ArticleLiterature Review

The anti-obesogenic effects of dietary berry fruits: A review

Authors:
Article

The anti-obesogenic effects of dietary berry fruits: A review

If you want to read the PDF, try requesting it from the authors.

Abstract

The prevalence of obesity in the world is fearsomely climbing, which has brought about heavy threats on human health and economic development. For coping with this problem, researchers have looked at the profound potentials of natural products for resolving obesity because of their high efficiencies and few undesirable outcomes in the recent years. Berry fruits are huge reservoirs of bioactive components, and their anti-obesity potentials are arousing much interests. In this review, the current main strategies to manage obesity were summarized, including inhibiting appetite and lowering the food intake, improving energy expenditure and thermogenesis, suppressing absorption and digestion, reducing lipid synthesis and storage as well as modulating composition of gut microbiota. In addition, this review discussed the potentials of dietary berry fruits (blueberries, cranberries, raspberries, strawberries, mulberries, lingonberries, blackberries, black chokeberries, elderberries, bilberries, grape, blackcurrants, jaboticabas, red bayberries, sea-buckthorns, goldenberries and goji berries) to counteract obesity or obesity-associated complications based on recent animal experiments and human studies. Then, the bioaccessibility of phenolic compounds present in berry fruits was discussed. On the other hand, several challenges including securing effective dosage, further understanding their interaction with human tissues, improving bioavailability and protection of functional ingredients during delivery should be taken into account and conquered in the coming years.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... Natural products, especially from the medicinal and edible plants, have attracted more and more attention due to their extensive benefits to human health (Duan et al., 2021;Ma et al., 2021;Ren, Zhang, & Zhang, 2021;Zhai et al., 2019;Zhang, Zhong, Li, & Zhang, 2020). Polyphenols is an important type of natural products, and have antioxidant, hypoglycemic, hypolipidemia and other biological activities (Jiang et al., 2021). Recently, some polyphenols (e.g. ...
... In addition, many studies have shown the potential efficacy of polyphenols in the prevention and treatment of NAFLD (Jiang et al., 2021;A. Mehmood et al., 2021;Catalkaya et al., 2020). ...
Article
Full-text available
In this study, the protective effects of hot water (QW) and aqueous-ethanol extracts (QA) from Que Zui tea on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) were investigated. Quantitative and qualitative analysis revealed that QW and QA were rich in polyphenols, especially 6′-O-caffeoylarbutin. Both QW and QA significantly reduced body weight and liver index, increased serum levels of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and decreased the levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), nonesterified free fatty acids (NEFA) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in NAFLD rats induced high fat diet. Furthermore, the contents of TC, TG, NEFA, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in the liver tissues were inhibited after QW and QA administration. Histopathological examination showed that QW and QA significantly reduced liver lipid accumulation of NAFLD rats. In addition, QW and QA could enhance increase the activity of antioxidant (glutathione, superoxide dismutase and catalase) in the liver by regulation Nrf2 signaling pathway, thereby alleviating liver damage caused by lipid peroxidation. QW and QA activated AMPK/PPAR-α signaling pathway by increasing the expression of adiponectin and its receptor AdipoR2, thereby reducing fat production and enhancing fatty acid β oxidation. These data suggested that QW and QA had the potential to in the prevention and treatment of NAFLD.
... 10 It has a wide range of biological activities, such as anti-obesity, anti-oxidation and antiinflammatory. [11][12][13] Seabuckthorn polysaccharide (SP) is one of the main functional components in seabuckthorn fruits. It has been reported that polysaccharides could ameliorate NAFLD by affecting the "intestinal hepatic axis". ...
... Then, ethanol was added to obtain polysaccharides. The polysaccharide was redissolved with distilled water and dialyzed with deionized water (8)(9)(10)(11)(12)(13)(14) ) for 4 days, during which the deionized water was replaced 12 times. The solution was then concentrated and freeze-dried to obtain SP. ...
Article
Full-text available
Obesity has been reported to be associated with gut microbiome dysbiosis. seabuckthorn fruits have traditionally been used in Tibetan foods and medicines for thousands of years. Seabuckthorn polysaccharide (SP) is one of the main functional components in seabuckthorn fruits. However, the effects of SP on a high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity have not yet been elucidated. The purpose of this study is to explore the amelioration effect of SP on obesity induced by HFD and to reveal its mechanism of gut microbiota and its metabolites. Results showed that 12-week SP (0.1%, w/w) dietary supplementation could significantly reduce body weight gain, serum lipid level and liver triglycerides level in obese mice. Notably, the SP treatment elevated p-AMPKα and PPARα proteins expression stimulated the phosphorylation of ACC1 and inhibited the protein expression of FAS, PPARγ, and CD36 in the mice liver. Further, SP also reorganized the gut microbiome by up-regulating the proportion of Muribaculaceae_unclassified, Bifidobacterium, Rikenellaceae_RC9_gut_group, Alistipes, and Bacteroides, and down-regulating the abundance of Lactobacillus, Firmicutes_unclassified, Dubosiella Bilophila, and Streptococcus in HFD-induced obese mice. Moreover, the production of microbial metabolites short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in feces has also increased. In addition, correlation analysis results showed that obesity-ameliorating effects of SP were highly associated with levels of SCFAs in feces. Therefore, the regulation of SP on liver lipid metabolism may be due to the variation of the gut microbiome and raised production of SCFAs. These results indicate that SP could play the part of a potential nutraceutical for ameliorating obesity through regulation of the gut-liver axis.
... Elderberry anthocyanins can be efficient against atherosclerosis and Helicobacter pylori, a noxious pathogen responsible for various gastrointestinal disorders including duodenal ulcer and gastric cancer [55]. There is evidence for the applicability of black elderberry for the treatment of obesity [74,75]. Recently, elderberry has received significant attention from food producers due to its applicability as a natural food conservator [19]. ...
... Efficiency of elderberry's polyphenols could be increased by search of its safe and effective dosage, and the improvement of its stability, bioavailability and delivery by using nano-emulsion and nanoliposome systems, which can enhance the biological and therapeutic activity of these plant molecules [74,112]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The present review summarizes the current knowledge concerning provenance, properties, physiological and therapeutic actions of elderberry and the bioactive molecules present in the plant, with emphasis on their action on female reproduction. Elderberry or black elder (Sambucus nigra L.) attracts attention due to its easy cultivation and high availability of bioactive compounds. Most of the available data concerning black elder’s therapeutic action are focused on its effects such as activation of immune processes and anti-inflammatory processes (cytokine production, etc.) and regulation of hormones and their receptors in cancer cells. The effects of elderberry on reproduction have been poorly investigated so far. Nevertheless, conducted studies so far demonstrate the stimulatory influence of black elder extract and its constituents, such as rutin, anthocyanins and agglutinins, on the viability and steroidogenesis of healthy ovarian cells as well as their ability to promote apoptosis and reduce the viability and proliferation of ovarian cancer cells. Furthermore, the action of black elder extract and its constituent biomolecules, such as anthocyanins and lectins, on embryogenesis and the embryonal estradiol-estradiol receptor system have also been reported. The available information, despite limitations, suggest the applicability of black elder constituents for improvement of reproductive processes in animal biotechnology, animal production and assisted reproduction, as well as for prevention and treatment of reproductive disorders (including cancer) in veterinary and human medicine.
... They are essential for the successful introduction of fiber-rich PP as a food ingredient and contribute to the textural properties and stability of formulated foods [3]. Additionally, the physicochemical properties of fiber-rich food ingredients are relevant for their hypoglycemic activity and hypolipidemic effects [37]. ...
... In the present study, the cranberry PP contained the highest amount of SDF (12.74 ± 0.09 mg/100 g DM), which may be associated with the improved CBC observed for this PP compared with the others. There is an abundance of scientific evidence regarding the antihyperlipidemic activity of polyphenolrich berries on the key steps of lipid digestion and absorption [37]. However, data on the capacity of the DF from berries to bind cholesterol are not so abundant. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study aimed to evaluate and compare the dried pomace powder of cranberries, lingonberries, sea buckthorns, and black currants as potential food ingredients with functional properties. The composition and several physicochemical and adsorption properties associated with their functionality were investigated. Tested berry pomace powders were rich in dietary soluble fiber (4.92–12.74 g/100 g DM) and insoluble fiber (40.95–65.36 g/100 g DM). The highest level of total phenolics was observed in the black currant pomace (11.09 GAE/g DM), whereas the sea buckthorn pomace revealed the highest protein concentration (21.09 g/100 g DM). All the berry pomace powders that were tested exhibited good water-holding capacity (2.78–4.24 g/g) and swelling capacity (4.99–9.98 mL/g), and poor oil-binding capacity (1.09–1.57 g/g). The strongest hypoglycemic properties were observed for the lingonberry and black currant pomace powders. The berry pomace powders presented effective in vitro hypolipidemic properties. The cholesterol-binding capacities ranged from 21.11 to 23.13 mg/g. The black currant and cranberry pomace powders demonstrated higher sodium-cholate-binding capacity than those of the lingonberry and sea buckthorn pomace powders. This study shows promising results that the powders of tested berry pomace could be used for further application in foods.
... The results obtained indicated that the levels of cholesterol, TGs, and LDL were significantly amplified in obese rats compared with the control, whereas HDL levels were considerably lower. Our findings are consistent with previous studies (Hassan et al., 2019;Jiang et al., 2021). Goldenberry fruits with husk extract have hypercholesterolemia-lowering effects in obese rats. ...
... Fresh fruits containing essential nutrients, vitamins, and minerals are consumed worldwide in part because of their strong antioxidant potential against chronic diseases [1]. Fresh fruit packaging materials after single use are disposed of in the environment. ...
Article
Full-text available
This review reports recently published research related to the application of polysaccharide-based biodegradable and edible coatings (BECs) fortified with bioactive compounds obtained from plant essential oils (EOs) and phenolic compounds of plant extracts. Combinations of polysaccharides such as starches, pectin, alginate, cellulose derivatives, and chitosan with active compounds obtained from clove, lemon, cinnamon, lavender, oregano, and peppermint have been documented as potential candidates for biologically active coating materials for retardation of quality changes in fresh fruits. Additionally, polysaccharide-based active coatings supplemented with plant extracts such as cashew leaves, pomegranate peel, red roselle, apple fiber, and green tea extracts rich in phenolic compounds and their derivatives have been reported to be excellent substituents to replace chemically formulated wax coatings. Moreover, EOs and plant polyphenolics including alcohols, aldehydes, ketones phenols, organic acids, terpenes, and esters contain hydroxyl functional groups that contribute bioactivity to BECs against oxidation and reduction of microbial load in fresh fruits. Therefore, BECs enriched with active compounds from EOs and plant extracts minimize physiological and microbial deterioration by reducing moisture loss, softening of flesh, ripening, and decay caused by pathogenic bacterial strains, mold, or yeast rots, respectively. As a result, shelf life of fresh fruits can be extended by employing active polysaccharide coatings supplemented with EOs and plant extracts prior to postharvest storage.
