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This article argues that whilst our recent economic models are dependent on the overall ecosystem, they do not reflect this fact. As a result of this, we are facing Anthropocene mass extinction. The paper presents a collaborative regenerative region (COLreg) co-creation and tokenisation, involving multiple human and non-human, living and non-living stakeholders. It unfolds different stages of multicentred, systemic co-design via collaborative gigamapping. In the first steps, certain stakeholders are present and certain are represented, whilst in the final stages of generative development , all stakeholders, even those who were previously just potential stakeholders, take an active role. The 'COLreg' project represents a holistic approach that reflects today's most burning issues, such as biodiversity decrease, unsustainable food production, unsustainable economic models, and social systems. It combines top-down and bottom-up approaches to co-create to achieve regional social and environmental justice for the coming symbiotic post-Anthropocene era.
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Sustainability2021,13,6638.https://doi.org/10.3390/su13126638www.mdpi.com/journal/sustainability
Article
COLreg:TheTokenisedCrossSpeciesMulticentred
RegenerativeRegionCoCreation
MarieDavidová
1,
*andKateřinaZímová
2
1
WelshSchoolofArchitecture,CardiffUniversity,KingEdwardVIIAvenue,CardiffCF103NB,UK
2
CollaborativeCollective,Fričova7,12000Praha,CzechRepublic;katerina@cooland.cz
*Correspondence:davidovam@cardiff.ac.uk
Abstract:Thisarticlearguesthatwhilstourrecenteconomicmodelsaredependentontheoverall
ecosystem,theydonotreflectthisfact.Asaresultofthis,wearefacingAnthropocenemassextinc
tion.Thepaperpresentsacollaborativeregenerativeregion(COLreg)cocreationandtokenisation,
involvingmultiplehumanandnonhuman,livingandnonlivingstakeholders.Itunfoldsdifferent
stagesofmulticentred,systemiccodesignviacollaborativegigamapping.Inthefirststeps,certain
stakeholdersarepresentandcertainarerepresented,whilstinthefinalstagesofgenerativedevel
opment,allstakeholders,eventhosewhowerepreviouslyjustpotentialstakeholders,takeanactive
role.The‘COLreg’projectrepresentsaholisticapproachthatreflectstoday’smostburningissues,
suchasbiodiversitydecrease,unsustainablefoodproduction,unsustainableeconomicmodels,and
socialsystems.Itcombinestopdownandbottomupapproachestococreatetoachieveregional
socialandenvironmentaljusticeforthecomingsymbioticpostAnthropoceneera.
Keywords:systemicapproachtoarchitecturalperformance;systemsorienteddesign;multicentred
design;codesign;socialandenvironmentaljustice;bioregion;urbanecosystem;ediblelandscape;
tokeneconomy;postAnthropocene
1.Introduction
Thisarticleisanextensionanddevelopmentoftheworkingconferencepaper
‘COLreg:TheCollectiveRegenerativeRegion’[1],presentedattheplenarysessionofthe
RelatingSystemsThinkingandDesign9Symposium,heldonlineinOctober2020atthe
NationalInstituteofDesign,Ahmedabad[2].Itisanonreductionist‘researchbydesign’
[3]paperthatsearchesforthecreationofvariousdisciplinesandstakeholderswithinthe
frameworkof‘SystemicDesign’[4]anditsmulticentredmethodologies[5].Therefore,
insteadoffocusingonaparticularresearchgapdefinition,thisworkissearchingforsyn
ergyacrossmultipleperspectives,developingamethodologyforcollectiveregenerative
designthatcanbeadaptedtovarioussituations.Theprojectisacasestudygroundedin
themoreextensiveresearchoftheauthorDermottMcMeelonthetokenisationoftheeco
systemanditshumanandnonhumancommunities[6].Thisarticlereferstoresearchby
thecodesignproject‘COLreg’undertakenbytheCollaborativeCollectiveNGOforPra
gue22district(Uhříněves).Thelocationtoberedesignedcoversanareaof1.3ha(13,478
m
2
)andislocatedintheperiurbanareaofPrague,CzechRepublic.Duringthe1980sand
1990s,thelocationwasintensivelyusedasanallotmentcolony,ofwhichtheremainsand
usersarestillpresent.Atthistime,theCityHallwishestotransformitintoanaturalpark
thatwillservethedistrict’sresidents.Prague22districtismainlyaresidentiallocality
withca.15,000citizens.IthastheyoungestpopulationamongstallofPrague’sdistricts.
TheCityHallwishestoaddressallofitscitizenswithinthenewlocalityredesignwith
bothactiveandcalmzones.Thisagendaautomaticallygeneratesconflictwiththecurrent
remainingallotmentusers.Alotofattentionhasbeenpaidtosustainabilityduringrecent
Citation:Davidová,M.;Zímová,K.
COLreg:TheTokenised
CrossSpeciesMulticentred
RegenerativeRegionCoCreation.
Sustainability2021,13,6638.https://
doi.org/10.3390/su13126638
AcademicEditors:MohammadA
RahmanandAndreaAppolloni
Received:19April2021
Accepted:4June2021
Published:10June2021
Publisher’sNote:MDPIstaysneu
tralwithregardtojurisdictional
claimsinpublishedmapsandinstitu
tionalaffiliations.
Copyright:©2021bytheauthors.Li
censeeMDPI,Basel,Switzerland.
Thisarticleisanopenaccessarticle
distributedunderthetermsandcon
ditionsoftheCreativeCommonsAt
tribution(CCBY)license(https://cre
ativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
Sustainability2021,13,66382of23
decades.Therecenttrend,however,ismainlytodiscussregenerativity[7].Overtime,
sustainabilityparadigmshaveevolvedfrommeetinghumanneedsthroughouttimeto
improvinghumanwellbeingandecologicalsystems’viability.Regenerativesustainabil
ity(RS),thenextwaveofsustainability,includesandtranscendsthesegoals,aimingfor
thrivinglivingsystemsinwhichwholesystemhealthandwellbeingincreasecontinu
ally.Akeydifferencebetweensustainabilityparadigmsisthethinkingunderlyingthem,
withregenerativesustainabilitybasedonaholisticworldviewandparadigm,integrating
recentunderstandingsfromscienceandpractice,differentwaysofknowing,andthein
nerandouterdimensionsofsustainabilitynecessaryforsystemictransformation(ibid).
Howthingsareinterconnectedneedstobebetterunderstoodwhenworkingwithsustain
abilitygoals,andincreasingly,suchlinksarebeingforged[8].Thisthinkingandworking,
however,requiresamulticentredperspective.Thiscanbecocreatedbymultipleagents
whoexchangeandrelatetheirviewsandvisionsregardingtheproblem.Suchexchange
andrelatingoftenbringdialogueandsynergybetweenthespecificagenciesandagendas.
Suchcoproductive,local,andspecificinteractioncangenerateprototypical‘leverage
points’[9]thatrelyonexistinginfrastructure.However,thesecanstartupnewregenera
tivemodelsonlocal,regional,andglobalscales.
