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The Ancestors of Today's Poles with the Haplogroup R1a

Sociology and Anthropology 9(2): 19-25, 2021
DOI: 10.13189/sa.2021.090202
The Ancestors of Today's Poles with the
Haplogroup R1a
Wojciech J. Cynarski
Committee of Scientific Research, Idokan Poland Association, Rzeszów, Poland
Received March 28, 2021; Revised April 15, 2021; Accepted May 28, 2021
Cite This Paper in the following Citation Styles
(a): [1] Wojciech J. Cynarski , "The Ancestors of Today's Poles with the Haplogroup R1a," Sociology and Anthropology,
Vol. 9, No. 2, pp. 19-25, 2021. DOI: 10.13189/sa.2021.090202.
(b): Wojciech J. Cynarski (2021). The Ancestors of Today's Poles with the Haplogroup R1a. Sociology and
Anthropology, 9(2), 19-25. DOI: 10.13189/sa.2021.090202.
Copyright©2021 by authors, all rights reserved. Authors agree that this article remains permanently open access under
the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 International License
Abstract The work is about Indo-Europeans in
general, which means people possessing R1a haplogroup
(and following mutations) of Y-DNA, as per inheriting
from father to son. Those possessing R1b, who dominated
western Europe, have little in common with India and Iran.
Our interest is in the group of Indo-Europeans who
evolved into Slavs and, in particular, modern Poles. The
article shows that the area of today's Poland was probably
the cradle of people and language that gave origin to other
Indo-European peoples (Aryans, Scythians, Persians,
Slavic) and their languages. Today's Poles are the nation
with the highest frequency of R1a haplogroup. Genetic,
linguistic and anthropological-cultural studies indicate
that the origin of Poles is ancient, directly from the
ancestors of the Lechites or Lekhs described in the
chronicles. There are also grounds for claiming that the
Lekhs’ connections with people from Aryans are both
genetic (biological) and cultural. The author provides
daring hypotheses and proceeds to check them through
logical deduction (inductive-deductive method), while
trying the synthetic approach to the problem and using a
multidisciplinary approach. Hypotheses checks and
logical justifications are backed by research results in
genetics, linguistics, cultural anthropology, ancient history
and hoplology which deal with weaponry and warrior
Keywords Indo-European, Aryan, Scyth, Slavic,
Lechite, Pole
1. Introduction
The thing is about Indo-Europeans in general, which
means people possessing R1a haplogroup and following
mutations of Y-DNA (we analyze haplogroups in the male
Y chromosome), as per inheriting from father to son.
Those possessing R1b (another mutation in haplogroup
R1), who dominated western Europe [4], have little in
common with India and Iran. Our interest is in the group
of Indo-Europeans who evolved into Slavs and, in
particular, modern Poles.
Germania as Romans called the area north of the Alps
and east of Gaul was initially, from about 2000 B.C.E.,
settled mainly by the Protoslavs or Slavs, as is presented
by Haarmann [27: 249-258]. Frankfurt am Main could
have been a border town of Francia and legendary Lechia.
Of course, we cannot uncritically and literally treat the
contents of medieval chronicles and legends. However, it is
worth looking for a rational nucleus, as in the case of the
Iliad and the excavated Troy. Modern Germans call those
primal dwellers of Germania Wenden or Winden (Wends).
Germanic peoples and languages were created as a result
of mixing between pre-Indo-European and Celtic elements
with some Slavic influence [17].
Indo-Europeans and Slavs are terms used by linguistics;
they are representative of specific language families, used
by those peoples. ”Early Slavs” is a substitute term for
naming modern Slavs’ ancestors. While having a specific
haplogroup and using a specific language is not directly
connected (like in magyarised Danube Slavs in Hungary),
such correlation is common. Luigi Luca Cavalli-Sforza
suggested there is a link between Y-DNA and languages.
The publication Cultural Transmission and Evolution: A
Quantitative Approach [7] made use of models from
population genetics and infectious disease epidemiology
to investigate the transmission of culturally transmitted
20 The Ancestors of Today's Poles with the Haplogroup R1a
units, such as for instance language.
