Hydrodynamic Gravitation as Cause of Earth Expansion and Red-Shift

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From Earth Sciences come clues converging on an important role of the aether in the geological evolution of Earth and planets, as well as all the structures of the universe. Paleogeographic reconstructions allow a rough quantitative evaluation of the amount of new ordinary matter that is added to the planet in the unity of time, and the consequent statement of some cosmological consequences and inferences on the inner energy balance of the Earth. The concept of central flow of aether is defended here. Its antique origins can be found in Isaac Newton (1643-1727) and less vaguely in John Bernoulli (1667-1748). With the help of astrophysical phenomena the aether's density, flow rate, and velocity are computed. An intimal interrelations of these aether parameters with the actually known cosmological parameters (Ho , G, c) is found.

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In the March 2019 issue of the Rendiconti Online of the SGI, a geologist continued his attack on the theory of terrestrial expansion (Sudiro, 2019), this time focusing on the implications that paleomagnetic data, particularly the paleopoles, have as evidence for the expanding Earth concept. An initial more general publication on the subject by the same author appeared in the EGU History of the Earth Sciences journal in 2014 (Sudiro, 2014). The present paper demonstrates the inadequacy of many of the criticisms formulated in the above publications, making it clear that the expanding Earth is not an out-dated idea from the historical-scientific contingencies of the past, but instead a scientific concept that is very much alive and with very interesting future prospects. The evidential value of the paleopole data and catalogues is specifically defended here, together with the TPW and its link to the opening of the Pacific Ocean. The numerous lines of research that have emerged on the basis of expanding Earth are briefly described in a non-exhaustive review. The failure to recognise the expansion of celestial bodies as a phenomenon could be a contributing factor to the current state of crisis in Physics and Cosmology.
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In this work, we make a brief exposition of the Jefimenko’s generalized theory of gravitation, describe its conceptual content, explain the mathematical apparatus used for the formulations of the theory and present the fundamental equations of the theory. We elucidate the main difference between Newton’s original theory of gravitation and the generalized theory of gravitation
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Gravitomagnetism is universally and formally recognised in contemporary physics as being the linear first order approximation of Einstein's field equations emerging from the General Theory of Relativity (GTR). Herein, we argue, as has been done by others in the past by others that, gravitomagnetism can be viewed as a fully-fledged independent theory of gravitomagnetism that can be divorced from Professor Einstein's GTR. The gravitomagnetic theory whose exposition we give herein is exactly that envisioned by Professor Maxwell and Dr. Heaviside. The once speculative Maxwell-Heaviside Gravitomagnetic theory now finds full justification as a fully fledged theory from Professor José Hera's Existence Theorem which states that all there is needed for there to exist the four Maxwell-type field equations is that a mass-current conservation law be obeyed. Our contribution in the present work – if any; is that we demonstrate conclusively that like electromagnetism, the gravitomagnetic phenomenon leads to the prediction of gravitomagnetic waves that travel at the speed of light c. Further, we argue that for the gravitational phenomenon, apart from the Newtonian gravitational potential, there are four more potentials and this operate concurrently with the Newtonian potential. At the end of it all, it is seen that the present work sets the stage for a very interesting investigation of several gravitational anomalies such as the ponderous Pioneer Anomaly, the vexing Flyby Anomalies, the mysterious Anomalous Rotation Curves of Spiral Galaxies and as-well, the possibility of the generation of stellar magnetic fields by rotating gravitational masses. Keywords astrometry, celestial mechanics, ephemerides, gravitomagnetism, quantum gravity, unified field theory. "The world which we have to build from the crude material is the world of perception, and the process of building must depend on the nature of the percipient." Sir Arthur S. Eddington (1882 − 1944) 1 Email for correspondence: physicist.
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A compressible ideal fluid is governed by Euler's equation of motion and equations of continuity, entropy and vorticity. This system can be reformulated in a form analogous to that of electromagnetism governed by Maxwell's equations with source terms. The vorticity plays the role of magnetic field, while the velocity field plays the part of a vector potential and the enthalpy (of isentropic flows) plays the part of a scalar potential in electromagnetism. The evolution of source terms of fluid Maxwell equations is determined by solving the equations of motion and continuity. The equation of sound waves can be derived from this formulation, where time evolution of the sound source is determined by the equation of motion. The theory of vortex sound of aeroacoustics is included in this formulation. It is remarkable that the forces acting on a point mass moving in a velocity field of an inviscid fluid are analogous in their form to the electric force and Lorentz force in electromagnetism. The significance of the reformulation is interpreted by examples taken from fluid mechanics. This formulation can be extended to viscous fluids without difficulty. The Maxwell-type equations are unchanged by the viscosity effect, although the source terms have additional terms due to viscosities.