Sustainableurbandevelopmentrequiresalongterm,sectorintegrativeapproach
[10].SandersandStappersexplaintheshifts,connections,andreframinginalmostevery
areaofdesignwehavewitnessedoverthepastthreedecades:howdesignisdone,who
isdoingit,withwhatgoals,andwhatitsresultsare.Thesechangesshowamovefromthe
designingofthingstointeractionsandsystems,andfromdesigningforpeopletodesign
ingwithpeopleandbypeople[11].Participationinthecreationofpublicspaceswith
regenerativeserviceswithandbylocalresidentsandotherstakeholdersisslowlyentering
commonpractice.Forexample,thePragueInstituteofPlanningandDevelopmenthasits
ownparticipationdepartmentthathasreleasedaParticipationManualtohelpitscity
institutionsanddistrictstounderstandtheparticipatoryprocessesandtoimprovetheir
abilitytoinvolveresidentsinspatialandstrategicplanning[12].Theslightdistinctionin
theterms‘participatorydesign’and‘codesign’wasdiscussedbySandersandStappers,
whereparticipationrelatessomewhattoasituationwhererelatedstakeholdersareinvited
tothediscussionboard,whilecodesigninsteadreferstohandson‘cocreation’[13].This
paperarguesthatsuchprocessesshould,however,inanywaypossibleintegrateandalso
servenonhumans.Spotswoodetal.,intheirreview,pointedoutthatseveralspeciesben
efitmorefromurbansettingsthanfromotherenvironments.Thismaybeattributedtothe
fewadaptionsnecessaryfortheirsurvival[14].Urbanspacesaretobecomethestagefor
conditionstobespecialisedfornatureandproducingfoodthatisfitforthefuture,aswell
asbecomingareasinwhichtoexperimentbystagingandtestingoutsolutionstocontem
poraryenvironmental,climate,andstructuralcrises[15].Inthiscase,CollaborativeCol
lectiveNGOwasinvitedbyPrague22district,Uhříněves,tofacilitatecodesignwork
shopsandconcludetheirsystemicdesignproposalforcommunallandregeneration,tar
getingregionalbiodiversitysupportandcommunalspacesandfoodproduction.Thisex
perimentalprojectcoveredtheformalcocreationstages.However,theprojectisopening
thesitetotimebasedcocreationinrealtimeacrossmultiplehumanandnonhuman,liv
ingandnonlivingstakeholders.
Thisprojectwasapproachedas‘bioregioning—anactivitythatcreatesvalue’[16],
connecting‘Whatis’with‘Whatif’(ibid).Followingtraditionsofdemocracy,including
equalityofvoiceandinclusiveparticipation,theprojectmediatesbetweenthecitystate
ofgovernmentandtheindividualcitizen[17].Theworkprovidesabroaderviewtowards
periurbanresearchthroughthelensofsocialcomplexadaptiveandsystemicdesignap
proaches(requiringarangeofdifferentdisciplines)[18].Thisprojectspecificallysyner
gisesbothabiocorridorandacirculareconomywithintheregionthroughcommunaland
communitybasedcocreation,combiningbottomupandtopdownapproachesthatinte
grateatokeneconomy.Whilstsecondordercyberneticsmovedfromthestudyofob
servedsystemstoobservingsystems[19],thirdordercyberneticsoscillatesbetweenthe
Sustainability2021,13,66383of23
two[20,21].Thisway,thefirstauthoralsoheldthecodesignprocessestointroduceanew
economicmodelforthe21stcentury.Inthismodel,therearemultipleobserverswhoare
alsococreators,andviceversa.Thisoscillationalsoinvolvesthefirstandthesecondau
thors.Suchactiverolesarespecificallycriticalastheoverallecosysteminvolvesallstake
holders,humanandnonhuman,livingandnonliving;agents;andagencies.
Inresponsetoinstabilitywithdifferentviewpointsandagendas,themodelof
COLregisinspiredbytheproject‘ArtistsRe:ThinkingtheBlockchain’,whereacoffeema
chinehasawalletandcanoperatewithit[22].Itdoessobyalsoincludingnonhuman,
living,andnonlivingagents.Inthe21stcentury,riversandothernaturalresourcesre
claimtheirlegalpersonhoodwithsocial,cultural,economic,andenvironmentalinterests.
TheexamplethatraisedthisdiscussionwastheWhanganuiRiverinNewZealand[23].
TherecentlypublishedindependentDasguptaReviewontheeconomicsofbiodiversity
[24],orderedbytheBritishgovernment,pointstooureconomyandecosystems’interde
pendence.However,recenteconomicmodelsseemnottoreflectthisfact.Forthisreason,
i.e.,duetothelackofpollinators,agriculturalharvestsaredecreasing,leadingtostarva
tioninsomecountries.Thereareincreasingnaturaldisasterscausedbydamagedland
scapeswithouttrees,andcivilisationdiseaseswiththeirassociatedhealthcarecostsare
increasingaswell,etc.[25].TheplanetaryBoundariesreportdemonstratesthatthecur
rentbiodiversityisbeyondthealarmingconditions[26].Atthesametime,theWorldEco
nomicForumhasidentifiedblockchaintechnologyashavingthepotentialtobettersup
portcirculareconomiesandfinanceprojectsforenvironmentalchange[27].Therefore,
thisprojectisaimingatbiodiversityagencytokenisation,synergisingtheeconomywith
theecosystem.
Recently,manyspeciesareadaptingforlifewithincities[28].Ifwearenottoloseall
ourbiodiversity,weneedtoadaptourcitiestothiscondition[29].Thisstatementalso
appliestoperiurbanareas[30],suchasthediscussedregion.Rewildingareasincitieshas
becomeapowerfulstrategytobringbackbutterflies,insects,birds,andwildlife[31].In
tegrationofspecies’habitatsinanthropocentricdevelopedsettlementshasbeenappear
inginmanyotherarchitecturalproposals,suchasdesignsbyAndrewKudless[32],
TerreformI[33],FerdinandLudwig’sBAUMBOTANIK[34],CommunityGateway[35],
orRewildmyStreet[36].Integrationofnaturalsystemswithhumannaturewas
investigatedbyZavoleas[37].However,acknowledgingthepersonhood,rights,and
agencyvalueisastepforwardfromthetypicalsimpleprotectionoftheenvironmentthat
thisprojectfollows.Thepreoccupationwithdefiningthelegalpersoninanthropocentric
termshighlightswhatisofvaluetosociety.Thefactthatmostlegalsystems’environment
doesnothavelegalpersonhoodentitystatus(andthereforethewallet),butcorporations
do,indicateshowcontemporaryWesternsocietiesseethenaturalworldasasourcefor
profit.Asaresult,thenaturalworldisseenaspropertytobeusedandcontrolled[38].
Suchanattitudeofuncriticalexploitationhasledusdestroybiodiversity,creatingthe
environmental,social,andrelatedeconomiccriseswearefacingtoday.TheCOLreg
projecttriestointegrateanenvironmentintothecommunalcocreationofaregenerative
economyintheregion,consideringallecosystemicagencyacrossmultiplescales.