... Type 2 diabetes, which accounts for the majority of diabetes cases in recent years, is further characterized by insulin resistance associated with obesity [1][2][3][4]15]. There have been many studies on the anti-obesity effects of dietary components [15,16]. Previous studies have shown that a 0.5% 4-cholestenone or 0.5% 5-campestenone supplemented diet markedly reduces body fat accumulation in CDF1 mice and Sprague-Dawley rats [10,12]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Dietary sterols are catabolized into various substances in the intestinal tract. Dietary 3-oxo derivatives of cholesterol and plant sterols (e.g., cholest-4-en-3-one and campest-5-en-3-one) have been shown to have anti-obesity effects. In this study, we tested whether feeding cholest-5-en-3-one (5-cholestenone), a cholesterol metabolite, to db/db mice protects them from obesity-associated metabolic disorders. In db/db mice, dietary 5-cholestenone significantly alleviated hepatomegaly and elevated serum triglyceride levels; however, the effect was not sufficient to improve hepatic steatosis and obesity. On the other hand, hyperglycemia and severe hyperinsulinemia in control db/db mice were markedly attenuated in 5-cholestenone-fed db/db mice. The production of inflammatory cytokines, such as monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα), was decreased, suggesting that the suppressive actions of 5-cholestenone were attributable to the alleviation of chronic inflammation in db/db mice. Additionally, 5-cholestenone showed an inhibitory effect on TNFα-induced nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB) activation in the NFκB luciferase gene reporter assay. These results suggest that obesity-induced abnormal glucose metabolism could be alleviated in 5-cholestenone-fed db/db mice by reducing the production of inflammatory cytokines through suppression of the NFκB signaling pathway.
... Lycium chinense is native to China, Taiwan, and Japan, and is widely cultivated in Asia, but is also naturalized in Europe and the United States. The black Goji berries exert various biological activities and health benefits, such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, immuno-stimulating, anti-diabetic, neuroprotective, anti-cancer, prebiotic, and anti-obesogenic effects, which have been reviewed by several authors [9,18,[39][40][41] (Figure 1). These beneficial properties are attributed to the individual or combined effects of the constituents of goji berries [18,42]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Goji berries have long been used for their nutritional value and medicinal purposes in Asian countries. In the last two decades, goji berries have become popular around the world and are consumed as a functional food due to wide-range bioactive compounds with health-promoting properties. In addition, they are gaining increased research attention as a source of functional ingredients with potential industrial applications. This review focuses on the antioxidant properties of goji berries, scientific evidence on their health effects based on human interventional studies, safety concerns, goji berry processing technologies, and applications of goji berry-based ingredients in developing functional food products.
... Gut microbiota, known as the "invisible organ" of the human body, plays an important role in promoting food digestion, maintaining intestinal health, and regulating immunity (Rothschild et al., 2018). It has gradually been recognized as an important target for the treatment of metabolic disorders (Jiang et al., 2021). In this study, the composition of gut microbiota of mice after the YBCH intervention was detected by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. ...
Article
In this study, a twelve-week intervention was conducted to investigate the anti-obesity effects of yak bone collagen hydrolysates (YBCH) on mice with a high-fat diet. The obesity-associated phenotypes of mice were detected and the feces of mice were jointly analyzed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and untargeted metabolomics. Results indicated that supplementation with YBCH could ameliorate the obesity-associated phenotypes of mice, especially with the medium dose (MD) and high dose (HD) of YBCH. Compared with the high-fat diet control (HC) group, the ratio of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes in the fecal microbiota of the low dose (LD), MD, and HD groups was separately decreased by 29.83 %, 70.85 %, and 75.70 %. Lachnospiraceae and Muribaculaceae were the key bacteria for the YBCH intervention, which might be attributed to their different substrate preferences. The joint analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequencing and untargeted metabolomics suggested that the anti-obesity effects of YBCH might be achieved by up-regulating the arginine and proline metabolism and down-regulating the aromatic amino acids metabolism via the gut microbiota.
... During plant growth and reproduction, polyphenols have a protective effect against pathogenic bacteria and have important antioxidant activities and their consumption is beneficial to human health [78,79]. These beneficial effects are primarily related to their antiinflammatory activity [80], a lower incidence of a wide number of cancers and diabetes [81] and antithrombotic and heart protection activities [82,83]. Among all of the beneficial effects, antioxidant capacity is the most extensively studied. ...
Article
Full-text available
Fruit thinning is a cultivation technique that is widely applied in horticulture in order to obtain high-quality horticultural crops. This practice results in the discarding of a large number of thinned unripe fruits in orchards each year, which produces a great waste of agricultural resources and causes soil pollution that may be an important reservoir for pest and plant diseases. Current studies showed that bioactive compounds such as polyphenols, organic acids, monosaccharides and starches are present in unripe fruits. Therefore, we reviewed the bioactive components obtained from thinned unripe fruits, their revalorization for the food industry, their beneficial effects for human health and the methods for obtaining these components. We also performed a calculation of the costs and benefits of obtaining these bioactive compounds, and we proposed future research directions. This review provides a reference for the effective utilization and industrial development of thinned unripe fruits obtained from horticultural crops. Furthermore, revalorizing the waste from this cultural practice may increase the economic benefits and relieve the environmental stress.
... The results obtained indicated that the levels of cholesterol, TGs, and LDL were significantly amplified in obese rats compared with the control, whereas HDL levels were considerably lower. Our findings are consistent with previous studies (Hassan et al., 2019;Jiang et al., 2021). Goldenberry fruits with husk extract have hypercholesterolemia-lowering effects in obese rats. ...
... Interestingly, in our study, cranberry intake seemed to better benefit older male participants where a steep decrease in body weight and associated parameters [fasting glucose, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, blood pressure] were better controlled. Such results are in agreement with data demonstrating the anti-obesogenic impact of cranberries, although most of the information is derived from animal studies (64). Further studies would be necessary to confirm such findings in well controlled clinical studies. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background Ageing is highly associated with cognitive decline and modifiable risk factors such as diet are believed to protect against this process. Specific dietary components and in particular, (poly)phenol-rich fruits such as berries have been increasingly recognised for their protection against age-related neurodegeneration. However, the impact of cranberries on cognitive function and neural functioning in older adults remains unclear. Design A 12-week parallel randomised placebo-controlled trial of freeze-dried cranberry powder was conducted in 60 older adults aged between 50 and 80 years. Cognitive assessment, including memory and executive function, neuroimaging and blood sample collection were conducted before and after the intervention to assess the impact of daily cranberry consumption on cognition, brain function and biomarkers of neuronal signalling. Results Cranberry supplementation for 12 weeks was associated with improvements in visual episodic memory in aged participants when compared to placebo. Mechanisms of action may include increased regional perfusion in the right entorhinal cortex, the accumbens area and the caudate in the cranberry group. Significant decrease in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol during the course of the intervention was also observed. No significant differences were, however, detected for BDNF levels between groups. Conclusions The results of this study indicate that daily cranberry supplementation (equivalent to 1 small cup of cranberries) over a 12-week period improves episodic memory performance and neural functioning, providing a basis for future investigations to determine efficacy in the context of neurological disease. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03679533 and at ISRCTN as ISRCTN76069316.
... Obese rats had considerably higher cholesterol, TGs, and LDL levels, whereas HDL levels were significantly lower. Our findings were compatible with prior studies [33,34]. Consumption of GB has been shown to have hypocholesterolemia-lowering effects in rats on a HFD. ...
... Obese rats had considerably higher cholesterol, TGs, and LDL levels, whereas HDL levels were significantly lower. Our findings were compatible with prior studies [33,34]. Consumption of GB has been shown to have hypocholesterolemia-lowering effects in rats on a HFD. ...
... In addition, the fatty acid composition of chicken breast meat is dependent on genotyperelated variation in fatty acid desaturase gene expression [65]. Jiang et al. [66] showed that the abundances of inflammation with gene expression of nuclear factor-kappa B and tumor necrosis factor-α were decreased, which could improve the lipid profile with fatty acid synthesis. Anthocyanins can upregulate the expression of antioxidant genes and downregulate the abundance of inflammatory gene expression in muscle [12]. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigated the effects of dietary supplementation with different levels of purple corn pigment (PCP) on the growth performance, blood biochemical indices, meat quality, muscle amino acids, and fatty acids of growing chickens. A total of 288 (8 weeks of age) growing Chishui black-bone chickens (body weight, 940 ± 80 g; mean ± standard deviation) were randomly divided into 4 groups using a completely randomized design. The four diet groups were as follows: (1) control, basal diet; (2) treatment 1, treatment 2, and treatment 3, which were basal diet with 80, 160, and 240 mg/kg PCP, respectively. The results showed that compared with the control group, the feeding of anthocyanins significantly (p < 0.05) increased the average daily feed intake and average daily gain in chickens. Moreover, chickens receiving 80 mg/kg PCP significantly increased (p < 0.05) plasma total antioxidant capacity, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, catalase, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and albumin concentrations relative to the control group. For meat quality, dietary supplementation with PCP significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the drip loss and water loss rate in breast muscle. Additionally, chickens receiving PCP tended to increase (p < 0.05) the levels of most individual amino acids, essential amino acids, and umami amino acids in the muscle. Specifically, the addition of 80 mg/kg PCP significantly improved (p < 0.05) total polyunsaturated fatty acids in chicken muscle. Accordingly, the consumption of anthocyanin-rich PCP by the growing chickens had the potential to increase the growth performance, enhance antioxidant and immune capacities, increase meat quality, and improve essential and umami amino acids as well as unsaturated fatty acids in the muscle.