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Earthquakes are not uniformly distributed either along mountain belts and arcs or in depth. An especially uneven distribution is present all along the Mediterranean margin between Africa and Eurasia. The zones in which the deeper earthquakes originate are shown, and their regional and global context is examined. Aban-doning the traditional 2-D sections ± perpendicular to the trench-arc-backarc zones ±, with the help of 3-D plotting on larger scale, which can visualize the entire extent of a Wadati-Benioff zone, a characteristic in-homogeneous pattern of hypocentres along the alleged subduction zones is revealed in the Italian region as well under Mediterranean and circum-Pacific active margins. Using the recent global catalogues of relocated earthquakes, filaments of hypocenters are recognizable instead of planar or spoon-like patterns. These filaments taper downwards, resembling the shapes of trees, columns, smoke from chimneys, and leading to the idea of an origin in a narrow region of disturbance. Because very hardly a subductive process can produce similar deep hypocentral distributions, a new interpretation of the Wadati-Benioff zones and of their overimposed orogenic zones is proposed. The resulting global tectonics framework involves non-collisional orogenic processes ± de-riving from global expansion, rifting, isostasy, surfaceward flow of deep material, gravitational spreading, and mantle phase changes. The associated model of evolution of an orogen can be linked to the volume increase of an isostatically uprising mantle column which segments slowly overcome a solidus-solidus boundary of the tem-perature-pressure phase diagram. The outpouring of the exceeding material drives the gravitational nappes to overthrust the sediments of the pre-existing trough, forcing them on a burial path which emulate the subduction process, but without reaching depths greater than 50-70 km. At the boundary between uplifting material and down-pushed crust and litho-sphere, phenomena like metamorphism, mixing, migmization, upward transport of fragments of the buried li-thosphere etc. are possible. The mere existence of the earthquakes in the brittle portion of the lithosphere (first few tens of kilometres of depth) is at odd with the existence of thètwo ways subduction channel' ± a low viscosity channel. Earthquakes are the more important circumstantial evidence of local storing and releasing of deviatoric stress, which can be cause of local overpressure. Then the possibility that lenses-like HP-UHP exhumed fragment could be me-chanical product of great earthquakes occurrence at depth not exceeding few tens of kilometres should be considered. This model of evolution of a fold belt is in agreement with the tomographically revealed P-wave and S-wave high-velocity anomalies underlying ± with different slopes ± most orogens and arcs, and the obtainable topo-graphic heights are consistent with the values of volume increase that are associated to the main mineralogical phase transitions. In this view, a discontinuous upward movement of mantle materials can be linked to the observed discontinuous evolution of the orogens and to the widespread observation of uplifted coastal terraces. Finally, the rate of rifting between two lithospheric fragments is a decisive factor in causing the evolution of the orogen toward a true fold belt (low rifting rate) or in a continuously enlarging depression (high rifting rate), leading to a true marine and oceanic sea-floor emplacement. Indeed, some zones like Tonga-Kermadec-New Zealand-Macquarie seem to suggest all these aligned different zones ± trench and expanding ridge, mature fold belt, oceanic ridge respectively ± as different moments of a unique orogenic process, which should be described in detail along a proper time-scale.
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Following the production of a series of three and Jurassic (Scalers, assistance of paleogeographical reconstructions for the Paleocene, Cretaceous 1995, 1998), a further reconstruction has been made here for the Triassic period, with the paleomagnetic data. The data provided by mutual fragment positions and paleomagnetic vectors, are best reconciled if the data are treated in an expanding Earth framework, and give credence to the view that this represents the real evolution of the Earth. ln particular a new solution of the case of indian paleoposition is given which could constitute the key to a reinterpretation of the Eurasia paleogeography throughout geological time. The main conclusion of this work is that the unambiguous choice between constant radius and increasing radius geodynamic frameworks (dr/dt = 15 mm/yr on average in this work) can be made on the basis of the possibility to define the paleoposition and kinematics of india from the Triassic to the Paleocene.