ThemunicipalityofPrague22(Uhříněves)boughtlandwithinitsdistrictcentreto
enablecrossspeciesconnectivitywithinitselfandthelargerregionandtoprovide
communalactivitiesandopportunitiestoitsresidents.However,atpresent,thelandis
rentedoutforahistoricalgatedgardeners’colony,whereasmallgroupoflocalresidents
havesmallallotmentswithfruittrees,smallvegetablefields,glasshouses,andhuts.This
communitydidnotwishthissituationtochangeandbecameverynegativetowhatever
proposalshouldcome.Therefore,conflictsacrosstheCityHall,ecologists,gardeners,and
othercommunitymembersarose.Therefore,CollaborativeCollectiveNGOwasinvited
tosearchforsynergyacrossthedifferentstakeholders,suchastheCityHall
representatives,ecologistsandtheecosystem,gardeners,andtheotherdistrictresidents
eagertoobtainpublicrecreationalspace.Thisarticleexemplifieshowthecombinationof
bottomupandtopdownapproachescanbeachievedthroughminimappingand
Sustainability2021,13,66384of23
collaborativegigamappingacrossvariousinterestsandhowthiscanbeimplemented
withina‘reallifecodesignlaboratory’[39].Thislaboratoryistobecogeneratedthrough
reallifebyallpresentstakeholders,agents,andagencies.
2.Methodology
WithinthecontextofSystemicDesign,Jonesstatesthatinlessthanadecade,the
promiseofparticipatorydesignasasustainedpracticehasdiffusedintomainstream
practiceasdesigncocreation.Cocreationhasemergedasanormativemodeof
participatoryengagementfordesignideation,creativeproblemsolving,anddecision
making.Whilecontemporarypractitionersmayregardthesepracticesasaccepted
methods,theyhaveevolvedovera50yearperiodormore,fromearlierformsofco
creationbasedonsocialsystemsanddemocraticpracticetheory[40].Manystudieshave
managedtounpackcrucialresearchquestionsinclimatescienceknowledgeproduction
withincomplexcitypolicyandgovernancecontexts.However,theyhavefocusedmore
onanalysisanddetailcomplexityunitsandlessonthedynamiccomplexityofcomplex
sociotechnicalsystems’emergentproperties[41].Integratingreallifeactiveagencyby
reactingandadaptingtoreallifesituationsandinteractionsisthenecessityconsideredin
thisarticle.Theknowledgecentralinlearningandteachingoftenstartswithfactual
knowledgeofagents,objects,events,andhowtheyarerelated[42].Here,itisapproached
by‘learningbydoing’[43]asa‘reflectivepractitioner’[44]throughreallifeinteraction.
Thisprojectcoveredtheregion’secologicalanalysis,conductedbythesecondauthor,and
thefirstauthorledcodesigngigamappingworkshopsrelatingthevisionsofagents,
objects,andeventsacrossthestakeholders(integratingthesecondauthor—theecologist).
Theabovefindingsweresynergisedbythefirstauthorintoasystemicdesignpilot
proposaltostartthe‘reallifecodesignlaboratory’onsiteinreallifeandrealtime.
Inadditiontothearchiveandliteraturereview,theprojectintegrateditsown
ecologicalanalysis.Thisinvestigationwascriticaltogeneratearelevantdiscussioninthe
codesignworkshopsdiscussedbelow.Thisisbecausetheresearchonlandusechanges
hasconcentratedonthedevelopmentofspatialmodelsbasedonmechanisticreductionist
approaches.Reductionistsciencehasbeenappliedinthefieldofagricultureforthe
creationoftechnologiesandsolutionsdirectedtowardsincreasingagricultural
productionandeconomicgrowth[45].Theecologist’sroleinthissystemiccodesign
projectanditsworkshopswas,therefore,toactonbehalfoftheecosystem.Ithastodefend
andrepresentitsexistingandpotentialstakeholders,theirhabitats,migrations,andedible
landscape.Theecologicalanalysiswasapproachedthroughterrainmappingofthearea
ofinterestandtheentireadjoiningcorridor.Duringthemapping,gamemigrationroutes
weremonitored,mainlybyrecognisingtracksonthesurface.Additionally,tracesofdung,
fur,nests,andfoodscrapswereidentified.Themappingnestingdistrictsmethodwas
performedbasedontheCzechOrnithologicalSociety’smethodologytoidentifybird
species.Thismethodologycoversquadrantandsubquadrantnetworkmappingwithan
app,twoseasonalonehourlastingcontrols,andmonitoringofselectedquadrants[46].A
thermalcameraandaninspectioncamerawereusedtodetectinsectspecies(seeFigure
1).Allspeciesfoundwererecorded.Themaincorridorswerealsodrawn,leadingmainly
alongwatercoursesandthroughforeststands.Duringthemapping,variousbarrierswere
found,suchasfences,watercourses,androads.Allthesedatawereusedingigamapping
workshopstoactonbehalfoftheidentifiedexistingandpotentialstakeholdersandthe
ecosystem’sperformance.Thiswasdiscussedinthecontextofalocalandlargerscaleof
theregionwithavarietyoftimeframes.
Sustainability2021,13,66385of23
Figure1.Insecthabitatmonitoring(Photo:Zímová,2019).
Thecodesignworkshopswerejoinedbytheecologistwhoperformedtheabove
study.Shewasactingonbehalfoftheecosystem,itsagentsandstakeholders,andtheir
potentialsandneeds.Forthecodesignworkshops,acombinationoftoolsfromSystems
OrientedDesign[47],namelytheminimappingandthegigamapping,wereused.Itis
criticalforsuchmappingthatthemapsarevisual,asthisgeneratesassociativeanddesign
thinking.Inthiscase,theminimapisasmalldiagramtostarttheproject[48];thegigamaps
arecomplexandcoveratleast300items.Whilemapping,ingeneral,isawayofordering
andsimplifyingissues—inotherwords,to‘tame’theproblems—gigamappingisnota
problemtamingmethodology.Wickedproblemsarenotresolvedthrough‘taming’and
framing.Gigamapstrytograsp,embrace,andmirrorthecomplexityandwickednessof
reallifenetworksofinterrelatedproblems(problematiques)[49].Foranygiventame
problem,anexhaustiveformulationcanbestatedcontainingalltheinformationthe
problemsolverneedsforunderstandingandsolvingtheproblem—providedtheyknow
their‘art’,ofcourse.Thisisnotpossiblewithwickedproblems.Theinformationneeded
tounderstandtheproblemdependsontheone’sideaofsolvingit.Thatistosay,inorder
todescribeawickedprobleminsufficientdetail,onehastodevelopanexhaustive
inventoryofallconceivablesolutionsaheadoftime[50].Thismulticentredperspectiveis
Sustainability2021,13,66386of23
targetedthroughgigamappingcodesignworkshopswhereeachstakeholdergenerates
theirowncentrewithintheinitialminimaptounderstandher/hisagendasandimaginary
worlds.Relatingthosecentresacrossthegigamapwithotherstakeholdersgeneratesthe
multicentreddesignthroughhandsonempathy.