Article
Polyphenols are a group of secondary plant metabolites widely present in diets and have antagonistic effects on some chronic metabolic diseases, like type 2 diabetes (T2D) and obesity. We attempt to investigate the effects of polyphenols in fruits and vegetables on reducing the risk of T2D and obesity by collecting epidemiological evidence, including cross-sectional survey (CSS), prospective cohort study (PCS), and randomized controlled trial (RCT). Further, we provide possible mechanisms for the anti-diabetic effects including protecting pancreatic β-cells, affecting glucose digestion, absorption, and uptake, and activating glucose/lipid metabolism pathways, while improving obesity by reducing lipid accumulation, regulating intestinal microflora, alleviating inflammation, and reducing food intake. Polyphenols also play an important role in the relationship between T2D and obesity. On the one hand, obesity is a low-grade chronic inflammation causing insulin resistance, so polyphenols can reduce T2D risk by improving obesity. On the other hand, obesity decreases the polyphenols bioavailability by disturbing gastrointestinal microflora, thus increasing T2D risk. These are instructive for diets and bring considerable development value. Therefore, we discussed the hotspots of polyphenols exploitation in the food industry, including masking bitter and astringent taste, ensuring stability, and improving the bioavailability, which provides ideas for polyphenols application in anti-diabetics and anti-obesity.
Article
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a complex pathogenesis of liver disease combined with liver inflammation and gut microbiota dysbiosis. Tectorigenin (Tg) is derived from many plants with excellent anti-inflammation activity. However, the beneficial effect of Tg on NAFLD associated with gut microbiota remained unclear. This study aimed to investigate the underlying beneficial effect of Tg on NAFLD in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice. Results showed that Tg alleviated lipid profiles and liver steatosis, and reduced serum lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and total bile acid (TBA) levels. Besides, RT-qPCR and Western blot suggested that Tg alleviated hepatic lipid accumulation through inhibiting the lipogenesis and promoting the lipolysis, prevented gut-derived LPS-induced liver inflammatory via restoring intestinal barrier and restraining pro-inflammatory cytokines release, meanwhile, promoted the BA circulation via activating BA receptor and promoting BA synthesis. Moreover, Tg reverted the HFD-induced gut microbial dysbiosis by promoting the growth of beneficial Akkermansia, and inhibiting the proportions of harmful microbes, including Blautia, Lachnoclostridium, Lachnospiraceae_UCG-006, Roseburia, Romboutsia and Faecalibaculum, which were highly correlated with NAFLD-related parameters in serum and liver. Thus, Tg could attenuate NAFLD through mediating the liver-gut axis, and it could be used as a dietary supplement for NAFLD treatment via its anti-inflammatory and prebiotic effects.
Article
Background The last decade witnessed the rapid increase in the population worldwide, which fueled the development of food processing industry for fulfilling the daily demand for diversified food products. A massive amount of food by-products is simultaneously generated during the food processing. Generally, these by-products are discarded as food waste that results in adverse impacts on the environment and economics. Lemon peels are the main by-products generated by lemon processing. However, lemon peels contain abundant high value-added substances that demonstrate desirable nutraceutical properties and promise in industrial application. Scope and approach The review comprehensively summarizes the nutritional profile, phytochemical profile, nutraceutical properties, and potential application into food industry, bioremediation, and aquaculture. Key findings and conclusions Lemon peels are rich in nutritional substances, especially vitamin C, pectin and fibers, and phytochemical compounds with desirable properties predominantly comprising phenolic constituents and essential oils, which supported the potential industrial applications. It has been demonstrated that lemon peels hold great nutraceutical effects, including antioxidant, antimicrobial, antidiabetic, anti-obesogenic, lipid-lowering, anti-colitic, anti-arthritic, anti-urolithic, anti-fatigue, ameliorating disuse muscle atrophy, skin protection, and prebiotic properties. Lemon peels show great promise in the applications into food industry, including: 1) food ingredients with nutritional, antioxidant, and antibacterial properties; 2) film matrixes or active constituents for food packaging or edible coatings. Moreover, the application into bioremediation as removers for heavy metals and dyes and into aquaculture as beneficial constituents of fish diet is also promising.
Article
Full-text available
Improvement of dietary and ecological biodiversity, namely by exploring autochthonous varieties, is a key point to the construction of a more sustainable food system and planetary health. However, the environmental sustainability continues to face huge challenges, reflecting the importance of achieving a better understanding about the functional role of biodiversity in ecosystems. Thus, the main objective of this research is to contribute to the sustainable valorization of Sambucus nigra L. berries through a comprehensive approach to evaluate the effects of elderberry’s cultivar, harvest year, and plantation field on the physicochemical berry composition. Moreover, the nutritional value of elderberry juice and respective dried pomace was determined. This complementary information is of huge utility for the rational and, as much as possible, integral use of elderberries. The harvest year, followed by field and the interaction of harvest × field, accounted for the highest impact on the berry’s physicochemical parameters, indicating the importance of the combined impact of the macro- and mesoclimate conditions on plant metabolism. Elderberry juice and dried pomace are a good source of carbohydrates (ca. 12 and 82%, respectively) and have low amounts of fat (≤2.5%), making them low-energy foods. Dried pomace may also represent a potential alternative source of vegetal protein (ca. 6%).
Article
Background The continuous growth of the world's population has driven the increased demand for fresh fruits and vegetables. Most postharvest fruits and vegetables are susceptible to quality loss and diseases during transport and storage. Numerous studies targeting the preservation of postharvest fruits and vegetables have hitherto been carried out. The processing of plant-derived food unavoidably generates a raft of by-products, which tends to be discarded as food waste. However, plant-derived food by-products (PDFBPs) contain abundant high added-value materials, which have the potential to maintain the postharvest quality of fruits and vegetables. Scope and approach This review attempts to summarize materials that are prepared from PDFBPs demonstrating the potential to maintain the quality and extend the shelf-life of postharvest fruits and vegetables. In addition, recent studies investigating the preservation effects of materials obtained from PDFBPs on postharvest fruits and vegetables are comprehensively reviewed. Key findings and conclusions PDFBPs are economical sources of diverse high added-value materials, some of which exhibit the potential to maintain the postharvest quality of fruits and vegetables. These promising materials mainly consist of 1) extracts of bioactive compounds, 2) polysaccharides, oligosaccharides, and proteins, 3) essential oils, and 4) nanoparticles greenly synthesized by extracts. Polysaccharides, oligosaccharides, and proteins could be developed into edible coatings or biodegradable films with excellent oxygen and water barrier properties. Some extracts could be employed as immersion or washing agents to maintain the postharvest quality of fruits and vegetables and improve their resistance against diseases induced by fungal infections. Additionally, extracts, essential oils, and green synthesized nanoparticles could be incorporated into edible coatings or biodegradable films to improve their preservation effects on postharvest fruits and vegetables.
Article
Blueberry is economically important small pulp shrub that prefers to grow in acidic soil, and soil pH is an important factor affecting blueberry growth and development. In this study, one-year-old seedlings of four blueberry cultivars, namely, ‘Primadonna’, ‘Anna’, ‘Baldwin’ and ‘Bluegold’, were used as experimental materials to study the changes in physiological and biochemical indexes, such as growth potential, osmoregulatory substance levels, antioxidant enzyme activities and antioxidant capacity, of blueberry cultivars under soil pH values of 5.5 (CK), 6.0 (T1), 6.5 (T2), 7.0 (T3) and 7.5 (T4), and the relationships between various indexes were analyzed. The overall results showed that soil pH stress led to deficiency in green color development in blueberry leaves and inhibited plant growth in terms of the height, main basal diameter and biomass (dry weight). Through determination of the blueberry growth phenotype and growth indexes, it was found that the ‘Primadonna’, ‘Anna’, ‘Baldwin’ and ‘Bluegold’ cultivars had a certain tolerance to high soil pH, and the tolerance threshold was pH 6.5. Correlation and principal component analyses showed that the MDA content, SOD and CAT antioxidant enzyme activities, DPPH free radical scavenging ability, and SPAD values of blueberry leaves were closely related to the growth and dry matter accumulation of blueberry under high soil pH environments; these values were important reference indexes for assessing the adaptation of blueberry to a high soil pH environment. Our study provides a reference for soil management for blueberry cultivation and for research on the mechanism underlying blueberry resistance to high soil pH.
Article
Full-text available
Impaired postprandial glucose handling and low-grade systemic inflammation are risk factors for developing insulin resistance in individuals with overweight or obesity. Acute ingestion of anthocyanins improves postprandial glucose responses to a single carbohydrate-rich meal under strictly controlled conditions. Purpose: Examine whether acute and short-term supplementation with anthocyanin-rich New Zealand blackcurrant (NZBC) extract can improve postprandial glucose responses to mixed-macronutrient meals. Methods: Twenty-five overweight (BMI > 25 kg m2) sedentary individuals participated in one of the following double-blinded, randomised controlled trials: (1) ingestion of 600 mg NZBC extract or placebo prior to consumption of a high-carbohydrate, high-fat liquid meal (n = 12); (2) 8-days supplementation with NZBC extract (600 mg day-1) or placebo, with insulin sensitivity and markers of inflammation assessed on day-7, and free-living postprandial glucose (continuous glucose monitoring) assessed on day-8 (n = 13). Results: A single dose of NZBC extract had no effect on 3 h postprandial glucose, insulin or triglyceride responses. However, in response to short-term NZBC extract supplementation insulin sensitivity was improved (+ 22%; P = 0.011), circulating C-reactive protein concentrations decreased (P = 0.008), and free-living postprandial glucose responses to both breakfast and lunch meals were reduced (- 9% and - 8%, respectively; P < 0.05), compared to placebo. Conclusion: These novel results indicate that repeated intake, rather than a single dose of NZBC extract, is required to induce beneficial effects on insulin sensitivity and postprandial glucose handling in individuals with overweight or obesity. Continuous glucose monitoring enabled an effect of NZBC extract to be observed under free-living conditions and highlights the potential of anthocyanin-rich supplements as a viable strategy to reduce insulin resistance.
