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Sex During Pandemic: Panic Buying of Sex Toys During COVID-19 Lockdown



The COVID-19 pandemic has affected almost every part of human life which reveals several peculiar human behaviors. Panic buying is one of the erratic phenomenon that has been observed in many countries of the world during this COVID-19 pandemic. The selling of online sex dolls, lingerie, and sex toys was increased during the COVID-19 lockdown in several countries like Australia, UK, Denmark, Colombia, New Zealand, Italy, Spain, France, India, North America, and Ireland. The increase in sex toy market turnover has several implications such as customization of recreational facilities, limitations in alternative sources of pleasure, need to have sex and unfortunately, and unavailability of a partner. We speculate that people may buy sex toys in response to perceived scarcity, perceived short supply, the anticipation of price hike, or to get control over the environment. However, there could be other factors such as an extra time to explore sexuality, and being apart from the partners. There is a need to study the sexual behavior and sex toy use among people in the post-pandemic era and their repercussions on the intimate relationship.
1 Department of Psychiatry, Enam Medical College and Hospital, Dhaka,
2 Department of Psychiatry, King George’s Medical University, Lucknow,
Uttar Pradesh, India
Corresponding author:
S. M. Yasir Arafat, Department of Psychiatry, Enam Medical College and
Hospital, Dhaka 1340, Bangladesh.
Sex During Pandemic: Panic Buying of
Sex Toys During COVID-19 Lockdown
S. M. Yasir Arafat1 and Sujita Kumar Kar2
The COVID-19 pandemic has affected almost every part of human life which reveals several peculiar human behaviors. Panic
buying is one of the erratic phenomenon that has been observed in many countries of the world during this COVID-19
pandemic. The selling of online sex dolls, lingerie, and sex toys was increased during the COVID-19 lockdown in several
countries like Australia, UK, Denmark, Colombia, New Zealand, Italy, Spain, France, India, North America, and Ireland. The
increase in sex toy market turnover has several implications such as customization of recreational facilities, limitations in
alternative sources of pleasure, need to have sex and unfortunately, and unavailability of a partner. We speculate that people
may buy sex toys in response to perceived scarcity, perceived short supply, the anticipation of price hike, or to get control
over the environment. However, there could be other factors such as an extra time to explore sexuality, and being apart from
the partners. There is a need to study the sexual behavior and sex toy use among people in the post-pandemic era and their
repercussions on the intimate relationship.
Human sexuality, race, class, gender, and sexuality, sexual medicine, sociology of sex and gender
Received 18 February 2021; accepted 3 April 2021
Journal of Psychosexual Health
© The Author(s) 2021
Reprints and permissions:
DOI: 10.1177/26318318211013347
The COVID-19 pandemic has affected almost every part of
human life which reveals several peculiar human behaviors.
Panic buying is one of the erratic phenomenon that has been
observed in many countries of the world during this COVID-
19 pandemic.1 In response to the virus as well as the safety
measures, lockdown panic buying has been noticed to
stockpile necessary goods such as toilet tissue, important
medicines, masks, hand sanitizers, gloves, groceries, fuels,
food grains, and other perceived necessary goods in excess
amount.2,3 The panic buying behavior also involved the
purchase of sex toys, as reported by several reports.4-7
The selling of online sex dolls, lingerie, and sex toys
has been increased during the COVID-19 lockdown.8 It got
doubled in Australia on March 22, 2020 when the impending
shutdown of bars was declared.9,10 It was also noticed in the
UK after the declaration of the same on March 21, 2020.9,10
Denmark and Colombia have also experienced similar
phenomena in their respective countries.9 The boom of sex
toys has been tripled in New Zealand after the declaration
of a month-long lockdown in the country.10 It was prompted
during the immediate 48 h before the lockdown which was
imposed on March 25, 2020 in New Zealand.10 Sex toy
sales in Italy, Spain, and France have outpaced the projected
targets by 124%, 300%, and 94%, respectively, only in March
2020.11 An analytical survey was done by,
a sexual health and wellness product retailer, titled “India
Uncovered: Insightful Analysis of Sex Products’ Trends in
India,” revealed the sex toys and other adult products have
been increased 65% in India after the lockdown.12 The survey
studied over 22 million visitors resulting in about 3,35,000
sex product orders and a little below 5,00,000 products sale.12
A 30% increase in online sales in March and April of 2020 in
North America, in comparison to the same time period last
year, has been reported by Adam and Eve.13 The sex toy sale in
Ireland during the coronavirus lockdown has been increased
by 177% compared to the same time period of the previous
year.14 The sex toy export of the Chinese sex toy exporters
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2 Journal of Psychosexual Health
has been increased by 50% to the biggest consumers like US,
France, and Italy.15 We-Vibe, a sex toy company, reported that
“we see no other explanation for the increase in sales other
than the coronavirus,” while attributing the increased sales.11
Interestingly, it was noticed prominently in the countries
where lockdown has been implemented stringently.11
It has been reported that the COVID-19 pandemic has
affected various domains of life signicantly, including
sexual life.16-19 The increase in sex toy market turnover has
several implications. Many people were not able to meet
their partners or were away from home due to the lockdown.