The aim is to clarify the issue of the proto-Slavic roots
of today's inhabitants of Poland. The author provides
daring hypotheses and proceeds to check them through
logical deduction (inductive-deductive method) while
trying the synthetic approach to the problem and using
multidisciplinary approach. Hypotheses checks and
logical justifications are backed by research results in
genetics, linguistics, cultural anthropology, ancient history
and hoplology which deal with weaponry and warrior
The author's zero hypotheses is a thesis in favour of the
autochthonous theory of Polish origin: Genetic studies
proved the autochthonic theory of Polish origin. Many data
indicate in general the ancient origin of the Slavs. Is the
Sarmatian myth finding a rational justification today?
2. Pre-Aryan Roots
We can equate Aryans to Early Slavs. It is due to a
shared genetic trunk. It concerns mainly the ancestors of
modern Western Slavs (in particular, from Lechitic
language family), and partly other modern Slavic
nations. The frequency of R1a distribution is covered in
table 1 in the next part of this document.
Common ancestors of Aryans and Slavs used to live in
Germania, Lechia and along the Danube about 3700-2800
B.C.E., they used some form of Ario-Slavic language,
possibly divided into several dialects. Then the Aryans
(R1a-Z93 and Z94) migrated to the East. Their genetic
presence in the northern part of the Eurasian Steppe and in
the vicinity of Chelyabinsk in Ural (archaeological culture
Sintashta-Petrovka or Sintashta-Arkaim) is confirmed by
archaeological research [2]. War chariots were found in
their graves. They produced bronze tools and they were
excellent horsemen. They started the Indo-Iranian
languages and three great kingdoms India, Persia and
About 2800-2600
B.C.E. Early Slavs have already
settled areas in Middle and Eastern Europe, between Elbe
and Don. About 1500 B.C.E. Aryans entered India,
bringing the language (Sanskrit) and wisdom (the Vedas)
with them. Areas between Elbe and Dnieper overlap with
Lusatian archaeological culture (1300-400 B.C.E.),
examples of which are Biskupin and a number of similar
fortified settlements. Great Lechia from Wincenty
Kadłubek’s chronicle [52], on the other hand, was
supposed to reach from Danish isles as far as to Iran, just
like Great Scythia. Is it but a strange coincidence?
If we accept as evidence the discovery in the skeletons of the cordial
culture representatives from Eulau and Labba hg R1a1, so dated. Only we
do not know if they were Scythians or Slavs?
Lineages related to R1a-Z282 were connected to
common societies of copper and early bronze age, they
reached from the Rhein to the west to the Volga in the east.
Slavic culture emerged in Central Europe on Vistula.
Maybe in this cultural context hg R1a-Z282 diversified in
Central and Eastern Europe.” [51]. It would be true with
chronicles and legends.
Ptolemeus Claudius [41] counted tribes living in
Vistula’s basin as Sarmatia. This Greek geographer cites
Slavic sounding names in Scythia: Suovenians or
Suobenians and “Serbi”. While Caesarius of Nazianzus
(4th century) [6] used the name: Sclaveni, which means
Slavs. Through that, it can be supposed that the country
along the Vistula named Sarmatia was inhabited by
ancestors of modern Poles. In modern days prof.
Czekanowski [18], among others, confirmed the existence
of a pre-Christian Lechitic country. ”Lech” was a ruler’s
title [22: 45]. Country’s name Lechia would be
derived from “Lech”.
Sarmatians were related to Scythians, hailing from the
same cultural, and maybe genetic, trunk (currently it is
impossible to clearly denote it). They took over the
Scythians during their migration west, reaching Danube in
I C.E. They settled on the Danube and in Lower Carpathia.
Etymological clues indicate that Croatians could have
been Slavicised Sarmatians” [20: 78]. Nestor of Kiev [38]
also stated that Lechitic peoples arrived from over the
Danube and that Croatians are Lechitic tribe’s forebears.
It does not only apply to Croatians. Also, Poles, Slovaks
and eastern Slavs (Lechitic Polan’s and Lendyan’s
inheritors?) are maybe inheritors or relatives of the
peoples who inhabited Scythia or Sarmatia, or at least they
have genetically common ancestors.