Article
Full-text available
Abstract The gut microbiota plays a critical role in obesity and lipid metabolism disorder. Chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa L.) are rich in polyphenols with various physiological and pharmacological activities. We determined serum physiological parameters and fecal microbial components by using related kits, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and 16S rRNA gene sequencing every 10 days. Real-time PCR analysis was used to measure gene expression of bile acids (BAs) and lipid metabolism in liver and adipose tissues. We analyzed the effects of different Chokeberry polyphenol (CBPs) treatment time on obesity and lipid metabolism in high fat diet (HFD)-fed rats. The results indicated that CBPs treatment prevents obesity, liver steatosis and improves dyslipidemia in HFD-fed rats. CBPs modulated the composition of the gut microbiota with the extended treatment time, reducing the Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio (F/B ratio) and increasing the relative abundance of Bacteroides, Prevotella, Akkermansia and other bacterial species associated with anti-obesity properties. We found that CBPs treatment gradually decreased the total BAs pool and particularly reduced the relative content of cholic acid (CA), deoxycholic acid (DCA) and enhanced the relative content of chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA). These changes were positively correlated Bacteroides, Prevotella and negatively correlated with Clostridium, Eubacterium, Ruminococcaceae. In liver and white adipose tissues, the gene expression of lipogenesis, lipolysis and BAs metabolism were regulated after CBPs treatment in HFD-fed rats, which was most likely mediated through FXR and TGR-5 signaling pathway to improve lipid metabolism. In addition, the mRNA expression of PPARγ, UCP1 and PGC-1α were upregulated markedly in interscapular brown adipose tissue (iBAT) after CBPs treatment. We confirmed that CBPs could reduce the body weight of HFD-fed rats by accelerating energy homeostasis and thermogenesis in iBAT. Finally, the fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) experiment results demonstrated that FMT from CBPs-treated rats failed to reduce the weight of HFD-fed rats. However, FMT from CBPs-treated rats improved dyslipidemia and reshaped gut microbiota in HFD-fed rats. In conclusion, CBPs treatment improved obesity and complications by regulating gut microbiota in HFD-fed rats. The gut microbiota plays an important role in BAs metabolism after CBPs treatment, and BAs have therefore emerged as major effectors in microbe-host signaling events that influence host lipid metabolism, energy metabolism and thermogenesis.
Article
Full-text available
A chronic high-fat diet (HFD) produces obesity, leading to pathological consequences in the liver and skeletal muscle. The fat in the liver leads to accumulation of a large number of intrahepatic lipid droplets (LD), which are susceptible to oxidation. Obesity also affects skeletal muscle, increasing LD and producing insulin signaling impairment. Physalis peruviana L. (PP) (Solanaceae) is rich in peruvioses and has high antioxidant activity. We assessed the ability of PP to enhance insulin-dependent glucose uptake in skeletal muscle and the capacity to prevent both inflammation and lipoperoxidation in the liver of diet-induced obese mice. Male C57BL/6J mice were divided into groups and fed for eight weeks: control diet (C; 10% fat, 20% protein, 70% carbohydrates); C + PP (300 mg/kg/day); HFD (60% fat, 20% protein, 20% carbohydrates); and HFD + PP. Results suggest that PP reduces the intracellular lipoperoxidation level and the size of LD in both isolated hepatocytes and skeletal muscle fibers. PP also promotes insulin-dependent skeletal muscle glucose uptake. In conclusion, daily consumption of 300 mg/kg of fresh pulp of PP could be a novel strategy to prevent the hepatic lipoperoxidation and insulin resistance induced by obesity.
Article
Full-text available
Jaboticaba peel powder (JPP) digestion was investigated for the first time using an in vitro static model of gastrointestinal digestion associated with a colonic fermentation assay with human feces to elucidate the catabolism and bioaccessibility of fruit polyphenols. Anthocyanins had low bioaccessibility (0.08–2.3%). Most hydrolyzable tannins (1.2–166.0%) and flavonols (0–36.8%) had greater bioaccessibility than anthocyanins. Despite their low bioaccessibility (0.08–2.3%), anthocyanins were the most abundant polyphenols in JPP and in the bioaccessible intestinal fraction followed by hydrolyzable tannins. There was fast degradation of anthocyanins and progressive catabolism of hydrolyzable tannins during the colonic fermentation assay. Urolithins and protocatechuic acid were the major catabolites found; their increase was parallel to the decrease of pathogenic bacteria counts and increase of short-chain fatty acids and gas production. JPP digestion yields bioactive polyphenol catabolites that may act as antioxidants and, with JPP dietary fiber, improve gut microbiota metabolism.
Article
Full-text available
Evidence supports the beneficial effects of berries on glucoregulation, possibly related to flavonoid content, fiber content, or both. The purpose of this study was to assess the potential of mixed berries to improve insulin sensitivity and to identify the potential role of flavonoids and fiber. In a randomized cross-over trial with four treatment periods, overweight/obese men and women were fed a controlled 45% fat diet for one week prior to a meal-based glucose tolerance test. The same base diet was provided during each feeding period with the addition of one of four treatments: whole mixed berries, sugar matched mixed berry juice, sugar matched gelatin, and sugar/fiber matched gelatin. Subjects then completed a meal-based oral glucose tolerance test. Serum glucose, insulin and non-esterified fatty acids were not different between individual treatments. However, in a secondary analysis, the combined berry preparations resulted in a lower serum insulin area under the curve (difference of 0.15 ± 0.066 ln pmol min/mL, mean ± SE, p = 0.0228), compared to the combined gelatin treatments, while the difference for serum glucose did not quite meet statistical significance (difference of 0.17 ± 0.093 ln mg·min/dL, mean ± SE, p = 0.0738). These results suggest the potential for mixed berry preparations to improve post-prandial insulin response.
Article
Full-text available
Purpose To determine whether the anthocyanin, pelargonidin 3-glucoside (P3G), attenuates symptoms of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and metabolic syndrome in rats. Methods We tested P3G-enriched strawberry in two models of chronic inflammation in rats, chronic IBD induced by 0.5% dextran sodium sulphate in the drinking water for 12 weeks (D) and metabolic syndrome induced by a high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet (H) for 16 weeks. P3G-enriched strawberry was added to the diet for the final 6 weeks in IBD rats (DP) or 8 weeks in H rats (HP) to provide a dose of 8 mg P3G/kg/day. Results D rats had marked diarrhoea, bloody stools, erosion of mucosal epithelium, crypt atrophy, loss of villi and goblet cells, and inflammatory cell infiltration. These symptoms were reversed by P3G with healthy stools and mucosal lining of ileum and colon including increased villi, crypts and goblet cells and reduced inflammation. H rats developed hypertension, dyslipidaemia, central obesity, increased ventricular stiffness, cardiac and liver inflammation, and steatosis. P3G treatment in H rats improved systolic blood pressure, ventricular stiffness, and cardiac and liver structure, and reduced abdominal fat, abdominal circumference and body weight gain. Conclusions Our study indicates that dietary P3G decreased inflammation to decrease the symptoms of IBD, and to improve cardiovascular, liver and metabolic functions in metabolic syndrome.
Article
Full-text available
The metabolic improvement effect of blueberries has long been recognized, although its precise mechanism(s) remains obscure. Here, we show that phenolic blueberry extract (BE) treatment improved diet- and genetically induced metabolic syndromes, which were linked to increased energy expenditure in brown adipose tissue (BAT) and improved lipid metabolism in the liver via pathways involving the bile acid (BA) receptors TGR5 and FXR. These observations were strongly correlated with the regulation of BAs (e.g., a decrease in the FXR inhibitors TαMCA and TβMCA) and the gut microbiota (GM) (e.g., an expansion of Bifidobacteria and Lactobacillus), because antibiotic treatment completely blunted the regulation of the GM and BAs and the metabolic effects of BE. We also observed similar results in db/db mice. Furthermore, treating mouse primary cells derived from the liver and BAT with the combinations of BAs mimicking the in vivo alterations upon BE treatment mirrored the in vivo observations in mice.
Article
Full-text available
Heat-inactivated Akkermansia muciniphila helps alleviate features of metabolic syndrome in overweight and obese subjects.
Article
Full-text available
: Aronia melanocarpa are a rich source of anthocyanins that have received considerable interest for their relations to human health. In this study, the anti-adipogenic effect of cyanidin-3-O-galactoside-enriched Aronia melanocarpa extract (AM-Ex) and its underlying mechanisms were investigated in an in vivo system. Five-week-old male C57BL/6N mice were randomly divided into five groups for 8-week feeding with a control diet (CD), a high-fat diet (HFD), or a HFD with 50 (AM-Ex 50), 100 (AM-Ex 100), or 200 AM-Ex (AM-Ex 200) mg/kg body weight/day. HFD-fed mice showed a significant increase in body weight compared to the CD group, and AM-Ex dose-dependently inhibited this weight gain. AM-Ex significantly reduced the food intake and the weight of white fat tissue, including epididymal fat, retroperitoneal fat, mesenteric fat, and inguinal fat. Treatment with AM-Ex (50 to 200 mg/kg) reduced serum levels of leptin, insulin, triglyceride, total cholesterol, and low density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol. Real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis revealed that AM-Ex suppressed adipogenesis by decreasing CCAAT/enhancer binding protein , peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor , sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1, acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1, ATP-citrate lyase, fatty acid synthase, and adipocyte protein 2 messenger RNA (mRNA) expressions. These results suggest that AM-Ex is potentially beneficial for the suppression of HFD-induced obesity by modulating multiple pathways associated with adipogenesis and food intake.
Article
Full-text available
Depleting creatine levels in thermogenic adipocytes by inhibiting creatine biosynthesis reduces thermogenesis and causes obesity. However, whether creatine import from the circulation affects adipocyte thermogenesis is unknown. Here we show that deletion of the cell-surface creatine transporter (CrT) selectively in fat (AdCrTKO) substantially reduces adipocyte creatine and phosphocreatine levels, and reduces whole-body energy expenditure in mice. AdCrTKO mice are cold intolerant and become more obese than wild-type animals when fed a high-fat diet. Loss of adipocyte creatine transport blunts diet- and β3-adrenergic-induced thermogenesis, whereas creatine supplementation during high-fat feeding increases whole-body energy expenditure in response to β3-adrenergic agonism. In humans, CRT expression in purified subcutaneous adipocytes correlates with lower body mass index and increased insulin sensitivity. Our data indicate that adipocyte creatine abundance depends on creatine sequestration from the circulation. Given that it affects whole-body energy expenditure, enhancing creatine uptake into adipocytes may offer an opportunity to combat obesity and obesity-associated metabolic dysfunction. © 2019, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Nature Limited.
Article
Full-text available
Berries of Aronia melanocarpa (chokeberry) are known to be a rich source of biologically active polyphenols. In the present study, the effects of seven anti-adipogenic polyphenolic phytochemicals isolated from A. melanocarpa methanol extract on adipogenic transcription factors were investigated. Amygdalin and prunasin were found to inhibit 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation by suppressing the expressions of PPARγ (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ), C/EBPα (CCAAT/enhancer binding protein α), SREBP1c (sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c), FAS (fatty acid synthase), and aP2 (adipocyte fatty-acid–binding protein). A. melanocarpa extract-treated (100 or 200 mg/kg/day on body weight) high fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice showed significant decreases in body weight, serum triglyceride (TG), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC) levels and improved insulin sensitivity as compared with HFD controls. This research shows A. melanocarpa extract is potentially beneficial for the suppression of HFD-induced obesity.
