BookPDF Available

Building inclusive societies by promoting social inclusion and reducing discrimination. Theories, research, and interventions

Authors:

Abstract and Figures

An international group of university scholars has developed this book, as a response to the “post-truth” world, where youth increasingly rely on information from unverified and often undocumented sources coming from different social media outlets. Disadvantaged and marginalized groups, like immigrants, ethnic minorities, people with low socioeconomic status, women, people with disabilities, etc. are especially affected by online misinformation. These groups are often presented in social media in a polarized, highly negative manner, backed up by strong statements like “These people are…”, followed by strong negative characteristics attributed to them, pointing out weakness, threat, or danger. Against this background, university teachers who are also leading researchers of the core topics related to social inclusion (e.g., identity, prejudice, social relationships) have elaborated this open-access book to help students and teachers to understand better what social inclusion is and how they can promote it working with marginalized and discriminated groups.
Content may be subject to copyright.
A preview of the PDF is not available
Book
Full-text available
This gamification manual explains and offers best practices and examples of how the PROMIS project partners gamified contents related to social inclusion, in order to help other teachers and developers of online educational courses understand how gamification can be used as a pedagogical strategy for digital natives. This gamification manual can be useful for teachers, online course developers, and private companies who want to use gamification to increase social responsibility. We, the project partners, hope that it can become a core reference for online course developers in the area of social issues.
Article
Full-text available
Recent developments in the acculturation literature have emphasized the importance of adopting inter-group perspectives that provide a valuable background for investigating how acculturation orientations (i.e., maintenance of the culture of origin and the adoption of the destination culture) of adolescents from migrant families are embedded in their proximal socialization contexts. Accordingly, we sought to understand the combined effects of the perceived parents' acculturation orientations and classmates' acculturation preferences on adolescents' own acculturation orientations in two independent cultural contexts, namely NorthEast of Italy (Study I) and SouthEast of Turkey (Study II). Participants were 269 (53.2% female; Mage = 14.77) and 211 (71.1% female; Mage = 15.37) adolescents from migrant families in Italy and in Turkey, respectively. Findings indicated that adolescents' acculturation orientations were influenced by their perceptions of both parents' acculturation orientations and classmates' acculturation preferences. In addition, the effects of parents' adoption of the destination culture were stronger than the effects of classmates' preferences for adoption of the destination culture in both countries. However, the effects of parents' maintenance of the culture of origin were stronger than the effects of classmates' preferences for maintaining the culture of origin in Turkey, but not in Italy.
Article
Full-text available
Background Self-efficacy and health locus of control are widely recognized as psychological factors related to life satisfaction. However, little is known about the mechanisms of the decrease in life satisfaction in disabled people. Objective /Hypothesis. The aim of the present study was to clarify the relationship between health locus of control (HLOC) and life satisfaction in people with acquired mobility impairment in comparison to a non-disabled sample, and to specify how self-efficacy interacts with these components. We hypothesized that self-efficacy is a mediator between HLOC and life satisfaction, and that disability moderates this relationship. Methods The cross-sectional study included a total of 120 participants (including 50% women) aged between 18 and 63 years (M = 33.33, SD = 9.55), and consisting equally of disabled and non-disabled persons. Data were collected using the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS), the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control (MHLC), and the General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSES). Results Consistent with most previous research, the results of this study indicate that life satisfaction decreased in persons with an acquired mobility impairment when compared to non-disabled participants. The study indicates that the GSES fully mediates the relationship between SWLS and all three scales of the MHLC: internal (IHLC), powerful others (PHLC), and chance (CHLC). In addition, Movement disability moderates the PHLC–GSES and CHLC–GSES relationships. Conclusions The findings suggest that people with movement disability may construct life satisfaction differently than persons without disability. Self-efficacy should be a target in therapy to improve life satisfaction in people with mobility impairment.
Article
Full-text available
Objectification theorists posit that exposure to sexually objectifying behavior, images, etc., leads women in particular to adopt an objectifying self-perspective. State self-objectification (SSO) (i.e., the internalization of the objectifying gaze) is theorized to usurp individuals' cognitive resources by diverting attention to their bodies. The objective of this paper is to systematically review the literature surrounding self-objectification and cognitive performance. Six databases retrieved 1,779 relevant articles. Studies were deemed eligible for inclusion if they (a) quantitatively investigated the relationship between SSO and cognitive performance using valid and reliable measures, (b) were published in a peer-reviewed journal between 1997 and 2019, inclusive, and (c) were available in English. Nine studies fulfilled all inclusion criteria. As the heterogeneity of the literature precluded meta-analysis, narrative synthesis was employed to review the results. While the quality of the studies was mixed, the results of our review support the contention that self-objectification impairs cognitive functioning. Appearance monitoring, actual-ideal self-discrepancies, negative self-conscious emotions, gender schema activation, and stereotype activation are evaluated as potential mechanisms behind the relationship between state self-objectification and cognitive performance, while chronic (trait) self-objectification is evaluated as a potential moderator.
