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Ethnobotanical study of plants used as food and for maternal health care by the Malays communities in Kampar Kiri Hulu, Riau, Indonesia

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Susandarini R, Khasanah U, Rosalia N. 2021. Ethnobotanical study of plants used as food and for maternal health care by the Malays communities in Kampar Kiri Hulu, Riau, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 22: 3111-3120. Studies to reveal the diversity of food plants on communities living in remote areas with limited access to the market are important as an effort in documenting the traditional knowledge. The same applies to the diversity of medicinal plants used in maternal health care for communities that have limited access to public health facilities. The documentation of ethnobotanical knowledge is not only for the purpose of developing the potential of these plants, but also could have an impact on their conservation in nature. This study aims to document the traditional knowledge on the diversity of food plants and medicinal plants used in maternal health care by Malays tribes living within the Bukit Rimbang Bukit Baling Wildlife Reserve, Kampar Kiri Hulu Subdistrict, Kampar District, Riau Province, Indonesia. The research was conducted in three villages by collecting data through interviews and followed by fieldwork to collect plant specimens for identification. Data on food plant diversity data were obtained from 20 informants, while data on the diversity and use of medicinal plants for maternal health care were obtained from 73 informants. The results showed that there were 76 species of food plants from 35 families. These food plants were used as secondary food ingredients, vegetables, fruit and spices with most of these plants were obtained from the yard of the house. Plants used for maternal health care identified from this study were 34 species from 26 families. These plants were used for various purposes during pregnancy, child delivery, postpartum recovery, and infant health care. The diversity of food plants and medicinal plants for maternal health care documented in this study showed the valuable role of plant resources in supporting daily needs and health care of the communities living in the fringe of forest area.
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B I O D I V E R S I T A S
ISSN: 1412-033X
Volume 22, Number 6, June 2021 E-ISSN: 2085-4722
Pages: 3111-3120 DOI: 10.13057/biodiv/d220613
Ethnobotanical study of plants used as food and for maternal health
care by the Malays communities in Kampar Kiri Hulu, Riau, Indonesia
RATNA SUSANDARINI1,, USWATUN KHASANAH2, NURMA ROSALIA3
1Faculty of Biology, Universitas Gadjah Mada. Jl. Teknika Selatan, Sekip Utara, Sleman 55281, Yogyakarta, Indonesia.
Tel./fax.: +62-274-580839, email: ratna-susandarini@ugm.ac.id
2Sekolah Alam Bintaro. Jl. Pondok Pucung Raya No. 88, Bintaro Sektor IX, Pondok Aren, Tangerang Selatan 15229, Banten, Indonesia.
3Nature Conservation Agency of North Sulawesi of Gorontalo Region, Ministry of Environments and Forestry. Jl. AK. Luneto, Limboto, Gorontalo
96271, Gorontalo Province, Indonesia
Manuscript received: 27 April 2021. Revision accepted: 9 May 2021.
Abstract. Susandarini R, Khasanah U, Rosalia N. 2021. Ethnobotanical study of plants used as food and for maternal health care by the
Malays communities in Kampar Kiri Hulu, Riau, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 22: 3111-3120. Studies to reveal the diversity of food plants
on communities living in remote areas with limited access to the market are important as an effort in documenting the traditional
knowledge. The same applies to the diversity of medicinal plants used in maternal health care for communities that have limited access
to public health facilities. The documentation of ethnobotanical knowledge is not only for the purpose of developing the potential of
these plants, but also could have an impact on their conservation in nature. This study aims to document the traditional knowledge on
the diversity of food plants and medicinal plants used in maternal health care by Malays tribes living within the Bukit Rimbang Bukit
Baling Wildlife Reserve, Kampar Kiri Hulu Subdistrict, Kampar District, Riau Province, Indonesia. The research was conducted in three
villages by collecting data through interviews and followed by fieldwork to collect plant specimens for identification. Data on food plant
diversity data were obtained from 20 informants, while data on the diversity and use of medicinal plants for maternal health care were
obtained from 73 informants. The results showed that there were 76 species of food plants from 35 families. These food plants were
used as secondary food ingredients, vegetables, fruit and spices with most of these plants were obtained from the yard of the house.
Plants used for maternal health care identified from this study were 34 species from 26 families. These plants were used for various
purposes during pregnancy, child delivery, postpartum recovery, and infant health care. The diversity of food plants and medicinal
plants for maternal health care documented in this study showed the valuable role of plant resources in supporting daily needs and health
care of the communities living in the fringe of forest area.
Keywords: Ethnobotany, forest foods, medicinal plants, rural communities, traditional knowledge
INTRODUCTION
Communities living in remote areas especially nearby
or within the forests, generally meet their needs for food
and traditional medicine by utilizing plant resources
obtained from the surrounding area. This condition creates
traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) on plant species
diversity and how to manage and utilize such biodiversity.
In this case, the diversity of food plants that can be
obtained from fields and nearby forests is very important in
fulfilling daily nutrition. The important role of local food
plants, both those originating from forests and fields, and
those grown in home gardens, in maintaining food security
has been mentioned by Neudeck et al. (2012), Amente
(2017), and Aryal et al. (2018).
In addition to providing food, plant resources found
around community settlements living in remote areas also
play an important role in providing materials for traditional
medicine. A number of studies showed that the traditional
practice of using medicinal plants for health care is still
found in communities living in remote rural areas (Malini
et al. 2017, Zaki et al. 2019). Among various uses of
medicinal plants traditionally used by rural communities is
the use of plants for maternal health care. Maternal health
care includes medical treatments during the periods of
pregnancy, childbirth, and postpartum recovery. The
practice of using medicinal plants in pregnancy, childbirth,
and postpartum recovery is still found in various countries,
such as those reported by Malan and Neuba (2011) in
Eastern Côte d'Ivoire, Nergard et al. (2015) in Mali, West
Africa, and Ali-Shtayeh et al. (2015) in Palestine. The
practice of traditional medicine in maternal health care is
mainly important in areas with limited access to
transportation, as well as those with limited availability of
modern health facilities.
The uses of food and medicinal plants are influenced by
the culture and perceptions of the local community. As
evidence, Uprety et al. (2012) noted the influence of
culture on the perception and utilization of wild food plants
in Nepal. Similarly, strong influence of culture on the
perception and use of local food plants was reported by
Sukenti et al. (2016) on the Sasak tribe in Lombok,
Indonesia. Nonetheless, the knowledge, culture, and
perceptions of food and medicinal plants are generally
passed down from generation to generation orally without
written documentation, and thus face a risk of serious
decline and even become lost. For example, a study by
Pawera et al. (2020) in West Sumatra showed that there has
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been a shift in public perception and acceptance of wild
food plants, which is indicated to be caused by decreased
availability of wild edible plants in nature and due to
changes in people's lifestyles, especially for the younger
generation.
The importance of documentation of traditional
knowledge on diversity of plants for food and health in
rural communities has been raised by a number of
researchers, such as Rahman (2013), Silalahi et al. (2015),
and Geng et al. (2016). The traditional knowledge of food
plants is inherited from generation to generation in
communities that have continued reliance or highly
dependent on wild edible plants for their daily nutrition
(Amente 2017). Begin with such rationales, this study
aimed to explore the diversity of food plants and medicinal
plants used in maternal health care by the Malays
communities living within the Bukit Rimbang Bukit Baling
Wildlife Reserve in three villages in Kampar Kiri Hulu
Subdistrict, Kampar District, Riau Province, Indonesia and
at the same time to document the traditional knowledge of
the communities on botanical diversity in the study area.
The object of this study provides an excellent context
because of the high dependence of the communities on
natural resources for their daily lives, especially on the
forest ecosystem which is mostly lowland rain forest.
MATERIALS DAN METHODS
Study period and area
This study was conducted in November 2016 in three
villages within the Bukit Rimbang Bukit Baling Wildlife
Reserve area, namely Batu Sanggan Village, Aur Kuning
Village and Kota Lama Village, Kampar Kiri Hulu
Subdistrict, Kampar District, Riau (Figure 1). The study
area is located at the foot of the Bukit Barisan Mountains.
The settlements in the three villages are located at 90-130
m asl which are close to secondary forest with an altitude
of 140-350 m asl. The main livelihood of the Malays
communities is rubber farmers with occasional harvests
and sells forest products such as bamboo, honey, and fruits.
People do fishing in the river for daily consumption. The
main transportation access to the three villages is rivers,
and therefore rivers are also the center of the communities’
daily activities.
