyalty and sustainability.
Table 3. Discriminant Validity.
PRODUCT 1.000 0.026 0.027 0.018 0.001 0.013 0.071 0.051 0.018 0.016
PLACE 0.026 1.000 0.010 0.018 0.003 0.033 0.027 0.003 0.040 0.004
PROMOTION 0.027 0.010 1.000 0.024 0.038 0.025 0.018 0.030 0.019 0.018
PERSON 0.018 0.018 0.024 1.000 0.012 0.049 0.013 0.003 0.024 0.041
PRICE 0.001 0.003 0.038 0.012 1.000 0.024 0.056 0.015 0.048 0.010
PHYSICAL 0.013 0.033 0.025 0.049 0.024 1.000 0.014 0.011 0.045 0.567
PACKAGING 0.071 0.027 0.018 0.013 0.056 0.014 1.000 0.017 0.005 0.019
CVBRS 0.051 0.003 0.030 0.003 0.015 0.011 0.017 1.000 0.031 0.017
VAPS 0.018 0.040 0.019 0.024 0.048 0.045 0.005 0.031 1.000 0.069
BL 0.016 0.004 0.018 0.041 0.010 0.567 0.019 0.017 0.069 1.000
The Cronbach’s alpha results show that all the constructs are reliable, which means
there is a good probability that the constructs will perform in a defined environment
without failure. The correlation coefficients are between 0.567 and
0.071 in the table
of discriminant validity. The systematic assessment of discriminant validity shows that
these constructs are not highly correlated to each other. As the correlation of constructs are
0.071 and 0.567 it means there is a negative relationship between each construct
with other construct, although the correlation of any construct with itself is 1.000, which
shows that the data used in this study is valid and can be used for further analysis.
Sustainability 2021,13, 6839 10 of 17
In Table 2, the Cronbach’s alpha values of all constructs are greater than 0.7 which
clearly shows that the reliability is sufficient. We also performed principal component
factor analysis which is used to diminish the dimensionality of the constructs, it is used
to simplify the data like reducing the number of variables. We performed principal factor
analysis with varimax rotation on the constructs, where 0.50 was taken as the minimal
cutoff value. The items could be deleted from the further analysis because of the cross
loading. Results of factor loadings of dependent and independent constructs are shown in
the Tables 47.
Table 4. Independent variables factor analysis.
Constructs Items Factor Loadings
PROD1 0.695
PROD2 0.701
Product ethics PROD3 0.683
PROD4 0.662
PROD5 0.709
PRICE1 0.882
Price ethics PRICE2 0.796
PRICE3 0.763
PRICE4 0.851
PLACE1 0.765
Place ethics PLACE2 0.721
PLACE3 0.893
PLACE4 0.812
PROM1 0.699
Promotion ethics PROM2 0.701
PROM3 0.687
PER1 0.851
Person ethics PER2 0.799
PER3 0.837
PHYS1 0.712
Physical ethics PHYS2 0.735
PHYS3 0.802
PCKG1 0.871
Packaging ethics PCKG2 0.865
PCKG3 0.797
Tables 6and 7show that the eigenvalues of each construct are higher than 1.00, which
shows that the data which is selected in this study has no common method bias.
5.2. Structural Model
We test the hypotheses between constructs by using SEM [
], to test the casual
relationship between each construct we made the hypothesis path casually to estimate what
kind of relationship is present in these constructs, the results are presented in
Table 8
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Table 5. Dependent variables factor analysis.
Constructs Items Factor Loadings
CVBRS1 0.758
CVBRS2 0.893
CVBRS3 0.776
CVBRS4 0.852
CVBRS5 0.763
CVBRS6 0.892
CVBRS7 0.781
CVBRS8 0.741
CVBRS9 0.861
CVBRS10 0.771
CVBRS11 0.773
CVBRS12 0.796
VAPS1 0.821
VAPS2 0.854
VAPS3 0.743
VAPS4 0.861
BL1 0.736
BL2 0.751
BL3 0.763
BL4 0.811
BL5 0.835
Table 6. Eigenvalues in factor loadings (independent variables): total variance explained.