The recreational facilities are compromised. Limitations
in alternative sources of pleasure, need to have sex and
unfortunately, unavailability of a partner, might be the major
factor for buying sex toys online.
Although there is a dearth of studies, researches have
been coming out exploring the perspectives of panic buying.
One study assessed the online media reports to ascertain
the responsible factors for the behavior and found that
increased demand, the perceived importance of the goods,
the anticipation of price hike, and the COVID-19 pandemic
along with its related factors are the important deciding
factors. The study also revealed other factors mentioned as
psychological factors comprising of safety-seeking behavior,
due to uncertain environment, a way to reduce anxiety, and
taking control over the surroundings, herd behavior, lack of
trust, government action, and past experience.1 Other studies
also mentioned that perceived scarcity, gaining control,
uncertainty, insecurity, social learning, primitive behavior,
media inuence, coping behavior.20,21 Studies are warranted
to explore the psychological underpinning of buying sex
toys during the lockdown. We speculate that people may
buy sex toys in response to perceived scarcity, perceived
short supply, the anticipation of price hike, or to get control
over the environment. However, there could be other factors
such as extra time to explore sexuality, being apart from the
partners, and the absence of other entertainments. Excessive
buying and bulk buying of sexual accessories indicate that
people are having a long plan, strong need, and safe need as
there has been a popular dictum during this pandemic which
is “yourself is your safest sexual partner.” As there is an
increase in panic buying of sex toys, the business houses have
also invested in several-related accessories like ultraviolet
sanitizer for the sex toys for their safe use.6
Another perspective of this changing scenario is that
this pandemic has introduced sex toys to a larger population,
who never used it in their life. Such buying behavior may
popularize the use of sex toys and the increasing demand may
lead to expansion of the sex toy industry. It can be anticipated
that the adoption of sex toys during the pandemic may also
likely to inuence subsequent sexual behavior. There is a
need to study the sexual behavior and sex toy use among
people in the post-pandemic era and their repercussions on
the intimate relationship.
Declaration of Conflicting Interests
The authors declared no potential conicts of interest with respect to
the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article.
The authors received no nancial support for the research, author-
ship, and/or publication of this article.
S.M. Yasir Arafat
Sujita Kumar Kar
1. Arafat SMY, Kar SK, Menon V, et al. Responsible factors of panic
buying: an observation from online media reports. Front Public
Health. 2020;8:603894. doi:10.3389/fpubh.2020.603894.
2. Arafat SMY, Kar SK, Menon V, et al. Media portrayal of
panic buying: a content analysis of online news portals. Glob
Psychiatry 2020;3:249-254. doi:10.2478/gp-2020-0022.
3. Arafat SMY, Kar SK, Menon V, et al. Panic buying: an insight
from the content analysis of media reports during COVID-19
pandemic. Neurol Psych BR 2020;37:100-103.
4. Abgarian A. Forget toilet rolls, people are panic-buying sex
toys. MetroUK. 2020.
toilet-rolls-people-stocking-sex-toys-12395133/. Accessed
November 3, 2020.
5. Yahoo Finance. Sex toys, bikes, weed & seeds: what Aussies
are buying during lockdown. 2020. https://au.
lockdown-013247560.html. Accessed November 3, 2020.
6. Smothers H. Sex toy sales are skyrocketing during the
coronavirus pandemic. 2020.
pandemic. Accessed November 3, 2020.
7. Money-Coutts S. Panic-buying vibrators, sharing bad jokes and
red lipstick: what’s your coronavirus coping technique? 2020.
technique-a4394946.html. Accessed November 3, 2020.
8. Stevens B. Online sex doll, lingerie and sex toy sales
skyrocket during lockdown. 2020. https://www.chargedretail.
skyrocket-during-lockdown/. Accessed October 29, 2020.
9. Lee BY. Toy sales are buzzing with social distancing from
COVID-19 coronavirus. Forbes. 2020. https://www.forbes.
Accessed October 28, 2020.
10. The Guardian. Sex toy sales triple during New Zealand’s
coronavirus lockdown. 2020.
coronavirus-lockdown. Accessed October 28, 2020.
Arafat and Kar 3
11. Dickson EJ. Thanks to COVID-19, internet-connected sex
toy sales are booming. Rolling Stone. 2020. https://www.
Accessed October 28, 2020.
12. Mathur A. Sale of sex toys up by 65% in India post lockdown,
says survey. Times of India. 2020. https://timesondia.
articleshow/77132098.cms. Accessed October 28, 2020.
13. Drolet G. Sellers of sex toys capitalized on all that alone time.
New York Times. 2020.
style/sex-toys-online-coronavirus.html. Accessed October 28,
14. Quann J. There has been an increase in the sale of sex toys
in Ireland during the coronavirus lockdown. News Talk. 2020.
sex-toys-ireland-1039279. Accessed October 28, 2020.