Inthecaseofthefirstauthor’sprojects,minimapsserveaspersonalmapsthatenable
thestakeholdertomapher/hispersonaluniversewithinthediscussedarea[51].Such
minimapsarelatercrossrelatedacrossthestakeholdersintoasynergeticgigamap.The
multicentredgigamapherehastoinvolvemultiplestakeholderswiththeiragendasthat
weredescribedintheirinitialminimaps.Thus,thegigamapiscreatedfrommultiple
minimapswiththeirowncentrepoints,makeitmulticentred.Gigamappingdoesnotaim
tocollectanyquantitativedata.Themainpointofthegigamappinghereistosearchfor
synergeticdesignbyfindingrelationsacrossthemultipleagendasoftheinvolved
stakeholders.Sevaldsonstatesthatgigamappingisatechniqueforfacilitatingmapping,
contextualisation,andrelatingofcomplexsystemsbygroups,revealingtheir
environmentandlandscapes(ofinteraction)andtheircurrentstates,aswellaspreferred
futurestates.Ithasbeenacentraltoolforcoinquirywhereexperts,users,andother
stakeholdersarebroughttogetherandareimmersedindialogueacrosstheirspecialised
culturesandterminologies[49].Typically,amultidisciplinaryandmultistakeholder
teamalsoinvolvesrepresentativesofthosewhocannotbepresent[5],suchaswhen
dendrologiststalkonbehalfoftrees[29].Inthiscase,itwasnamelythelocalecologist(the
secondauthor)actingonbehalfoftheecosystemandparentsactingonbehalfofthefuture
generations.Thatisnotanidealsituation.Itwouldbebetterifthestakeholderscouldact
directly.However,itisacrucialstartingpointforintegratingorevenreachingspecific
existing,declining,orpotentialstakeholdersforthenextdesignstages.
AcriticalpartoftheCOLregprojectisthe‘reallifecodesignlaboratory’developed
bythefirstauthor[52].RittelandWebermadeitclearthattheplanningproblemisa
wickedproblem.Manybarrierskeepusfromperfectingsuchaplanning/governing
system:theoryisinadequatefordecentforecasting;ourintelligenceisinsufficientforour
tasks;thepluralityofobjectivesheldbypluralitiesofpoliticsmakesitimpossibleto
pursueuniformaims,etc.[50].Thissituationoccursbecausetherearemultiple
stakeholders,someofwhicharenotyetpresentastheyappearorpotentiallyappearover
time.Therefore,the’reallifecodesignlaboratory’isarealtimecocreationprocesswith
thecommunityexecutedthroughreallifeinrealtime.Thisstageisalreadyintegrating
thetrueagencyandinteractionofallstakeholdersandagentsacrosstheecosystemin
time,primarilywithoutthepreviouslynecessarysecondaryrepresentationofthosewho
‘cannotbeheard’.Suchasynergeticproposalthatresultsfromgigamappingisnotand
neverwillbefinal.Itisareallifeprototypeconstantlytestedandredesignedwhilstco
performingwithinthereallifeenvironmentanditssituations,integratingalllivingand
nonliving,humanandnonhumanagents.Suchaprojectisthereforecocreatedbyall
actorsthroughactinginreallifeandrealtime.
3.TheRegionalRegenerativeEcosystem
Forthisproject,itwasessentialtoanalyseandstudytheecosystemoftheareaand
theregion.Traditionally,ecologistsavoidedthestudyofurbanplaces,preferring
locationsfarbeyondthecitylimits.Theselocationsinfluencedtheevolutionofthefield
[53].Therefore,thereislittleexistingdataforperiurbanareas,suchasPrague22.
However,ecologyisanevolvingdisciplinewithanincreasingfocusonlandscapesand
urbanregions(ibid).Moreandmoreattentionisbeingpaidtourbanandperiurban
ecosystemsthatplayoneofthemostcriticalrolesinhumanandnonhumansocialand
cohabitationalinteractionsacrossthebiosphere.Ashumanactivitiescreateseveral
habitatsandediblelandscapesforotherspecies,sodotheotherspeciesforhumans.This
symbiosisoccursbecauseweallarepartofthecoperformingbiosphere,the‘Gaia’[54].
Thesitewasrecentlyusedasaplaceforgardeningallotments.Itusedtobea
pheasantry,whichwaspartoftheUhříněvesGameReserve.Accordingtonature
Sustainability2021,13,66387of23
protectionagencies,theparkisapopularnaturalmonument.Thegamereservewas
declaredanaturalmonumenton27May1982,bythePragueMunicipality.Thefactthat
theareabecameanaturalmonumentalsosecureditmorecareandattention,givenitwas
declared‘Avaluablesetofnaturalforestcommunities(hornbeamoak,birdash)withold
oaksandarichherbaceousandshrublayer.’Underthisdesignation,onecanimagine
mainlyforeststandsinthepark’scentralpartaroundŘíčankastream.Thesestandsarein
astateinwhichlocalforestswouldgrowwithoutanyhumanintervention.Thelongterm
goalofprotectingthisareaistopreserve(atleastinthecurrentstate)theforeststands
andplantcommunities.Atfirstglance,itmightseemthattheidealprocedureistonotdo
anything.However,thisisnotthecase.Althoughtheseprotectedtreesarenaturaland
wouldgrowinthelocationwithoutourintervention,humanactivitieshavechangedthe
surroundingnatureandlandscape.Therefore,otherspeciesofwoodyplantsandplants
thatdonotcorrespondtothe‘natural’statearegraduallyenteringthelocality.Thus,the
speciescompositionofthestandsisbeingmonitored,andsocalledmanagement
interventionsarebeingcarriedout.Theseactionsaimtoadjusttheconditionofthe
locationtoas‘natural’aformaspossible.
Tounderstandthecurrentstateoftheforest,itisessentialtoknowitshistory.The
naturalforestsaroundŘíčany(todayPrague22)livedtheirownlivesuntilalmostthe19th
century.Atthattime,apheasanthousewasestablishedintheterritory.Itsmostsignificant
partwasfarmedasastumpwithatwentyyearwash.Thismeansthattheyoungtrees
werecutdownabout1mabovetheground,andtheirwoodwasusedforheating.After
suchanintervention,tallstumpswouldform.Theseformedseveralbranchesvery
quickly.Suchcomponentswouldthenbecutoffinthesameplaceafteraroundtenyears.
Thismethodhasbeenusedintheregionformanycenturies.Itwasaveryconvenientand
simplewaytoobtainwoodforheatingwithouttheneedtofellthewholetrees.In
addition,thetreesgrowbackveryfastafterthistypeofintervention.Eventoday,onecan
findseveralsromasinthelocation.Thesehavemultiplestrainsgrowingfromoneplace.
Thesesromasarejustwitnessingtheformerlyfarmedstumps.Thistypeoffarmingis
suitableformanyspeciesofanimals.Inoneplace,therearebotholdandyoungtrees.
Thereareenoughlightandshadowplacesintheregion.Age,species,andhabitat
diversityarealwaysthemostimportantfactorsinnatureprotection,whichiswhatthis
ecosystemprovides.Therefore,itisidealforkeepingthevegetationasdiverseaspossible
regardingtheageoftreesandtheirspeciesrepresentation.Thepresenceofagardening
allotmentcolonyalsobenefitsfromandgivebenefitstoit.Thankstothis,therearealso
manyfruittrees.Theseprovidenutrientsandhabitatstootherspecies.
Thereareprotectedspecieshabitatscurrentlypresentinthearea.Fromtheplant
species,thereisaEuropeanochmet,whichisasemiparasiticdeciduousshrubsimilarto
mistletoe.Birdssuchaslittleowls(seeFigure2),whichlovetheforeststandsadjacentto
meadows,andfieldsarestrikinginthelocation.Thereisthecommonsparrowhawkthat
nestsinforeststandsandhuntsinthesurroundingfieldsandaroundPodleskýpond.This
specieslikesoldtreeswithcavitiesandshrubedgesoftheforeststands.Similarlocalities
arealsoinhabitedbytheearedowl,thegreyflycatcher,orthegreenwoodpecker.The
woodpeckerisalsoarepresentativeofdatebirdsthatlikeoldertreeswithcavities.Ifthe
vegetationdoesnotprovideenoughhabitats,nestingboxesthatthesespeciesliketo
inhabitareplacedforthem.Fromamphibiansandreptiles,inthepast(theyear1988),in
thevicinityofŘíčankastream,therearespeciesofbrownfrog,greentoad,andcommon
lizard(seeFigure3),andbrittlehen.Amongotheranimals,attractiveinhabitantsare,for
example,redfallowdeer,darkpolecat,ermineweasel,andkolchavaweasel[55].