Component Initial Eigenvalues
Total % of Variance Cumulative %
Product 7.105 15.785 15.785
Price 6.092 15.597 31.382
Place 6.007 14.384 45.765
Promotion 4.997 14.246 60.011
Person 4.975 13.930 73.941
Physical 3.942 13.451 87.391
Packaging 2.883 12.609 100.000
Note: Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.
Table 7. Eigenvalues in factor loadings (dependent variables): total variance explained.
Component Initial Eigenvalues
Total % of Variance Cumulative %
CVBRS 6.084 36.126 36.126
VAPS 2.987 32.908 69.034
BL 2.929 30.966 100.000
Note: Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.
Sustainability 2021,13, 6839 12 of 17
Table 8. Hypothesis test results.
Hypothesis Sig. Values Results
H1a (PROD-CVBRS) 0.251 Significant
H1b (PRICE-CVBRS) 0.135 Significant
H1c (PLACE-CVBRS) 0.119 Significant
H1d (PROM-CVBRS) 0.047 Not significant
H1e (PER-CVBRS) 0.310 Significant
H1f (PHYS-CVBRS) 0.227 Significant
H1g (PCKG-CVBRS) 0.094 Not significant
H2a (PROD-VAPS) 0.310 Significant
H2b (PRICE-VAPS) 0.026 Not significant
H2c (PLACE-VAPS) 0.222 Significant
H2d (PROM-VAPS) 0.300 Significant
H2e (PER-VAPS) 0.119 Significant
H2f (PHYS-VAPS) 0.273 Significant
H2g (PCKG-VAPS) 0.303 Significant
H3 (CVBRS-BL) 0.481 Significant
H4 (VAPS-BL) 0.396 Significant
6. Discussion
This study aimed at investigating the elements of marketing mix and brand rela-
tionship from an ethical marketing perspective. To empirically validate our proposed
conceptual model, sixteen hypotheses were tested in the current study, of which thirteen
revealed a positively significant relationship and were supported. The remaining three
hypotheses were not supported by our results. Hypotheses H1a, H1b, H1c, H1e, and H1f
specifying the areas of ethical marketing practices i.e., product, price, place, person and
physical ethics have a positively significant effect on the customer value-brand relationship
sustainability. However, H1d was not supported, revealing that promotion ethics has no
significant effect on customer value-brand relationship sustainability. (
= 0.047 < p= 0.05).
Similarly, H1g also revealed a non-significant effect of packaging ethics on customer value-
brand relationship sustainability (
= 0.094 > p= 0.05). In a similar vein, H2a, H2c, H2d,
H2e, H2f and H2g identify that the ethical marketing practices in terms of product, place,
promotion, person, physical evidence, and packaging are significantly affecting the value
adding product sustainability, whereas H2b shows that price ethics has no significant effect
on value adding product sustainability (
= 0.026 < p= 0.05). Lastly, both H3 identifying
the positive relationship between customer value-brand relationship sustainability and
brand loyalty and H4 examining the effect of value adding product sustainability on brand
loyalty were supported by the results.
