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Two species? -Limits of the species concepts in the pygmy grasshoppers of the Tetrix bipunctata complex (Orthoptera, Tetrigidae) Launched to accelerate biodiversity research

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Two species? -Limits of the species concepts in the pygmy grasshoppers of the Tetrix bipunctata complex (Orthoptera, Tetrigidae) Launched to accelerate biodiversity research

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Today, integrative taxonomy is often considered the gold standard when it comes to species recognition and delimitation. Using the Tetrix bipunctata complex, we here present a case where even integrative tax-onomy may reach its limits. The Tetrix bipunctata complex consists of two morphs, bipunctata and kraussi, which are easily distinguished by a single character, the length of the hind wing. Both morphs are widely distributed in Europe and reported to occur over a large area in sympatry, where they occasionally may live also in syntopy. The pattern has led to disparate classifications, as on the one extreme, the morphs were treated merely as forms or subspecies of a single species, on the other, as separate species. For this paper, we re-visited the morphology by using multivariate ratio analysis (MRA) of 17 distance measurements, checked the distributional data based on verified specimens and examined micro-habitat use. We were able to confirm that hind wing length is, indeed, the only morphological difference between bipunctata and kraussi. We were also able to exclude a mere allometric scaling. The morphs are, furthermore, largely sympatrically distributed, with syntopy occurring regularly. However, a microhabitat niche difference can be observed. Ecological measurements in a shared habitat confirm that kraussi prefers a drier and hotter microhabitat, which possibly also explains the generally lower altitudinal distribution. Based on these A peer-reviewed open-access journal Valentin Moser et al. / ZooKeys 1043: 33-59 (2021) 34 results, we can exclude classification as subspecies, but the taxonomic classification as species remains unclear. Even with different approaches to classify the Tetrix bipunctata complex, this case is, therefore, not settled. We recommend continuing to record kraussi and bipunctata separately.
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Two species? – Limits of the species concepts in the
pygmy grasshoppers of the Tetrix bipunctata
complex (Orthoptera, Tetrigidae)
Valentin Moser1, Hannes Baur2,3, Arne W. Lehmann4, Gerlind U. C. Lehmann5
1Ochsengasse 66, 4123 Allschwil, Switzerland 2Department of Invertebrates, Natural History Museum Bern,
Bernastrasse 15, 3005 Bern, Switzerland 3Institute of Ecology and Evolution, University of Bern, Baltzer-
strasse 6, 3012 Bern, Switzerland 4Specialist Interest Group Tetrigidae (SIGTET), Friedensallee 37, 14532
Stahnsdorf, Germany 5Department of Biology, Evolutionary Ecology, Humboldt University Berlin, Invaliden-
strasse 110, 10115 Berlin, Germany
Corresponding authors: Valentin Moser (valentinmoser@hotmail.com); Hannes Baur (hannes.baur@nmbe.ch)
Academic editor: Tony Robillard|Received 5 May 2021 |Accepted 25 May 2021 | Published 11 June 2021
http://zoobank.org/4071CDCD-41CA-4516-965E-9FBC0B31394D
Citation: Moser V, Baur H, Lehmann AW, Lehmann GUC (2021) Two species? – Limits of the species concepts in the pygmy
grasshoppers of the Tetrix bipunctata complex (Orthoptera, Tetrigidae). ZooKeys 1043: 33–59. https://doi.org/10.3897/
zookeys.1043.68316
Abstract
Today, integrative taxonomy is often considered the gold standard when it comes to species recognition
and delimitation. Using the Tetrix bipunctata complex, we here present a case where even integrative tax-
onomy may reach its limits. e Tetrix bipunctata complex consists of two morphs, bipunctata and kraussi,
which are easily distinguished by a single character, the length of the hind wing. Both morphs are widely
distributed in Europe and reported to occur over a large area in sympatry, where they occasionally may live
also in syntopy. e pattern has led to disparate classications, as on the one extreme, the morphs were
treated merely as forms or subspecies of a single species, on the other, as separate species. For this paper,
we re-visited the morphology by using multivariate ratio analysis (MRA) of 17 distance measurements,
checked the distributional data based on veried specimens and examined micro-habitat use. We were
able to conrm that hind wing length is, indeed, the only morphological dierence between bipunctata
and kraussi. We were also able to exclude a mere allometric scaling. e morphs are, furthermore, largely
sympatrically distributed, with syntopy occurring regularly. However, a microhabitat niche dierence can
be observed. Ecological measurements in a shared habitat conrm that kraussi prefers a drier and hotter
microhabitat, which possibly also explains the generally lower altitudinal distribution. Based on these
ZooKeys 1043: 33–59 (2021)
doi: 10.3897/zookeys.1043.68316
https://zookeys.pensoft.net
Copyright Valentin Moser et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC
BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use , distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
RESEARCH ARTICLE
Launched to accelerate biodiversity research
A peer-reviewed open-access journal
Valentin Moser et al. / ZooKeys 1043: 33–59 (2021)
34
results, we can exclude classication as subspecies, but the taxonomic classication as species remains un-
clear. Even with dierent approaches to classify the Tetrix bipunctata complex, this case is, therefore, not
settled. We recommend continuing to record kraussi and bipunctata separately.
Keywords
Allometry, integrative taxonomy, morphometry, Orthoptera, species delimitation, Tetrigidae, Tetrix
Introduction
Species concepts shape the way we see an individual from a given population. Species
are the fundamental unit in evolutionary biology (Coyne and Orr 2004) and it is,
therefore, important to apply the species status to the best of our current knowledge
(Sites and Marshall 2004). Species discovery and description remain a core priority of
taxonomic research and critical reection of current practice is called for (Yeates et al.
2011). Traditionally, species were mostly based on morphological characters. With the
advance of technology and easier access to genomes, species classication criteria have
diversied (Wägele 2005; Zachos 2016). To generalise species classication and compa-
rability, attributes, such as morphology, genetics, behaviour and ecology are treated as
evidence (Dayrat 2005; Will et al. 2005; De Queiroz 2007; Yeates et al. 2011). How-
ever, there are still cases where the assignment is dicult, even when using a variety of
data. Here, we present such a case in the Pygmy Grasshopper of the family Tetrigidae.
e Tetrix bipunctata complex is an intriguing case: T. bipunctata (Linnaeus, 1758)
and T. kraussi Saulcy, 1888 (see Evenhuis 2002 for year of publication) are two widely
distributed European Orthoptera of the family Tetrigidae. ey are considered mor-
phologically very similar, except for a striking hind wing dimorphism. In the morph
bipunctata, the hind wing is said to be at least 2.5 times as long as the length of the
tegmen, whereas in the morph kraussi, it is only about twice as long as the tegmen
(sometimes also called tegmentulum, Fig. 1) (Fischer 1948; Schulte 2003; Baur et al.