Sustainability2021,13,66388of23
Figure2.Littleowl(Photo:Ash,2016–publishedundercreativecommonslicence[56]).
Figure3.Commonlizard(Photo:Ocrdu,2015–publishedundercreativecommonslicence[57]).
Sustainability2021,13,66389of23
Atthesametime,theforestrymanagementhadbeenactiveonthelocation.While
natureprotectionisgovernedbytheaforementionedcareplan[55],forestmanagementis
basedonaforestmanagementplan.Theforestmanagementplanhaschangedalotover
time.After1868,thecareconsistedofanawningofacornsandanoakundergrowththat
prevailedinthe1950s.Fromthe1890s,oakwasplantedinamixturewithspruce.Later,
spruce,larch,andpinepredominated.Intheperiod1905–1932,modernfarmingmethods
werespreadaccordingtotheforestcouncilofJ.Wiehl,whoseaimwastogrowsmallscale
mixedstandswiththesupportofnaturalrejuvenationandwiththeuseofexhibitions.
Exhibitionsareselectedtreesthatarelefttostandinthemiddleofaclearing,andtheir
seedsensurenaturalregeneration.Inadditiontohabitatconditions,thecompositionof
thestandmixturewasalsodeterminedbysalesconditions.IntheŘíčanyregion,inthe
firstyearsofthe20thcentury,deciduousandconiferousexoticswereusedlocally.Tothis
day,wecanstillfindthemindividuallyinthelocation.Theeconomicguidelinesforthe
decennium1950–1959prescribedmainlyartificialregenerationofstands.Pineandoak
werethemainsupportedtreespecies.Sprucewassuggestedtobelimitedtoappropriate
habitats.Attentionwasalsopaidtothecultivationoflarch,fir,anddomesticdeciduous
trees—maple,ash,andbeech.Subsequently,thegamereserveinUhříněveswasincluded
inforestsofaparticularpurpose,requiringadifferentmanagementmethod.Thesituation
issimilarinthecurrentplan,wherefunctionsofspecificpurposeforestsandrecreational
functionsforforestsprotectedundernatureprotectionregulationsareoverlapping[58].
Thelongtermgoalofthecurrentnatureprotectionprogrammeistofocus
interventionsinthestandontheadjustmentofspeciescomposition,supportofsublevel
individuals(shrublayer),andsupportofnaturalrejuvenationandgrowths,onlyinthe
formofindividualselection.Ingeneral,onlythemostnecessaryeducationalinterventions
intheshortestpossibletimeframewillbeusedtograduallyswitchtoaselectivemethod
offarming.Suchamethodrequiresmarkingindividualtreesinthestandthatwillbe
felled.Keepingofoldindividualsofoaks,ashtrees,andothertreesisestablished.The
areasupportsnaturalregeneration.Itusespossibleareasafterhealthselectiveclearingof
nonnativewoodyplantstofreeupplaceswithprospectiverejuvenation.Invertebrates
aresupported,andupheavalsanddeadwoodarelefttodisintegratespontaneouslyasan
environmentforsomespecies’development.Inthecaseofasmallamountofdecaying
wood,measurestosecuretheinterventionaretaken.Wheninterveningovertentrees,
10%ofindividualsfromthetotalnumberoffelledtreesarelefttodecayinsuitable
places—stumpswithaminimumheightof30–40cm[55].
Theaboveknowledgeandagendasarecriticaltoincludeingigamappingcodesign
processestoactonbehalfofthediscussedecosystemandbioregion.
4.TheGigamappingCoDesignProcess
Inthecaseofmultiplestakeholderswithdifferentorevenconflictingagendas,
planningcoversmultiplewickedproblems.RittelandWeberstatethatforwicked
planningproblems,therearenotrueorfalseanswers.Normally,manypartiesareequally
equipped,interested,and/orentitledtojudgethesolutions,althoughnonehasthepower
tosetformaldecisiverulestodeterminatecorrectness.Theirjudgementsarelikelyto
differgreatlyaccordingtotheirgrouporpersonalinterests,theirspecialvaluesets,and
theirideologicalpredilections.Theirassessmentsofproposedsolutionsareexpressedas
‘good’or‘bad’or,morelikely,as‘better’or‘worse’or‘satisfying’or‘goodenough’[50].
Tocodeveloparelativesynergyofthestartingprototypeacrossthevarietyof
stakeholders,theprojectcoveredtwoinitialcodesignworkshops.Thefirstoneengaged
onlystakeholders’representatives,andthesecondonewasopentothe(human)public.
FollowingSevaldson’sresearchinSystemsOrientedDesign[49],gigamapping(visual
diagrammingofcomplexity)wasselectedasatoolforthecocreativeprocesses.These
processesonlydevelopthefirstprototypethroughasynergeticsystemicdesignproposal
thatistobefurthercocreatedinreallifewithallhumanandnonhuman,livingandnon
livingstakeholders.
Sustainability2021,13,663810of23
4.1.TheFirstGigamappingWorkshop
Atthefirststage,weagreedtoinviteonlythecriticalexpertstakeholdersandcritical
communityrepresentativestoengagethelargeraudiencethroughtheirnetwork(see
Figure4).Theworkshopcoveredeightparticipantswhowereselectedbasedontheir
directinterestinthelocality.Thelowerrepresentationwaschosenbecausetherewasa
significantconflictofinterestsbetweendifferentstakeholdersandstakeholders’
representatives.TheformerallotmentrenterswerenothappythattheCityHallbought
thelandandhadplansforitsregenerationforcommunityuseandbiodiversity
connectivity,thereforeterminatingtheircontractsinthecurrentlygatedland.The
discussionwastoosensitiveforalargegroup,whichwouldprobablyturninto
argumentationwithoutanyconclusion.Therewere,thus,crucialrepresentativesofthe
gardeningallotmentcolony,thecommunity,ecologistsandotherspecies,andtheCity
Hallatthefirstmeeting.Thelocalecologist,thesecondauthor,wasselectedbasedonher
longtermmonitoringofthearea.Shewasalsoactingonbehalfofthenonhumanspecies
presentorpotentiallypresentinthearea.Therepresentativeswereseekingsynergyacross
themainagendasoftheirrepresentedgroups.Theywerepresentingandrelatingtheir
visionsofthepossiblefuturesandthecurrentstage.
Figure4.FirstcodesignworkshopwithcriticalcommunityrepresentativesandstakeholdersattheCityHallofPrague
22(Photo:Davidová2019).
Allrepresentativeswerefirstaskedtodeveloptheirown‘minimap’[48].Theywere
askedtomaptheirown‘universe’concerningthelocation,mapping‘whatis’and‘what
if’.Theseminimapswerecreatedfromtheperspectiveofthestakeholdersrepresenting
eachgroup.Eachoftherepresentativespresentedtheirstakeholdermaptotheteam.After
that,allparticipantsreceivedscissors,andtheyhadtoorganisetheitemsfromeach
minimapintoagigamap,findingrelationsandcommonalityamongsteachother’s
‘universes’.