The current study studies the role of ethical marketing practices to build positive
relationships between customers and brands. Hypotheses testing shows the relationship
between these variables and the findings show that, except for promotion ethics and
packaging ethics, all other ethical marketing practices have a positive effect on customer
value-brand relationship sustainability. Similarly, except for price ethics, all other ethi-
cal practices have a significantly positive effect on value-adding product sustainability,
which is in sync with some prior studies in different geographic and industrial contexts
e.g., [11,100102]
). Our results suggested that product, price, place, person, and physical
ethics are very important for customer value-brand relationship sustainability. This shows
that products should be free of harm for users and environment. This concept would
increase the value to the customer. In the same manner, the ethical place is also equally cru-
cial as a place should not harm any inhabitant in the environment. Moreover, physical and
person ethics are essential to customer value-brand relationship sustainability. Neverthe-
less, ethical price is also essential for the customer, which can be achieved by avoiding any
fraudulent or illegal practices in pricing. Furthermore, our findings suggest that the ethical
marketing practices regarding product, place, promotion, person, physical evidence, and
Sustainability 2021,13, 6839 13 of 17
packaging significantly affect the value-adding product sustainability. Our results reveal
that product ethics significantly affect customer value-brand relationship sustainability and
value adding product sustainability, suggesting that customers are inclined to purchase the
product with the highest level of product safety and quality. Also, the product’s packaging
and branding affect customer’s trust and satisfaction, which is why it is important to evalu-
ate the product ethics regarding customer value-brand relationship and sustainability and
value-adding product sustainability. Besides, value-adding sustainability is established
when the company hones authentic communication under legal legislation and leading
abilities, i.e., truthfulness and accurate information about the product, which exhibits
trustworthiness in the brand. Packaging ethics has an insignificant effect on customer
value-brand relationship sustainability as customers want to see beyond the message the
company is sending through their packages. However, packaging ethics have a positive
effect on value-adding product sustainability, so it is worthwhile for companies to build
up a strong relationship with customers. If a company enhances its relationship quality
through product, price, place, promotion, person, physical and packaging ethics, we expect
more effectiveness on brand loyalty through exciting relationships with customers.
6.1. Implications
The academic literature on B2C transactions concludes that there is some evidence
of positive effects of traditional marketing practices (in the form of product, price, place
and promotion) on brand loyalty. However, our contribution to the literature is first
of its kind because an improved model for analysis has been used. The focus is on
studying the relationship between ethical marketing practices of an extended marketing
mix elements and consumer-brand relationship and brand loyalty, which is common in
B2C transactions. Our additional theoretical contribution lies in the fact that most of the
studies about ethical marketing practices have been conducted in the Western countries,
leaving a huge gap in the literature, which this study fills by conducting in a developing
economy context of Pakistan. Besides, this study proposes and empirically validates a
novel model from a sustainable marketing approach incorporating the role of relationship
marketing, which further reflects its theoretical contributions. Lastly, this study further
contributes by employing different theories (e.g., ethical marketing theory, relationship
marketing theory) to the context of marketing mix elements and brand loyalty, thereby
further generalizing the use of these theories.
As for the practical implications are concerned, managers should consider the ethical
marketing practices to ensure sustainable success through relationship building and by
facilitating long-term brand loyalty. Companies need to focus on improving product pa-
rameters like quality, safety, warranties, and eco-friendliness. Companies also need to take
price regulations seriously in building sustained loyalty towards the brand. If companies
offer a suitable price, they can attract more customers to tighten the relation between them.
Customers most probably need the products with more viable prices. If a supplier does
not pay heed to the customers with feasible price-concerned morals, the cons of brand
truthfulness can be seen at the end. Furthermore, given that promotion-related ethics signi-
fies the vital role in bringing value adding product sustainability. Therefore, firms need to
evaluate the promotion related ethics to maximize the trust-based activities to cement the
associations with firms. The summarized implication here is that companies/brands can
sustain even during the fierce market competition if they establish an ethical culture which
gives due preference to trust-based transactions, thereby strengthening customer-firm
relationships. Our findings are expected to provide valuable implications to companies so
that they support an effective marketing strategy from an ethical perspective.
6.2. Limitations and Suggestions
Regardless of its contribution and implications, this study has several limitations,
Firstly, while examining the interplay of marketing ethics and brand loyalty, we didn’t
consider B2B transactions. Moreover, our proposed relationships may vary across industrial
Sustainability 2021,13, 6839 14 of 17
contexts types, therefore, future studies may further validate our model across study
settings. Moreover, future analysis should consider the more ethical practices from the point
of government ethics, culture ethics, individual ethics, and religiosity to present further
insights of the domain. Some circumstantial and individual factors (e.g., personality type)
may act as potential moderators, which future studies can also consider. A longitudinal
study may also be conducted to gauge loyalty formation over a period of time.