2006; Lehmann and Landeck 2011; Sardet et al. 2015a).
e status of the two morphs has always been controversial. Fischer (1948) recog-
nised ecological dierences and suggested to treat them as species, but this view was
later challenged. For example, the morphs were treated only as infrasubspecic taxa by
Kevan (1953) and Harz (1957, 1975), but also as subspecies by Nadig (1991). Based
on several syntopic occurrences (Schulte 2003), Lehmann (2004) suggested to raise the
morphs to species status, a view that has since been widely adopted (Baur et al. 2006;
Default and Morichon 2015; Sardet et al. 2015b; Zuna-Kratky et al. 2017; Willemse
et al. 2018; Cigliano et al. 2021), with some exceptions (Wranik et al. 2008; Pfeifer et
al. 2011; Massa et al. 2012; Bellmann et al. 2019; Fischer et al. 2020)
Some authors have suggested that there are further morphological characters be-
sides the hind wing that would allow us to distinguish the two morphs. Koch and
Meineke (in Schulte 2003) state that, not only the length of the hind wing, but also the
extent of the tegmen and the height of the pronotum signicantly dier between the
two morphs. Schulte (2003) used a sex-specic ratio of hind wing length to pronotum
Limits of species concepts in pygmy grasshoppers in Tetrix bipunctata complex 35
Figure 1. e 20 characters measured on 273 females of Tetrix bipunctata and kraussi. Measurements
indicated by yellow lines. In all cases, a single photo was taken with reference points exactly placed in the
focal plane. For character denitions, see Table 1.
length to determine the morphs. Furthermore, it was suggested that bipunctata is, on
average, slightly larger and the pronotum more strongly arched (e.g. Baur et al. 2006).
No genetic dierences have been found so far, as the two morphs form a single
cluster when compared using COI barcoding (Hawlitschek et al. 2017).
In this study, we examine the morphs bipunctata and kraussi and discuss their
status, based on new data from: (1) multivariate morphometry, (2) biogeography in
Central Europe and (3) microhabitat niche use in syntopy.
Valentin Moser et al. / ZooKeys 1043: 33–59 (2021)
36
1) Concerning morphological characters, we address the following questions:
Are further characters – besides wing length – important for the separation of
bipunctata and kraussi and to what extent? Some authors claim that body proportions
seem to dier; however, nobody has ever tried to quantify those traits.
What are the best shape characters for separating bipunctata and kraussi? As
mentioned before, so far only a single ratio, hind wing length to tegmen length (either
by taking into account the entire hind wing length or just the part projecting beyond
the tegmen), has been used regularly. A morphometric analysis thus might reveal some
more reliable ratios.
Despite the evidence for two distinct morphs (Fischer 1948; Schulte 2003),
specimens with intermediate wing ratios have been reported by Nadig (1991). ere-
fore, we re-examined Nadig’s collection including the specimens in question.
How much allometry is present? Size-dependent variation in the adult stage
(static allometry, see Gould 1966; Klingenberg 2008, 2016; Anichini et al. 2017; Re-
brina et al. 2020) plays a major role in such investigations, but so far, it has been
neglected in this complex. Here, we analyse which characters and character ratios cor-
relate with body size.
2) Biogeography
Due to the uncertain taxonomic situation, the distribution is far from settled, as
many authors have not dierentiated between bipunctata and kraussi. Furthermore, a
substantial number of misidentications have been published for Tetrigidae (own re-
sults, compare Lehmann et al. 2017). To establish a rm database for the distribution,
we studied specimens from European Museums, complemented by private collections.
e material from six central European countries added up to 663 specimens. is al-
lows us to analyse the distribution and especially the level of sympatry and even synto-
py. Furthermore, we study the altitudinal range separately for bipunctata and kraussi.
3) Ecology of habitat use at a syntopic population in Brandenburg
e segregated distribution of bipunctata and kraussi is interpreted as an ecological
separation (Fischer 1948; Lehmann 2004). To test for dierential habitat use, we stud-
ied microhabitat niches in a syntopic population discovered in southern Brandenburg
(Lehmann and Landeck 2011).
Materials and methods
Identification of specimens
Below, we consistently refer to the morphs as “bipunctata” and “kraussi” and treat
them in the sense of operational taxonomic units. For the assignment of specimens to
morphs, we adopted the identications found on the labels in the Swiss collections.
is was mainly the case for specimens in Nadig’s collection, also with respect to what
Limits of species concepts in pygmy grasshoppers in Tetrix bipunctata complex 37
he considered as intermediate specimens. In all other instances we followed current
practice (Schulte 2003; Lehmann 2004; Baur et al. 2006) and calculated the ratio of
the full hind wing length to tegmen length: ≥ 2.5 = bipunctata, < 2.5 = kraussi (cor-
responding to the ratio of the protruding part of hind wing length to tegmen length
of ≥ 1.5 and < 1.5, respectively). e same threshold was applied for a very few speci-
mens that had obviously been misidentied by Nadig. e assignment of specimens
was done before we performed any of the analyses reported below. As mentioned in
the Introduction, bipunctata and kraussi have traditionally been separated by this ratio,
which is why we refer to it as the “standard ratio” below.
1) Morphometry
Character measurements
We measured 20 characters from all over the body to cover the most relevant variation
in size and shape between bipunctata and kraussi. e selection of characters was based
on Harz (1975), Devriese (1996), Tumbrinck (2014) and our own expertise. Charac-
ters are shown in Fig. 1, denitions being given in Table 1. An overview of the basic
descriptive statistics for each measurement (in mm) and morph, as well as the sample
sizes is given in Appendix 2. We base our morphometric study on females because they
were available in larger numbers. A further strength of using females is their larger
body size, making measurements easier and faster. e majority of specimens origi-
nated from the collection Nadig (in Muséum d’histoire naturelle, Geneva, Switzerland,
MHNG), the rest consisting of older material collected by Baur (in coll. Nadig) and
some specimens collected in 2015 (also in Naturhistorisches Museum Bern, Switzer-
land, NMBE). We included 273 females from various populations in Central Europe,
mainly from the Alps and the Jura (Table 2).