Interestingly,manyoftheitemswererepeated,anditwaseasytofindsynergyacross
theconflictingsidesastheyoftenimaginedsimilarvisions.Suchafactwasalsoabig
surprisetotheconflictingsidesthemselves.Learningabouteachother’suniverses
generatesempathyandunderstanding[51].Thisinvolvesthewillingnesstosearchfor
Sustainability2021,13,663811of23
synergeticagendasandthecocreationofacollective‘universe’thatwouldintegrateall
participantsandincreasetheirparticipationwillingness.
Simultaneously,thesecondauthorperformedanecosystemmappingwiththefirst
author’sstudents(seeFigure5).Duringthismapping,theysearchedformigrationroutes
andtheirbarriers,existingsheltersforwildanimals,etc.Furthermore,theymappeda
varietyoftinkeredarchitecturalandagriculturalobjectssuitableandinterestingfor
conservation.Thisteamregisteredmanyhuman‐ andnonhumanmadehabitatsfor
variousspecies,ediblelandscapes,glasshouses,andhutsorlandscapebarriers.
Figure5.Ecosystemmapping(Photo:Zímová,2019).
Thesurveyshowedthattheareahasmigrationbarriersbetweentheforest,deerpark,
andthewatercourseduetothegardeningallotmentcolony’sfences.Thisbarrieris
impenetrabletoalllargeranimals,suchasdeer.Therefore,deerhadtoberepresentedas
animportantstakeholder.Itwasalsofoundthatmostoftheexistingareascanbe
maintainedfortheregenerativeparkdesign.Thesecondauthoralsoperformedabasic
mappingoftheecosystem.Itshowedthattheareaisveryattractiveforavarietyofinsects,
suchashoneybees,anothergroupofstakeholders.Theseattractbirdsandhedgehogs,
othercriticalstakeholdersgroups.Suchspecieshaveenoughfoodandnesting
possibilitiesthankstotheecosystemsofoldgardenswithfruittrees.
Thesessionwasfinalisedwithapresentationanddiscussionofbothgroupsinsearch
ofsynergyamongstthemappedhumanandnonhumancommunitiesandstakeholders
(seeFigure6).Theagendasofthenonhumanstakeholderswererepresentedbythe
ecologists.Intheexample,aneedfordifferentiationofmoreandfewerprivateareaswas
requestedbybothhumansandnonhumans.Thesameappearedwiththerequestfor
keepingtheexistingfruittreesandspecificpartsforthegrowthofvegetables.Similarly
attractivetobothwereideasonlargerareasforhoneybloomingmeadows.However,
thereweresomeconflictsofinterest,suchastheneedtoremovefencesfordeerandother
largernonflyingspeciesandtheneedforsecurityofthearearequestedbyseveral
humans.
Sustainability2021,13,663812of23
Figure6.DetailfromtheSystemicDesigngigamap,showingmappedhumanandnonhumanstakeholders(Davidová
2020).
4.2.TheSecondGigamappingWorkshop
Theaboveworkshophelpedtoshapeandformulatethediscussionforthesecond
gigamappingworkshop.Thisonewasfullyopentothepublic(seeFigure7)andcovered
fifteenparticipants.Itwasnecessarythattheissuesweresynergisedbeforesuchaction,
andcriticalconflictswerealreadyavoided.Thissynergyhappenedbecausedifferent
stakeholdergroups’needswerealreadycommunicatedbytheirrepresentativesandthey
wereawarethattheirpointshadbeenheardandintegrated.Therepresentativesinformed
theirgroupshowtheywererepresentedandtheirclaimsconsideredforalarger
synergeticproposalthatneedstoalsointegrateotherperspectives.
Sustainability2021,13,663813of23
Figure7.Secondcodesignworkshopwithcommunityrepresentativesandstakeholdersinalocalmuseum(Photo:
Davidová2019).
Theworkshopfollowedthesamemethodologyofcombiningmini‐andgigamapping
withpresentingminimapstoothers,providingscissorsandreorganisingtheitems,and
relatingtheminthegigamap,withafinalpresentationattheendoftheworkshop.It
involvedallagegroupsanddevelopedfurtherinterests.Anelderlyladyinformeduson
howtheecosystemandthecommunityperformedinthepastandsuggestedthefeatures
thatcanberestored.Achildshowedavisionforthefutureandtheschoolinvolvement.
Theproductiveagerepresentativeswereinterestedinspacesforculturaleventsand
relaxationwithenoughentertainmentfortheirkids.Thispartoftheprocessfocusedalot
onecologicalliteracyforthecurrentandfuturegenerationsthroughreallifeexperience
opportunitiesandengagement.TheCzechRepublichasnotreleasedanydocumentsuch
as,forexample,the‘FutureGenerationsAct’releasedbytheWelshgovernment[59].
Therefore,futuregenerations’wellbeinghastobeconsideredbythepublicfromthe
bottomupasthereisnolegislationsecuringit.Theincreasinginterestintheriseoflocal
authorities’codesignprocessesisthereforesignificantandbeneficialforthecurrent
generationstofeelsecureabouttheirchildren’sfuture.
Allofthesesessionswerelaterconcludedinthesystemicdesignproposalinterpreted
bythefirstauthor(seeFigure8)tobediscussedwiththepublic.Theoriginalplanwasto
printoutthemapandcollaborativelydrawoveritontransparentpaperforpublic
discussion.However,duetotheCOVID19pandemic,thispartwascancelled,andeven
onlineeventswerenotpossibleastheCityHallwasbusysecuringthecommunity.Atthe
sametime,theprojecthadtofollowitstimeframewithitsdeadlines.Therefore,thefurther
codesignprocesswillbedeveloped,tested,andredesignedthroughreallifeby
tokenisationthroughassigningvaluetodifferentactionsandthings(seeSection5)within
the‘reallifecodesignlaboratory’,asdiscussedinSection6.
Sustainability2021,13,663814of23
Figure8.Theprojectproposalforpublicdiscussion(Davidová,2020).
5.TheSystemicDesignProposal
Thesystemicdesignproposalintegratesandsynergisesallresultsfromthetwo
gigamappingworkshops(seeFigure8).Whilesomeauthorssuggestthatinterventionand
observationareopposites,Midgleyarguedthatobservation(asundertakeninscience)
shouldbeviewedasjustonetypeofintervention[60].Thisstatementistrueinthiscase
wheretherolesofthefacilitatorandthecreatorareoscillatinginfeedbackloops.Thesame
appearsacrossthestakeholders,asdiscussedintheIntroduction.Thecurrentstageof
regenerativecodesignoutputthatgeneratedseveralcollectivelytargetedsystemic
interventionsandagenciesproposedatokenbasedregenerativeeconomywhere
everythingexistingfromtheformergardeningallotmentcolonyexceptitsfenceswould
beleftonsiteandupcycled.This‘doingnothing’strategy,whichthisyear’sPritzker
ArchitecturePrizewellrecognisedforAnneLacatonandJeanPhilippeVassal(48),covers
existinghuts,greenhouses,andanimalspeciesandvegetation.Thelocalitywilluse
rainwaterpurelyforpublicandprivateshowers,laundry,andtapsforanimals,anditwill
providecompostingtoilets.Thepossibilityoffilteringrainwaterfordrinkingwaterwill
beinvestigatedbythedirector.Thelocalitysiteuseplangraduatesfromamoreprivate
partinthewesttowardsaverycollectivepartintheeast(seeFigures9and10).Such
diversitywasacriticalwishacrossallstakeholders,thattheparkoffersboth‘introvert’
and‘extrovert’spacesforrelaxationandevents.Thisdifferentiationsecuresavarietyof
opportunitiesforusebybothhumansandnonhumansofdifferentages.