Author Contributions:
Conceptualization, M.T. and A.-R.A.; methodology, M.T.; software, A.-R.A.;
validation, M.T., A.-R.A. and H.M.; formal analysis, A.-R.A.; investigation, M.T.; resources, M.T.; data
curation, M.T.; writing—original draft preparation, M.T. and A.-R.A.; writing—review and editing,
H.M. and I.U.H.; visualization, M.T. and I.U.H.; supervision, M.T. All authors have read and agreed
to the published version of the manuscript.
Funding: This research received no external funding.
Institutional Review Board Statement: Not applicable.
Informed Consent Statement: Not applicable.
Data Availability Statement: Not applicable.
All authors of this article would like to thank the Prince Sultan University for
their financial and academic support and publish in “Sustainability”.
Conflicts of Interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.
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... The literature stresses the expected impact of CSR practices on customer loyalty (Du et al., 2010;Huang et al., 2017;Louis et al., 2021;Khan and Fatma, 2019;Mar ın-Garc ıa et al., 2021;L opez-P erez et al., 2018). In particular, environmentally friendly sustainability practices stand out in their ability to foster customer loyalty (Justavino-Castillo et al., 2022;Jung et al., 2020;Tanveer et al., 2021;Kim and Hall, 2020). For instance, Tanveer et al. (2021) argue that fostering the sustainability dimension of products and customer relationships is crucial to increase brand loyalty. ...
... In particular, environmentally friendly sustainability practices stand out in their ability to foster customer loyalty (Justavino-Castillo et al., 2022;Jung et al., 2020;Tanveer et al., 2021;Kim and Hall, 2020). For instance, Tanveer et al. (2021) argue that fostering the sustainability dimension of products and customer relationships is crucial to increase brand loyalty. In line with this, Louis et al. (2021) suggest that the sale of packagingfree products in grocery stores also creates customer loyalty. ...
... The estimated impact of packaging-free practices on customer loyalty is statistically significant (RH1: β 5 0.117, t 5 2.114, p < 0.05). This result is in line with the literature suggesting that sustainable practices positively affect customer loyalty (Justavino-Castillo et al., 2022;Jung et al., 2020;Tanveer et al., 2021;Kim and Hall, 2020;Louis et al., 2021). These results are also in line with contributions indicating that general CSR practices foster customer loyalty (Du et al., 2010;Huang et al., 2017;Louis et al., 2021;Khan and Fatma, Table created by author Table 3. Heterotrait-monotrait (HTMT) ratios Table 4. Structural model estimates BJM Packaging-free practices were also found to positively affect brand image (RH3: β 5 0.468, t 5 10.768, p < 0.01), brand trust (RH5: β 5 0.496, t 5 11.442, p < 0.01) and satisfaction (RH7: β 5 0.366, t 5 8.512, p < 0.01). ...
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Purpose This study analyzes the impact of packaging-free practices in food retail stores, particularly supermarkets, on customer loyalty. Design/methodology/approach Based on the literature on the impacts of sustainable practices and corporate social responsibility (CSR) policies on consumer behavior, this study defined a set of seven hypotheses that were tested using data collected from 447 consumers that regularly buy food products at supermarkets. The data were subjected to structural equation modeling using SmartPLS. Findings This study confirmed that packaging-free practices positively influence brand image, brand trust, satisfaction and customer loyalty. The expected positive impacts of brand image and satisfaction on customer loyalty were also confirmed. However, the expected impact of brand trust on customer loyalty was not confirmed. Practical implications This article demonstrates how a competitive sector can reap benefits from implementing sustainable practices in the operational domain, particularly by offering packaging-free products at the point of purchase. Thus, as recommended, general retail stores (e.g. supermarkets) gradually increase the stores' offering of packaging-free food products, as this practice has been shown to have positive impacts not only on brand image, but also on customer satisfaction and loyalty. Originality/value This study extends the literature on the effects of sustainable practices on customer loyalty, by focusing on a specific practice. Furthermore, this study contributes to the advancement of research on packaging-free practices in retail by developing a research framework and providing evidence on the direct and indirect effects of this specific practice on customer loyalty.