Article
Full-text available
Few studies have examined how socioeconomic status (SES) affects two essential parts of human development, namely vocabulary and reading comprehension, in children facing severe poverty. The Roma population is the largest minority group in Europe, the majority of whom live in severe poverty. This study compared the development of 322 Roma children with the development of 178 non‐Roma children, between the ages of seven and 11 years, living in Romania. The Roma children had poorer initial vocabulary and reading comprehension skills as well as slower growth rates for both compared to the non‐Roma children. Importantly, SES had a direct influence on growth in both reading comprehension and vocabulary. The effect of SES was partly mediated by school absence and nonverbal IQ. This is a powerful finding since it suggests that poverty may have detrimental effects not only on reading but also on the development of verbal abilities. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Article
Full-text available
Background: Youth with disabilities are at high risk of unemployment compared with youth without disabilities. They often encounter challenges in accessing vocational programs that meet their needs. One promising approach that could help to address barriers that youth encounter while also enhancing social support is through electronic mentoring (e-mentoring). Although there is an increase in e-mentoring for youth with disabilities, little is known about its impact for youth with physical disabilities. Objective: This study aimed to assess the acceptability and initial impact of a Web-based peer electronic mentor employment intervention for youth with physical disabilities. Methods: The Empowering Youth Towards Employment intervention was evaluated using a pilot randomized controlled trial (RCT). Youth, aged 15-21 years, with physical disabilities were randomly assigned to an intervention (ie, mentored) or control (ie, not mentored) group. Trained mentors (ie, near peers) with a physical disability led the online discussion forums and provided peer support and resources for 12 modules (1 topic per week over 12 weeks). Primary outcomes focused on self-determination, career maturity, and social support. We also explored program adherence and dosage, participant satisfaction, and areas for improvement. Results: A total of 13 youth (mean age 17.3 years, SD 1.88; 54%, 7/13 female) completed the RCT. In the intervention group (n=9), 56% (5/9) of the youth were females, and in the control group (n=4), 50% (2/4) of the youth were female. Participants reported satisfaction with the program and that it was feasible and acceptable. Participants' mean engagement level with the program was 5.22 (SD 2.48) for the intervention group and 5.40 (SD 4.56) for controls. Participants in the intervention group demonstrated significant improvements in self-determination (t12=2.49; P<.04) compared with the control group. No adverse events were reported. Conclusions: The Empowering Youth Towards Employment is a promising intervention that enhances self-determination among youth with physical disabilities. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02522507; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02522507 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6uD58Pvjc). International registered report identifier (irrid): RR2-10.2196/resprot.8034.
Article
Full-text available
[straipsnis, santrauka, reikšminiai žodžiai lietuvių kalba; santrauka ir reikšminiai žodžiai anglų kalba] Šiame straipsnyje pateiktos profesinio orientavimo metodinių priemonių turinio analizės įžvalgos, siekiant atskleisti, kaip lyčių lygybės diskursai konstruoja galimybes vaikinams rinktis profesijas, susijusias su globos sfera (darželių auklėtojai, ikimokyklinio ugdymo mokytojai, socialiniai darbuotojai, slaugytojai ir kt.). Lyčių nelygybės švietime problematikos tyrimai dažnai akcentuoja lyčių stereotipų ir kultūrinių normų poveikį moterims renkantis vyrų dominuojamus fizinius ir technologinius (STEM) mokslus. Lyginamojoje ES šalių studijoje apie vyrų vaidmenis lyčių lygybės politikoje (Scambor et al., 2013) prieita prie išvados, kad merginų užimtumas „vyriškose“ švietimo srityse gerokai išaugo, o vaikinams trūksta paramos rinktis netipines vyrų profesijas. Straipsnyje, taikant kritinę diskurso analizę profesinio orientavimo metodinių priemonių medžiagos turiniui (www.mukis.lt) tirti, atskleista, kad vadinamosios globos profesijos yra nematomos karjeros ugdymo turinyje. Karjeros ugdymo medžiagoje, skirtoje mokytojams ir moksleiviams, vyrauja lyties požiūriu neutralus ir lyčių skirtumus pabrėžiantis diskursai, kurie reprodukuoja tradiciškai suvokiamas kultūrines nuostatas apie merginų ir vaikinų karjeros pasirinkimus, motyvaciją ir reprezentaciją. Iš esmės reprodukuojama horizontali lyčių segregacija, merginoms priskiriant globos sferos, o vaikinams – aukštųjų technologijų, transporto ir kt. „vyriškąsias“ profesijas. Tokiu būdu lytis dekonstruojantis diskursas nėra integruotas profesijų pasaulyje.