Article
Full-text available
Rubus grandifolius Lowe (wild blackberries) is an endemic species from Madeira Archipelago (Portugal) used in folk medicine for alleviating diabetic complications. In this work, R. grandifolius methanolic extracts were analysed for in vitro inhibitory effect on digestive enzymes linked to type-2 diabetes, as well as aldose reductase activity and protein glycation. The phenolic composition, antioxidant and cytotoxic activities were also determined. Methanolic extracts exhibited strong inhibition of glucosidases (α- and β), but were less potent for α-amylase and pancreatic lipase when compared to current pharmaceutical drugs. The total phenolic content determined by HPLC-DAD varied between 92.96 - 97.47 and 118.01–137.41 mg g−1 of dry extract for berries and leaves, respectively. Fifty polyphenols were quantified, anthocyanins and ellagitannins being the main compounds. Cyanidin-3-glucoside was identified as one of the main hypoglycaemic and hypolipidemic agents in all extracts. R. grandifolius also prevented glycation of bovine-serum albumin (BSA) and showed strong radical scavenging activity against tested free radicals. At low concentration, the extracts were not cytotoxic against Caco-2 cells. Based on the results of this study, wild blackberry extracts demonstrated a potential beneficial effect on the control/management of type-2 diabetes mellitus, validating their use in folk medicine.
Article
Full-text available
Gut microbiome plays an essential role in host health through host–gut microbiota metabolic interactions. Desirable modulation of beneficial gut bacteria, such as Akkermansia muciniphila, can confer health benefits by altering microbiome-related metabolic profiles. The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of a black raspberry-rich diet to reshape the gut microbiome by selectively boosting A. muciniphila population in C57BL/6J mice. Remarkable changes of the mouse gut microbiome were revealed at both compositional and functional levels with an expected increase of A. muciniphila in concert with a profound impact on multiple gut microbiome-related functions, including vitamin biosynthesis, aromatic amino acid metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism, and oxidative stress. These functional alterations in the gut microbiome by an easily accessed freeze-dried black raspberry-supplemented diet may provide novel insights on the improvement of human health via gut microbiome modulation.
Article
Full-text available
The development of metabolic complications associated with obesity has been correlated with a failure of white adipose tissue (WAT) to expand. Our group has previously reported that a 12-week administration of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) together with an obesogenic diet mitigated the development of cardiometabolic complications in rats. Using the same cohort of animals, we aim to elucidate whether the prevention of cardiometabolic complications by proanthocyanidins is produced by a healthier expansion of visceral WAT and/or an induction of the browning of WAT. For this, adipocyte size and number in retroperitoneal WAT (rWAT) were determined by histological analyses, and the gene expression levels of markers of adipogenesis, browning, and WAT functionality were quantified by RT-qPCR. The long-term administration of GSPE together with an obesogenic diet expanded rWAT via an increase in the adipocyte number and a preventive decrease in the adipocyte size in a dose-dependent manner. At the molecular level, GSPE seems to induce WAT adipogenesis through the upregulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (Pparγ) in a Sirtuin 1 (Sirt1)-dependent manner. In conclusion, the healthier visceral WAT expansion induced by proanthocyanidins supplementation may explain the improvement in the cardiometabolic risks associated with obesogenic diets.
Article
Full-text available
Thermogenesis by brown and beige adipose tissue, which requires activation by external stimuli, can counter metabolic disease1. Thermogenic respiration is initiated by adipocyte lipolysis through cyclic AMP-protein kinase A signalling; this pathway has been subject to longstanding clinical investigation2-4. Here we apply a comparative metabolomics approach and identify an independent metabolic pathway that controls acute activation of adipose tissue thermogenesis in vivo. We show that substantial and selective accumulation of the tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediate succinate is a metabolic signature of adipose tissue thermogenesis upon activation by exposure to cold. Succinate accumulation occurs independently of adrenergic signalling, and is sufficient to elevate thermogenic respiration in brown adipocytes. Selective accumulation of succinate may be driven by a capacity of brown adipocytes to sequester elevated circulating succinate. Furthermore, brown adipose tissue thermogenesis can be initiated by systemic administration of succinate in mice. Succinate from the extracellular milieu is rapidly metabolized by brown adipocytes, and its oxidation by succinate dehydrogenase is required for activation of thermogenesis. We identify a mechanism whereby succinate dehydrogenase-mediated oxidation of succinate initiates production of reactive oxygen species, and drives thermogenic respiration, whereas inhibition of succinate dehydrogenase supresses thermogenesis. Finally, we show that pharmacological elevation of circulating succinate drives UCP1-dependent thermogenesis by brown adipose tissue in vivo, which stimulates robust protection against diet-induced obesity and improves glucose tolerance. These findings reveal an unexpected mechanism for control of thermogenesis, using succinate as a systemically-derived thermogenic molecule.
Article
Full-text available
The present study compares the effects of two dietary strawberry extracts rich in monomeric (ME) or dimeric (DE) ellagitannins (ETs) on gastrointestinal, blood and tissue biomarkers in Wistar rats fed high-fructose diets. Both strawberry extracts beneficially affect the antioxidant status and lipid profile of the liver and serum. The ME extract shows a greater ability to inhibit lipid peroxidation in kidneys, more effectively decreases serum and liver triglycerides, and exerts greater anti-inflammatory effects in blood serum than the DE extract. The DE extract significantly reduces the activity of microbial enzymes in the cecum. These effects might be associated with higher cecum and urine levels of ET metabolites in rats fed with ME than in rats fed with DE. In conclusion, the diet-induced fructose-related disturbances observed in biochemical parameters are regulated by both extracts; nevertheless, the beneficial effects of the ME extract are mostly associated with systemic parameters, while those of the DE extracts are associated with local microbial activity.
Article
Jaboticaba (Plinia jaboticaba (Vell.) Berg) is a Brazilian native fruit belonging to the Myrtaceae family. Previously it was demonstrated that phenolic-rich extracts from jaboticaba (PEJ) possess health-beneficial properties in diet-induced obesity; however, whether PEJ modulates the obesity-associated intestinal inflammatory status remains unclear. Thus, male C57BL/6J obese mice were fed a high-fat-sugar (HFS) diet and received PEJ at two doses, 50 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/kg body weight (BW) (PEJ1 group), and 100 mg GAE/kg BW (PEJ2 group), or water (HFS group) by oral gavage for 14 weeks. PEJ groups presented a reduced body weight gain and adiposity and were protected against insulin resistance and dyslipidemia. In addition, PEJ prevented metabolic endotoxemia linked to an attenuation of the HFS diet-induced intestinal inflammation via down-regulation of pro-inflammatory mediators such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), membrane transporter toll-like receptor-4 (TLR-4) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) in the colon. These anti-inflammatory effects appear to be involved, at least in part, with an inhibition of the colonic inflammasome pathway of obese mice.
Article
The aim of this study was to determine whether anthocyanins and their phase II metabolites permeate the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (B-CSF-B) of sheep and to profile these compounds in sheep biofluids after chokeberry intraruminal administration. Anthocyanins were analyzed using micro-HPLC-MS/MS. After chokeberry administration, anthocyanins were absorbed and occurred in body fluids mainly in the form of methylated, glucuronidated, and sulfated derivatives (in total, 21 derivatives were identified). The study showed that anthocyanins penetrated the B-CSF-B and their change in profile and concentration in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) resulted from fluctuations in concentrations of these compounds in blood plasma, although the presence of various cyanidin derivatives in CSF also depended on their chemical structure. The biological fate of chokeberry anthocyanins, from absorption into blood to penetration into CSF, was tracked to facilitate the design of further experimental procedures to determine the biological properties of these compounds, including potentially neuroprotective activities.
Article
Epidemiological studies have consistently demonstrated the benefits of dietary fibre on gastrointestinal health through consumption of unrefined whole foods, such as wholegrains, legumes, vegetables and fruits. Mechanistic studies and clinical trials on isolated and extracted fibres have demonstrated promising regulatory effects on the gut (for example, digestion and absorption, transit time, stool formation) and microbial effects (changes in gut microbiota composition and fermentation metabolites) that have important implications for gastrointestinal disorders. In this Review, we detail the major physicochemical properties and functional characteristics of dietary fibres, the importance of dietary fibres and current evidence for their use in the management of gastrointestinal disorders. It is now well-established that the physicochemical properties of different dietary fibres (such as solubility, viscosity and fermentability) vary greatly depending on their origin and processing and are important determinants of their functional characteristics and clinical utility. Although progress in understanding these relationships has uncovered potential therapeutic opportunities for dietary fibres, many clinical questions remain unanswered such as clarity on the optimal dose, type and source of fibre required in both the management of clinical symptoms and the prevention of gastrointestinal disorders. The use of novel fibres and/or the co-administration of fibres is an additional therapeutic approach yet to be extensively investigated.
Article
Background Hyperlipidemia, characterized by abnormal lipid metabolism, is a dominant feature of many chronic diseases, including obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Increasing evidence suggests that consumption of plant-based functional foods may serve as a promising approach for the prevention or management of chronic and metabolic diseases, including hyperlipidemia. Scope and approach This review focuses on specific bioactive components of plant-based functional foods and pharmacological mechanisms underpinning their hypolipidemic effect. For each bioactive component, we provide an overview of the source, model, dosage, effects, and mechanisms, as well as the chemical monomer structure. Key findings and conclusions The bioactive components of plant-based functional foods can be divided into six categories: flavonoids, steroidal saponins, polysaccharides, alkaloids, polyphenols, and others. The precise hypolipidemic effects of these components are mediated by various mechanisms, including inhibition of endogenous lipid biosynthesis; promotion of exogenous lipid metabolism; regulation of lipid metabolism; promotion of lipid redistribution, transport, and excretion; anti-lipid peroxidation and free radical scavenging; inhibition of platelet aggregation; alleviation of hemorheological abnormalities and reduction of blood viscosity; alleviation of insulin resistance; and regulation of the gut microbiota. Hence, the development of plant-based functional foods with potent hypolipidemic properties is a promising approach for the management of obesity, diabetic dyslipidemia, and cardiovascular disease.