The Malays communities in the study area consisted of
several family tribes. There are four family tribes in Batu
Sanggan Village, namely Melayu, Domo, Patopang, and
Paliyang, whereas in Aur Kuning Village there are three
family tribes, namely Malay, Domo, and Domo Kampai.
The most diverse Malays communities was found in Kota
Lama Village with six family tribes, namely Melayu, Domo,
Melayu Ulak, Patopang, Piliang Bukit, and Piliang Bawah.
Figure 1. Map of study area showing the location of three villages in Kampar Kiri Hulu Subdistrict, Kampar District, Riau, Indonesia
SUSANDARINI et al. food plants and traditional maternal care by Malays communities in Riau
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Data collection and field survey
Ethnobotanical data on food plants and medicinal plants
for maternal health care were collected by conducting
semi-structured interviews using a questionnaire. Snowball
sampling method was used to select the informants
(Espinosa et al. 2014). The informants were interviewed
individually. Data on food plant diversity was obtained
from a total of 20 informants consisted of 10 informants
from Aur Kuning Village and 10 informants from Kota
Lama Village. Data on the diversity and the use of plants
for maternal health care was collected from Batu Sanggan
Village and Kota Lama Village, with a total of 73
informants participated in the study. The informants
consisted of tribe leaders, village administration officers,
traditional healers, traditional midwives, and
representatives of households in the communities. The data
collected include plant species used as food and plants used
for maternal health care, location where they get the plants
from, parts of plants used, and category of uses.
The collection of plant specimens for identification was
carried out in their growing locations mentioned by the
informants, namely forests, fields, and home gardens. A
local field guide accompanied the researcher during field
survey. The technique of plant sample collection and
preparation of herbarium specimens followed the procedure
of dos Santos et al. (2014).
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Diversity of food plants
A total of 76 plant species from 35 families were used
by the Malays communities in Kampar Kiri Hulu as food
(Table 1). Based on their uses, these food plants can be
categorized as secondary food ingredients, vegetables,
fruits, and spices. Vegetables shared the largest portion
with 43.42%, followed by fruits (36.84%), spices
(11.84%), and secondary food ingredients (7.90%). This
result is similar to the study by Acquah et al. (2018) in
Ghana and Sachula et al. (2020) in China in which
vegetables and fruits were the two highest categories of
food plant uses.
Plant species categorized as secondary food ingredients
are those used as sources of carbohydrates. These included
Metroxylon sago (sago), Zea mays (maize), Manihot
esculenta (cassava), Ipomoea batatas (sweet potato),
Canna edulis (edible canna), and Xanthosoma sagittifolia
(cocoyam). The sago trees which grow in the forest or on
the riverbank near the settlements are one potential plant as
the substitute of rice as staple food. The superiority of sago
trees as food plant species in the area was because this
plant is well-adapted to marginal land and does not require
intensive maintenance throughout its life stages
(Tjokrokusumo 2018). Maize, which becomes major
secondary staple food in many regions of Indonesia, has
beneficial effect on health due to the presence of
phytosterols and C-complex vitamins (Shah et al. 2016).
Similarly, cassava tuber as secondary food has been known
for a long time, and the tuber serves as high energy food
from its carbohydrate content with high fiber good for
healthy diet, and also has high content of calcium, iron,
potassium, magnesium, copper, zinc, and manganese
(Bayata 2019). Meanwhile, the role of sweet potato as
secondary food is not only justified by its carbohydrate
content providing high energy but also from another
nutritious components such as beta carotene, vitamin C,
niacin, riboflavin, thiamin, and minerals (Zuraida 2003).
The lesser-known plant species consumed as secondary
food ingredients is the edible canna, in which its starch has
high content of phosphorus, sodium, potassium and
magnesium (Perez and Lares 2005). Another underutilized
food plant species is the cocoyam, which in terms of
secondary food is considered superior compared to other
root and tuber crops due to its protein digestibility,
vitamins and mineral content (Boakye et al. 2018).
Some of the vegetables used by the Malays
communities are abundantly available in particular season,
and are the basic ingredients of the typical cuisine in
Kampar Kiri Hulu. These vegetables are Archidendron
pauciflorum, A. bubalinum, and Parkia speciosa. Apart
from being consumed as cooked vegetables for daily meal,
people usually process the beans of A. pauciflorum into
various products, such as chips and crackers (Rosalia
2017). The bean of A. pauciflorum with its sulfur-
containing amino acids is widely consumed by people in
Southeast Asian countries, and regardless of its unpleasant
odor, it is known to have medicinal properties for purifying
blood and antidiabetic agent (Bunawan et al. 2013). One of
the unique forest ferns species used as food by people in
the study area is Diplazium esculentum, in which the fiber-
rich young shoots of the fronds are usually cooked as
vegetable for healthy diet. This plant is considered a highly
nutritious vegetable commodity in India where it is traded
in the local market and also used as medicinal plant (Sarkar
et al. 2018).
Studies in various countries indicated that wild edible
plant species are multipurpose species, namely as food and
medicinal plants, as reported by Amente (2017) in
Ethiopia, Liao et al. (2018) in Guangdong, Southern China,
and Sachula et al. (2020) in Inner Mongolia, China. The
same results were found in Indonesia, as reported by
Sujarwo et al. (2016) in Bali where a total of 16.28% of
food plants are also used as medicinal plants. Among the
food plants identified in this study, there were ten species
that were used as medicinal plants by Malays communities
in Kampar Kiri Hulu (Rosalia and Susandarini 2020).
These multipurpose plants were Carica papaya, Cocos
nucifera, Garcinia atroviridis, Musa paradisiaca, Pometia
pinnata, Nephelium lappaceum, Capsicum annuum, Solanum
torvum, Zingiber officinale, and Globba leucantha.
The food plants identified in this study were obtained
by people from three different locations, namely forest,
field, and home garden. In terms of their location, the
percentages of food plants obtained from forests, fields,
and home gardens were 18, 36, and 46 percent,
respectively. This shows that home garden plays an
important role as productive site for growing food crops.
Home gardens are usually planted with various species
with multi-layer structures that can be managed to produce
food crops in a sustainable way (Kehlenbeck and Maass 2004).
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Table 1. List of food plant species used by the Malays communities in Kampar Kiri Hulu, Riau, Indonesia
Family
Species
Local name
Category
Part used as food
Alliaceae
Allium tuberosum Rottler ex Spreng
Gando
SP
Leaf, bulb
Amaranthaceae
Amaranthus viridis L.
Bayam
VG
Leaf
Anacardiaceae
Mangifera foetida Lour.
Ambacang
FR
Fruit
Mangifera indica L.
Mangga
FR
Fruit
Mangifera sp.
Kunangan
FR
Fruit
Annonaceae
Annona muricata L.
Sirsak
FR
Fruit
Araceae
Xanthosoma sagittifolium (L.) Schott
Talas
SF, VG
Corm, stem
Arecaceae
Arenga pinnata (Wurmb) Merr.
Enau
FR
Fruit
Cocos nucifera L.
Kelapa
VG
Fruit
Calamus sp.
Rotan air
VG
Young leaf
Metroxylon sago Rottb.
Rumbia
SF
Stem
Salacca zalacca (Gaertn.) Voss.
Salak
FR
Fruit
Asteraceae
Blumea lacera (Burm.f) DC.
Rambung-rambung
VG
Leaf
Athyriaceae
Diplazium esculentum (Retz.) Sw.
Pakis
VG
Young leaf
Brassicaceae
Brassica rapa L.
Sawi
VG
Leaf
Bromeliaceae
Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.
Nanas
FR
Fruit
Cannaceae
Canna edulis Ker.
Umbi kalin
SF
Rhizome
Caricaceae
Carica papaya L.
Pepaya
VG, FR
Leaf, flower
Clusiaceae
Garcinia atroviridis Griff. ex T.Anderson
Asam gelugur
FR
Fruit
Garcinia mangostana L.
Manggis
FR
Fruit
Convolvulaceae
Ipomoea aquatica Forssk.
Kangkung
VG
Leaf
Ipomoea batatas L.
Ubi jalar
SF
Tuber
Cucurbitaceae
Luffa acutangula (L.) Roxb.
Gambas
VG
Fruit
Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) Standl.
Labu air
VG
Fruit, leaf
Cucurbita moschata Duchesne
Labu kuning
VG
Fruit , leaf
Sechium edule (Jacq.) Swartz
Labu siam
VG
Fruit
Momordica charantia L.