Each character was photographed with a Keyence VHX 2000 digital microscope
and a VH-Z20R/W zoom lens at dierent magnication, depending on the size of
the body part (see Table 1). For most measurements, we ensured that the reference
points were placed exactly in the focal plane. Only one character, pronotum height
(prn.h), was exceptional in that the reference points were not exactly in the same fo-
cal distance; here also, just a single photo was necessary, because the depth of eld
was suciently large. Moser took the photographs and measured the distances us-
ing ImageJ v.1.49r (Schneider et al. 2012); body parts on the images were zoomed
in 3–4 times before measuring. ree characters were eventually omitted from the
morphometric analysis (explained in Appendix 1), because of strong individual vari-
ation (pronotum height) or wear (2nd and 3rd pulvillus length), so that the nal data
contained 17 characters.
Multivariate ratio analysis of the body measurements
For the data analysis, we applied multivariate ratio analysis (MRA) (Baur and Leuen-
berger 2011). MRA comprises several tools related to standard multivariate methods,
Valentin Moser et al. / ZooKeys 1043: 33–59 (2021)
38
Table 1. Abbreviation, name, denition and magnication (on Keyence digital microscope) of the 20
measurements used for the morphometric analyses of Tetrix bipunctata complex females. General mor-
phology follows Lawrence et al. (1991) and the morphological terminology for pronotal carinae is adopt-
ed from Devriese (1996).
No. Abbrev. Character name Character denition Magn.
1 bt3.l Basitarsus length Length of basitarsus of hind tarsus, from proximal expansion to apex, outer aspect
along ventral side
150
2 eye.b Eye breadth Greatest breadth of eye, lateral view 200
3 eye.h Eye height Greatest height of eye, lateral view 200
4 5.b 5th agellomere breadth Greatest breadth of 5th agellomere, dorsal (inner) aspect 200
5 5.l 5th agellomere length Greatest length of 5th agellomere, dorsal (inner) aspect 200
6 fm2.b Mid-femur breadth Greatest breadth of mid-femur, lateral view 100
7 fm2.l Mid-femur length Length of mid-femur, from proximal emargination of trochanter to emargination of
knee, lateral view
100
8 fm3.b Hind femur breadth Greatest breadth of hind femur, lateral view 100
9 fm3.l Hind femur length Length of hind femur, from proximal edge to tip of knee disc, lateral view 100
10 fro.h Frons height Height of frons, from lower margin of clypeus to lower margin of eye orbit, frontal view 50
11 hea.b Head breadth Greatest breadth of head, dorsal view 100
12 hwi.l Hind wing length Length of hind wing, from proximal edge of tegmen to tip of hind wing, in situ.
Remark: Very often, only the part protruding below the tegmen has been considered.
Unfortunately, the measurement is then critically dependent on the position of the
tegmen, which is often displaced relative to the hind wing. We, therefore, preferred
the entire hind wing length, which can be measured rather more reliably
50
13 prn.b Pronotum breadth Greatest breadth of pronotum, dorsal view 100
14* prn.h Pronotum height Greatest height of pronotum, from carina humeralis at level of proximal edge of
tegmen to highest point of carina medialis, exact lateral view
30
15 prn.l Pronotum length Length of pronotum, from anterior margin to the tip of the posterior pronotal
process, dorsal view along carina medialis
30
16* pu2.l 2nd pulvillus length Length of 2nd pulvillus on basitarsus of hind tarsus, from its proximal notch to distal
notch, outer aspect
150
17* pu3.l 3rd pulvillus length Length of 3rd pulvillus on basitarsus of hind tarsus, from its proximal notch to distal
notch, outer aspect
150
18 teg.b Tegmen breadth Greatest breadth of sclerotised part of tegmen, outer aspect 100
19 teg.l Tegmen length Length of fore wing, from proximal edge of tegmen to tip of fore wing, outer aspect 100
20 vrt.b Vertex breadth Shortest breadth of vertex, dorsal view. Together with head breath, this covers also
potential dierences in eye breath.
150
* Character omitted in morphometric analyses, see Appendix 1.
Table 2. Overview on Tetrix bipunctata complex populations (females only) included in the morphomet-
ric analyses. Most specimens are from the Nadig collection in MHNG.
Country Population
AT Kärnten
CH BE Beatenberg
CH BE/JU Jura
CH GR Oberengadin
CH GR Schams
CH GR Unterengadin
CH UR Urnerboden
DE S-Bayern
DE Schwarzwald
IT Chiavenna
IT Como
IT Gardasee
IT S-Tirol E/Mittenwald
IT Trentino
Limits of species concepts in pygmy grasshoppers in Tetrix bipunctata complex 39
such as principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA).
Contrary to the normal application of these methods, MRA allows the interpretation
of size and shape in a manner that is entirely consistent with the customary usage of
body lengths and body ratios in taxonomy, for instance, in descriptions and diagnoses.
Examples of the application of dierent MRA tools may be found in various papers
(László et al. 2013; Baur et al. 2014; Ali et al. 2016; Huber and Schnitter 2020; Le et
al. 2020; Selz et al. 2020). Here, we rst calculated a general measure of size, “isosize”,
which we obtained by calculating for each specimen the geometric mean of all meas-
urements. We then performed a PCA on a data matrix, where we divided each value by
isosize, thus entirely removing dierences in isometric size. To distinguish this particu-
lar type of PCA from the usual one based on just log-transformed raw data (Jolicoeur
1963), we called it “shape PCA” below.
Very often shape correlates with size, which corresponds to the well-known phe-
nomenon of allometry. In the case of specimens belonging to the same stage, in our
case adults, we are talking of static allometry (Gould 1966). Static allometric varia-
tion might furthermore be intraspecic, i.e. amongst members of the same species or
interspecic, i.e. between species (Klingenberg 2008, 2016). e nature of allometry
is often similar for some species, but sometimes, it also diers in extent and direc-
tion (Rebrina et al. 2020). It is important to note that intraspecic allometry may
obscure the dierences in body ratios. Interspecic allometry, on the other hand,
may sometimes simulate dierences, where only allometric scaling, the shift along a
common allometric axis is present (Gould 1966; Seifert 2002; Warton et al. 2006;
Klingenberg 2008, 2016).