... Thus, the present research study is a cogent effort to explore the impact of sustainable marketing practices of firms on consumers' brand loyalty, including attitudinal and behavioral components. Although studies have focused on how sustainable marketing practices leads to loyalty (Noh and Johnson, 2019;Tanveer et al., 2021), a vacuum remains to explore the role of emotions in the behavior of consumer. With a focus on exploring the role of brand trust, brand affect and attitudinal loyalty, the study lays down the path from sustainability to behavioral loyalty. ...
... The present study outlines the path from sustainable marketing to brand loyalty. A few studies refer to sustainable marketing as an antecedent of loyalty (Jung et al., 2020;Tanveer et al., 2021). A majority of the modern-era consumer goods can hardly be considered unique or indispensable, which make it difficult for the consumer to distinguish them based on core functionality (Platania et al., 2019). ...
The purpose of this research is to discover the effect of sustainable marketing of hospitality services on consumers’ attitudinal and behavioral brand loyalty. Additionally, this research also aims to discover the mediating effect of brand trust and brand affect on this relationship. A combination of descriptive and causal research was used, for which data was collected from 582 respondents and processed using structural equation modeling to establish multivariate relationships. The process method was used to approximate mediation effects. A reasonably valuable insight that arose is the significant role that brand trust and brand affect play in engendering attitudinal and behavioral brand loyalty among consumers, for hospitality organizations adopting sustainable marketing practices. Findings revealed that sustainable marketing practices result in enhanced brand trust, which further translates into higher levels of brand affect, thereby leading to attitudinal brand loyalty and further resulting in behavioral brand loyalty. This study also highlights the importance of brand affect in developing enduring behavioral brand loyalty. Research limitations/implications – Consumers today are changing their consumption habits, preferring to satisfy ideological and symbolic needs rather than just rational needs. So, hospitality marketers practicing sustainable marketing should aim to leverage brand trust and brand affect to ensure lasting behavioral brand loyalty. The examination of the effect of sustainable marketing practices on brand-related variables in hospitality organizations has contributed to a better understanding of the mechanism that underlines the operation of emotion-based enduring loyalty. The vast majority of studies that provided insights about sustainable marketing practices and consumer behavior thereof were dominated by European and American perspectives and very few studies exist with a focus on developing economies such as Uganda.
... Ethical practices are proven to be related to customer loyalty [29]. Moreover, customer loyalty seems to be positively affected by ethical advertisement, ethical pricing, or even ethical behavior depicted through advertisements [76], with the overall ethical image of an organization being critical for forming customer loyalty [77]. Previous research concludes that CPE has direct [78] or indirect [36] positive effects on customers' loyalty. ...
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In an era marked by a growing emphasis on business ethics and sustainability, fitness centers face a compelling need to align their practices with their members’ perceived ethical values. To explore the role of ethics in the fitness industry’s expanding business landscape, this study draws upon established theories in consumer-perceived ethicality (CPE), business ethics, and customer segmentation strategies. The paper’s objectives were to adapt and validate the CPE scale for the Greek context and categorize fitness center members based on their perceived ethicality and to examine the impact of perceived ethicality on loyalty, word-of-mouth communication, and trust towards fitness centers. The research involved 286 fitness center members who completed a questionnaire measuring CPE, loyalty, trust, and word-of-mouth communication. Utilizing clustering analysis, two distinct consumer segments emerged, each demonstrating unique patterns of perceived ethicality. Intriguingly, both the high- and low-CPE groups assigned considerable importance to word-of-mouth communication, followed by trust and loyalty. These findings provide valuable insights for businesses in the fitness industry seeking to enhance their ethical reputation and bolster customer retention. Furthermore, the translated CPE scale holds the potential to contribute significantly to the ongoing discourse on consumer behavior regarding business ethics and sustainability within the fitness sector.
... Moral dilemmas are what ethics aim to solve. Although research in the area of marketing ethics has increased dramatically over the last two decades (Tanveer, Ahmad, Mahmood, & Haq, 2021), the ethical issues in B2B marketing settings seem to be emerging slowly (Schwepker, 2015), resulting in remarkably few systematic literature reviews centered on ethics in B2B marketing. Additionally, the challenge of analyzing the contributions of ethics in B2B marketing stems from the nebulous and disputed definition of the field's scope. ...