Pare
VG
Fruit
Cucumis sativus L.
Timun
VG
Fruit
Euphorbiaceae
Manihot esculenta Crantz
Singkong
SF, VG
Tuber, leaf
Fabaceae
Archidendron pauciflorum (Benth.) I.C.Nielsen
Jengkol
VG
Fruit
Archidendron bubalinum (Jack) I.C.Nielsen
Kabau
VG
Fruit
Vigna radiata (L.) R.Wilczek
Kacang hijau
FR
Fruit
Phaseolus vulgaris L.
Kacang panjang
VG
Fruit
Parkia speciosa Hassk.
Petai
VG
Fruit
Gnetaceae
Gnetum gnemon L.
Seminyak
VG
Leaf
Hypoxidaceae
Molineria latifolia (Dryand.)Herb. ex Kurz
Kutari
FR
Fruit
Lamiaceae
Ocimum tenuiflorum L.
Kemangi
VG
Leaf
Malvaceae
Durio zibethinus Rumph. Ex Murray
Durian
FR
Fruit
Melastomataceae
Melastoma malabatrhicum L.
Keruduk
VG
Leaf
Meliaceae
Lansium domesticum var. duku Correa
Duku
FR
Fruit
Lansium domesticum var. domesticum Correa
Langsat
FR
Fruit
Moraceae
Ficus racemosa L.
Jambu
VG
Fruit
Artocarpus integra Merr.
Nangka
VG, FR
Fruit
Artocarpus champeden (Lour.) Stokes
Nangka hutan
VG, FR
Fruit
Ficus fulva Reinw. ex Blume
Simantong
VG
Fruit, young leaf
Ficus ampelas Burm.f.
Simantong tanis
VG
Fruit, young leaf
Musaceae
Musa paradisiaca L.
Pisang
FR
Fruit
Myrtaceae
Psidium guajava L.
Jambu biji
FR
Fruit
Syzygium aqueum (Burm. f.) Alston
Jambu merah
FR
Fruit
Syzygium polyanthum (Wight) Walpers
Salam
SP
Leaf
Oxalidaceae
Averrhoa bilimbi L.
Belimbing beras
VG
Fruit
Pandanaceae
Pandanus amaryllifolius Roxb.
Pandan harum
SP
Leaf
Passifloraceae
Passiflora foetida L.
Markisa
FR
Fruit
Phyllanthaceae
Sauropus androgynus L.
Katuk
VG
Leaf
Baccaurea motleyana Mull.Arg.
Rambai
FR
Fruit
Baccaurea macrocarpa (Miq.) Mull.Agr.
Tampui
FR
Fruit
Baccaurea racemosa (Reinw ex Blume) Mull. Arg.
Tungau
FR
Fruit
Poaceae
Dendrocalamus asper (Schult.f.) Backer ex Heyne
Bambu petung/
Bambu batueng
VG
Shoot
Zea mays L.
Jagung
SF
Fruit
Cymbopogon citratus (D.C.) Stapf
Serai
SP
Leaf, stem
Rutaceae
Citrus hystrix D.C.
Jeruk purut
SP
Fruit
SUSANDARINI et al. food plants and traditional maternal care by Malays communities in Riau
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Sapindaceae
Dimocarpus longan Lour.
Kelengkeng
FR
Fruit
Pometia pinnata J.R.Forst. & G.Forst.
Kasai
FR
Fruit
Nephelium xerospermoides Radlk.
Idan/Redan
FR
Fruit
Nephelium mutabile Blume
Pulesan
FR
Fruit
Nephelium lappaceum L.
Rambutan
FR
Fruit
Nephelium juglandifolium Blume
Turing
FR
Fruit
Solanaceae
Capsicum annuum L.
Cabai
SP
Fruit
Solanum torvum Sw.
Rimbang
VG
Fruit
Solanum melongena L.
Terong
VG
Fruit
Solanum lycopersicum L.
Tomat
VG
Fruit
Solanum sp.
Imbang petani
VG
Fruit
Zingiberaceae
Zingiber officinale Roscoe
Jahe
SP
Rhizome
Curcuma longa L,
Kunyit
SP
Rhizome
Alpinia galanga (L.) Willd.
Lengkuas
SP
Rhizome
Globba leucantha Miq.
Silome
FR
Fruit
Note: FO: forest, FI: field, HG: home garden, SF: secondary food ingredients, VG: vegetable, FR: fruit, SP: spices
A study by Mohri et al. (2013) on home gardens in
Indonesia, Sri Lanka, and Vietnam showed that home
gardens are ecologically, socially, and economically
diverse, and greatly contribute to fulfilling nutritious diets
and even might give additional income for the family.
Moreover, Vlkova et al. (2011) mentioned that the home
gardens represent subsistence farming in Vietnam with
most of the plants have multiple uses. These studies
showed the role of home gardens in creating food security,
maintaining botanical diversity, and at the same time
maintaining traditional knowledge for the local
communities (Whitney et al. 2018). The advantage of
cultivating food crops in the home garden is that it can be
planted with species of varying growth cycles consisted of
multipurpose species to guarantee food availability
throughout the year (Galluzzi et al. 2010, Cruz-Garcia and
Struik 2015).
Among the four food plant categories, the edible forest
products that have the potential to be developed further for
supporting sustainable food security are fruit trees (Liao et
al. 2018). Some species found in the forest of Kampar Kiri
Hulu which are classified as potential forest fruit trees
included Mangifera foetida, Garcinia atroviridis, G.
mangostana, Durio zibethinus, Artocarpus integra, A.
champeden, Baccaurea motleyana, B. macrocarpa, B.
racemosa Nephelium mutabile, N. xerospermoides, N.
juglandifolium, and Pometia pinnata (Rosalia 2017). These
fruits contain nutrients and phytochemicals useful in
fulfilling the healthy diet of the communities livling close
to the forests. The people in Kampar Kiri Hulu used the
unripe A. champeden fruit as a vegetable, while the ripe
fruit with its characteristic aroma is consumed as fresh
fruit. In terms of nutritional content, Lim et al. (2011)
noted that the unripe A. champeden fruit has higher content
of crude fiber and crude protein than the ripe fruit, but the
carbohydrate content was lower. Durian (Durio zibethinus)
known as king of fruits, has a high polyphenol content
which can reduce the risk of chronic diseases, and this fruit
also contains high carotenoids and ascorbic acid (Aziz and
Jalil 2019). Meanwhile, Baccaurea motleyana, one of three
species of Baccaurea grows in the forest in the Kampar
Kiri Hulu area is one of the seasonal forest fruit with
unique taste. The ripe fruit of B. motleyana which has an
acid-sweet to sweet taste is known to contain 88
phytochemicals, as well as carbohydrates, vitamins, and
minerals (Prodhan and Mridu 2021).
It is interesting to note that among the food plant
species used by the Malays communities in Kampar Kiri
Hulu, there were a number of species obtained from the
forest, and thus can be categorized as forest plant foods.
Due to the fact that these plants are not intensively
cultivated, such plant species are referred to wild edible
plants by some researchers. Forest plant foods or wild
edible plants play an important role in creating food
security for rural communities by providing nutrients for
daily food and in certain situations of crop food scarcity
(Uprety et al. 2012, Acquah et al. 2018). The contribution
of forest food plants to the quality of rural diets is by
providing a source of vitamins and minerals (Neudeck et al.
2012), especially from fruits and vegetable plant species.
However, some of these plant species are considered as
neglected and underutilized species (Hunter et al. 2019),
and therefore more attention is needed so that their
potential and contribution in providing nutritious food
supply can be optimally developed. The important role of
forest trees in providing food plants to maintain a
sustainable diet was mentioned by Vinceti et al. (2013) and
Liao et al. (2018) especially for people who live in the
close vicinity to forest areas such as the Malays
communities in this study.
Diversity of plants used in maternal health care
In this study, there were 34 plant species from 26
families traditionally used by the Malays communities in
Kampar Kiri Hulu as medicinal plants for maternal health
care. They used the plants for various purposes including
during pregnancy, child delivery, postpartum recovery, and
traditional health care for newborn babies (Table 2). The
practices of using medicinal plants for maternal health care
have been reported in a number of studies from various
countries. Some studies on the use of medicinal plants for
treatment during pregnancy include those reported by
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Maliwichi-Nyirenda and Maliwichi (2010), Malan and
Neuba (2011), John and Shantakumari (2015), and
Nalumansi et al. (2017). The studies focusing on
postpartum health care were those of Dudi and Singh
(2018), Yusoff et al. (2018), and Sibeko and Johns (2021).