3. Genetic Studies Outcomes
Modern genetics, as a science discipline, makes it
possible to explain what used to be different, often
mutually excluding interpretations of archaeologists and
historians. Peter Underhill’s team [51] marks Poland as a
cradle of Slavic R1a branches
. Those who possess R1a,
called by Klyosov “Arains” [32], took control of large
parts of central and eastern Europe, reaching Norway and
Iceland as well (table 1).
Of course, today's inhabitants of Poland are not a genetic monolith;
however, hg R1a is dominant here.
Sociology and Anthropology 9(2): 19-25, 2021 21
Table 1. Frequency of whole R1a haplogroup distribution in Europe
Country or region
R1a haplogroup
occurrence [%]
Which hg is dominant [%]
Slovakia, Spisz - Poles
Poland - Poles
27-30 M458; and about 23-26 M558/CTS1211
Germany, Lusatia Sorbs
about 20 M458; and M558
26.5 - M558
about 20 M558
20-30 M558
Russia between Kursk and Moscow
Russia over Kaluga
Russia, Altay between Kyzyl and
Z93 (we omit Iran and the countries of Central Asia, as
Kyrgyzstan, +60 Z94, L657)
24.6 - M558
15.2 - M558
29.7 - M558
18-30 M458
19.7 - M558
20 - Z93; and M558
21.5 - Z284
10.9 M558; 7.5 - M458
20.6 - M558
north-east Germany
19.8 - M558
10.1 - Z284
10.3 M458
6.4 M458
16.2 - M558
12.4 - M558
8.2 - M458
[source: 17, and Eupedia, 2018]
The basis of this genetic relation is a frequent
occurrence of R1a haplogroup and its most important
subgroup, marked: M417 (also known as R1a1a1; it is the
most frequent big subgroup of R1a), as well as later
developed subgroups M458 (R1a1a1b, currently most
frequently appearing in eastern Europe in Czechs, Slovaks,
Poles and western Belarussians) and Z93 (R1a1a2,
currently most frequent in Altay, south Siberia, Kyrgyzstan
and Iran). In the area inhabited by Scythians and
Sarmatians dominate subgroups Z93 and M417, and
Poland itself is the undisputable epicentre of M458
(estimated frequency in Polish population is 20%, while
outside of central and eastern Europe it does not exceed 7%)
and M558 occurrence (estimated frequency in Poles
exceeds 26%; this group only appears so frequently in
Western Belarus and Russia, while in Western Europe it is
10 times less common) [51].
Lack of foreign genetic influence suggests that Slavs
are autochthons of lands stretching from the Oder to the
Dnieper, and from the Baltic Sea to Carpathia. Genetics
also excludes the theories of, so called, eastern origin of
the Slavs. People living in what is today’s Poland from
200 B.C.E. to 500 C.E. (called Geats, Goths or Vandals
by some researchers) possess identical Mt DNA, as
modern Poles [31]. Those live here continuously from at
least 200 B.C.E. [31], where some geneticists extend this
period to about 4000 B.C.E. [37, 25].
4. Linguistic Justifications
Also, the languages and beliefs of Arias and Scythians
are very similar to Lechitic tribes’ languages and beliefs
of primal Slavs. Traces of the beliefs can be found in
myths, legends and chronicles, as well as in symbolism
(for example the Sun symbols) [48, 15, 21].
22 The Ancestors of Today's Poles with the Haplogroup R1a
Languages used by Scythians and primal Slavs were
most likely similar [30, 39]. As soon as 1857 Polish
orientalist Ignacy Pietraszewski [40] was proving that
Avestian and Polish languages are closely related. It was
an important discovery because Slavic languages are in
reality more similar to languages of ancient Iran and India,
than any other European languages. What is emblematic,
Avestian language contains a nasal vowel (ã), and today
similar phones (ą and ę) only appear in Polish. Reczek [42]
pointed out, that if Schelesniker (he cited two of his works)
is right, we are dealing with an extremely archaic
morphological Slavo-Iranic convergence. It is amongst
others about endings of words in declension. Also, many
similarities between Polish and Sanskrit occur [47].
Maybe it is better to use the term Ario-Slavic languages”
[15], instead of Indo-Iranic” and Balto-Slavic”? Primal
satem languages, which construct the trunk of the
Indo-European language family are concerned.