Article
Background: Although polyphenol-rich cranberry extracts reportedly have an antiobesity effect, the exact reason for this remains unclear. Objectives: In light of the reported health benefits of the polyphenolic compounds in cranberry, we investigated the effects and mechanism of a cranberry polyphenolic extract (CPE) in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed obese mice. Methods: The distributions of individual CPE compounds were characterized by HPLC fingerprinting. Male C57BL/6J mice (4 wk old) were fed for 16 wk normal diet (ND, 10% fat energy) or HFD (60% fat energy) with or without 0.75% CPE in drinking water (HFD + CPE). Body and adipose depot weights, indices of glucose metabolism, energy expenditure (EE), and expression of genes related to brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis, and inguinal/epididymal white adipose tissue (iWAT/eWAT) browning were measured. Results: After 16 wk, the body weight was 22.5% lower in the CPE-treated mice than in the HFD group but remained 17.9% higher than in the ND group. CPE treatment significantly increased EE compared with that of the ND and HFD groups. The elevated EE was linked with BAT thermogenesis, and iWAT/eWAT browning, shown by the induction of thermogenic genes, especially uncoupling protein 1 (Ucp1), and browning-related genes, including Cd137, a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily (Tnfrsf9). The mRNA expression and abundance of uncoupling protein 1 in BAT of CPE-fed mice were 5.78 and 1.47 times higher than in the HFD group, and 0.61 and 1.12 times higher than in the ND group, respectively. Cd137 gene expression in iWAT and eWAT of CPE-fed mice were 2.35 and 3.13 times higher than in the HFD group, and 0.84 and 1.39 times higher than in the ND group, respectively. Conclusions: Dietary CPE reduced but did not normalize HFD-induced body weight gain in male C57BL/6J mice, possibly by affecting energy metabolism.
Article
Background Obesity is a rapidly growing concern worldwide, with over one-third of the global population classified as overweight or obese. While significant research has focused on developing new and improved nutritional and dietary approaches for regulating energy intake, there has been little success in overcoming the rising obesity statistics. Consequently, increasing attention is being afforded to designing safe, inexpensive and highly efficacious food-based materials that control fat and carbohydrate bioavailability in order to successfully manage the nutritional value of our food and combat chronic diseases associated with obesity, such as heart disease and diabetes. Scope & approach This review focuses on bioactive and nanostructured materials that have been shown to regulate energy intake by (i) manipulating the fat digestion process, and/or (ii) restricting the absorption of fat digestion products into the systemic bloodstream. The mechanistic approach of such technologies will be discussed in detail, with corresponding preclinical and clinical findings highlighted, to provide insights for the design and development of future anti-obesity therapeutics. Key findings & conclusions Bioactive materials that regulate the fat digestion and absorption process have revealed promising preclinical and clinical findings with respects to modulating calorie intake and thus, weight gain. Insights derived from this review suggest materials that adsorb fat/fat digestion products, rather than interfering with enzyme action, are the most promising therapies, due to their ability to overcome the adverse effects associated with orlistat (the only FDA approved anti-obesity therapy with a localized mechanism of action within the gastrointestinal tract).
Article
Resveratrol (RSV) is a natural polyphenol with anti-obesity effects. However, the mechanisms of anti-obesity remain unclear due to its low bioavailability. Recent evidence demonstrates that gut microbiota plays a key role in obesity. This spurred us to investigate whether the anti-obesity effects of RSV are related to modulations in the gut microbiota and metabolic functions. Here, RSV significantly improved metabolic phenotype in the high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice. A multi-omics approach was used to systematically profile the microbial signatures at both the phylogenetic and functional levels using 16S rRNA gene sequencing and metagenome. At the phylogenetic level, RSV treatment significantly modulated the gut microbiota composition in HFD-fed mice, characterized with increased Blautia abundance and decreased Desulfovibrio and Lachnospiraceae_NK4A136_group abundance. At the functional level, RSV significantly decreased pathways linked to host metabolic disease and increased pathways involved in the generation of small metabolites. Besides, the fecal microbiota transplantation experiment showed anti-obesity and microbiota-modulating effects similar to those observed in the oral RSV-feeding experiment. Moreover, metabolomic analysis and antibiotic treatment verified that 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (4-HPA) and 3-hydroxyphenylpropionic acid (3-HPP) were the two gut metabolites of RSV, which contribute to improving lipid metabolism in vitro. We concluded that the RSV-mediated alteration of gut microbiota and related gut metabolites contributed to prevention of metabolic syndrome in HFD-fed mice.
Article
Mulberry and chokeberry are rich sources of anthocyanins. In this study, the effect of the anthocyanin composition on the anthocyanin profile changes during in vitro digestion (mimicking the physiological conditions) was investigated by UHPLC-(ESI)-qTOF and UHPLC-(ESI)-QqQ. The antioxidant activity before and after in vitro digestion was elucidated. Cyanidin-3-O-glucoside and cyanidin-3-O-galactoside were dominant in mulberry and chokeberry, respectively. Moreover, the loss of cyanidin-3-O-galactoside in the chokeberry extract after digestion was greater than that of cyanidin-3-O-glucoside in the mulberry extract. After digestion, phenolic acids including protocatechuic acid and various cyanidin conjugates were newly formed because of decomposition and changes in the cyanidin-glycosides. The phenolic acid and cyanidin conjugate levels varied depending on the cyanidin glycoside sources in the colonic fraction. Finally, antioxidant activity before and after digestion was higher in the chokeberry extract than in the mulberry extract. Moreover, this activity continuously decreased until intestinal digestion but increased in the colonic fraction.
Article
Background Inducible brown adipocytes called beige adipocytes are found in white adipose tissue (WAT) depots. They express functional UCP1 and have thermogenic fat-burning capacities as also found in classical brown adipocytes in response to various stimuli. Beige adipocytes may also secrete certain factors that affect WAT function and systemic metabolism. Therefore, a white-to-brown fat conversion could be a novel therapeutic avenue for tackling obesity and metabolic disorders. Scope and approach In this review, we examine the evidence supporting the concept that the anti-obesity action attributed to polyphenols might be contributed by their stimulation of WAT browning, and discuss the possible underlying mechanisms involved in this action. Key findings and conclusions Current evidence, mostly derived from animal models, strongly supports that dietary polyphenols may play roles in the browning of WAT. Studies also show multiple signaling pathways, receptors, and transcription factors have been associated with the browning effects of dietary polyphenols. In conclusion, polyphenol compounds and their principal metabolites may contribute to counteracting human obesity via promoting WAT browning.
Article
Background: Oxidative stress and inflammation contribute to the etiopathogenesis of several human chronic diseases, such as cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and metabolic syndrome. Besides classic stimuli, such as reactive oxidant species, endotoxins (i.e., bacteria lipopolysaccharide), cytokines or carcinogens, oxidative stress and inflammation can be triggered by a poor diet and an excess of body fat and energy intake. Strawberry and honey are common rich sources of nutrients and bioactive compounds, widely studied for their roles exerted in health maintenance and disease prevention. Purpose: This review aims to summarize and update the effects of strawberry and honey against oxidative stress and inflammation, with emphasis on metabolism and on the main molecular mechanisms involved in these effects. Methods: A wide range of literature, published in the last 10 years, elucidating the effects of strawberry and honey in preventing oxidative stress and inflammation both in vitro (whole matrix and digested fractions) and in vivo was collected from online electronic databases (PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science) and reviewed. Results: Strawberry and honey polyphenols may potentially prevent the chronic diseases related to oxidative stress and inflammation. Several in vitro and in vivo studies reported the effects of these foods in suppressing the oxidative stress, by decreasing ROS production and oxidative biomarkers, restoring the antioxidant enzyme activities, ameliorating the mitochondrial antioxidant status and functionality, among others, and the inflammatory process, by modulating the mediators of acute and chronic inflammation essential for the onset of several human diseases. These beneficial properties are mediated in part through their ability to target multiple signaling pathways, such as p38 MAPK, AMPK, PI3K/Akt, NF-κB and Nrf2. Conclusions: Available scientific literature show that strawberry and honey may be effective in preventing oxidative stress and inflammation. The deep evaluation of the factors that affect their metabolism as well as the assessment of the main molecular mechanisms involved are of extreme importance for the possible therapeutic and preventive benefit against the most common human diseases. However, published literature is still scarce so that deeper studies should be performed in order to evaluate the bioavailability of these food matrices and their effects after digestion.
Article
In recent years, the conversion of white adipocytes to brown-like adipocytes by pharmacological and dietary compounds has gained attention as an effective strategy to fight obesity. Strawberry bioactive compounds present several biological activities including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, anti-atherosclerotic and antiadipogenic properties. However, to the best of our knowledge, the possible role of strawberry bioactive compounds in white adipose tissue(WAT) browning has never been explored. Our results demonstrated that a strawberry methanolic extract (SE) significantly reduced 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes differentiation, and down-regulated the mRNA expression of the adipogenic transcription factors CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/REB- α) and peroxisome proliferation-activated receptor (PPAR-γ). It also down-regulated the mRNA expression of resistin and angiotensinogen, two genes considered as markers of white adipocytes, while increased the mRNA expression of pyruvate dehydrogenase lipoamide kinase isozyme 4 (PDK4) and uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) which, conversely, are brown adipocyte-specific markers. Likewise, SE stimulated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPKα), sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) and the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α), suggesting a possible increase in mitochondrial biogenesis. It also stimulated oxygen consumption rate and uncoupled respiration. Taken together, all these results suggest that SE induces brown fat-like phenotype in 3T3-L1 cells and may have potential therapeutic implications for treatment and/or prevention of obesity.
Article
Excessive fat accumulation in hypertrophied adipocytes lead to chronic inflammation, oxidative stress and dysregulated adipokines secretion. In this study, we investigated the ability of raspberry fruit extract (RBE) to mitigate adipose tissue dysfunction using hypertrophied 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The obtained results showed that RBE decreased intracellular ROS generation in hypertrophied adipocytes by enhancing expression of antioxidant defense enzymes SOD, catalase, and GPx, and inhibiting an oxidant enzyme NADPH oxidase 4. Moreover, RBE reduced lipid accumulation accompanied by increased lipid mobilization. RBE significantly inhibited LPL, aP2, FAS and PLIN mRNA expression, and enhanced the expression of HSL. Furthermore, RBE exhibited a high anti-inflammatory potential by down-regulation the expression of pro-inflammatory mediators (IL-6, TNF-α, IL-1β, MCP-1 and leptin), and counteracted the decrease in adiponectin and IL-10 expression. Raspberry fruit could be potentially valuable dietary ingredient towards mitigating adverse metabolic consequences of fat cell hypertrophy, thus reducing the risk of metabolic disorders.