Meanwhile, Lamxay et al. (2011), Ali-Shtayeh et al.
(2015), and Randrianarivony et al. (2016) reported studies
on medicinal herbs for both ante-natal and post-natal cares.
Table 2. Plant species used in traditional practices of maternal health care by the Malays communities in Kampar Kiri Hulu, Riau,
Indonesia
Family
Species
Local name
Plant part
used
Medicinal use
Amaranthaceae
Amaranthus spinosus L.
Bayam duri
Leaf
Uterotonics
Apiaceae
Pimpinella anisum L.
Jintan manis
Flower
Induce breast milk production
Arecaceae
Cocos nucifera L.
Kelapa
Fruit, coconut
water, oil
Uterotonics, uterus cleaning and wound
healing
Areca catechu L.
Pinang
Mesocarp,
leaf sheath
Facilitate ease labor/child delivery,
baby bathing
Asparagaceae
Cordyline terminalis (L.) A. Chev
Linjuang
Leaf
Uterotonics, maintain fetus health
Asteraceae
Enhydra fluctuans Lour.
Cikorau
Leaf
Facilitate ease labor/child delivery
Balsaminaceae
Impatiens basalmina L.
Pacar air
Leaf
Facilitate ease labor/child delivery
Brassicaceae
Brassica juncea L.
Sawi putih
Leaf
Uterotonics
Costaceae
Costus speciosus (J.Konig) Sm.
Sitawar
Leaf
Facilitate ease labor/child delivery,
infant health care
Crassulaceae
Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam.) Oken
Sidingin
Leaf
Facilitate ease labor/child delivery
Cucurbitaceae
Cucumis sativus L.
Timun
Fruit
Uterotonics
Lagenaria siceraria (Molina.) Standly.
Labu air
Fruit
Increase stamina; general wellbeing
Dioscoreaceae
Tacca chantrieri André
Sicucur
Leaf
Facilitate ease labor/child delivery
Lamiaceae
Ocimum sanctum L.
Lampes
Leaf
Induce breast milk production
Lauraceae
Cinnamomum burmanii (Ness & T.
Ness
Kayu manis
Bark
Fertility, induce pregnancy, relieve
pain
Malvaceae
Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L.
Byang ayu/
Bunga rayo
Flower
Newborn/infant health care
Musaceae
Musa paradisiaca L.
Pisang
Fruit
Uterotonics, facilitate ease labor/child
delivery, induce breast milk production
Musa balbisiana Colla
Pisang batu
Fruit
Uterotonics
Myristicaceae
Myristica fragrans Houtt.
Pala
Flower, fruit
Fertility, induce pregnancy, facilitate
ease labor/child delivery
Myrtaceae
Syzygium aromaticum L.
Cengkeh
Leaf
Fertility, induce pregnancy
Papilionaceae
Trifolium repens L.
Akar samban
Facilitate ease labor/child delivery
Piperaceae
Piper betle L.
Sirih
Leaf
Uterotonics, maintain fetus health,
facilitate ease labor/child delivery
Poaceae
Oryza sativa L.
Padi
Seed
Fertility, induce pregnancy
Dendrocalamus asper (Schult.f.)
Backer ex Heyne
Bambu petung/
Bambu batueng
Stem
Placenta cutting
Phyllanthaceae
Sauropus androgynus (L.) Merr.
Katuk
Leaf
Uterotonics, induce breast milk production
Phyllanthus niruri L.
Dukung-
dukung anak
Daun
Facilitate ease labor/child delivery
Rubiaceae
Uncaria gambir (Hunt.) Roxb.
Gambir
Leaf
Facilitate ease labor/child delivery,
infant health care
Rutaceae
Citrus aurantiifolia (Cristm.)
Swingle
Jeruk nipis
Fruit
Facilitate ease labor/child delivery,
induce breast milk production
Solanaceae
Capsicum frutescens L.
Cabai rawit
merah
Fruit
Induce breast milk production
Thymelaceae
Aquilaria malaccensis Lamk.
Leaf, bark
Overcome morning sickness
Zingiberaceae
Amomum campactum Willd.
Gaharu
Leaf
Overcome morning sickness
Boesenbergia pandurata (Roxb.)
Schult.
Temu kunci
Leaf
Facilitate ease labor/child delivery,
induce breast milk production
Globba leucantha Miq.
Silome
Leaf
Uterotonics
Curcuma longa L.
Kunyit
Rhizome
Uterotonics, placenta cutting
SUSANDARINI et al. food plants and traditional maternal care by Malays communities in Riau
3117
The use of medicinal plants during pregnancy usually
aims to overcome gastrointestinal complaints experienced
by pregnant women such as nausea, bloating, flatulence,
and vomiting (John and Shantakumari 2015). The plant
species used by the Malays communities for pregnancy
care included Aquilaria malaccensis and Amomum
compactum. These plants were traditionally used to
overcome morning sickness during the first trimester of
pregnancy. A study conducted by Sarma et al. (2015) noted
that in traditional medicinal system in India, A. malaccensis
is known to have effects on preventing the unpleasant
condition of vomiting, increase appetite, and function as a
general tonic. Meanwhile, A. compactum is known to be
used for aromatherapy with its soothing effect, and having
the ability to strengthen the nervous system (Hartady et al.
2020), and this is associated with its use to reduce nausea.
Apart from overcoming various gastrointestinal
complaints, traditional health cares during pregnancy using
various medicinal plants also aims to prevent miscarriages
(Maliwichi-Nyirenda and Maliwichi 2010, Malan and
Neuba 2011). This is done by maintaining the health of the
uterus and the developing fetus, which in general uses
plants having pharmacological properties as uterotonics. A
number of plant species believed to have benefits as
uterotonics found in this study were Amaranthus spinosus,
Cocos nucifera, Cordyline terminalis, Brassica juncea,
Cucumis sativus, Musa paradisiaca, Musa balbisiana,
Piper betle, Sauropus androgynus, Globba leucantha, and
Curcuma longa. The use of these plants is often related to
the cultural aspects of the communities in terms that
sometimes it is related to a certain ritual based on spiritual
beliefs (Khasanah 2017). Nevertheless, some studies on
traditional medicine showed the use of these plants in
maternal health care. Globba leucantha, a plant species
commonly used as spices, is traditionally used for
postpartum recovery by people in Negeri Sembilan,
Malaysia (Ong et al. 2011), while the traditional use of C.
longa in Thailand during postpartum period is to foster
wound healing, secretion of lochia, and uterus recovery
(Jaroenngarmsamer et al. 2019). Decoction of Amaranthus
spinosus root was used to relieve postpartum varicella, and
a fiber-rich food prepared from inflorescence and young
pseudostem of Musa acuminata was applied to ease
delivery, postpartum recovery, and stimulate lactagouge
(Lamxay et al. 2011). The fruit of M. paradisiaca is known
to be rich in nutrients that are beneficial for health,
especially the high potassium content which is important
for muscle function and maintaining blood pressure, and
thus it is recommended for women during menstruation
because it can reduce pain, helps iron absorption, and at the
same time is a source of energy (Sruthi 2019). Meanwhile,
M. balbisiana fruit has been traditionally used as a health
tonic in the form of an infusion made by soaking ripe fruit
slices in water (Borborah et al. 2016). The use of Cocos
nucifera fruit, especially its endocarp and coconut water, is
very common among people in various regions as a tonic
because of its high nutrient content, increase metabolic
rate, overcome fatigue, serves as quick source of energy,
and boosts endurance and immune system (Obidoa and
Joshua 2010). Pharmacologically, the endocarp and
coconut water contain phytochemicals that mainly have
antioxidant properties (Lima et al. 2015).
In this study, it was revealed that the people of Kampar
Kiri Hulu still hold the traditional knowledge on the useful
plants in handling processes relating to child delivery. One
example is the use of bamboo strips from Dendrocalamus
asper to cut the umbilical cord. The use of bamboo strip to
cut the umbilical cord is accompanied by the application of
juice from Curcuma longa rhizome (Khasanah 2017).