Slavs’ autochthonism in biological continuance in the
area of today’s Poland is confirmed by linguists, or at
least, they are inclined to such thesis [1, 5, 16]. Witold
Mańczak proved that in the light of statistical data,
original habitat of Indo-Europeans overlaps with the
habitat of Slavs. That means it was located in Vistula’s
and Oder’s basins. Baltic tribes on the other hand emerged
as a result of migration north and meeting Finno-Ugric
peoples [36: 89144], nota bene with haplogroup N. So,
the language of Vandals/Wends was an early Slavic
language [34, 3].
5. Other Cultural Relations
Apart from Sarmatian tradition in Polish nobility,
similarities occur in ethos and customs [10]. Similarities
of Scythian and Sarmatian design to contents
(iconography, symbolism) of some Polish coats of arms
were proved [14]. While in the legends of Polish noble
families references to direct Scythian origin can be found
[8: 209-230]. Makuch [35] sees also Iranic and Scythian
mythologies’ influence on Polish and Czech chronicling.
B. A. Dębek [21: 45-83] describes similarities of beliefs,
funeral rites and (solar) symbolism quite broadly.
Similarities are present also in the art of war.
„Scythians created (…) a specific culture of warriors
(cultura militum, cultura militaris). They named
themselves Skolotoi, which means archers. Maybe
this is the origin of the name Sclaveni, so Slavs?
Every adult Scythian was a warrior. In those times an
“archer” so a warrior fought mainly on horseback.
Steppe nations were usually more mobile than settled
nations’ armies. Horseback archery was a domain of
the people from the Eurasian Steppe. Scythian scale
armour [45] could have been taken from Assyrians or
vice-versa. Assyrians on the other hand most likely
derived horse archer military units from Scythians.
Scythians were the inventors of a recurve bow also
known as Scythian bow [43, 49]. (…) Apart from
bows they used spears, javelins, axes, horseman’s
picks and akinakes swords as well as lariats.” [17].
Military units of the First Polish Republic only
exchanged a sword for a sabre which was more
convenient during combat on horseback [48, 19, 35, 14].
For centuries Poles fought mostly on horseback. From
16th to 18th-century Polish winged hussars proved to be
an especially formidable cavalry unit, victorious in
numerous battles [12, 13, 46, 44]. Did Poles inherit that
trait from their ancestors?
Polish chroniclers mostly agree that Krak ruled in the
same years as Xerxes I (5th century B.C.E.). This Krak
was supposed to lead Slavic tribal confederation’s
warriors, win over the Celts, become a king and found
Kraków (Wawel). Both Scythians and Lechites were
judged on a basis of their brave spirit and body endurance
[35: 213, after: 52: 21]. According to Lechitic country’s
extent in the master Wincenty’s chronicle, Great Scythia
reached from the Danube to Iran [35: 199-200, after: 52:
11]. Does it mean that Polish chroniclers praised Scythian
kings? Master Wincenty known as Kadłubek wrote that
our brave ancestors won over Danish isles residents and
made their country a fief [52: 1208, book 1, chapter 2:
9-10]. It happened on Lechia’s north-western frontier.
Lechites won over Celts, extending Lechia to Carinthia,
Bulgaria and Parthia in the south [52: chapters 3-4: 11].
Jan Długosz [22: 22] wrote that “Lech, father of
Lechites, so Poles” reigned before 5th century B.C.E.
Lech’s country extended from the Elbe in the west to the
Dnieper and the Dniester in the east and from the
Sarmatian Sea (Baltic Sea) in the north to Sarmatian
Mountains (Carpathian Mountains) in the south. Rus was
supposed to be Lech’s descendant. After the reign of
twelve Voivodes about 500 B.C.E. Krak I reigned and he
conquered the Gauls and subjugated Czechs [22: 54].
Pre-Christian Lechia was a country of Slavic tribes that
were never won over by the Romans. Only Franks the
army of Charlemagne won over the Lechites in 765,
which coincides with the fall of the Popielids dynasty.