Article
To provide the scientific evidences for a possible new hypocholesterolemic mechanism of apple condensed tannins (ACT), the direct interaction of ACT with cholesterol (CH) was investigated in the present study. Our results suggested that the quenching of ACT fluorescence by CH was carried out according to a static mechanism, while the interaction between ACT and CH in vitro was a spontaneous process. ACT were capable of binding with CH directly, and the CH-binding capacity (35.9-43.9%) of ACT remarkably enhanced with the increase of ACT concentration (0.5-2.0 mg proanthocyanidin B2 equivalent/mL). Besides, spectroscopic methods and morphological analysis were used to characterize the ACT-CH coprecipitates, the findings indicated that ACT were able to precipitate CH via ionic interactions, hydrophobic interactions and intermolecular hydrogen bonds rather than covalent bonds. In conclusion, the direct interaction of ACT with CH might play a role in their CH-lowering effects in humans and animals.
Article
The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate the physicochemical and antioxidant stability of nanoemulsions containing a Physalis peruviana calyx extract (CPp-NE) and free extracts under different storage conditions (7 and 25 °C) and with absence or incidence of light for 120 days. The calyx extracts were prepared with ethanol 60% and characterized for later preparation of the nanoemulsions by spontaneous emulsification. The formulations presented nanometric sizes, low polydispersity index, negative zeta potential, acid pH, rutin content (11 μg·mL-1), and encapsulation efficiency of 85%. Regarding the stability, the droplet size and PdI of the CPp-NE stored at refrigeration temperature in the dark, room temperature in the dark, and refrigeration temperature with light incidence were stable for 120 days and with no visible changes in the formulations. The antioxidant capacity was related to the reducing capacity, and the best results were found for nanoemulsions stored at room temperature and in absence of light. In addition, CPp-NE presented higher antioxidant and reducing capacity in relation to the free extracts.
Article
Different dietary sources of bioactives may reduce cardiometabolic risk. This work investigated the feasibility of using a high-fat/high-caloric meal challenge as a tool for assessing the cardiometabolic protective effects of three bioactive-rich foods. Thirteen healthy, but overweight volunteers (65.1 ± 5.3 years old, fasting glycemia, ≤6.1 mmol L−1) received a high-fat reference breakfast meal (RM; 910 kcal, 50 E% fat) or three isocaloric test meals incorporating cinnamon (CM, 3 g), bilberry (BM, 100 g) or lingonberry (LM, 100 g) to the high-fat breakfast. Circulating biomarkers associated with cardiometabolic risk were measured postprandially for 4 h. LM and BM attenuated the elevation of cholesterolemia caused by RM. BM also modulated the triacylglyceride response. CM reduced glycemic response, postprandial endotoxemia and C-reactive protein, but increased cholesterolemic response. These postprandial response-modulating actions of bilberries, lingonberries and cinnamon suggest the high-fat/high caloric meal model as a tool for screening protective effects of bioactive-rich foods.
Article
This study aimed to reveal the mechanisms underlying the interaction between condensed tannins (CTs) and bile salts. The interaction mechanism was analyzed by transmission electron microscopy, exposure to various physico-chemical conditions, electrophoresis, fluorescence spectroscopy, isothermal titration calorimetry and molecular modeling. A new complex was formed from CTs and bile salts. The complex showed a negative enthalpy change and positive entropy change, demonstrating that the main thermodynamic driving force was both entropy and enthalpy and indicating that binding occurred through hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions. The analysis of the effects of CTs on the stability and digestion properties of bile salt emulsions indicated CTs were able to inhibit lipid digestion to an extent. Our findings may provide evidence that foods rich in CTs offer health benefits by aggregating with bile salts and reducing the absorption of fat.
Article
In this study, mulberry cultivars were found to have abundant bioactive compounds such as phenolics (100.97–586.23 mg gallic acid equivalents/100 g fresh weight), flavonoids (16.38–368.16 mg rutin equivalents/100 g fresh weight) and procyanidins (4.20–121.56 mg catechin equivalents/100 g fresh weight) after in vitro digestion. HPLC-TOF-MS analysis revealed that digested mulberry cultivars contained multiple phenolic compounds including cyanidin-3-O-glucoside and cyanidin-3-O-rutinoside. After gut microbiota fermentation, the contents of anthocyanins were increased initially, then decreased with time, and some anthocyanin metabolites (such as 3,4-Dihydroxybenzoic acid, 2,4,6-trihydroxybenzoic acid, 2,4,6-trihydroxybenzaldehyde, etc.) were detected. Our further cellular study indicated that mulberry (Hanguo) possessed reactive oxygen species scavenging capacity after gut microbiota fermentation. Our results indicated that the new cultivar Hanguo contained abundant polyphenols and exhibited potent antioxidant property after in vitro digestion and gut microbiota fermentation compared with other mulberry cultivars, which could be recommended as a dietary source of functional foods.
Article
Bilberry has been reported to have anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. We studied the effect of bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) fruits extracts (BEs) on the pathogenesis caused by lipid accumulation in fatty liver and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). 5 μg/ml of BEs was enough to suppress lipid accumulation in the fatty liver model of the mouse hepatic AML12 cells. BEs increased cell viability and anti-oxidant capacity, presumably by activating (phosphorylating) Akt/STAT3 and inducing MnSOD/catalase. BEs also significantly reduced Rubicon and induced p62/SQSTM1, possibly contributing to reduce cellular lipids (lipophagy). When the mice were fed supplemented with BEs (5% or 10%, w/w), hepatic steatosis, injury, and hypercholesterolemia/hyperglycemia were significantly improved. Furthermore, histological and cytokine studies indicated that BEs possibly suppress hepatic inflammation (hepatitis) and fibrosis. Therefore, BEs improved liver steatosis and injury, and potentially suppress fibrosis by suppressing inflammatory response, which therefore may prevent the progression of fatty liver to NASH.
Article
Freezing is one of the most well-established food preservation technique that is used to prolong the shelf life and maintain the quality of strawberries. The aim of the present study was (i) to investigate the changes in polyphenols from fresh and frozen strawberries during in vitro digestion and (ii) to compare effects induced by individual quick freezing (IQF) and conventional freezing (CF). Spectrophotometric methods were used to determine total phenolics, flavonoids, anthocyanins and antioxidant capacity, whereas identification and quantification of major polyphenols were carried out using UPLC-ESI-MS/MS and HPLC-PDA, respectively. The results showed that the bioaccessible amount of major anthocyanin from frozen strawberries, i.e., pelargonidin-3-glucoside, corresponding to 72–89% of the total anthocyanins, was significantly higher than that of fresh strawberries (10.8–13.3 and 5.8 μg g-1sample, respectively; P<0.05). Overall, the current study highlighted that freezing, independent of process type, i.e., IQF or CF, enhances the total amount of bioaccessible anthocyanins in strawberries.
Article
In this study, the lingonberry fruit extract (LGBE) has been investigated for the ability to suppress the inflammatory response and mitigate oxidative stress in activated 3T3-L1 adipocytes and RAW 264.7 macrophages. The obtained results showed that LGBE significantly reduced IL-6, MCP-1 and IL-1β production, and counteracted the decrease in adiponectin and IL-10 expression in TNF-α-induced adipocytes. Moreover, LGBE exhibited a high anti-inflammatory potential in the macrophage cell culture by down-regulation the expression of pro-inflammatory mediators (IL-6, TNF-α IL-1β MCP-1, COX-2, iNOS). Furthermore, LGBE decreased intracellular ROS generation in inflamed adipocytes by enhancing expression of antioxidant defense enzymes (SOD, catalase, GPx) and inhibiting an oxidant enzyme (NADPH oxidase 4), which is one of the primary sources of ROS. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that lingonberry fruit may reduce adipose tissue inflammation and support immune cell homeostasis, and thus can be considered a natural tool for inflammation control.
Article
This study is aimed to evaluate the hypocholesterolaemic effect of anthocyanin extracts of lingonberry (LAE) in vitro and vivo studies. In vitro, LAE can effectively inhibit the micellisation of cholesterol with significant dose–effect relationship. In animal experiments, after 10‐weeks of LAE administration, lower values of body mass, daily food intake, liver weight, visceral adipose content, TC level, LDL‐C level, fasting blood glucose level and higher HDL‐C level in serum, cholesterol content and total bile acid content in faeces are observed in HCD‐induced hypercholesterolaemic mice compared with model group. These observations suggest that LAE could promote the metabolism of serum cholesterol in HCD‐induced hypercholesterolaemic mice primarily via faecal excretion of cholesterol. Furthermore, LAE may reduce the inflammatory cell infiltration and attenuate steatosis and hepatocellular fat deposit in the liver. Our results indicate that LAE is a potential dietary supplement in cholesterol‐lowering or for hypercholesterolaemic treatment. These findings may provide important basis for further optimisation of dietary anthocyanins utilisation. This study is aimed to evaluate the attenuating effect of anthocyanin extracts of lingonberry (LAE) on hypercholesterolemia. HPLC and UPLC‐QTOF‐MS/MS analysis were applied to characterize LAE, of which the major compound is cyanidin‐3‐O‐galactoside. In addition, through the examination of serum / fecal biochemical indicators and liver histopathology, LAE was proved to attenuate serum lipids and cholesterol metabolism in HCD‐induced hypercholesterolemic mice.
Article
Brown and beige adipocytes can catabolize stored energy to generate heat, and this distinct capacity for thermogenesis could be leveraged as a therapy for metabolic diseases like obesity and type 2 diabetes. Thermogenic adipocytes drive heat production through close coordination of substrate supply with the mitochondrial oxidative machinery and effectors that control the rate of substrate oxidation. Together, this apparatus affords these adipocytes with tremendous capacity to drive thermogenesis. The best characterized thermogenic effector is uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1). Importantly, additional mechanisms for activating thermogenesis beyond UCP1 have been identified and characterized to varying extents. Acute regulation of these thermogenic pathways has been an active area of study, and numerous regulatory factors have been uncovered in recent years. Here we will review the evidence for regulators of heat production in thermogenic adipocytes in the context of the thermodynamic and kinetic principles that govern their therapeutic utility.