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: This article examines whether sports practice can influence the stereotype content associated with people with physical disability from the viewpoint of people without disability. Design: Both implicit and explicit stereotypes were assessed for people with disability compared with people without disability (Study 1), people with disability who engage in sport compared with people without disability (Study 2), and people with disability who engage in sport compared with people with disability (Study 3). Method: Participants (NStudy1 = 57, NStudy 2 = 61, NStudy 3 = 63) performed a warmth-Implicit Association Test and a competence-Implicit Association Test and were asked to rate how strongly they associated a series of warmth and competence traits with one or the other group of people. Results: In Study 1, people with disability were implicitly associated with less positivity and explicitly associated with higher warmth but lower competence than people without disability. The same results were found in Study 2. In Study 3, people with disability who engage in sport were explicitly associated with higher warmth and competence than people with disability but this result failed to emerge at an implicit level. Conclusions: The influence of practicing sport on the stereotype content associated with people with physical disability seems less consistent than has been assumed thus far. The results suggest the need for further study of the implicit stereotype content concerning people with disability and the types of information that might weaken the link between disability and negativity.
Article
This study examined the relations of multiple categorization and social dominance orientation with adolescents’ prejudice against migrants and identification with the human group over time. Participants were 304 Northern‐Italian late adolescents (61.84% female, Mage = 17.49) involved in a three‐wave longitudinal study (with 3 months interval between waves). Results showed that multiple categorization was negatively linked to prejudice at a later time, whereas social dominance orientation was positively associated with it; prejudice also negatively affected multiple categorization and positively affected social dominance orientation at a later time. Moreover, prejudice mediated the effects of multiple categorization and social dominance orientation on human identification. These findings have important implications suggesting the construens effect of multiple categorization for enhancing social inclusiveness.
Article
People with autism and other developmental disabilities are often supported by staff teams in accommodation, day support, and employment services. Although the literature outlines a number of individual staff characteristics that can influence the “quality of support,” there is a paucity of research investigating the characteristics of teams as a whole. Given the emphasis placed on “team work” in human services, this study investigated what constitutes the characteristics of an effective team in disability services. An online Delphi study was employed, whereby disability support staff and their managers answered a series of surveys to build a consensus as to “what constitutes an effective team.” The emerging consensus was analyzed using inductive thematic analysis, descriptive statistics, and the intraclass correlation coefficient. A consensus emerged concerning three core elements which combined constituted an effective staff team. In order of importance, these were a shared focus on client outcomes, effective leadership, and good communication among the team. However, a range of additional factors were also identified. These represented additional considerations that were, in the opinion of the participants, also important to building and maintaining an effective team. Focusing on client outcomes, fostering effective leadership, and ensuring good communication are necessary, but insufficient to establish an effective staff team. The implications are discussed in the context of policy development concerning staff recruitment, team development, supervision, and service evaluation.
Article
The inclusion of adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) in mainstream environments, especially mainstream classrooms, is critically impeded by their difficulties in self-regulating their emotions. Albeit new technologies have shown tremendous emulation in the field of ASD, solutions to assist individuals with ASD in emotion regulation appear very limited. This paper addresses this critical challenge through the design and evaluation of a tablet-based application dedicated to supporting adolescents with ASD in self-regulating their emotions in mainstream inclusive classrooms. This system relies on well-proven (paper-based) emotion-regulation interventions reported by special-education teachers and families through a participatory design. The experiment included 14 adolescents with ASD (as well as 19 adolescents with Intellectual Disabilities) using the application during three months in mainstream schools. We compared these two groups with another group of 15 adolescents with ASD who were not equipped with our application. Usability performance as well as efficacy performance (emotion-regulation outcomes) have been investigated in situ. We showed that 1) our system is autonomously and successfully used in mainstream classrooms, 2) it is also an efficient support for adolescents with ASD to self-regulate their emotions. This paper demonstrates that emotion regulation of adolescents with ASD can be supported within mainstream classrooms through an assistive technology, in order to improve both behaviors and sociocognitive processes linked with core features of ASD. Moreover, it provides insights of a methodology suited to mainstream classrooms, building on previous research addressing specialized settings.