For a sensible interpretation of morphometric results, it is therefore essential to
consider allometric variation. In many studies, such variation is simply removed from
the data by various “correction” procedures (Bartels et al. 2011; Sidlauskas et al. 2011).
is, for instance, is also what happens when a PCA is used in a “normal” manner.
Here, the rst PC comprises size, as well as all the shape variation that correlates with
size, thus removing allometry from the second and all subsequent PCs (but not nec-
essarily removing isometric size dierences) (Jolicoeur 1963; Baur and Leuenberger
2011). Unfortunately, this approach does not tell us anything about the nature of
allometric variation. In contrast, by applying a shape PCA within the analytical frame-
work of MRA, allometry is not at all removed but uncovered by plotting shape axes (e.g.
shape PCs or some body ratios) against isosize. Such plots reveal useful information
about the strength and direction of allometry, which may vary between the dierent
shape axes, as well as between groups (Mosimann 1970; Klingenberg 2016). Below, we
are making use of such plots for analysing our Tetrix data.
We rst performed a series of shape PCAs to see how well the morphs were sup-
ported by variation in shape. A shape PCA shows in very few axes (usually just the rst
one or two shape PCs are important) the unconstrained pattern of variation in the data.
A PCA type of analysis is convenient here, as it does not require a priori assignment of
specimens to a particular group, but assumes that all belong to a single group. We could
thus avoid bias with respect to groupings (Pimentel 1979; Baur and Leuenberger 2011).
Valentin Moser et al. / ZooKeys 1043: 33–59 (2021)
40
We, furthermore, employed the PCA ratio spectrum that allows an easy interpreta-
tion of shape PCs in terms of body ratios. In a PCA ratio spectrum, the eigenvector
coecients of all variables are arranged along a vertical line. Ratios calculated from
variables lying at the opposite ends of the spectrum have the largest inuence on a
particular shape PCA; ratios from variables lying close to each other or in the middle
of the graph are negligible (Baur and Leuenberger 2011; Baur et al. 2014). As usually
only few variables are located at the ends, the most important variation may be spotted
at a glance.
e situation changes once we specically ask for dierences between groups. For
this question, we use a method where the groups are specied a priori. In the morpho-
metry of distance measurements, such methods are usually based on linear discrimi-
nant analysis (LDA) (e.g. Hastie et al. 2009). Here, we applied a particular method of
the MRA tool kit, the LDA ratio extractor (see Baur and Leuenberger 2011 for how
this algorithm works). is allows the user to nd the best ratio for separating two
groups. Note that the algorithm not just extracts them according to discriminating
power, it also ensures that successive ratios (best, second best etc.) are least correlated
(Baur and Leuenberger 2011).
We used the R language and environment for statistical computing for data analy-
sis, version 4.0.3 (R Core Team 2020). For MRA, we employed the R-scripts pro-
vided by Baur and Leuenberger (2020) on Zenodo. ANOVAs were calculated using
“summary(aov())” and by using the default settings. Scatterplots were generated with
the package “ggplot2” (Wickham 2016). Naturally, not all specimens in the collection
were complete, which means that 95 specimens lacked one body part or another. In
order to be able to include all specimens in the multivariate analyses, missing values
were imputed with the R package “mice” (Buuren and Groothuis-Oudshoorn 2011),
using the default settings of the function “mice()”.
Raw data in millimetres and the complete set of photographs with measurements,
as well as the R-scripts used for the analyses, are available in a data repository on
Zenodo (Moser and Baur 2021).
2) Biogeography
Given the high level of erroneous Tetrigidae determinations in collections, we refrain
from incorporating published records. Instead, we concentrate on specimens studied
by ourselves from several European Museums and private collections (Table 3).
Specimens were assigned to each morph by calculating the standard ratio (see
above). After eliminating erroneous determinations by our precursors, nymphs and a
single specimen of the f. macroptera which cannot be associated with either bipunc-
tata or kraussi so far, we were able to include 660 specimens from the six Central Eu-
rope countries Germany, Netherlands, Switzerland, Austria, Italy and Slovenia (Suppl.
material 1: Table S1: table of localities). Geographic coordinates and altitude were
Limits of species concepts in pygmy grasshoppers in Tetrix bipunctata complex 41
extracted from specimen labels or using standard internet sources. We analysed the
biogeography stratied for bipunctata and kraussi with an emphasis on the level of sym-
patry and syntopy. Furthermore, we studied the altitudinal range over the north-south
gradient from the northern lowlands of Germany southwards to Italy and Slovenia.
For the generation of the map, we used QGis 3.10.13-A Coruna and the Natu-
ral Earth Data (https://www.naturalearthdata.com/about/terms-of-use/, https://www.
openstreetmap.org/copyright, OpenStreetMap contributors).
3) Microhabitat niches
In a syntopic population in Brandenburg (2.5 km E of eisa 51.542°N, 13.503°E),
the microhabitat use was studied for four months from May to August 2015 by Katha-
rina Gatz, supervised by G.U.C. Lehmann. By slowly walking through the habitat,
individuals were located either sitting or jumping from a retraceable spot. At the point
of origin, a little ag was placed and the animal afterwards caught with the help of a
200 ml plastic vial (Greiner BioOne) (Fig. 8). To document the microhabitat, Katha-
rina Gatz measured the percentage of vegetation cover and the mean vegetation height
in a radius of 10 centimetres around the ag. Individuals were here also determined
using the standard ratio (see above). Microhabitat niche use was available for 34 adults
determined as kraussi and 14 bipunctata. Habitat data for nymphs were excluded, as
the wings are not fully developed, thus preventing determination.
Table 3. List of Museums and private collections with material of bipunctata and kraussi studied for the
biogeography pattern. Museum codes are unied using the NCBI database (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.
gov/biocollections/), see also Sharma et al. (2018). An exception is the Naturhistorisches Museum Bern,
where we take the code used by the Museum NMBE instead of the NCBI code NHMBe.