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It is shown how shape between certain ocean basins and continents create serious difficulties to the concept of subduction and can be considered evidence of a non-chaotic emplacement of the arc-trench zones along pre-existing deep geofractures, which are related to shapes of far continents. These similarities point to a fundamental process which cannot be described by the plate tectonics and other tectonic hypotheses, and which is till now mostly hidden to our understanding. Because the similarities are also clues of a former proximity of the circumpacific continents, an expanding earth appears favoured by this new observational evidence.
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The main purpose of this paper is to seek a mechanical interpretation of electromagnetic phenomena. We suppose that vacuumis filled with a kind of continuously distributed material which may be called $Omega (1)$ substratum. Further, we speculate that the $Omega (1)$ substratum might behave like a fluid with respect to translational motion of large bodies through it, but would still posses elasticity to produce small transverse vibrations. Thus, we propose a visco-elastic constitutive relation of the $Omega (1)$ substratum. Furthermore, we speculate that electric charges are emitting or absorbing the $Omega (1)$ substratum continuously and establish a fluidic source and sink model of electric charges. Thus,Maxwell's equations in vacuum are derived by methods of continuum mechanics based on this mechanical model of vacuum and the singularity model of electric charges.
The equations of fluid dynamics governing an incompressible flow may be recast into the form of a set of Maxwell equations for the Lamb vector and vorticity, which play a role analogous to the electric and magnetic fields, respectively. The challenge in utilizing this approach is that analogous source terms, analogous to the charge density and current density, must be known in order to solve the Maxwell equations directly. In this paper, we explore the construction of source terms for laminar incompressible flow. To demonstrate the utility of this approach, we use the newly formed source terms and demonstrate that common mathematical techniques may be borrowed from classical electrodynamics and used to solve the fluid Maxwell system. We illustrate the approaches using the classic nonlinear problem of the incompressible Blasius boundary layer flow. Four different methods commonly used in electrostatics are applied to arrive at numerical and closed-form solutions of the Blasius boundary layer flow. The results compare very well to the accepted solution and to each other.
Seismic reflection investigations, in particular the so-called near-vertical reflection seismics, have been the main research tool of the Earth's crust and the upper mantle since the 1980s. Many international research seismic projects have been performed over the last 20 years, and have provided a lot of data commonly interpreted with the use of the plate tectonics paradigm. However, these interpretations face many difficulties. Firstly, it is difficult to explain the enigmatic general similarity of the seismic structure of the continental crust under various geostructures that are different in age and origin; similarly, its commonly observed geometrical symmetry is an area of contention. Resemblance of seismic reflectivity in various geological environments indicates (1) the crucial influence of rheological properties of the lithosphere on reflectivity and (2) the common tectonic process responsible for development of seismic reflectivity. Depending on thermal conditions, the brittely deformable continental crust occurs to a depth of 10-20 km, which corresponds to temperatures of 300-400°C. Below this depth, there is a ductile deformation zone dominated by the flow of solid state matter. Obviously, the boundary between the brittle deformation zone and the ductile deformation zone is not sharp. Its width is dependent on both the heat flow and the lithology. Another rheological boundary is the Moho surface. The subcrustal upper mantle is brittlely deformable under the thermal conditions existing in this zone. Reflection seismic analysis confirms this rheological behaviour. There is a strict relationship between the viscosity of the continental lithosphere and seismic reflectivity. Sparse reflection packets related to fault zones (mostly of listric geometry) are observed in all the profiles in the crystalline upper crust, which in general is seismically transparent. These fault zones dip in different directions and flatten downwards. The lower crust is dominated by subhorizontal structures which are suggested by most authors to represent flow deformations. A transitional zone, sometimes referred to as the middle crust, occurs at the lower/upper crust boundary. Most listric fault zones die out within this part of the crust. It contains intracrustal large-scale lenticular structures, marked by reflection bands. The subcrustal upper mantle is characterized by a transparent seismic structure. Therefore, from the rheological point of view, the lower crust is a "weaker" layer closed between