This is according to both the above-mentioned old Polish
6. Discourse
“German archaeologists of tendential and chauvinistic
attitude who supported ethnic method of Gustaw
Kossina’s school only saw German peoples in the
discussed area in late La ne period and identified
Przeworsk culture with Vandals and Oksywie culture with
Burgundians” [23: 179]. Polish archaeologists, on the
other hand, proved the continuity of Slavic settlement in
Vistula’s and Oder’s basin [33]. Lechitic Slavs’ presence
in today’s Germany is concluded also by some German
Sociology and Anthropology 9(2): 19-25, 2021 23
researchers [27].
Early Slavs with R1a haplogroup in Sorbian Eulau on
Soława (Ger. Saale) already existed in 2700 B.C.E. [26].
A battle on Tollense (Tolęża or Dołęża; about 1250-1200
B.C.E.) was fought between a few thousand warriors [9].
Lechites (or their ancestors with R1a) had to be already
decently organised since they most likely won. It is
supported by a fact of settlement of this area in the
vicinity of ancient keeps of Rostock and Rethra (Lechitic
tribes of Tollensians and Redarians) through the ages to
According to Zbigniew Gołąb, ancestors of Polish
people lived in the area from the Oder to the Don since
700 B.C.E. Maybe they were “Scythian farmers” also
known as “ploughing men” [20: 73]? It would be between
5th century B.C.E. and 5th century A.D., according to
Gołąb [24: 166], the Budinians, a nomadic tribe,
mentioned by Herodotus [29], living in the woods and
steppe in between the Dnieper and the Volga, neighbours
of Scythians and Sarmatians, could have been the Early
Slavs. Despite their nomadic lifestyle they built wooden
keeps. They took part in a war with a Persian king Darius
about 513 B.C.E. as Scythian allies.
In 1st century, the area of today’s Poland and Ukraine
were occupied by in ancients’ writings (Strabo, Tacitus,
Ptolemeus [41]) “a great nation of Lugii” (Lendyans?).
Next, the Slavs were being related with Wends (among
others, a gothic historian Jordanes, in the 4th century) [23:
176-177]. Amongst the first West Slavic statehoods is
Great Moravia 805-907 A.D., that unified part of the
lands and tribes, including the Principality of Nitra
(Slovaks) and Vistulan Duchy (today’s Lesser Poland).
Later the centre of the Slavic world moved to Prague
(Czechs) and to Gniezno (Polans). It may be assumed that
Lechitic kingdom existed in today’s Poland long before
duke Mieszko I and king Bolesław I the Brave (967-1025),
who for example, united a significant part of Lechitic
lands. The list of Polish and Lechitic rulers compiles 14
figures before Mieszko I [50: 9].
In a concept of fighting men’s anthropology [11] it
proved that warlike Polans united Polish lands and could
stand against German expansion. ”On the basis of bravery
and courage, the notions of honour and dignity were built
as well as whole ethical systems and noble behaviour
codes. Military cultures developed rules of discipline and
obedience, moral norms and idealism of ambitions.” [11],
and it applies to war traditions developed since the Early
Slavs’ arrival on the Vistula. These ancient ancestors were
probably the first Indo-Europeans Ario-Slavs
(Proto-Aryan and Proto-Slavic) with the dominant
haplogroup R1a1 Y-DNA.
Norman Davies presents Polish lands from Western
Pomerania and Lusatia to the west, to Smolensk and
Zaporizhia to the east; from Livonia to the north, to
Moldova and Black Sea’s coast to the south [20: 26]. He
marks, among others, Red Ruthenia (Ruthenia Rubra),
with Lviv as main city, as an ethnically Lechitic land,
nota-bene partly Ruthenised by Orthodox Church.
Ukraine started farther east it lied on both banks of
middle Dnieper (Kiev, Bracław and Chernihiv
Voivodships) [20: 59-60].
More and more archaeological, anthropological, genetic
and linguistic evidence supports the abandonment of the
allochthonous theory in favour of a full confirmation of the
theory of the autochthonous presence of the Proto-Slavic
people in the area of Lusatian archaeological culture [53,
54]. They were probably the direct ancestors of today's
Poles and other Western Slavs, and to a large extent also
Eastern Slavs. There was no settlement gap, but the
permanent settlement of the areas indicated above. As a
result of the research carried out in the Odra and Vistula
river basins, "high biological similarity between the
population inhabiting these lands since ancient times" was
found [54]. Moreover, genetic studies of haplogroups of
mitochondrial DNA in a new archaeological and
archaeo-genetic research confirm that people inhabiting the
southern territories of present-day Poland are genetically
close to earlier communities from these areas before 2000
BC [55].