Sustainability2021,13,663815of23
Figure9.Individualpartsoftheregion(Davidová,2020).
Figure10.Collectivepartsoftheregion(Davidová,2020).
Theprivateandopenpartinthemiddleofthetwodifferentiatedlocationsisakiosk
locatedinanoldgreenhousebuiltofPETbottles(seeFigure11).Theprojectwillkeepits
existinggeniuslocuswhilstupgradingitwiththeopportunitytogrowherbsinthosePET
bottlesthatneedtocreateshade.Thekiosk,whichsellsbothitsownandlocalgardeners’
products,willkeepbeingagreenhouseforitsownvegetablegrowing.Thetypical
productswillincludelocallyproducedciderandfruitwines,lemonadesandsyrups,
fruits,vegetables,andotherselfgrownfood.Localpeoplewillbeabletoexchangetheir
productsthatwillbekeptonsitefortokens.PragueCityChairsandTableswill
accompanythis,aprojectfromthePragueInstituteofPlanningandDevelopmentthat
Sustainability2021,13,663816of23
offersfreetablesandchairstoallofthecity’spublicspaces[61].Thosetogetherwith
deckingchairsarealsoplacedincoworkingspacesandplaygroundareas.Theco
workingspacesenableschoolsandworkspacesinnature.Suchmeetingspotswillsecure
fruitfulinteractionsaswellasopportunitiesforindividualrecreationinmoresecret
spaces,coveringallbeneficialservices.Thisservicewillbesecuredthroughsocialjustice
focusedworkwithandbythepeopleinneedfromthelocation.
Figure11.PETbottlegreenhouse(Photo:Kappel,2020).
Twooftheexistinghuts(seeFigure12)andonegreenhouseofthegardening
allotmentcolonywillofferdwellingsandfoodproductiontotwopeopleinneedtostart
anewlifeasserviceadministratorsandserviceprovidersforthelocation.Theywillbe
gardening,takingcareofthekioskanditsfoodproduction,rentingtheotherexistinghuts,
andmanagingthepark’smaintenance.Suchactionwillsecurecontrolandthesystemic
regenerativeperformanceofthepark.Securityisimportantastheexistingfenceswillbe
removedtoenablebiocorridorswithaccesstowaterstreamsfromtheforestandthedeer
park.Openingtheparktotheneighbouringforestswillsecuretherestorationofthe
biocorridorfunctionandmowbythedeerinthelocationsthatwouldotherwiserequire
treatment.Thelocation’sbiodiversitywillincreasethroughmeadowswithhoneyplants
andwatercollectors,keepingitsexistingfruittreesandextendingnewplantings.With
theseopportunities,thesitewillofferevenmoreexcellentbirdnestingopportunitiesand
theoccurrenceofsmallmammals,includingprotectedspecies.Itwillprovideanedible
andhabitablelandscapeforavarietyofspecies,includinghumans,nonhumans,and
livingandnonlivingbeingsandthings.Suchspotswillalsoservethetwolocalschools’
educationalpurposesforwhichtheecologistsandgardenerscanprovideexcursionsand
workshops.
Sustainability2021,13,663817of23
Figure12.Theterritorywithexistinghutsandgreenhouses(Photo:Zímová,2019).
Thedetailsofthegigamap(seeFigures10and11)showthedifferentarrangements
oftheindividual(seeFigure10)andthecollectiveparts(seeFigure11).Theyalsoshow
theservicestheyprovidetovariousstakeholdersandactorsthatinteractinfeedbackloops
(seeFigure6).Thisagencyisintegratedintothetokensystem.Therefore,thedeerwill
gaintokensbygrassmowing.Thebutterfliescanbepaidforthepollinationoftheschool
andcommunitygardens.Bothcanbepaidfortheeducationalprogramstheyprovideby
themselvesviaobservationopportunities.Forthesetokens,theycangainameadowwith
honeybloomingspecies,feeders,orwaterpots.Thechildrenandthegardenerswillearn
theirtokensontheirtomatoesinthekiosk.Thechildrencanpayfortheirwildlife
excursiontoahedgehogoradeerandabutterfly.Therefore,theoverallcommunitycan
startbeingintegratedintoaneconomythatintegratestheecosystemasanactivepartof
theglobalperformance,thebiosphere,orthe‘Gaia’[54].
Allserviceswillbeaccessibleeitherthroughpaymentorthroughcommunaltokens.
Tokenscanbegainedforsupportingtheservicesorspentonthem.Onecanrentthe
remaininghuts,agreenhouse,adeckchair,oraspotforgardening,andcanexchange
her/hisvegetablesinthekioskortradebiotrashforcompostorhayfordeerfeederfor
tokens,orearnthembywateringsomeoneelse’sgardenorbyrunninganeducational
programforaschool.Theschoolwillhaveitsowngardenforgardeningclassesandwill
beabletorunoutdoorclassesinthecoworkingarea.Itwillbeabletohavebiologicaland
ecologicalexcursionsinthemeadow,bythewaterandfoodspotsforanimals,and
dendrologicalclasseswiththetrees.Childrenwillalsobeabletolearnthebasicprinciples
ofthecrossspeciescirculareconomywiththetokenswithinthisregenerativecommunity.
Theselessonsareparticularlyimportantastherearecertaindimensionsoffood(andother
thingsandevents)thatcannotbemonetisedandvaluedinmarketterms[62].
6.TheRealLifeCoDesignLaboratory
Themostimportantpartofthediscussedcodesignprocessisthereallifecocreation.
Asstated,theplanningproblemisawickedproblem[50].Therefore,theabovesynergetic
systemicdesignproposalisjustaprototypethatistobefurtherdevelopedthroughreal
lifeinrealtime.Inthehandsofthehumanandnonhuman,livingandnonliving
community,ecologists,gardeners,CityHall,andotherstakeholders,theprojectwillkeep
cocreatingitssystemsofvaluesandwillconstantlyberedesigned.Thisperformance
meansthatifthepollinatorssupportthegarden’sharvestwell,theymightreceivemore
watersourcesandfoodopportunitiespaidbytheirgainedtokens.Ifoneearnsenough
tokensontomatoes,s/hecanextendher/hisgarden.Realisingthebenefitsbroughtbythe
Sustainability2021,13,663818of23
pollinatorstoher/hisgarden,s/hewillbehappytopaythemtoexpandtheirhabitats.
Therefore,thisprojectisregenerativeand‘timebased’[63].