Code Institution
DEI Senckenberg Deutsches Entomologisches Institut
MHNG Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle, Geneva
MNHN Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle (Paris)
NMBE Naturhistorisches Museum Bern
NHMV Müritzeum / Naturhistorische Landessammlungen für Mecklenburg-Vorpommern
NHMW Naturhistorisches Museum Wien
NKML Naturkundemuseum Leipzig
SMNG Senckenberg Museum für Naturkunde Görlitz
ZMA Universiteit van Amsterdam, Zoologisch Museum
ZMB Museum für Naturkunde Berlin
ZSM Zoologische Staatssammlung München
Collectio Gatz Katharina Gatz, Berlin, Germany
Collectio Gomboc Stanislav Gomboc, Kranj,Slovenia
Collectio Hochkirch Prof. Axel Hochkirch, Trier, Germany
Collectio Karle-Fendt Alfred Karle-Fendt, Sonthofen, Germany
Collectio Landeck Ingmar Landeck, Finsterwalde, Germany
Collectio Lehmann Dr. Arne Lehmann, Stahnsdorf, Germany
Collectio Muth Martin Muth, Kempten, Germany
Valentin Moser et al. / ZooKeys 1043: 33–59 (2021)
42
Figure 2. Shape principal component analysis (shape PCA) of 273 females of Tetrix bipunctata and
kraussi A analysis including 17 variables, scatterplot of rst against second shape PC; in parentheses the
variance explained by each shape PC B PCA ratio spectrum for rst shape PC C PCA ratio spectrum for
second shape PC. Horizontal bars in the ratio spectra represent 68% bootstrap condence intervals, based
on 1000 replicates; only the most important characters are indicated in ratio spectra.
Results
Measurement data
Appendix 2 gives the descriptive statistics for each measurement (in mm) and morph
as well as the sample sizes.
Analysis using shape PCA
We rst performed a series of shape PCAs to see how well the morphs were supported
by variation in shape and which body ratios were responsible for separation (Fig. 2).
In the scatterplot of the rst against second shape PC, the individuals were almost
perfectly separated along the rst shape PC, but entirely overlapping along the second
(Fig. 2A). For the interpretation of the rst shape PC, we must now have a look at its
PCA ratio spectrum (Fig. 2B). With this graph, we are able to read o the most important
character ratios at a glance, as just those ratios are relevant that include characters lying at
the opposite ends of the spectrum (in Fig. 2B, C, the only ones labelled). So, for the rst
shape PC, these were hind wing length (hwi.l) at the upper end and 5th agellomere length
(5.l) at the lower end. Hence, the ratio hwi.l/5.l should normally be considered as the
most important one. However, here the PCA ratio spectrum was noteworthy, insofar as
we had, at the one end, a single character (hwi.l), whereas the other 16 characters were
densely packed at the other end of the spectrum. Such an asymmetrical ratio spectrum is
exceptional, since we usually observe a more symmetrical character dispersion, with few
characters at the tips and the rest around the middle. Indeed, the strong asymmetry, in this
Limits of species concepts in pygmy grasshoppers in Tetrix bipunctata complex 43
particular case, profoundly inuenced our interpretation. It quite simply implied that any
ratio formed with hind wing length would result in a similar separation of the morphs!
Perhaps the weakest separation should be expected from the ratio hwi.l/teg.l, because teg-
men length was represented in the ratio spectrum by the bar that was a bit distant from
the remaining characters at the lower end and also closest to hind wing length.
With respect to the second shape PC, the situation is quite dierent as there is
broad overlap between bipunctata and kraussi. According to its PCA ratio spectrum
(Fig. 2C), tegmen length (teg.l) to 5th agellomere breadth (5.b) emerged as the most
important ratio. Any ratio formed with teg.l and one of the characters in the lower
third of the spectrum give a similar result, as this ratio spectrum was also notably
asymmetrical. Note that the overlap which we observed in morphs did not necessarily
mean that none of these ratios contributed to their dierentiation (see below under
Extracting best ratios), but their relevance was lower. is is also reected by the vari-
ation explained in the respective shape PCs; the rst shape PC explained almost 80%
of the variance, the rest less than 6% (see Fig. 2A).
Allometry
Plotting isosize against the rst shape PC revealed that intraspecic allometry was
weak in bipunctata and moderate in kraussi (Fig. 3). We were able to exclude a mere
allometric scaling, because the morphs extensively overlapped in isosize, even though
bipunctata was larger on average (ANOVA: F1,271 = 88.96, p < 0.001).
Extracting best ratios
e LDA ratio extractor found hind wing length to mid-femur length as the best
ratio for separating bipunctata from kraussi. is ratio was indeed more powerful than
Isosizeversusshape PC1
1
Figure 3. Analysis of allometric variation in 273 females of Tetrix bipunctata and kraussi. Scatterplot of
isosize against rst shape PC.
Valentin Moser et al. / ZooKeys 1043: 33–59 (2021)
44
Figure 4. Boxplots of body ratios of 273 females of Tetrix bipunctata and kraussi A hind wing length to
mid-femur length, the ratio selected by the LDA ratio extractor as the best ratio for separating the morphs
B hind wing length to tegmen length, the standard ratio used for discrimination C tegmen length to hind
femur length, the second best ratio found by the LDA ratio extractor (actually the best ratio when hind
wing length is omitted). Means in all plots signicantly dierent (ANOVA, p < 0.001).
the standard ratio (compare Fig. 4A, B). In contrast, the second-best ratio found by
the ratio extractor, tegmen length to hind femur length, separated the morphs much
less well (Fig. 4C). However, once hind wing length was omitted, this ratio had the
best discrimination power. It was also more weakly correlated with the other two
ratios and thus stood for another direction in the data. is direction only revealed
dierences in mean (ANOVA: F1,271 = 795, p < 0.001), but otherwise the morphs
were largely overlapping.
e specimens considered as “Nadig intermediates” (“Zwischenformen”) are found
in both groups. In the plot with the best ratio (Fig. 5A), these specimens were nested
within each morph and, therefore, cannot be considered intermediates. In the other
plot, including the standard ratio (Fig. 5B), many intermediates emerged in or near
the zone of overlap.
Biogeography
In total, 660 specimens from 286 localities could be included into our biogeograph-
ic analysis (Suppl. material 1: Table S1). We were able to include a slightly higher
number of records for kraussi, with 403 individuals from 170 localities, than for bi-
punctata with 257 individuals from 116 localities. e general distribution pattern is
largely overlapping; both bipunctata and kraussi occur in Central Europe sympatri-
cally over much of the range (Fig. 6). However, this sympatric distribution is not
perfect. In the northern lowlands area of the Netherlands, the German Federal States,
Limits of species concepts in pygmy grasshoppers in Tetrix bipunctata complex 45
AB
IsosizeversusstandardratioIsosizeversusbestratio
tegmen
Figure 5. Scatterplots of isosize against body ratios of 273 females of Tetrix bipunctata and kraussi,
showing the position of intermediate specimens A isosize against ratio of hind wing length to mid-femur
length, the best ratio for separation of morphs B isosize against ratio of hind wing length to tegmen
length, the standard ratio for discrimination (see Fig. 4). e 11 specimens considered by Nadig (1991)
as “Zwischenformen” marked by black triangles.
Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania (Mecklenburg-Vorpommern) and ¾ of north-
ern Brandenburg, only bipunctata individuals are found. All those records are below
121m altitude, i.e. in the planar altitudinal belt. In contrast, the northernmost records
of kraussi are from the mountainous Harz in Sachsen-Anhalt. From here, kraussi oc-
curs largely sympatrically with bipunctata over the Central German Uplands. Given
the general overlap, the low number of shared populations is notable; we identied
only ve syntopic localities for our German sample (two in southern Brandenburg,
uringia Hainleite, uringia Kyhäuser and Sachsen-Anhalt Balgstädt Tote Täler).
In a large part of the Alps, bipunctata and kraussi are sympatric over much of their range.
In Switzerland, we found syntopic populations occurring at medium altitude, especially
pronounced in the Canton Bern with four out of ve populations being syntopic, fol-
lowed by the Jura with two out of six populations. In Beatenberg (Bernese Alps), the bi-
punctata to kraussi ratio was 5/9 and in Orvin (Jura), one bipunctata to 14 kraussi (Moser
and Baur 2021). However, in the southern Alps, only kraussi occurs; all individuals from
Istria up north to Carinthia (Kärnten) and Styria (Steiermark) in Austria and all pre-
alpine populations in Italy, extending into the Ticino in Switzerland, belong to kraussi.
Despite the large sympatric occurrence, a notable dierence exists in the inhabited al-
titude. Segregated for the Federal States in Germany and the Alpine countries, bipunc-
tata inhabits, on average, the higher altitudes (Fig. 7). e dierence is especially clear
in our samples from Austria and Bavaria, but is also found in seven out of ten regions
with overlapping populations. In Slovenia, where only kraussi occurs, its altitudinal
range is comparable to the bipunctata range found north of the Alps in Bavaria.
Valentin Moser et al. / ZooKeys 1043: 33–59 (2021)
46
Microhabitat niches
In the syntopic population in Brandenburg, adults of bipunctata and kraussi show
separated microhabitat niche use. While bipunctata adults preferentially inhabit denser
Figure 6. Distribution of 260 localities with records of Tetrix bipunctata (green dots), kraussi (orange
dots) and syntopic populations (purple dots), mapped for six central European countries. Map generated
using Natural Earth Data https://www.naturalearthdata.com/about/terms-of-use/.
Limits of species concepts in pygmy grasshoppers in Tetrix bipunctata complex 47
Figure 7. Altitudinal distribution (mean ± SD) of 286 populations of Tetrix bipunctata (green) and
kraussi (orange) segmented for ve Central European countries and eight Federal States in Germany.
Regions are grouped along the north-south axis, NL = e Netherlands, DE = Germany: DE MV =
Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, DE BB = Brandenburg, DE ST = Sachsen-Anhalt, DE SN = Sachsen, DE
TH = üringen, DE HE = Hessen, DE BW = Baden-Württemberg, DE BY = Bayern, AT = Austria, CH
= Switzerland, IT = Italy, SL = Slovenia.
Figure 8. Characteristic microhabitats of Tetrix bipunctata (left) and kraussi (right) at the syntopic popu-
lation at eisa, southern Brandenburg.
vegetation with higher plants (Fig. 8a), the more open areas with less tall plants are
inhabited by kraussi (Fig. 8b). ese spots occur side-by-side in the forest aisle at eisa
in Southern Brandenburg.
Microhabitats of bipunctata had a mean vegetation cover of 70 ± 18%, nearly twice
as dense as the vegetation at kraussi spots (40 ± 7%) (Fig. 9). is dierence in vegeta-
Valentin Moser et al. / ZooKeys 1043: 33–59 (2021)
48
Figure 9. Vegetation cover in percent (mean ± SD) at spots of 10 cm diameter with records of adult
Tetrix bipunctata and kraussi at the syntopic population at eisa, southern Brandenburg.
tion cover was signicant between morphs (two-way ANOVA: F1,47 = 455.77, p <0.001)
and between months (ANOVA: F3,45 = 86.33, p < 0.001). Even if the preference for
more dense vegetation cover increases for bipunctata over the season, this shift was not
signicant, as indicated by the interaction term (ANOVA: F3,45 = 2.16, p = 0.11).
Figure 10. Vegetation height (mean ± SD) at spots of 10 cm diameter with records of adult Tetrix bi-
punctata and kraussi at the syntopic population at eisa, southern Brandenburg.
Limits of species concepts in pygmy grasshoppers in Tetrix bipunctata complex 49
e vegetation at sites inhabited by bipunctata adults was on average 27 cm ±
12cm tall, nearly twice as high as the plants at patches with kraussi occurrence (16 cm
± 4 cm) (Fig. 10). e dierence is signicant between morphs (two-way ANOVA:
F1,47 = 156.24, p < 0.001) and months (ANOVA: F3,45 = 37.80, p < 0.001). Further-
more, it was pronounced in May and August as revealed by the signicant interaction
term (ANOVA: F3,45 = 62.66, p < 0.001).
Discussion
e morphometric analyses revealed that the morphs are merely separated by hind
wing length or hind wing length in combination with any other character as a shape
ratio. It was thus, by far, the most important character (Figs 2A, B, 4A, B). e rst
shape PC explaining 80% of the total variance supports this suggestion, while all other
shape axes explain just a marginal portion of variation. e best ratio is hind wing
length to length of the mid-femur, which almost perfectly distinguishes between bi-
punctata and kraussi. e traditionally used standard ratio of tegmen length to hind
wing length (Lehmann 2004; Baur et al. 2006), is much less reliable (Fig. 4B). e
dierences between the morphs vanish when the importance of hind wing length is
suppressed, as in the second shape PC (see Fig. 2A, C).