the rigid upper crustal zones and the subcrustal lithosphere. Reflection lamination results from a process of tectonic deformation that is independent of the petrological stratification of the crust. Multilayered stress distribution, proposed in the model of the continental lithosphere, is responsible for the formation of seismic structures, and cannot be an effect of the plate tectonic mechanism. The major features of these structures include: (1) a layered distribution of the stress field and deformation types; (2) a relatively young age of deformations; and (3) probable upward transmission of stresses. These features suggest the involvement of a tectonic process associated with the expansion of the Earth. The expansion of the Earth's interior, accompanied by a decrease in the curvature of near-surface layers, could give rise to observed stress pattern. The main thesis of the work is the idea of the influence of curvature changes (flattening) of the expanding Earth on tectonic processes. This idea was earlier expressed by Hilgenberg (1933), Rickard (1969), Jordan (1971), Carey (1976) and Maxlow (1995, 2001). In the upper crust, the first phase of flattening is manifested as the formation of compressional crustal structures described in plate tectonics as flake structures or tectonic wedges, and also as crustal delamination processes. As expansion accelerates, compressional structures are replaced by extensional structures in some areas. The subsequent geological evolution may proceed both towards further extension until the crust breaks, or, in the case of the consolidation of the area, towards another compressional phase which can result from the adjustment of the rigid upper crust to a new, smaller curvature of the Earth (tectonic inversion). Flattening structures correspond to the ones which are described by plate tectonic theory as resulting from so-called membrane tectonics. Flattening tectonics also explains numerous strike-slip, transpressional and transtensional structures, palaeomagnetically determined lateral rotations of blocks, the formation of oroclines and foldbelts, etc., commonly described in recent literature. In the light of the proposed geological interpretation, the seismic structures of the continental lithosphere observed in reflection seismic profiles reflect different states of tectonic stresses. Planetary and regional intracrustal detachments occur at the lower/upper crust boundary and crust/subcrustal mantle boundary. Extensional stresses are transferred from the upper mantle towards the crust. This phenomenon is what we can expect to be the result of the Earth's expansion.
The 2011 Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded for the discovery of cosmic acceleration due to dark energy, a discovery that is all the more perplexing as nobody knows what dark energy actually is. We put the modern concept of cosmological vacuum energy into historical context and show how it grew out of disparate roots in quantum mechanics (zero-point energy) and relativity theory (the cosmological constant, Einstein's “greatest blunder”). These two influences have remained strangely aloof and still co-exist in an uneasy alliance that is at the heart of the greatest crisis in theoretical physics, the cosmological-constant problem.
A new theory of turbulence is initiated, based on the analogy between electromagnetism and turbulent hydrodynamics, for the purpose of describing the dynamical behavior of averaged flow quantities in incompressible fluid flows of high Reynolds numbers. The starting point is the recognition that the vorticity (w=∇×u) and the Lamb vector(l=w×u) should be taken as the kernel of a dynamical theory of turbulence. The governing equations for these fields can be obtained by the Navier-Stokes equations, which underlie the whole evolution. Then whatever parts are not explicitly expressed as a function of w or l only are gathered and treated as source terms. This is done by introducing the concepts of turbulent charge and turbulent current. Thus we are led to a closed set of linear equations for the averaged field quantities. The premise is that the earlier introduced sources will be apt for modeling, in the sense that their distribution will depend only on the geometry and the total energetics of the flow. The dynamics described in the preceding manner is what we call the metafluid dynamics.
Secondo Einstein e Poincaré la simultaneità di eventi che hanno luogo in punti diversi dello spazio può essere definita solo per convenzione. Dal punto di vista matematico si dimostra, quindi, che due diverse definizioni di simultaneità corrispondono a due diversi valori del coefficiente e1 della variabile spaziale x presente nelle trasformazioni di Lorentz. A partire da premesse normalmente accettate otterremo diverse dimostrazioni della necessità di reintrodurre il concetto di simultaneità assoluta. Le conseguenze cosmologiche della nuova struttura dello spazio e del tempo andranno contro la cosmologia del Big Bang. Inoltre, dopo questi risultati, il relativismo sopravviverà in una forma meno aspra ("relatività debole") perché risulter privo di quel campionario di paradossi portato dalla teoria della Relatività Speciale.
