A Human-Machine Collaboration Model for Urban Planning in Smart Cities

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Smart cities are emerging around the world. In response, government institutions have made efforts to implement technologies that promote citizen welfare. We explore the advances in inclusive and participatory urban planning processes and propose a conceptual model that helps citizens and governments in the decision-making process.

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In this forum we highlight innovative thought, design, and research in the area of interaction design and sustainability, illustrating the diversity of approaches across HCI communities. --- Roy Bendor, Editor
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Argumentation mining aims at automatically extracting structured arguments from unstructured textual documents. It has recently become a hot topic also due to its potential in processing information originating from the Web, and in particular from social media, in innovative ways. Recent advances in machine learning methods promise to enable breakthrough applications to social and economic sciences, policy making, and information technology: something that only a few years ago was unthinkable. In this survey article, we introduce argumentation models and methods, review existing systems and applications, and discuss challenges and perspectives of this exciting new research area.
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In this paper, we ask what it would take to envision and support collective intelligence that was socially and environmentally ameliorative. To help answer that question we introduce the concept of "civic intelligence" as a manifestation of collective intelligence that could serve the needs of researchers and practitioners working at the intersection of communities and technology. We build a case for its importance and relevance, and provide several examples, and some preliminary models and frameworks. We also discuss implications for members of this community. We argue that an examination of the social context is critical and that a civic intelligence orientation surfaces important research questions. We present some thoughts on future projects that would help promote understanding about civic intelligence while improving it. Finally we present some choices before us as we move forward in an environment that is dynamic and uncertain.
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The Participatory Design (PD) community is committed to continuously refine its technological, social, political, and scientific agenda, and as a result, PD has become more widely adopted, robust, and sophisticated. Yet, PD's advancement cannot end here. The gap between those who can contribute to the shaping of future technologies and those who are reduced to consumers, has - if anything - widened on a grand scale. In response, we argue through three lenses: scale, dialectics, and affect in PD, and suggest some pathways to build bridges, foster alliances, and evolve PD practice to proliferate the democratisation in technology design that has been a strong value driving PD. Scale asks about ways for PD to extend its reach without giving up on its core qualities. Dialectics is about creating and maintaining the spaces and fora for constructive conflict by networking and linking with other stakeholders, organisations, and domains. Finally, affect discusses how PD can put forward democratic visions of technological futures that connect to people's hearts, acknowledging that decisions are often made irrationally and unconsciously. Our review draws attention to opportunities for PD to travel between different contexts and proliferate through interconnected and intermediary knowledge and an embodied literacy that enables PD to reach further into industry, government, and community.
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to trace how the relationship between city governments and citizens has developed over time with the introduction of urban informatics and smart city technology. Design/methodology/approach The argument presented in the paper is backed up by a critical review approach based on a transdisciplinary assessment of social, spatial and technical research domains. Findings Smart cities using urban informatics can be categorised into four classes of maturity or development phases depending on the qualities of their relationship with their citizenry. The paper discusses the evolution of this maturity scale from people as residents, consumers, participants, to co-creators. Originality/value The paper’s contribution has practical implications for cities wanting to take advantage of urban informatics and smart city technology. First, recognising that technology is a means to an end requires cities to avoid technocratic solutions and employ participatory methodologies of urban informatics. Second, the most challenging part of unpacking city complexities is not about urban data but about a cultural shift in policy and governance style towards collaborative citymaking. The paper suggests reframing the design notion of usability towards “citizen-ability”.
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“Smart city” as a concept is an appropriate and valuable answer to the efficiency challenges modern cities are facing today. Its epistemic foundations, however, rooted as they are in (command and) control theory and scientific management, lead to a very traditional and mostly technocratic view of urban management and government. Yet, the new urban challenges cannot be addressed solely by ways of increased efficiency. These challenges also—and probably mostly so—pertain to sustainability and resilience, requiring new and innovative approaches to urban governance. Such approaches will have to involve the “human factor”, cognition, creativity along with the ability to learn so as to be able to deal with disruptive changes (resilience). In addition, cities are complex sociotechnical systems and it is therefore not possible to address their challenges thanks to technological developments and innovations only. In this chapter we will introduce a novel approach to overcoming the limitations of the concept of “smart cities” and explain the conceptual framework that underlies our approach, as well as the different chapters of this book. As such, we offer a broad and comprehensive perspective on so-called “cognitive cities.”