Isometric size between the morphs is widely overlapping with bipunctata being
slightly larger on average (Fig. 3). is is consistent with the dierences in body size
measured as pronotum length and tegmen length found in the Diemeltal in northwest
Germany (Schulte 2003). Based on more than 1000 specimens, bipunctata was the
slightly larger morph compared to kraussi. Allometric variation is weak in both morphs
and, because of the overlap in size, allometric scaling can be excluded. Some authors
suggested the height of the pronotum as a possible dierence (Schulte 2003). In Suppl.
material 3: Fig. S2, we demonstrate that the variation in pronotum height between
individuals excludes it from being a delimitation character.
In conclusion, we did nd clear morphometric dierences between bipunctata and
kraussi only in hind wing length and all ratios including this variable. is is in agree-
ment with results by Schulte (2003) who used specimens from northwest Germany
and Sardet et al. (2015) who analysed French specimens. is means that the dier-
ences in wing length are consistent, regardless of the geographic origin.
Nadig’s intermediate specimens and the subspecies hypothesis
Our analyis shows that the specimens from the Engadin, determined as intermediates
(“Zwischenformen”) by Nadig (1991), actually fall into either the bipunctata or the
kraussi cluster. is is most evident from the scatterplot of isosize versus the best ratio
(Fig. 5A) and, to a lesser degree, also from isosize versus the standard ratio (Fig. 5B).
Based on his observation, Nadig (1991) proposed to classify bipuncata and kraussi
as subspecies. However, the denition of a subspecies, as suggested by most authors
(Mayr 1963; Mallet 2007; Braby et al. 2012), also requires a geographical separation of
Valentin Moser et al. / ZooKeys 1043: 33–59 (2021)
50
populations. Even though there are areas where only kraussi (the Southern Alps, as well
as the Western Balkan) or bipunctata is found (Northern German Depression from the
Netherlands towards Poland [this article], as well as Siberia and Scandinavia [Lehmann
2004]), there is a large area of sympatry in Central Europe (Fig. 6), thus eliminating
the subspecies hypothesis. Syntopic populations are, furthermore, documented from
all over the shared distribution range, with changing distribution ratio (see Schulte
2003; Lehmann and Landeck 2011; Sardet et al. 2015a; Moser and Baur 2021).
Habitat dierentiation
e morphs show a preference for slightly dierent habitats, with kraussi prefer-
ring shorter and less dense vegetation cover (Fig. 8). Fischer (1948) had already
reported dierential micro-habitat usage of bipunctata and kraussi, with the distri-
bution of bipunctata in generally higher vegetation and less exposed than kraussi.
We found the same in a sympatric population in Southern Brandenburg. Overall,
kraussi seems to prefer drier, warmer climatic conditions and is often associated
with limestone and open space with low vegetation, while bipunctata shows a pref-
erence for denser vegetation and higher plants (Figs 9, 10), which is in accordance
with other observations (Zuna-Kratky et al. 2017). Where the habitat preferences
overlap, the morphs meet in sympatry. ese shifted preferences help to explain
the altitudinal dierentiation with bipunctata occurring at higher altitudes in the
mountains (Fig. 7). Consistent with these habitat preferences, kraussi occurs more
in the South than bipunctata (Fig. 6). In the syntopic populations, we recorded
dominance of either bipunctata or kraussi, as reported in literature (Schulte 2003;
Sardet et al. 2015; Moser and Baur 2021). is might be inuenced by the prevail-
ing climatic conditions, with kraussi being more common in warmer regions and
bipunctata dominating in cooler climate.
e question whether kraussi and bipunctata represent dierent species or should
be interpreted as infraspecic morphs is still open. e lack of genetic dierentiation
(see Hawlitschek et al. 2017) is equally congruent with bipunctata and kraussi being
two young species or representing ecomorphs of a single species. Polymorphism, espe-
cially regarding wing length, is a well-known phenomenon in Tetrigidae, for example,
in the well-studied Tetrix subulata (Steenman et al. 2013, 2015; Lehmann et al. 2018).
To complicate the situation, a macropterous morph is documented for bipunctata
(Devriese 1996; Schulte 2003; this study). As all known Tetrigidae are either mono- or
dimorphic (e.g. Günther 1979; Devriese 1996), this would make the bipunctata-com-
plex the only documented case with three wing morphs. However, this is not impos-
sible, as other insects are able to develop several morphs per species (West-Eberhard
2003). Unfortunately, we lack any studies on the processes triggering the dierence
between kraussi and bipunctata and the forma macroptera as well. e mechanisms for
the development of the forma macroptera, on the one hand and the switch between
the morphs bipunctata and kraussi on the other hand, might dier and be based on
distinct genetic backgrounds.
Limits of species concepts in pygmy grasshoppers in Tetrix bipunctata complex 51
More research is needed to distinguish between the two possibilities that bipunc-
tata and kraussi are genetically young species or infraspecic ecomorphs. However, this
is a prime example how even modern species concepts can reach their limits. What
we can exclude is their status as subspecies. Missing evidence concerns the genetic
and developmental mechanisms behind the wing length. Crossing experiments could,
furthermore, be informative to study reproductive barriers and hybrid disadvantage.
We recommend that bipunctata and kraussi are considered as separate units until the
species question can be answered more precisely.
Acknowledgements
We thank Elsa Obrecht (NMBE) for critical reading of the manuscript. Estée Bochud
(NME) created the map in Figure 6, for which we would like to thank her very much.
Our special thanks to Katharina Gatz, for allowing the use of her microhabitat data.
For the loan of specimen, we are grateful to the following curators in alphabetic or-
der: the late Christiane Amédégnato (MNHN), B.J.H. Brugge and Willem Hogenes
(ZMA), Jürgen Deckert, Claudia Hömberg and Michael Ohl (ZMB), Rolf Franke
(SMNG), Eckhard Groll (DEI), the late Alfred Kaltenbach (NMW), Dietmar Klaus
(NKML), Miss Riemann (NHMV), Klaus Schönitzer (ZSM) and Peter Schwendinger
(MHNG). Daniel Roesti, Wasen i.E., accompanied H. Baur on one of the excursions
in the Bernese Alps. We thank the private collectors Stanislav Gomboc, Alfred Karle-
Fendt, Ingmar Landeck and Martin Muth for loan of and Carola Seifert and Reinhold
Treiber for donating specimens.
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Appendix 1
Identication and removal of unreliable characters.
As mentioned under Materials and methods, we omitted three characters from all
morphometric analyses presented in the results. In the following, we briey describe
the procedure that led to their removal.