Curcuma longa is widely known for having antimicrobial
properties, including antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral
(Moghadamtousi et al. 2014). The same tradition is
reported in another country, such as the use of bamboo
string from Gigantochloa parvifolia to cut the umbilical
cord in traditional practices of Kry ethnic group in Lao
(Lamxay et al. 2011). The use of D. asper as a traditional
tool for cutting the umbilical cord is based on its physical
properties, including hard and strong material but
reasonably flexible to be formed into a straight cutting tool
and it is easily split into sharp, flattened strips (Baguna and
Marasabessy 2020).
There were several plants traditionally used by the
Malays communities to facilitate ease labor, save child
delivery, and treatment on postpartum recovery. These
plants included Areca catechu, Enhydra fluctuans, Impatiens
basalmina, Costus speciosus, Bryophyllum pinnatum, Tacca
chantrieri, Myristica fragrans, Trifolium repens, Phyllanthus
niruri, Uncaria gambir, Citrus aurantiifolia, and Boesenbergia
pandurata. The application of these plant species can be
scientifically explained by the presence of compounds with
pharmacological properties related to child delivery, as
mentioned in many pharmacological studies. Areca catechu
has numerous secondary metabolites affecting the central
nervous system as anti-depressant, and is traditionally used
in wound healing (Fatma and Mazumder 2015). Similarly,
Bryophyllum pinnatum is widely used for wound healing,
menstrual problem, uterine contraction, and also has anti-
depressant, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic properties
(Thorat et al. 2017).
Meanwhile, Boesenbergia pandurata, plant species
commonly used as spices, has pharmacological activities as
anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, and has efficacy in
strengthening the stomach (Chahyadi et al. 2014). It is also
interesting to note that Costus speciosus, a wild plant
species has a vast number of pharmacological effects and
traditionally applied for cooling and relieving headache,
fever, inflammation, wound healing, and could stimulate
uterine contraction (Pawar and Pawar, 2012). Another wild
plant species with medicinal properties is Trifolium repens,
in which Ahmad and Zeb (2021) mentioned that flavonoids
and isoflavonoids compounds in this species has
pharmacological effect relating to pregnancy and child
delivery including anti-inflammatory, reduce high blood
pressure, and reduce postpartum depression.
The purpose of using medicinal plants during the
postpartum period is to restore stamina, increase general
wellbeing of the mother, stimulate the production of quality
breast milk, and prevent various uncomfortable conditions
including depression, insomnia, and constipation (Ali-
Shtayeh et al. 2015). Tacca chantrieri, which was used by
B I O D I V E R S I T A S
22 (6): 3111-3120, June 2021
3118
the people of Kampar Kiri Hulu to facilitate childbirth, is
known to be a medicinal plant with many properties for
postpartum health care, including treating abdominal pain,
postpartum bleeding, perineal healing, and uterine
retraction (Lamxay et al. 2011). A study by Dudi and Singh
(2018) in India showed that women health care during the
first week after childbirth was done by giving high-calorie
foods rich in healthy natural fats for stamina recovery and
promote healthy breast milk production. The practice of
this healthy diet in the following week was done by
consuming foods with green vegetables high in fiber,
vitamins, protein, and which are easy to digest. Plant
species traditionally used to stimulate and increase the
production of healthy breast milk included Pimpinella
anisum, Ocimum sanctum, Musa paradisiaca, Sauropus
androgynus, Citrus aurantiifolia, Capsicum annum, and
Boesenbergia pandurata. A pharmacological review by
Shojaii and Fard (2012) showed that the consumption of P.
anisum by lactating women has beneficial impact in
increasing milk production. The use of C. annuum in
inducing the production of breast milk might be due to the
rich phytochemicals contents in the fruit, including
vitamins, flavonoids, phenolics, and some minerals such as
potassium, calcium, iron, phosphorus, and magnesium
(Saleh et al. 2018). The same reason is applied for using C.
aurantiifolia since fruit of this plant has many
phytochemicals and bioactive compounds, and it is also
reported as appetite stimulant (Enejoh et al. 2015). Another
plant widely recognized as a traditional herb prepared for
mothers after childbirth is Sauropus androgynus, in which
the leaves are consumed as a vegetable, due to its
uterotonic properties to facilitate expulsion of the placenta
after birth and to stimulate the production of breast milk
(Petrus 2013). The traditional use of medicinal plants for
facilitating lactation reported in this study showed
similarity to those reported by Sibeko and Johns (2021)
including P. anisum, Capsicum spp., C. nucifera, C.
aurantiifolia, and M. paradisiaca.
The people of Kampar Kiri Hulu also had a tradition of
using a number of herbal ingredients for infant health care.
These plants included Areca catechu for baby bathing,
Costus speciosus, and Hibiscus rosa-sinensis. The use of
these plants is based on the beneficial effect they have, for
example, A. catechu contains various secondary
metabolites including alkaloids, tannins, and terpenoids,
and also has anti-fungal, anti-fungal and anti-depressant
properties (Fatma and Mazumder 2015). Costus speciosus
is a wild plant with natural cooling properties to relieve
fever and pain, serves as muscle reluctant, also has
antibacterial and antifungal activities (Pawar and Pawar
2012). The use of H. rosa-sinensis in infant health care
could be traced from its phytochemicals content which has
pharmacological properties as antibacterial, anti-
inflammatory, used in treating fever, infection, and wound
healing (Missoum 2018). The practice of applying
medicinal herbs for infant health care was also reported in
India using Trachyspermum ammi, Curcuma longa,
Myristica fragrans, and Syzygium aromaticum to provide
comfort to the baby and prevent digestive problems, colds
and coughs (Dudi and Singh 2018).
Overall, the practice of using herbal medicine in
pregnancy, childbirth and postpartum health care has been
reported in many countries, such as in Lao PDR (Lamxay
et al. 2011), Palestine (Ali-Shtayeh et al. 2015),
Madagascar (Randrianarivony et a. 2016), Nigeria
(Mainasara et al. 2017), Uganda (Nalumansi et al. 2017),
Malaysia (Yusoff et al. 2018), and Thailand
(Jaroenngarsamer et at. 2019). Although some literature
showed that plants used in maternal health care are known
to have beneficial effects relating to their purpose of
application to pregnant women, more in-depth research on
their pharmacological and clinical effects needs to be done.
This is in line with the statement by Tripathi et al. (2013)
based on a review of plant species traditionally used as
uterotonics by people in Sub-Saharan Africa, that research
on uterotonic properties of these plants is very important to
avoid the adverse effect on mother and fetus. A similar
opinion was expressed by John and Shantakumari (2015)
on the review of herbal preparations used during pregnancy
in the Middle East. In this case, ethnobotanical research
plays a role in providing basic information on the potential
of medicinal plants, and opening opportunities for further
research in the field of pharmacology and other aspects
related to general health.
The use of medicinal plants for maternal health care by
the Malays communities in Kampar Kiri Hulu is strongly
influenced by the culture they hold as part of their tradition
and local wisdom. This situation has positive impact on the
preservation of traditional knowledge. In addition, the
location of their settlements which is close to forest areas,
and limited access to public health facilities are the factors
that further strengthen the tradition of using herbal
medicine. Similar situation was found in other areas where
the use of medicinal plants is due to insufficiency in
available health services (Maliwichi-Nyirenda and
Maliwichi 2010), and limited access to public health
facilities (Randrianarivony et al. 2016, Mainasara et al.
2017). Moreover, the fact that the traditional practices of
using herbal medicine in maternal health care is closely
related to culture and traditions in particular ethnics have
been reported in Asian countries, such as those by Lamxay
et al. (2011) in Lao PDR, Yusoff et al. (2018) in Malaysia,
and Jaroenngarmsamer et al. (2019) in Thailand.
Results of this ethnobotanical study showed that the
Malays communities in Kampar Kiri Hulu still hold strong
botanical knowledge on the diversity of food plants and
medicinal plants used for maternal health care. The forest,
field, and home gardens in their area stored a great
potential of diversity of food and medicinal plants for their
daily living. This botanical diversity is maintained by their
culture and traditional knowledge-creating local wisdom
for conserving the plants and good practices in their uses.
The documentation of the diversity of food plants and
traditional medicinal plants for maternal health care
generated in this study contributes to the preservation of
traditional knowledge, as well as providing information on
the potential of these plants for further development, either
in plant-based food products or herbal-based medicines.
SUSANDARINI et al. food plants and traditional maternal care by Malays communities in Riau
3119
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
This research was financially facilitated by a
collaboration of YAPEKA-WWF Indonesia-INDECON,
and supported by IUCN & KfW. The research was
managed under the scheme of Research Collaboration Fund
granted to the first author as undergraduate thesis
supervisor for the second and third authors.