... Dalam melakukan riset pemasaran, perusahaan juga harus mempertimbangkan kepentingan jangka panjang. Implementasi etika dalam riset pemasaran dapat membantu perusahaan membangun hubungan yang baik dengan konsumen, sehingga dapat meningkatkan loyalitas konsumen dan menghasilkan keuntungan jangka panjang bagi perusahaan (Tanveer et al., 2021). ...
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The book consists of ten chapters, each of which discusses a different aspect of ethics in marketing. The first chapter introduces the basic concept of marketing ethics, providing an understanding of the importance of considering moral aspects in every marketing activity. The following chapters introduce various ethical theories relevant to marketing, examine corporate social responsibility in marketing, and highlight the importance of ethics in sales and customer service. Furthermore, the following chapters discuss ethics in the use of consumer data, product development, business competition, and marketing research. The ninth chapter discusses ethics in the context of international marketing, considering the increasing development of global trade and cross-border business relations. Finally, the tenth chapter highlights the challenges of marketing ethics in the future, considering the rapid technological developments and shifting values in society.
... This indicates that brand building is essential. loyalty [8]. The quality of products, service attitude, promotion and customer satisfaction all influence brand images [9], which will people's choices of mobile phones. ...
The sales of mobile phones have increased dramatically since 2010, and over one billion mobile phones have been sold per year since 2014. The competition in the mobile phone market is ever-growing, leading to greater variation in design characteristics, prices, and functions of mobile phones. As younger generations are overrepresented in the purchasing of mobile phones, their product expectations are a significant factor in the market behavior. This paper conducts a questionnaire survey on the ways that young people receive information on mobile phones and the factors that influence their purchasing decisions, and it further discusses the factors that are crucial for attracting consumers, and suggestions will be provided for manufactures about which functions and characteristics that they should develop further to fill consumer needs. The survey indicates that the young generation mostly get information of mobile phones from advertising, accept much higher prices than general population, attach great importance to the brand, pixel and build-in speaker of mobile phones.
... There are very few studies that exist that looked at the investigation of sustainability practices in improving consumer response toward the brand [17]. A call for more studies on sustainability practices in connection with marketing variables is also stated in the literature [5,18,19]. ...
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The notion of sustainability has received increased attention among marketers, and in theory. Though studies have discussed the crucial role of sustainable practices in shaping consumer responses, the role that perceived sustainability plays in engaging customers, and its effect on customer responses has received less attention. The study aims to determine the effect of perceived sustainability on customer loyalty and trust through the mediation of customer engagement. 330 responses were collected to test the proposed model. Structural equation modeling was used to test the hypothesis. The main findings of the study revealed a significant and positive effect of perceived sustainability on customer loyalty and trust. Further, we found that customer engagement acts as mediator between perceived sustainability and trust association. However, the results indicate that customer engagement does not mediate the link between perceived sustainability and loyalty. Extending sustainability and customer engagement literature, the study presents empirical evidence towards the direct effect of perceived sustainability on customer loyalty and trust as well as the indirect effect on trust via customer engagement. The study suggests practitioners develop a strategy that could incorporate sustainability initiatives in marketing programs because these initiatives may engage customers and affect their responses (i.e., loyalty and trust).