7. Conclusions
The confirmation of the hypothesis is an original opinion
in a long-standing academic dispute of Polish supporters of
autochthonic theory and its opponents. Genetic studies
proved the autochthonic theory of Polish origin to be true at
least as by the 2nd century BCE or possibly about 2000
BCE. The Polish nobility’s myth was its Sarmatian origin,
a myth that proved to be true partially culturally and
partially genetically. The Scythian and Slavic peoples
grow out of the same Indo-European genetic trunk, or
rather, they are branches of the same thicker limb.
New research directions and ideas should take into
account subsequent genetic tests, both Y-DNA and
mtDNA, preferably fossil DNA. The territory of Poland is
becoming an interesting area of archaeological research. It
is also worth continuing interdisciplinary systemic
research. A series of hypotheses have yet to be tested.
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Full-text available
The Bronze Age of Eurasia (around 3000-1000 BC) was a period of major cultural changes. However, there is debate about whether these changes resulted from the circulation of ideas or from human migrations, potentially also facilitating the spread of languages and certain phenotypic traits. We investigated this by using new, improved methods to sequence low-coverage genomes from 101 ancient humans from across Eurasia. We show that the Bronze Age was a highly dynamic period involving large-scale population migrations and replacements, responsible for shaping major parts of present-day demographic structure in both Europe and Asia. Our findings are consistent with the hypothesized spread of Indo-European languages during the Early Bronze Age. We also demonstrate that light skin pigmentation in Europeans was already present at high frequency in the Bronze Age, but not lactose tolerance, indicating a more recent onset of positive selection on lactose tolerance than previously thought.
Objective In this work we aim to investigate the origins and genetic affinities of Bronze Age populations (2,400–1,100 BC) from the region of southern Poland and to trace maternal kinship patterns present in the burials of those populations by the use of complete mitochondrial genomes. Materials and methods We performed ancient DNA analyses for Bronze Age individuals from present‐day Poland associated with the Strzyżow culture, the Mierzanowice culture, and the Trzciniec Cultural circle. To obtain complete mitochondrial genomes, we sequenced genomic libraries using Illumina platform. Additionally, hybridization capture was used to enrich some of the samples for mitochondrial DNA. AMS ¹⁴C‐dating was conducted for 51 individuals to verify chronological and cultural attribution of the analyzed samples. Results Complete ancient mitochondrial genomes were generated for 80 of the Bronze Age individuals from present‐day Poland. The results of the population genetic analyses indicate close maternal genetic affinity between Mierzanowice, Trzciniec, and Corded Ware culture‐associated populations. This is in contrast to the genetically more distant Strzyżów people that displayed closer maternal genetic relation to steppe populations associated with the preceding Yamnaya culture and Catacomb culture, and with later Scythians. Potential maternal kinship relations were identified in burials of Mierzanowice and Trzciniec populations analyzed in this study. Discussion Results revealed genetic continuity from the Late Neolithic Corded Ware groups to Bronze Age Mierzanowice and Trzciniec‐associated populations, and possible additional genetic contribution from the steppe to the formation of the Strzyżów‐associated group at the end of 3rd millennium BC. Mitochondrial patterns indicated several pairs of potentially maternally related individuals mostly in Trzciniec‐associated group.
Problem. The problem of the origins of the Poles and other peoples of Central and Eastern Europe has lead to great scientific and social interest given the genetic discoveries of recent years, which have shown these issues in a new light. These problems are being simultaneously considered by archaeologists and historians, linguists and ethnologists, and anthropologists and interdisciplinary researchers. Method. The comparative and deductive methods were used, along with an analysis of the broader discourse (both scientific and popular), from the perspective of the sociology of science; hence source texts and mass culture-related texts are listed among the sources. Results. The term "Aryo-Slavic languages" seems more appropriate than "Indo-European", especially for peoples with the advantage of hg R1a Y-DNA. The similarity of the chronicles and their symbolism is another factor that testifies to their cultural closeness and its accompanying biological (genetic) proximity. There is a series of questions and hypothesis. Conclusions. The affinity of languages, the Polish noble coats of arms and Sarmatian signs, and anthropometric data of Aryans and Poles, especially genetics (Y-DNA, mt DNA) indicate that the holders of hg R1a1 (and derivatives) described in the paper originate from the same trunk.