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... Fresh fruits seem to be the major parts used for direct consumption. Several well-known species commonly reported in almost all Indonesian regions include Lansium parasitum, Durio zibethinus, Nephelium lappaceum, Lansium domesticum, and Artocarpus heterophyllus [115][116][117]. Other species also reported in specific regions include Averrhoa carambola in Central Sulawesi [115]; Garcinia atroviridis, Molineria latifolia, Baccaurea motleyana, and Baccaurea motleyana in Kampar Kiri Hulu, Riau [116]; and Streblus asper, Protium javanicum, and Phyllanthus acidus in West Nusa Tenggara [118]. ...
... Several well-known species commonly reported in almost all Indonesian regions include Lansium parasitum, Durio zibethinus, Nephelium lappaceum, Lansium domesticum, and Artocarpus heterophyllus [115][116][117]. Other species also reported in specific regions include Averrhoa carambola in Central Sulawesi [115]; Garcinia atroviridis, Molineria latifolia, Baccaurea motleyana, and Baccaurea motleyana in Kampar Kiri Hulu, Riau [116]; and Streblus asper, Protium javanicum, and Phyllanthus acidus in West Nusa Tenggara [118]. Species consumed both as fresh fruits and seeds include Artocarpus spp. ...
... The leaves of herbs commonly consumed as vegetables include Calamus sp. and Diplazium esculentum among Malay communities in Riau [116] and Brassica oleracea, Ocimum basilicum, and Sauropus androgynus in Lombok [120]. Vegetables from some plant species are also common in Sundanese and Javanese communities, where they are usually consumed in the form of fresh leaves called "lalab" or "lalab atah". ...
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With 120 million hectares of forest area, Indonesia has the third largest area of biodiversity-rich tropical forests in the world, and it is well-known as a mega-biodiversity country. However, in 2020, only 70 percent of this area remained forested. The government has consistently undertaken corrective actions to achieve Sustainable Development Goal targets, with a special focus on Goals #1 (no poverty), #2 (zero hunger), #3 (good health and well-being), #7 (affordable and clean energy), #8 (decent work and economic growth), #13 (climate action), and #15 (life on land). Good environmental governance is a core concept in Indonesia’s forest management and includes mainstreaming ecosystem services as a framework for sustainable forest management. This paper analyzes efforts to mainstream Indonesia’s remaining forest ecosystem services. We review the state of Indonesia’s forests in relation to deforestation dynamics, climate change, and ecosystem service potential and options and provide recommendations for mainstreaming strategies regarding aspects of policy, planning, and implementation, as well as the process of the articulation of ecosystem services and their alternative funding.
... The fruits are usually grown plentiful and widely available in the marketplace during June to August (Normah, 2003). Rambai fruits are high in vitamins, minerals, fibers, and pharmacologically important substances such as phenolic acids, flavonoids, terpenes, and low amounts of carotenoids (Khoo et al., 2016;Lim, 2012;Susandarini et al., 2021). It was reported that about 46 volatile components have been identified from the essential oil of Rambai fruit using the GC-MS technique, and (E)-Hex-2-enal was the major component identified from the essential oil (Wong et al., 1994). ...
... analysis has discovered about 88 phytochemicals, which are phenolics, carotenoids, and other miscellaneous compounds in the different parts of the Rambai fruit (Susandarini et al., 2021). ...
... be affected by changes in the content of organic acids along the ripening period (Abeles & Takeda, 1990). Diverse organic acids, such as mallic acid, tartaric acid, citric acid, and oxalic acid, have been identified in the ripe fruit of B. motleyana (Mokhtar et al., 2014;Susandarini et al., 2021). ...
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Rambai (Baccaurea motleyana Müll. Arg.), a member of the Phyllanthaceae family, is one of the underutilized fruits native to Indonesia, Malaya Peninsula, and Thailand. Nowadays, B. motleyana is cultivated for its fruits in many parts of Northern Australia, China, and Southeast Asia. The edible part of the fruit is white and contains reddish arillodes that taste sweet to acid‐sweet. The ripe fruit is consumed fresh and can be processed into juice, jams, organic vinegar, and wine. Traditionally, the fruit and its bark are used to treat stomach and eye diseases, respectively. The fruits of B. motleyana are a good source of vitamins, minerals, and fibers, and they also contain bioactive compounds such as phenolic acids, flavonoids, carotenoids, and terpenes. This scientific review describes the nutritional composition, phytochemistry, and pharmacology of B. motleyana. In addition, most recent information is provided to promote the widespread consumption of B. motleyana fruit as well as to create research interest on this interesting species among the scientific community. Baccaurea motleyana Müll. Arg. fruit is a useful but underutilized fruit that has numerous medicinal properties. Here, a short overview of the plant has been given to uncover its therapeutic potential.
... The methodology used in this study as detailed by [15,22,23,24] were semi-structured interview and observation conducted at different states of Peninsular Malaysia including northern region (Perak, Kedah and Perlis), central region (Kuala Lumpur and Selangor), East coast region (Kelantan, Terengganu and Pahang) and Southern region (Johor and Negeri Sembilan). 30 number of the Malay midwifery had been selected for semi-structured interviewed. ...
... Ethnobotanical data were collected as described by [15,24,25,26]. Other than extract an information on plant material used from the Malay midwifery, the researcher also sends the specimens for cross-checking of plant species through various floristic records or secondary data from internet, Rimba Ilmu at Universiti Malaya, Taman Pertanian Universiti at Universiti Putra Malaysia, Makmal Herbarium at Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia and Forest Research Institute of Malaysia (FRIM) at Kepong. ...
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Lenggang perut' ceremony or 'swinging the tummy' is popularly practised during prenatal care and is generally held after the woman has completed 7 months of her pregnancy (particularly first pregnancy). However, there is a long list of tips and taboos that need to be practiced, based on the customs and beliefs of the people belonging to different Malay communities, and formulated according to their practices and experiences regarding good practice. Currently, millions of traditional Malays have started using plants as a primary source of their shelter, food, clothing, medicine and fuel. However, owing to rapid urbanization, the natural resources and related traditional beliefs are being eradicated. This has led to the worry that the huge volume of unrecorded folk information and knowledge would be lost indefinitely. In this study, the researchers have aimed to identify and investigate the ritual process of 'lenggang perut' and the different plant materials that are used by the traditional midwives during the swinging tummy ceremony conducted in the different states of Peninsular Malaysia. For this purpose, they conducted a qualitative study of 30 traditional Malay midwives, who were selected from Peninsular Malaysia. The data was obtained by observations and conducting face-to-face semi-structured interviews. The results of the study indicated that 23 of the interviewed traditional midwives practiced the 'lenggang perut' as a form of prenatal care treatment. They used 14 different types of plant materials for the ceremony, which included palm, trees, shrubs, herbaceous matter, zingiber, macrophytes, aroids and climbers. This study indicated the significant differences between the localities, rituals and processes implemented during the 'lenggang perut' ceremony and also highlighted the composition of various plant materials that were used by the traditional midwives in Peninsular Malaysia. Hence, these findings could be used as an effective tool for understanding the culture and environment of the local people and their efforts in preserving their cultural heritage, especially the Malay customs. The researchers also aimed to discover some novel bioactive compounds by carrying out an in-depth phytochemical and pharmacological study of the resources that were used.
... The ethnobotany of edible plants in Muang District, Kalasin Province was collected between March 2019 and February 2021. The uses of edible plants were collected by the semi-structured interview method through randomly selected key participants (Numpulsuksant et al. 2021;Saisor et al. 2021;Susandarini et al. 2021) and focus group discussions with 40 informants from 17 sub-districts by random selection of 2-5 people per sub-district. In addition, to the local name and questionnaire about the parts of the edible plants used and consumption methods, their properties when the plants are used to cure diseases and heal patients were collected. ...