Purpose This study aims to examine the moderating effect of sustainability marketing on brand loyalty of brands that advertise their sustainable development agenda goals. The study highlights the mediating effect of brand love having cognitive antecedents of brand authenticity, popularity and congruence with private and social self of the consumer. Design/methodology/approach A mall intercept survey was used to collect data from consumers who use brands that embrace sustainable marketing strategies. Only those brands were selected which are popular as well as advertise sustainable practices in their brand communication (mainstream and social media). The data was self-administered by trained research assistants, who gathered data from a sample of 350 respondents. Findings The findings revealed that the popularity and authenticity of a brand play an essential role in developing brand love and later influences brand loyalty behavior. A larger effect is seen on brand love when there is congruence of private and social self with the brand. The brand has even a stronger relationship with brand loyalty when moderated by sustainability marketing. Research limitations/implications Brand love has the potential for long-term influences, only if sustainability marketing is used as a backbone. Brand managers should target an authenticity-seeking segment of consumers, who once convinced can lead to repeat business and brand loyalty and reduce dissonance. As sustainability marketing provides multiple benefits, genuine branding strategies should be devised that amalgamate into a single message spun around sustainability concerns and connecting the ethos of authenticity, popularity and self-expression. Future research may take into consideration more categories than this study on clothing, and consumer goods, adopting a mixed-methods approach. Moreover, a range of potential antecedents of brand love can be determined along with potential outcomes when aligned with external efforts such as sustainability, corporate social responsibility and international investment. Originality/value To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study investigating the moderating role of sustainability marketing on the relationship between brand love and brand loyalty and the mediating role of brand love between brand authenticity, popularity, social/private-self-expression and brand loyalty. It is also the first study documenting how sustainability marketing reinforces the brand loyalty for popular brands in developing countries like Pakistan. This study fills a research gap as it expands the existing literature on sustainability marketing and brand love that is generally focused on brand dimensions and not the brand communications and thus has not reached similar results.
Climate complexities and environmental problems not only brought changes in organizational practices but also changed the consumer purchasing pattern. Consumers nowadays have become more cautious regarding the consumption pattern of firms due to ecological footprints. This increased awareness influences their buying decisions pattern which leads to the increased demand of sustainable products. Eco-innovation, in this regard, appears to be an effective tool that helps firms to incorporate ecological constraints into business practices in order to develop green branding which ultimately leads to green loyalty. Drawing on literature from existing literature, the study developed a complex framework and established the plausible relationship among outlined constructs. By utilizing PLS methodology, measurement and structural models were assessed. Results echo that eco-innovation and green branding lead to sustainable product. Moreover, evidence also indicate that eco-innovation, and sustainability positively influence green loyalty. Based on the evidence, study proposed some implications which may be helpful for policy makers to maintain the sustainability of a firm. ARTICLE HISTORY
Conference Paper
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This paper aims to present different patterns of keyword evolution and their co-occurrences in publications dedicated to energy sales forecasting in a sustainable development context, and indexed in the Scopus and Web of Science Core Collection (WoS) databases. The adopted method is the Structured Literature Review (SLR) variation method with queries supported by the Bibliometrix software as the analytical and visualisation tool. The number of publications has evolved in the context of indexed keywords, which are related. Research on energy sales forecasting and sustainability has earned considerable attention in multiple academic fields. Proposed queries syntaxes and searching procedures in Scopus and Web of Science databases present limitations related to the subscription of these databases and the interchangeability of syntaxes. The novelty of this study is based on the results and their presentation with the usage of Bibliometrix as a tool for the exploration of two independent scientific areas, namely energy sales forecasting and sustainability, and the presentation of connections between them. This paper can inspire researchers to develop the subject of energy sales forecasting evolution in a sustainable development context, as well as business practitioners interested in energy sector adaptation visible in keyword changes in their decision-making processes.
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ABSTRACT It has been acknowledged that e-commerce based on the notional and hypothetical sense got much attentions of the research since last few decades. In further explanation, unfortunately, SMEs B2B e-commerce related to its ethics given less attentions and courtesies. Likewise, the core concerns of this research are to assess the framework that highlights intentions and loyalty of the purchasers and their purchasing consideration with connection to B2B SME's e-commerce ethics. Predominantly, the findings of this research promulgate the building ethics related to the suppliers, which are communication, value exchanged, security, reliability satisfying, service recovery, and non-disappointment. Moreover, highly prognostic intentions of the online purchasers that consuming the SEM for examining the sample of small business e-commerce firms and related material related to the country of Pakistan are the focusing of this research. In addition, our findings show that the most important element of relationship building is reliability/fulfillment and non-deception. Furthermore, the consistency of the partnership that has positive impact on the purchasers and their loyalty is aimed in this research too. The findings have important repercussions for B2B e-commerce and can inspire more study for enhancing relationship marketing and its future considerations.