Smart Urbanism (SU) - the rebuilding of cities through the integration of digital technologies with buildings, neighbourhoods, networked infrastructures and people - is being represented as a unique emerging 'solution' to the majority of problems faced by cities today. SU discourses, enacted by technology companies, national governments and supranational agencies alike, claim a supremacy of urban digital technologies for managing and controlling infrastructures, achieving greater effectiveness in managing service demand and reducing carbon emissions, developing greater social interaction and community networks, providing new services around health and social care etc. Smart urbanism is being represented as the response to almost every facet of the contemporary urban question. This book explores this common conception of the problematic of smart urbanism and critically address what new capabilities are being created by whom and with what exclusions; how these are being developed - and contested; where is this happening both within and between cities; and, with what sorts of social and material consequences. The aim of the book is to identify and convene a currently fragmented and disconnected group of researchers, commentators, developers and users from both within and outside the mainstream SU discourse, including several of those that adopt a more critical perspective, to assess 'what' problems of the city smartness can address. The volume provides the first internationally comparative assessment of SU in cities of the global north and south, critically evaluates whether current visions of SU are able to achieve their potential; and then identifies alternative trajectories for SU that hold radical promise for reshaping cities. © 2016 Simon Marvin, Andrés Luque-Ayala and Colin McFarlane. All rights reserved.
Standard systems engineering processes, such as the ANSI/EIA 632 or the ISO/IEC 15288 process standards, are primarily geared towards systems with homogenous stakeholders and few tightly coupled non-linear interactions within and between physical subsystems. When dealing with Complex, Large-scale, Interconnected, Open, Sociotechnological (CLIOS) systems such as the national power grid, regional transportation systems, the world wide web or the air traffic control system or other systems with wide-ranging social and environmental impact, there is a need for a new framework that takes into consideration the physical and institutional system complexities and their respective interactions in an iterative and adaptive manner. This paper presents a 12-step framework for concurrent analysis, design and management of coupled complex technological and institutional systems in the face of uncertainty. The framework can be used to analyze a CLIOS system’s underlying structure and behavior, to explore different design options in the face of uncertainty, and to identify and deploy strategic alternatives for improving the system’s performance.
Argumentation mining: State of the art and emerging trends
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Density, sprawl and sustainable urban development: Perspectives from the Asian and Pacific region
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P. Jones and D. Storey, "Density, sprawl and sustainable urban development: Perspectives from the Asian and Pacific region," in Growing Compact. Evanston, IL: Routledge, 2017, pp. 82-94.
Growing Compact: Urban Form, Density and Sustainability
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J. H. P. Bay and S. Lehmann, Growing Compact: Urban Form, Density and Sustainability. New York: Taylor & Francis, 2017.
The city as perpetual beta: Fostering systemic urban acupuncture
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J. Fredericks, G. A. Caldwell, M. Foth, and M. Tomitsch, "The city as perpetual beta: Fostering systemic urban acupuncture," in The Hackable City. Singapore: Springer-Verlag, 2019, pp. 67-92.
Cognitive cities and intelligent urban governance
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A. Mostashari, F. Arnold, M. Mansouri, and M. Finger, "Cognitive cities and intelligent urban governance," Netw. Ind. Quart., vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 4-7, 2011.
Citizen's Right to the Digital City
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M. Foth, M. Brynskov, and T. Ojala, Citizen's Right to the Digital City, vol. 10, Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 2015, pp. 978-981.
His research interests include collective intelligence, soft computing
  • Manabí
Manabí, Portoviejo, 130105, Ecuador. His research interests include collective intelligence, soft computing, recommender sys-