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Phatlamphu N, Saensouk S, Saensouk P, Jungsongduang A. 2021. Ethnobotany of edible plants in Muang District, Kalasin Province, Thailand. Biodiversitas 22: 5425- 5431. Edible plants have been used as a food source and have had other purposes since ancient times, but urbanization and modernization might be obscuring traditional knowledge. Therefore, this research aimed to conduct a study on the ethnobotany of indigenous people in Muang District, Kalasin Province based on edible plants by focusing on their specific uses. Data was collected through semi-structured interviews and focus group discussions from March 2019 to February 2021. Quantitative analysis was applied using the Cultural Important Index (CI), Fidelity Level (FL) and Informant Consensus Factor (ICF). Cluster analysis based on the Jaccard’s Similarity Index (JI) was calculated for the similarity of edible plant uses in four communities is as follows: urban/semi-urban (UB), forest community (FC), wetland community (WC) and community in valley (CV). There were 140 edible plant species that belonged to 125 genera and 62 families. The most important edible plants species were Tamarindus indica which had a CI of 2.65 followed by Bambusa bambos (2.00) and Citrus hystrix (1.90). The highest FL value is given for 51 edible plant species with 100% FL. The ICF is a range of 0 to 1; the most consensus of ailment categories was the treatment of wound (ICF = 1.00). The JI varied between 0.2640 and 0.2971; the highest JI was the pairs of WC and FC. UPGMA cluster analysis indicated that UB is isolated as they have less similarity to other communities. The results show a risk of traditional knowledge loss due to the expansion of the economic system at all levels and the advancement of modern medicine.
... The ethnobotany of edible plants in Muang District, Kalasin Province was collected between March 2019 and February 2021. The uses of edible plants were collected by the semi-structured interview method through randomly selected key participants (Numpulsuksant et al. 2021;Saisor et al. 2021;Susandarini et al. 2021) and focus group discussions with 40 informants from 17 sub-districts by random selection of 2-5 people per sub-district. In addition, to the local name and questionnaire about the parts of the edible plants used and consumption methods, their properties when the plants are used to cure diseases and heal patients were collected. ...
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Phatlamphu N, Saensouk S, Saensouk P, Jungsongduang A. 2021. Ethnobotany of edible plants in Muang District, Kalasin Province, Thailand. Biodiversitas 22: 5432-5444. Edible plants have been used as a food source and have had other purposes since ancient times, but urbanization and modernization might be obscuring traditional knowledge. Therefore, this research aimed to conduct a study on the ethnobotany of indigenous people in Muang District, Kalasin Province based on edible plants by focusing on their specific uses. Data was collected through semi-structured interviews and focus group discussions from March 2019 to February 2021. Quantitative analysis was applied using the Cultural Important Index (CI), Fidelity Level (FL) and Informant Consensus Factor (ICF). Cluster analysis based on the Jaccard's Similarity Index (JI) was calculated for the similarity of edible plant uses in four communities is as follows: urban/semi-urban (UB), forest community (FC), wetland community (WC) and community in valley (CV). There were 140 edible plant species that belonged to 125 genera and 62 families. The most important edible plants species were Tamarindus indica which had a CI of 2.65 followed by Bambusa bambos (2.00) and Citrus hystrix (1.90). The highest FL value is given for 51 edible plant species with 100% FL. The ICF is a range of 0 to 1; the most consensus of ailment categories was the treatment of wound (ICF = 1.00). The JI varied between 0.2640 and 0.2971; the highest JI was the pairs of WC and FC. UPGMA cluster analysis indicated that UB is isolated as they have less similarity to other communities. The results show a risk of traditional knowledge loss due to the expansion of the economic system at all levels and the advancement of modern medicine.
... Moreover, several studies reported from other regions in the world such as Huai and Pei (2004) studied medicinal plants in the Lahu people from the Autonomous County of Jinping Miao, Yao, and Dai in southwest China, Gazzaneo et al. (2005) studied in a region of Atlantic Forest in the state of Pernambuco (Northeastern Brazil), Chaudhary et al. 4350 (2006) reported from Tian Mu Shan Biosphere Reserve, Zhejiang Province, China, Yineger et al. (2008) studied in the Oromo ethnic group in southwestern Ethiopia, Supiadi et al. (2019) studied the Dayak Desa Community in Sintang, West Kalimantan, Indonesia, and Susandarina et al. (2021) studied in the Malays communities in Kampar Kiri Hulu, Riau, Indonesia. ...
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Numpulsuksant W, Saensouk S, Sanesouk P. 2021. Diversity and ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants in Ban Hua Kua, Kae Dam District, Thailand. Biodiversitas 22: 4349-4357. Diversity and ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants in Ban Hua Kua village, Kae Dam District, Maha Sarakham Province, Thailand. Biodiversitas 22: xxxx-xxxx. This study can serve as basic information for further study and provide conservation criteria for medicinal plants in Ban Hua Kua village, Kae Dam District, Maha Sarakham Province to assure continued species richness and sustainable use. This study aimed to document ethnobotanical knowledge of medicinal plants, including their diversity, in Ban Hua Kua village, Kae Dam District, Maha Sarakham Province, Thailand. The ethnobotanical data were obtained from 19 local experts using semi-structured forms to record the interviewee's personal information and topics related to the medicinal use of specific plants. Thirty-eight medicinal plants belonging to 35 genera in 23 families were collected. The most commonly represented family was Zingiberaceae comprised of six species (Alpinia galanga (L.) Willd., Boesenbergia rotunda (L.) Mansf., Curcuma angustifolia Roxb., Curcuma comosa Roxb., Curcuma longa L., and Zingiber officinale Roscoe), followed by Fabaceae with four species (Derris scandens (Roxb.) Benth., Dialium cochinchinense Pierre, Senna siamea Lam., and Tamarindus indica L.), and Rutaceae with three species (Aegle marmelos (L.) Corrêa ex Roxb., Clausena wallichii Oliv., Hesperethusa crenulata (Roxb.) Roem.), while the other 20 families represent only one to two plant species. The root was the most frequently used part of the plant. The species with the highest use-value was Antiaris toxicaria Lesch. (0.68), a native plant of the Ban Hua Kuavillage. Diospyros mollis Griff. (CI = 0.21), Dialium cochinchinense Pierre (CI = 0.21), Anisomeles indica (L.) Kuntze (CI = 0.21), Vitex glabrata R. Br. (CI = 0.21), Aegle marmelos (L.) Corrêa ex Roxb. (CI = 0.21), Phyllanthus emblica L. (CI = 0.21), and Hesperethusa crenulata (Roxb.) Roem. (CI = 0.21) were found the highest cultural important index (CI), while Diospyros mollis Griff., Dialium cochinchinense Pierre, Anisomeles indica (L.) Kuntze, Vitex glabrata R. Br., Phyllanthus emblica L., Aegle marmelos (L.) Corrêa ex Roxb., and Hesperethusa crenulata (Roxb.) Roem. were found the highest %FL = 50. The climber was mostly used for medicinal plants (IAR = 0.97). Root (57.89%), leaf (52.63%), and fruit (39.47%) were reported the most plant parts used by the villagers. Therefore, the indigenous knowledge of medicinal plants at Ban Hua Kua village is indicated to conservation for sustainable use in the future. Moreover, this study was the first reported in Maha Sarakham province.
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Background: Knowledge of wild edible plants is an important part of traditional knowledge. It is closely related to traditional human agriculture, as well as biodiversity. This study aimed to conduct a detailed investigation and evaluation of wild edible plants that are collected and consumed by the Mongolian and Han locals in Daqinggou and to provide valuable data for the development and utilization of plant resources. Methods: In the 9 site visits to the area of Daqinggou during the period of 2017-2019, the authors used key informant interviews, semistructured interviews, and questionnaires to collect utilization information regarding precollected species of local wild edible plants. By combining the data obtained from 101 key informants, the authors used the Cultural Food Significance Index (CFSI), a quantitative index to evaluate the relative importance of the wild edible plants that were discussed in the aforementioned interviews. Results: The investigation results show that the Mongolian people provided 67 folk names, corresponding to 57 wild plants, and the Han Chinese provided 58 folk names, corresponding to 49 wild plants. A total of 61 edible wild plant species belonging to 29 families and 52 genera were recorded as edible resources for the locals in Daqinggou. The uses include grains, oil and fat resources, vegetables, fruits, beverages, condiments, and snacks. The most commonly reported purpose of wild edible plants is using them as vegetables, followed by using them as beverages and fruits. The most widely used edible parts are fruits, leaves, and other aerial parts. Eating raw and cooked plants are the usual methods of consuming wild edible plants according to the locals. In addition, the CFSI of 61 wild edible plant species shows that 27 species have characteristics of medical food. Conclusions: The knowledge and experience of naming and consuming wild plants by the Mongolian people and Han Chinese in Daqinggou are an important manifestation of the direct interaction between locals and plants. The CSFI evaluation of the wild edible plants consumed by the locals in Daqinggou establishes the utilization of some wild plants as part of the traditional knowledge of medical food.