Initially, we started with a shape PCA, based on all 20 characters (see Suppl. ma-
terial 2: Fig. S1). e resulting scatterplot was very similar to the one presented in the
results (Fig. 2A), with an almost perfect separation of morphs along shape PC1 and
a complete overlap along shape PC2 (Suppl. material 2: Fig. S1A). In addition, the
PCA ratio spectrum for shape PC1 was fully congruent with the one of the denitive
analysis (compare Suppl. material 2: Fig. S1B and Suppl. material 3: Fig. S2B). Dif-
ferences eventually arose in the PCA ratio spectrum of the second shape PC, where
the coecients of the three characters pronotum height (prn.h), 2nd pulvillus length
(pu2.l) and 3rd pulvillus length (pu3.l) evidently had much too broad condence in-
tervals (Suppl. material 2: Fig. S1C). ese characters dominated the spectrum (also
that of the third shape PC, not shown here), but at the same time, did not at all con-
tribute to the dierentiation of morphs. We, therefore, suspected that the measure-
ments were unreliable, either due to high measurement error or intraspecic variation
Limits of species concepts in pygmy grasshoppers in Tetrix bipunctata complex 57
(Baur and Leuenberger 2011). Closer inspection of specimens, indeed, revealed that
the latter was prevalent concerning the upper edge of the pronotum. Here, specimens
of both morphs showed large individual variation. For measuring pronotum height,
we thus had to move the reference points along the body axis, rendering these points
clearly non-homologous (Suppl. material 3: Fig. S2, measurement position indicated
by a magenta line; note the varying position of these lines relative to the base of the
tegmen). e pulvilli, on the other hand, were often worn o and the respective refer-
ence points indistinct.
It is well known that a high quality of measurements is crucial in morphomet-
ric data, as low reliability may cause serious problems for multivariate data analysis
(Lougheed et al. 1991; Bartlett and Frost 2008; Nakagawa and Schielzeth 2010; László
et al. 2013). Baur et al. (2014), for instance, demonstrated how badly a single error-
prone variable may aect a shape PCA by masking important groupings. erefore, we
think it was not only justied, but also necessary to exclude the three characters from
the dataset.
Appendix 2
Overview of measurements of Tetrix females, showing minimum, mean, median and
maximum in mm.
Valentin Moser et al. / ZooKeys 1043: 33–59 (2021)
58
Supplementary material 1
Table S1
Authors: Valentin Moser, Hannes Baur, Arne W. Lehmann, Gerlind U.C. Lehmann
Data type: table
Explanation note: Records of 660 specimen of Tetrix bipunctata and T. kraussi, based
on our surveys in European Museums and private collections, see Table 3 for the
list of sources.
e 17 rows coloured represent syntopic occurrences of Tetrix bipunctata and T. kraussi.
Species: z = Zwischenformen, specimen supposed to be intermediates by Nadig (1991),
but turned out to be either Tetrix bipunctata or T. kraussi in this study.
Date: Collection date as reported on labels, in square brackets we added the unreport-
ed centuries [18] or [19] deduced from our knowledge of collectors biographies.
State: English name of the governmental province.
Bundesland / Kanton: German name of the governmental province.
Geographic coordinates and altitudes: extracted with the help of open mapping tools
(https://tools.retorte.ch/map/, https://www.mapcoordinates.net).
Comments: Additional information given on labels.
First and second determination: Identications based on label information.
Authors’ determination: Identications based on the standard ratio of the full hind
wing length to tegmen length: ≥ 2.5 = bipunctata, < 2.5 = kraussi (corresponding
to the ratio of the protruding part of hind wing length to tegmen length of ≥ 1.5
and < 1.5, respectively).
Collectio: Abbreviations of European Museums and private collections with material
studied. Museum codes are unied using the NCBI database (https://www.ncbi.
nlm.nih. gov/biocollections/), see also Sharma et al. (2018). An exception is the
Naturhistorisches Museum Bern, where we take the code used by the Museum
NMBE instead of the NCBI code NHMBe (compare Table 3).
Collection number: Individual codes assigned by the Collectio Lehmann [CL], the
Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle, Geneva (MHNG) or Naturhistorisches Museum
Bern (NMBE).
Copyright notice: is dataset is made available under the Open Database License
(http://opendatacommons.org/licenses/odbl/1.0/). e Open Database License
(ODbL) is a license agreement intended to allow users to freely share, modify, and
use this Dataset while maintaining this same freedom for others, provided that the
original source and author(s) are credited.
Link: https://doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.1043.68316.suppl1
Limits of species concepts in pygmy grasshoppers in Tetrix bipunctata complex 59
Supplementary material 2
Figure S1
Authors: Valentin Moser, Hannes Baur, Arne W. Lehmann, Gerlind U.C. Lehmann
Data type: (measurement/occurrence/multimedia/etc.)
Explanation note: Shape principal component analysis (shape PCA) of 273 females of
Tetrix bipunctata and kraussi. A: analysis including 20 variables, scatterplot of rst
against second shape PC. B: PCA ratio spectrum for rst shape PC. C: PCA ratio
spectrum for second shape PC. Horizontal bars in the ratio spectra represent 68%
bootstrap condence intervals based on 1000 replicates.
Copyright notice: is dataset is made available under the Open Database License
(http://opendatacommons.org/licenses/odbl/1.0/). e Open Database License
(ODbL) is a license agreement intended to allow users to freely share, modify, and
use this Dataset while maintaining this same freedom for others, provided that the
original source and author(s) are credited.
Link: https://doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.1043.68316.suppl2
Supplementary material 3
Figure S2
Authors: Valentin Moser, Hannes Baur, Arne W. Lehmann, Gerlind U.C. Lehmann
Data type: (measurement/occurrence/multimedia/etc.)
Explanation note: Variation in pronotum shape (lateral view) of some Tetrix females
included in the morphometric analyses. A–D: bipunctata; E–H: kraussi. e posi-
tion where pronotum height was measured is indicated by a magenta line.
Copyright notice: is dataset is made available under the Open Database License
(http://opendatacommons.org/licenses/odbl/1.0/). e Open Database License
(ODbL) is a license agreement intended to allow users to freely share, modify, and
use this Dataset while maintaining this same freedom for others, provided that the
original source and author(s) are credited.
Link: https://doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.1043.68316.suppl3
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