Recently,thevalueofnatureandtheenvironmentislargely(ifnotsolely)
instrumentalised,beingmeasuredintermsofthebenefitaccruedtopresentandfuture
generationsofhumanbeings[64].The‘reallifecodesignlaboratory’integratesnature
andhumanbeingsintoonecoperformingecosystem,asthereisnothingunnaturalabout
humans.Therefore,itconsidersbothpresentandfuturegenerationsofnonhumanand
humanbeings.Thisnecessityappearsbecausehumanscannotexistwithoutthenon
humans[64].Gigamappingworkshopswhereecologistsandthesystemicdesignproject
representnonhumanbeingsjustserveas‘leveragepoints’[9]fortheevolvingsocialand
environmentalchangesinreallifeandrealtimeprocessesperformedbyallagents
presentinthelocation.Itisthereforeessentialtonoticethatthenonhumansheremerely
actonthemselvesinthisstage.However,theystillneedtoberepresentedinthetoken
systemthesamewaythattheMaoricommunityrepresentstheWhanganuiRiver.More
researchtowardsdirectactionsisneededinthisarea.
7.Discussion
Landuseprovidesmanyeconomicandsocialbenefitsbutoftencomesata
substantialcosttotheenvironment[45].Sageetal.askedthemselvesquestionsonhow
andbywhomthefoodsystemstransformationwillbeundertaken;whetherBigFoodwill
remainhegemonicinguidingatransitionthroughthetechnologiesofthebioeconomy,or
whetherwewillwitnessamorerhizomicspreadofgrassrootsinitiativeseffectively
performingthistransformationthatwillbirthafoodsystemthatworkswithinplanetary
boundariestodeliverhealthyfoodforall[65].The‘all’alsointegratesfoodfornon
humans,asthereisanexplicitdependencyacrosstheecosystem’sfoodweb,asdiscussed
above.Suchecosystemmetabolisminfoodproductioninsystemicdesignrelationwas
discussedindepthbySnow[66].Different(local,specific)organisationalandtechnical
abilitiesofregionalactorscanmakethedifferenceinlocaldevelopment,becauseofthe
applicationofpracticalandtechnicalknowhowwiththeavailableregionalresources[67].
Thisisbecauseneweventsareinterpretedthroughthefilterofwhatwaslearned
previously[68].
Allstakeholderswererelatingtosustainabilityandsustainabledevelopment.Thisis,
however,tricky.Apervasivequibblewouldbethatthenotionsofsustainabilityand
sustainabledevelopmentremainuninterrogatedinthemajorityofessaysinvestigatedby
Horsthemke.Aninitialconcernistheirinherentvagueness:‘sustainability’couldbe
interpretedineconomic,environmental,ecological,anddemographicterms,andalsoin
termsofcultural,social,andpoliticalstatusquo.Sustainabilityassuchisnotavalue,or
rather,itisvaluefreeanddoesnotcontaininitselfanyreferencetoenvironmentalethics
andvalues.Itfollowsthatwhatisconsidered‘sustainable’intermsofuseordevelopment
differswidelydependingonwhetheritisexaminedfromanecological,economic,social,
orpoliticalperspective[64].Systemicdesigndisciplinescaneffectivelyintegratesystems
thinkinganditsmethodswithdesigntoaddressthismultistakeholdercomplexityby
creatingnewresilientsystemsmovingtowardssustainabilityonenvironmental,social,
andeconomiclevels.Systemicdesignadaptsfromknowndesigncompetenciestoframe,
understand,explore,propose,anddesigncomplexservicesandsystems,actinginthe
contextoftheindeterminacyofwickedproblems[69].
Wearealldependentontheoverallecosystem,biosphere,the‘Gaia’[54].Thereisno
harvestwithoutpollinators,compost,worms,etc.However,ourrecenteconomicmodels
donotseemtoreflectthisfact[24].Thatis,pollinatorsarebeingkilledbyinsecticides,
whichhasaneffectonthebirdpopulation,etc.Asaresultofthis,theworldisfacingan
Anthropoceneextinction.Thisextinctionmeansthatalargenumberoflivingspeciesare
threatenedwithextinctionorarebecomingextinctbecauseofenvironmentally
destructivehumanactivities[70].Theplanetaryboundariesmodelclearlyshowsthatthe
biosphereintegrityisbeyondthezoneofuncertainty(highrisk),oneofthetworiskiest
Sustainability2021,13,663819of23
parametersonplanetEarth[26].However,currently,theWorldEconomicForumhas
recognisedthatblockchains,cryptocurrency,andthe‘tokeneconomy’couldprovidea
meansfor21stcenturycommunitiesanddistributedorganisationstoreclaimpowerand
enacttheirvaluesinawaynotpossiblethroughthe20thcenturycentralisedbanking,
industrial,andcommercemodels[71].Ablockchainisadistributedtechnologythatcan
supportsmallandscalable‘bottomup’innovationanddoesnotnecessarilyrequirethe
largescaleinvestmentassociatedwith‘topdown’innovationassociatedwithsignificant
costsandstructuralchanges[27].Thislowscaleinvestmentmightbetakenadvantageof
whencombiningthebottomupandtopdownapproaches.Furthermore,theterm
‘community’inourworkisextendedfromhowithasbeentraditionallyunderstoodinan
anthropocentricculturalcontext[6],integratingnonhumans.AccordingtoHaraway,
disciplinedrepresentationinsuchconditionsisaflawedbutoftennoblecalling.Advocacy
isnotjustrepresentation;thereisasensualtensionandrasping,noisyfrictionhere[72].
Thoughthereisemergingresearchontheinteractionofhumansandotherspecies[73],
thereneededtobeamappingpointwhenecologistsandotherstalkedonbehalfofothers
thatcouldnotbeheardtostarttheintervention.
8.Conclusions
COLregisfocusedondevelopinganedibleandhabitablelandscapeforallby
combiningbottomupandtopdownapproachesacrossvariousscalesandstakeholders.
ThoughCOLregisaverylocalproject,itiscrossingmanyscalesthroughecosystem
connectivityacrossalargeregion.Here,fenceremovalisthemostcrucialintervention
bothenvironmentallyandsocially.COLregisalsoenablinglocalfoodproductioninstead
oftheprovisionoftheBigFoodservicessocommonfortheperiurbanareasofPrague.
TheCOLregprojectiscombiningtopdownandbottomupapproachestoenvisiona
possiblefuture,crossingthevariousneedsinthecommunity,environment,and
municipalitygovernanceforcooperationandcoperformance.Here,thesystemic
designerhasafacilitator,aninterpreter,andacocreatorsynergisingrolebetweenvarious
needs,interests,andknowledge.Purelycommunitybasedprojectsoftenfailtointeract
withthelargersystems.Atthesametime,thetopdownauthoritiesfailtoaddressthe
communities’needs.Thesameappearswithpurelyexpertprojectsnotaddressingthe
communitiesand/orthegovernance.Therefore,thesystemicdesigner’sroleoperateswell
acrossdifferentscalesandsystemsandiscriticaltorelateandconnectthemallintoa
synergeticcollaboration.Therefore,itiscrucialthatthedifferentrepresentativesmaptheir
ownuniverse.Theindividualassimilatestheirexperienceintermsofwhathasalready
beenexperiencedandrememberedandaccommodatesnewexperiencesbynoticing
differencesbetweenwhatwaslearnedpreviouslyandthepresent.Thisneedstobe
presentedtoindividualsandtothegroupvisuallyforthislearningandunderstanding
process.Thishasbothacollaborativemeaningaswellasanindividualandspecial
meaningfortherepresentatives.Astheecosystemitselfcannotmapitsuniverse,the
ecologisthadtocreateitsminimapinsteadandlearnabouttheecosystemherself.Shehad
toperformananalysisandactonbehalfofits