Most reconstructions of Pangaea, the early Mesozoic supercontinent, assume an Earth of modern dimensions. Such reconstructions produce major geometric and geological fit inconsistencies particularly in areas such as the Arctic, Caribbean, Mediterranean, and southeast Asia and Indonesia. The ocean floor spreading history of these regions and the adjacent oceans indicates that they have grown by areal expansion since their initiation. In contrast, the various reconstructions of Mesozoic and Cenozoic stages which assume an Earth of constant dimensions, require that these regions, either initially or during their development, should contract in area. The geological evidence from the continental margins and from the Earth's oceans does not support the amount of subduction, either in whole or in part, required by the constant dimension hypothesis. It is shown that an exact fit of the various continental fragments together to reform Pangaea, which agrees with the geometric and geological matches, is obtained when the value of the Earth's surface curvature is increased to the point at which the diameter of the globe is 80% of its current mean value. This corresponds in time to the late Triassic-early Jurassic. It is asserted that the early Upper Jurassic to Recent ocean floor spreading data now available, displayed here in maps, also demonstrate progressive global expansion commensurate with an increase in diameter of 20% of the Earth's current mean value. Series of maps employing a zenithal equidistant projection are used to illustrate stages in the inferred development of certain regions during the Mesozoic and Cenozoic according to the ocean floor spreading data. The global expansion deduced from the geometric requirements of the spreading data in these maps permits a much more straightforward reading of the development of ocean basins and associated displacement of continents; one which accords with the field evidence. The inconsistencies seen in constant dimensions reconstructions do not arise. The results are summarized in outline hemisphere maps for which a new cartographic projection has been developed.
Equations for the electric and magnetic fields of a point charge moving with constant velocity are derived from retarded integrals representing solutions of Maxwell's equations for electric and magnetic fields of arbitrary time-dependent charge and current distributions. In contrast to conventional derivations, the derivations presented here are based exclusively on general electromagnetic field equations and do not make use of retarded potentials or relativistic equations. The derivations lead to some notable conclusions concerning the electric and magnetic fields of an arbitrary charge distribution moving with constant velocity.
The physical foundations of the theory of special relativity are critically examined from the point of view that a fundamental inertial frame exists in nature. This idea is implicit in the older works of Lorentz and Fitzgerald, and in more recent work by Janossy, Builder, Prokhovnik, Bell and others. Even in the event of modifications to the theory, certain elements will have to be retained: the usual relativistic formulae for energy and momentum, the full equivalence of mass and energy, the idea of c as a limit velocity, Lorentz contraction and time dilation of moving bodies.
There are two important theories in classical physics, which have not been properly developed to their logical and mathematical conclusion. They are the Faraday-Maxwell theory of electromagnetic induction and Newton's theory of gravitation. Electromagnetic induction is one of the most important physical phenomena. Any misinterpretation or misrepresentation of this phenomenon may weaken the entire electromagnetic theory and may have undesirable practical consequences. Newton's theory of gravitation is the basic working theory of astronomers and other scientists dealing with space exploration and celestial mechanics. Therefore this theory must also be as accurate and complete as possible. What is more, one cannot really judge the significance and value of alternative theories of gravitation without a thorough understanding of all the peculiarities and consequences of Newton's gravitational theory in its most general form.
Research in one field of scientific endeavour can re-direct another. Geological evidence for an expanding earth is now at a point that a fundamental change in physics is imminent. Mass is being created within the Earth.
The observed absence of gravitational aberration requires that `Newtonian' gravity propagate at a speed cg>2×1010c. By evaluating the gravitational effect of an accelerating mass, I show that aberration in general relativity is almost exactly canceled by velocity-dependent interactions, permitting cg=c. This cancellation is dictated by conservation laws and the quadrupole nature of gravitational radiation.
The main purpose of this paper is to seek a mechanical interpretation of gravitational phenomena. We suppose that the universe may be filled with a kind of fluid which may be called the (0) substratum. Thus, the inverse-square law of gravitation is derived by methods of hydrodynamics based on a sink flow model of particles. The first feature of this theory of gravitation is that the gravitational interactions are transmitted by a kind of fluidic medium. The second feature is the time dependence of gravitational constant G and gravitational mass. The Newton’s law of gravitation is arrived if we introduce an assumption that G and the masses of particles are changing so slowly that they can be treated as constants.
We formulate an existence theorem that states that given localized scalar and vector time-dependent sources satisfying the continuity equation, there exist two retarded fields that satisfy a set of four field equations. If the theorem is applied to the usual electromagnetic charge and current densities, the retarded fields are identified with the electric and magnetic fields and the associated field equations with Maxwell's equations. This application of the theorem suggests that charge conservation can be considered to be the fundamental assumption underlying Maxwell's equations.
The formula for the electric field of a point charge moving with constant velocity is derived using the symmetry properties of Maxwell's equations - its Lorentz invariance. In contrast to conventional treatments, the derivation presented does not use retarded integrals or relativity transformations.
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