Introduction. The theoretical perspective for the analysis undertaken here, utilises selected historical, linguistic, anthropological, ethnographic and sociological concepts, as well as the results of genetic testing in the male (Y-DNA) and the female (mt DNA) lines of succession. This allows for a multidisciplinary approach. Aim. The scientific problem to be solved is to explain the ethnogenesis of the Slavs and their relationship to the Scythians. This short study aims to collate the current state of relatively certain knowledge. Methods. The Content Analysis and the Analysis of Discourse were used. Sources are thematic publications and related literature. Among other things, the motifs on the coats of arms of the Polish nobility were analysed. Results and Conclusions. The state of our knowledge, which can be described as relatively certain, is now as follows: 1) Western Slavs (Lekhs?) and Poles have been living between the Elbe and the Dnieper rivers, in genetic continuity, at least since C2nd BC. 2) There is a strong relationship between the peoples of Indo-Iranian and Slavic culture (symbolism, beliefs) and the Proto-Slavic language could be the language of the Indo-Europeans hg R1a1a¹. In numerous other matters it is necessary to carry out further research.
Background. The frame of reference for this research is provided by a cross-disciplinary approach to the anthropology of martial arts. The results of research into genetics, linguistics, anthropology, general ancient and medieval history, and hoplology have provided a check on the hypotheses and supported the logical explanation backing the ideas presented in this paper. Aim. The authors pose questions concerning the Slavs, the Scythians and Sarmatians, and their systems of warfare and their relationship to today's Lekhs. The following hypothesis is presented: if the Scythians, Aryans and Slavs came from a single genetic root, then today's Slavs, especially the Western and Eastern ones, are their descendants, but the relationship is not limited merely to biology. Results. The Scythians and Sarmatians made a great contribution to the development of the art of war. This applies particularly to the use of horses and the tactical use of cavalry and archery. Their warrior-ethos has been preserved in the legends, symbols and traditions of the Polish (Lekh) nobility. Historic genetic material - also indicates the presence of ancestors of the Slavs in Central Europe from c2700 BCE. The languages of the Aryans and Scythians were closely related to the Slavic languages, and known as proto-Slavonic. However Scythians were speaking apparently different languages. Another proof of kinship may be the similarity between the iconography of the coats of arms of the Polish nobility and Scythian ornamentation. Conclusions. A genealogy based on the presence of specific haplogroups on the Y chromosome indicates a lack of foreign genetic influences, suggesting the autochtonicity of the Slavs in the lands between the Oder and the Dnieper Rivers, between the Baltic Sea and the Carpathian Mountains. The original Scythians were probably carriers of haplogroup R1a, with the subgroups R1a1a1b2 (created as a result of mutation F992/S202/Z93) and R1a1a1 (created as a result of the emergence of mutation M417) most widely represented. The direct or indirect descendants of the early Scythians, or Proto-Slavs (the commonly-agreed terms) are, in particular the Poles, characterized by the highest concentration of the R1a1a1b1a1 haplogroup (M458/PF6241) and other Western Slavs, e.g. today's Sorbs and Slovaks.
The article primarily aims at answering the question about the presence of warriors in prehistoric cultures of Central Europe. The author studies this issue on the basis of archaeological sources (material evidence of the existence of the cultures). He also uses written sources from the late antiquity. He concludes that prehistoric weapons are of crucial importance and their interpretation depends mainly on the contexts they are found in. What is also significant is the quality and quantity of particular types of armament. There are many arguments in support of the thesis concerning prevalence of symbols and meanings of e.g. the sword. In a synthetic sense, we can talk about two basic models: presence of a culture of warriors (referring mostly to the nomads) or just knowledge of war craft (referring to settled, farming communities).