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Artificial intelligence (AI) has grown, and technologies have intensified across all fields of life, particularly in education. AI has been applied to resources to improve skills giving teachers the time and freedom to provide understanding and adaptability and drive performance. This paper, written for policymakers in the field of education, highlights the impact of AI and advancements in academic policy. These academic policymakers generate ideas and strategies for applying AI across various disciplines. There is also discussion around AI implementation in education throughout developing nations for moving towards and ensuring affordable, high-quality education for every individual. Education for sustainable development (ESD) aims to promote the development of knowledge, skills, understanding, values and actions necessary to build a sustainable world, to protect and preserve the environment, and promote social equity and economic sustainability. This paper analyses how AI can be used to update learning probabilities by providing examples of how it can be integrated with existing educational systems, using data to improve educational capital and quality in developing countries. It goes on to discuss whether policymakers and institutions can reinvent and rework educational programs to polish graduates' skills for the growing presence of AI across all disciplines. There are four main parts to this work: (1) different dimensions regarding the complexities and potential implications, (2) the pros and cons of educational sustainability policy related to AI, (3) carving out AI and its outstanding execution, and finally (4) the linkage of AI with higher education within the context of educational expansions. In conclusion, the paper focuses on AI's applications, benefits and sustainable development education challenges.
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While the customer experience (CX) concept has rapidly gained traction in recent years, its effect on customer brand commitment and loyalty remains tenuous. Moreover, while customer age has been identified as an influential driver of consumer behavior, little is known about its effect on the customer's brand experience. Addressing these gaps, we develop a model that examines the relationships between CX, commitment, and loyalty, while using customer age as a moderator in the proposed associations. A total of 423 valid responses was collected from branded retail customers. Structural equation modeling results reveal a positive effect of (a) CX on customers' affective/calculative commitment, and (b) customer commitment on brand loyalty. Moreover, multi-group analysis results reveal that while customer ages moderates the association between CX/affective commitment, it does not significantly moderate the relationship between CX/calculative commitment. We conclude with key implications that arise from this research.
Despite the paramount importance of work on customer engagement and brand experience, there is a vital research gap regarding inspecting the relational dynamics between these constructs across the contexts, principally in the setting of banking industry. This study, therefore, aims to foster the understanding of engagement and experience in bettering banks’ ties with their customers so that a sustained loyal customer base is developed and managed over time. Toward the end, this study also investigates gender’s moderating role on the proposed relationships. This research work has emphasized various important customer engagement and brand experience issues and their inferences, which may be very supportive in formulating the strategies essential for the growth of the retail banking sector.
Manufacturers are increasingly producing and promoting sustainable products (i.e., products that have a positive social and/or environmental impact). However, relatively little is known about how product sustainability affects consumers’ preferences. The authors propose that sustainability may not always be an asset, even if most consumers care about social and environmental issues. The degree to which sustainability enhances preference depends on the type of benefit consumers most value for the product category in question. In this research, the authors demonstrate that consumers associate higher product ethicality with gentleness-related attributes and lower product ethicality with strength-related attributes. As a consequence of these associations, the positive effect of product sustainability on consumer preferences is reduced when strength-related attributes are valued, sometimes even resulting in preferences for less sustainable product alternatives (i.e., the “sustainability liability”). Conversely, when gentleness-related attributes are valued, sustainability enhances preference. In addition, the authors show that the potential negative impact of sustainability on product preferences can be attenuated using explicit cues about product strength.
Marketing evolves in parallel with technology. During the last five years, Marketing 3.0 has become the most innovative marketing approach, but of growing, is research focusing on Marketing 4.0: the marketing of big data. Much has been speculated, but academic journals have published little about Marketing 4.0. Maybe, because the total understanding of Marketing 4.0 requires: firstly, a depth knowledge about the evolution of marketing, especially about Marketing 3.0, and secondly, an analysis of how a range of technology –not only the Internet and social media- can be used to design marketing strategies that enhance the brand-consumer relationship. Taking into account how consumers' behavior has been changing since the beginning of this century, this chapter seeks to review Marketing 4.0 concepts, analyzing how big data can be used to enhance the consumer-brand relationship.