Article
Background Polyphenolic compounds have shown many potentially positive bioactivities. But these beneficial effects depend on the amount of polyphenols accessible for absorption in the upper or lower parts of the digestive tract (bioaccessibility) or on the amount actually absorbed. Dietary fibers can interact with polyphenols in the digestive tract creating associations with them, which might influence polyphenol bioaccessibility in the digestive tract and therefore their bioactivities. Scope and approach The aim of this review is to discuss recent literature about non-covalent dietary fiber - polyphenol interactions, the parameters that affect these interactions, the types of bonds between polyphenols and dietary fibers and the influence of dietary fibers on the polyphenol bioaccessibility in the upper and lower parts of the digestive tract. Key findings and conclusions Dietary fibers create associations with polyphenols. This process depends on environmental conditions like pH value, temperature and ionic strength. In both, the upper and lower parts of the digestive tract, polyphenols can be released from various food matrices. Dietary fibers affect that process by lowering the polyphenol amount released in the upper digestive tract. By this mechanism, they also potentially increase the polyphenol amount that reaches lower parts of the digestive tract, where polyphenols, once released, can show beneficial effects. Dietary fibers might be a sort of a “control mechanism” for controlling the amount of bioaccessible polyphenols in the upper or lower parts of the digestive tract. Further studies are needed to clarify the role of dietary fibers in polyphenol bioactivities.
Article
This study investigated the effects of freeze-dried jaboticaba peel (FJP) and jaboticaba tea (JE) on obesity parameters of diet-induced obese rats. Thirty-six male Wistar rats were distributed into six groups: AIN-93 M feed a normal control diet; HFF (obese control) feed a high-fat and fructose diet; Prevention FJP (P. FJP) and Treatment FJP (T. FJP) feed HFF diet with 2% of FJP powder, for 12 and 6 weeks respectively; Prevention JE (P. JE) and Treatment JE (T. JE) were feed with HFF diet and the water was substituted by JE, for 12 and 6 weeks, respectively. Lipid profile, glucose, adiponectin and leptin were measured. Glucose and insulin tolerance, also pancreatic islet insulin secretion were determined. Liver morphology and fat liver accumulation were evaluated. Results showed that HFF-diet induced weight gain, dyslipidemia, glucose intolerance, insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis. All FJP and JE treatments reduced weight gain, adiposity and improved insulin sensitivity. Twelve weeks supplementation increased HDL-cholesterol and prevented hepatic steatosis. Our results suggest that FJP and JE act as functional foods, being a dietary strategy to prevent or control obesity. FJP and JE 12 weeks supplementation can modulate important parameters of obesity and insulin metabolism, preventing liver steatosis in obese rats.
Article
Beneficial properties attributed to the intake of blackberry fruit are associated with the presence of high content of anthocyanins. However, their low absorption and accumulation in the gut have generated the belief that gut metabolites of anthocyanins are probably reason for their protective effects. In this study, blackberry anthocyanins were prepared and subjected to in vitro human gut microbiota fermentation at different time intervals (0–48 h) to study their gut metabolites and antioxidant properties. The content of cyanidin-3-O-glucoside was found highest in blackberry and it degraded completely after 6 h fermentation. Gut metabolites of blackberry anthocyanins were found to improve the glucose consumption and glycogen content significantly in HepG2 cells. Furthermore, gut metabolites significantly ameliorated high glucose plus palmitic acid (HG + PA)-induced ROS, mitochondrial membrane collapse, and glutathione depletion in HepG2 cells. Overall, this study reveals that blackberry anthocyanins subjected to gut microbiota fermentation resulted in the formation of active metabolites with potential antioxidant activity against HG + PA-induced oxidative stress.
Article
Obesity is a proven risk factor for neurodegenerative disease like Alzheimer's disease (AD). Accumulating evidences suggested that nutritional interventions provide potential for prevention and treatment of AD. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of dietary treatment of obese rats with natural Raspberry ketone (RK) and their relationship with neurodegeneration. Obesity was first induced in 40 male Wistar rats (140-160 g) by feeding high fat diet (HFD) for 16 weeks. Obese rats were then assigned into 4 groups (n = 10 each). (O-AD) is obese induced AD group maintained on HFD for another 6 weeks. OCR is obese group received calorie restricted diet for 6 weeks. OCRRK is obese group received calorie restricted diet and RK (44 mg/kg body weight, daily, orally) for 6 weeks and OCRD is obese group received calorie restricted diet and orlistate (10 mg/kg body weight, daily orally) for 6 weeks. Another 10 normal rats received normal diet were used as normal control group (NC). Body weight, visceral white adipose tissue weight (WAT), lipid profile, oxidative stress markers, adiponectin, cholinergic activity and amyloid extracellular plaques were examined. In addition to histological changes in brain tissues were evaluated.Raspberry ketone (RK) via its antioxidant properties attenuated oxidative damage and dyslipidemia in O-AD group. It inhibited acetylcholinesterase enzyme (AchE) and hence increased acetylcholine level (Ach) in brain tissues of O-AD rats. It is also impeded the upregulation of beta-secretase-1 (BACE-1) and the accumulation of amyloid beta (Aβ) plaques which crucially involved in AD. The combination of CR diet with RK was more effective than CR diet with orlistate (antiobese drug) in abrogating the neurodegenerative changes induced by obesity. Results from this study suggested that concomitant supplementation of RK with calorie restricted regimen effectively modulate the neurodegenerative changes induced by obesity and delay the progression of AD.
Article
Chronic alcohol intake causes hepatic steatosis and changes the body composition and glucose metabolism. We examined whether water extracts of mulberry (WMB) and white flower dandelion ( Taraxacum coreanum Nakai, WTC) can prevent and/or delay the symptoms of chronic ethanol-induced hepatic steatosis in male Sprague Dawley rats, and explored the mechanisms. Ethanol degradation was examined by orally administering 3 g ethanol/kg bw after giving them 0.3 g/kg bw WMB or WTC. All rats were continuously provided about 7 g ethanol/kg bw/day for four weeks and were given either of 0.1% dextrin (control), WMB, WTC, or water extracts of Hovenia dulcis Thunb fruit (positive-control) in high-fat diets. Area under the curve of serum ethanol levels was lowered in descending order of control, WTC and positive-control, and WMB in acute ethanol challenge. WMB and WTC prevented alcohol intake-related decrease in bone mineral density and lean body mass compared to the control. After glucose challenge, serum glucose levels increased more in the control group than other groups in the first part and the rate of decrease after 40 min was similar among all groups. These changes were associated with decreasing serum insulin levels. WMB had the greatest efficacy for decreasing triglyceride and increasing glycogen deposits. WMB and WTC prevented the disruption of the hepatic cells and nuclei while reducing malondialdehyde contents in rats fed alcohol, but the prevention was not as much as the normal-control. The ratio of Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes in the gut was much higher in the control than the normal-control, but WTC and WMB decreased the ratio compared to the control. WMB and WTC separated the gut microbiota community from the control. In conclusion, WMB and WTC protected against alcoholic liver steatosis by accelerating ethanol degradation and also improved body composition and glucose metabolism while alleviating the dysbiosis of gut microbiome by chronic alcohol intake. Impact statement Excessive alcohol consumption is associated with serious pathologies and is common in much of the world. Pathologies include liver damage, glucose intolerance, and loss of lean body mass and bone mass. These pathologies are mediated by changes in metabolism as well as toxic metabolic byproducts, and possibly by gut dysbiosis. In this study, we demonstrate that aqueous extracts of mulberry and dandelion protected rats against ethanol-induced losses in lean body and bone masses, improved glucose tolerance and partially normalized gut bacterial populations, with mulberry extract being generally more effective. This research suggests that mulberry and dandelion extracts may have the potential to improve some of the pathologies associated with excess alcohol consumption, and that further clinical research is warranted.
Article
Evidence indicates that raspberry has beneficial effects on chronic diseases. The objective of the current study is to examine the beneficial effects of raspberry anthocyanin (RA) on high-fat diet induced obesity and investigate the underlying molecular mechanism. C57BL/6 mice were administered low-fat diet, high-fat diet, or high-fat diet supplemented with RA at dose of 200 mg/kg of food for 12 weeks. RA reduced the body weight gain by 63.7%. Furthermore, RA significantly elevated serum superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) activities, and fecal butyric acid levels, remarkably reduced serum and hepatic lipids profiles, markedly down-regulated expression genes of tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and nuclear factor кB (NF-кB). Metabolomics analysis using gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF/MS) indicated that RA administration promoted the recovery of metabolites involved in glycerophospholipid metabolism, insulin signaling pathway and glutathione metabolism in the livers of obese mice. These findings suggest that RA might ameliorate diet-induced obesity by alleviating oxidative stress and modulating lipid metabolism.
Article
Obesity has been strongly associated to noncommunicable chronic diseases, and dietary phenolic compounds with reducing the risk of development of these diseases. Sabara jaboticaba (Plinia jaboticaba) is an Atlantic Forest native fruit, rich in phenolic compounds, such as ellagitannins proanthocyanidins and anthocyanins. We investigated whether phenolic-rich Sabara jaboticaba extracts (PRJE), with low (LT) or high (HT) tannin concentration can protect C57BL/6 mice from obesity, hyperglycemia, insulin resistance and dyslipidemia induced by high-fat-sucrose diet. Both PRJE, especially the HT extract, prevented the body weight gain while avoiding the white adipose tissues overgrowth. In addition, prevented high fasting blood glucose concentrations and attenuated the hyperinsulinemia. Furthermore, the HT extract prevented high total cholesterol levels. Taken together, our findings confirm that phenolic compounds from Sabara jaboticaba have antiobesity properties and that the tannins play a decisive role in these effects.
Article
Fruits and aerial parts of lingonberry could be better developed as dietary supplements if the composition in bioactive phenolic compounds and the best period for collection were known. UPLC/MS analysis revealed the predominant presence of arbutin in leaf and that of flavanols in stems harvested in May, July and September. Anthocyanins, flavanols and benzoic acid derivatives were equally present in fruits. Stem and leaf are highly homologous with (+)-catechin, A- and B-type dimers/trimers, and two quercetin glycosides as major contributors. No or only weak seasonal variations were highlighted for all phenolic classes. Additionally, flavanol oligomers showed a lower mDP for fruit (3-4) than for stem and leaf (4-6). The rate of A-type linkage was 3-5% with A-type subunits in extension mainly. Finally, the content in phenolic compounds (UPLC) correlated well with TPC and the DPPH radical scavenging activity although leaf and stem constituents reacted differently in both antioxidant tests.