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Wild food plants (WFPs) are often highly nutritious but under-consumed at the same time. This study aimed to document the diversity of WFPs, and assess perceptions, attitudes, and drivers of change in their consumption among Minangkabau and Mandailing women farmers in West Sumatra. We applied a mixed-method approach consisting of interviews with 200 women and focus group discussions with 68 participants. The study documented 106 WFPs (85 species), and Minangkabau were found to steward richer traditional knowledge than Mandailing. Although both communities perceived WFPs positively, consumption has declined over the last generation. The main reasons perceived by respondents were due to the decreased availability of WFPs and changes in lifestyle. The contemporary barriers to consuming WFPs were low availability, time constraints, and a limited knowledge of their nutritional value. The key motivations for their use were that they are free and "unpolluted" natural foods. The main drivers of change were socioeconomic factors and changes in agriculture and markets. However, the persistence of a strong culture appears to slow dietary changes. The communities, government and NGOs should work together to optimize the use of this food biodiversity in a sustainable way. This integrated approach could improve nutrition while conserving biological and cultural diversity.
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Trifolium repens belongs to the family Leguminosae and has been used for therapeutic purposes as traditional medicine. The plant is widely used as fodder and leafy vegetables for human uses. However, there is a lack of a detailed review of its phytochemical profile and pharmacological properties. This review presents a comprehensive overview of the phytochemical profile and biological properties of T. repens. The plant is used as antioxidants and cholinesterase inhibitors and for anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, analgesic, antirheumatic ache, and antimicrobial purposes. This review has summarized the available updated useful information about the different bioactive compounds such as simple phenols, phenolic acids, flavones, flavonols, isoflavones, pterocarpans, cyanogenic glucosides, saponins, and condensed tannins present in T. repens. The pharmacological roles of these secondary metabolites present in T. repens have been presented. It has been revealed that T. repens contain important phytochemicals, which is the potential source of health-beneficial bioactive components for food and nutraceuticals industries.
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Aquilaria malaccensis, agar wood also popularly known as "Wood of Gods" is one of the oldest and critically endangered species found extensively cultivated in Assam and other NorthEastern states of India, which have been in practice as traditional medicine as well as its commercial products. It is a large evergreen tree 18-20m in height, 1.5-2m in diameter. Ayurveda the Ancient Medicinal System has also given prime importance to Aquilaria malaccensis for treating various disorders where is prescribed as an appetizer, analgesic, antipyretic, antihistaminic, styptic, carminative, cytotoxic, insecticidal, general tonic, etc. Efforts have been made by researchers to verify the efficacy of the plant through scientific biological screening. The critical evaluation of the literature revealed some notable pharmacological activities of the plant. The present study evaluates the potential use of the plant either in pharmaceutics or as agricultural resource and highlight the phytochemicals, various therapeutic uses as per Ayurveda as well as pharmacological reports on Aquilaria malaccensis. Citation: Sarma DR, Sarmah J, Gupta A, Mishra RK (2015) Aquilaria malaccensis, an ayurvedic medicinal herb found in Assam-its therapeutical and pharmacological aspect. Indian J Trop Biodiv 23(2): 218-222
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Traditional medicine has deep historical linkages and cultural roots. In a rural community, it is practice based on the ethnological, medical and heritage of the practitioners. Temiar indigenous tribe of Orang Asli in Kelantan, have their traditional way of beliefs and healing practices. This study examines the remedies using medicinal plants and herbs among the tribe members in Kampung Pasik, Kelantan, Malaysia. A structured questionnaire and in-depth interviews were conducted with 250 respondents. A total of 18 species of medicinal plants was recorded preferably used by the tribes. Results indicate that traditional phytoremedies practices play an important role in helping their healthcare system with the help of the tribe healers. Cultivated medicinal plant species represent 94% of the source, whereas 4.4% were found wild in the forest and 1.6% grown around their settlement. This study revealed that five preparations methods such as boiling (27.56%), pounded (27.45%), squeeze (21.60%), drying (14.17%) or concoction of various part of medicinal plants (9.22%). The most applied were by drinking (35.29%), chewing (32.70%) and 19.89% rubbing, poultice (6.40%) and shower ingredients (5.72%).
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Hibiscus rosa sinensis is known as China rose belonging to the Malvaceae family. This plant has various important medicinal uses for treating wounds, inflamation, fever and coughs, diabetes, infections caused by bacteria and fungi, hair loss, and gastric ulcers in several tropical countries. Phytochemical analysis documented that the main bioactive compounds responsible for its medicinal effects are namely flavonoids, tannins, terpenoids, saponins, and alkaloids. Experiment from recent studies showed that various types of extracts from all H. rosa sinensis parts exhibited a wide range of beneficial effects such as hypotensive, anti-pyritic, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, antioxidant, anti-bacterial, anti-diabetic, wound healing, and abortifacient activities. The few studies on toxicity exhibited that most extracts from all parts of this plant did not show any signs of toxicity at higher doses according to histological analysis. However, some of the extracts did alter biochemical and hematological parameters. Therefore, further research must be conducted to isolate the phytochemicals and explore their specific mechanism of action. This review summarizes the phytochemistry, pharmocology, and medicinal uses of this flower with the purpose of finding gaps demanding for future research and investigating its therapeutic potential through clinical trials.
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Baccaurea motleyana (Rambai) is a widely known plant for its fruits in South-East Asia, especially in Malaysia, Indonesia, and Thailand. Traditionally it is also used as a source of medicine. In this review, we summarized the use of Rambai as a food source, its physicochemical, nutritional, biochemical, and antioxidant contents, and properties, its use as traditional medicine, and its medicinal properties based on modern studies. We found that Rambai fruits are good sources of carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins, and minerals. Rambai fruits have relatively low amounts of fats, organic acids, phenolics, and antioxidants compared to many other familiar fruits. 88 phytochemicals identified by different methods are reported in this paper which have a variety of health benefits and medicinal properties. Rambai tree parts were found to exhibit antidiabetic, antibacterial, and skincare properties. No anticancer and antifungal property of Rambai has been found yet. Many more studies are required to discover more biochemical and medicinal properties of Rambai.
Article
Ethnopharmacological relevance Cross-cultural comparison of plants used during lactation and the postpartum period offers insight into a largely overlooked area of ethnopharmacological research. Potential roles of phytochemicals in emerging models of interaction among immunity, inflammation, microbiome and nervous system effects on perinatal development have relevance for the life-long health of individuals and of populations in both traditional and contemporary contexts. Aim of the study Delineate and interpret patterns of traditional and contemporary global use of medicinal plants ingested by mothers during the postpartum period relative to phytochemical activity on immune development and gastrointestinal microbiome of breastfed infants, and on maternal health. Materials and Methods Published reviews and surveys on galactagogues and postpartum recovery practices plus ethnobotanical studies from around the world were used to identify and rank plants, and ascertain regional use patterns. Scientific literature for 20 most-cited plants based on frequency of publication was assessed for antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, antidepressant, analgesic, galactagogic and safety properties. Results From compilation of 4418 use reports related to 1948 species, 105 plant taxa were recorded ≥ 7 times, with the most frequently cited species, Foeniculum vulgare, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Pimpinella anisum, Euphorbia hirta and Asparagus racemosus, 81, 64, 42, 40 and 38 times, respectively. Species and use vary globally, illustrated by the pattern of aromatic plants of culinary importance versus latex-producing plants utilized in North Africa/Middle East and Sub-Saharan Africa with opposing predominance. For 18/20 of the plants a risk/benefit perspective supports assessment that positive immunomodulation and related potential exceed any safety concerns. Published evidence does not support a lactation-enhancing effect for nearly all the most-cited plants while antidepressant data for the majority of plants are predominately limited to animal studies. Conclusions Within a biocultural context traditional postpartum plant use serves adaptive functions for the mother-infant dyad and contributes phytochemicals absent in most contemporary diets and patterns of ingestion, with potential impacts on allergic, inflammatory and other conditions. Polyphenolics and other phytochemicals are widely immunologically active, present in breast milk and predominately non-toxic. Systematic analysis of phytochemicals in human milk, infant lumen and plasma, and immunomodulatory studies that differentiate maternal ingestion during lactation from pregnancy, are needed. Potential herb-drug interaction and other adverse effects should remain central to obstetric advising, but unless a plant is specifically shown as harmful, considering potential contributions to health of individuals and populations, blanket advisories against postpartum herbal use during lactation appear empirically unwarranted.