15. Rakshit D. China’s sex toy exports increase by 50% during
global lockdown. 2020.
exports-increase-by-50-during-global-lockdown/. Accessed
October 28, 2020.
16. Li G, Tang D, Song B, et al. Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic
on partner relationships and sexual and reproductive health:
cross-sectional, online survey study. J Med Internet Res.
17. Sanchez TH, Zlotorzynska M, Rai M, Baral SD. Characterizing
the impact of COVID-19 on men who have sex with men across
the United States in April, 2020. AIDS Behav. 2020;24(1):1-9.
18. Ko NY, Lu WH, Chen YL, et al. Changes in sex life among
people in Taiwan during the Covid-19 pandemic: the roles of risk
perception, general anxiety, and demographic characteristics.
Int J Env Res Pub He. 2020;17(16):5822.
19. Arafat S, Alradie-Mohamed A, Kar SK, Sharma P, Kabir
R. Does COVID-19 pandemic affect sexual behaviour?
A cross-sectional, cross-national online survey. Psy Res.
2020;289:113050. doi:10.1016/j.psychres.2020.113050.
20. Yuen KF, Wang X, Ma F, Li KX. The psychological causes
of panic buying following a health crisis. Int J Environ Res.
2020;17:3513. doi:10.3390/ijerph17103513.
21. Arafat SMY, Kar SK, Marthoenis M, et al. Psychological
underpinning of panic buying during pandemic (COVID-
19). Psychiatry Res. 2020;289:113061. doi:10.1016/j.
... For example, a research conducted on the Italian population [3] showed that couples experienced negative mood associated with the discrepancy between their high sexual desire and the scarcer possibilities of actually engaging in sexual activities. On the other hand, an increase in the frequency of sexual intercourses was also reported [4], which may be explained by the fact that some couples may have kept seeing each other in person, despite social restrictions. Indeed, the presence of restrictions has damaged the sexuality of noncohabiting couples as they have not been able to meet for weeks or even months [5]. ...
... Indeed, the presence of restrictions has damaged the sexuality of noncohabiting couples as they have not been able to meet for weeks or even months [5]. The days spent at home, in the absence of external stimuli and the necessary privacy (either due to the constant presence of other family members or to the forced prolonged cohabitation), also influenced the relationship of cohabiting couples [2,4,6]. In general, most couples resorted to alternative ways of experiencing their sexuality, especially those couples who were at a distance [7]. ...
... These results are in line with those of the studies by Cito et al. [54], Cocci et al. [55] and Pascoal et al. [52], who report an increase in sexual activity during the lockdown, which could be due to the fact that some of the new couples have not complied with the restrictions by continuing to see each other in person. The increase in post-quarantine sexual activity is in line with the results of Arafat et al. [4], which showed couples in the post-lockdown period conducted more intense sexual activity than before the pandemic. ...
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Covid-19 has been affecting people’s lives on a social, economic, emotional, and sexual level. This study aims to investigate any change in how couples formed during the pandemic got to know the partner and experienced sexuality, including factors that could have influenced those changes in comparison with a pre-pandemic period. Particularly, focus groups (N = 26 women) were conducted and an online questionnaire (N = 120; 41 men and 79 women) was administered. Given the exploratory qualitative nature of the present research, no specific hypothesis was tested. Most of the sample reported an increase in sexual desire, sexual frequency, and quality of intercourse, perceiving an early development of intimacy. The results highlight the lack of stress and fear of contagion. The intense state of euphoria, typical of the initial phase of the relationship, has perhaps allowed the couples to overcome the obstacles due to the restrictions. This study underlines the role of being in love in the survival of the species, as it allows for the creation of steady relationships even in moments of danger.
... A similar decrease in partnered sexual activities but no change in the frequency of masturbation were reported in a study conducted in Spain (Rodr ıguez-Dom ınguez et al., 2022). Possible explanations for the increase in sexual behaviors not requiring the physical presence of a partner might be due to being apart or to gain control over the environment (Arafat & Kar, 2021). However, some studies also reported a reduced frequency of solo and mutual masturbation during lockdown (Lehmiller et al., 2021;Luetke et al., 2020). ...
... However, recent evidence suggests the COVID-19 pandemic may have accelerated sex doll and sex toy purchasing. In North America, one online sex toy vendor reported a 30% sales increase in 2020, and some European retailers reported increases of more than 100% [30]. Precisely how much the surge of sex toy purchasing has affected the number of people who use, or own sex dolls remains to be seen. ...
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Abstract Purpose of Review Developments in human-like and personified sex tech require familiarity with a range of technologically sophisticated sex toys. Most sex toys approximating full-sized human bodies are inanimate, but recent advances in robotics, artificial intelligence, and digital interfaces are being incorporated into sex toy designs with the aim of providing humanized sexual and emotional experiences for users. This narrative review of scholarship on sex dolls, sex robots, and other forms of personified sex tech covers theoretical debates, recent empirical findings, and identifies gaps for future research in this field. Recent Findings Review of 87 scholarly books, articles, and essays reveals several trends in the field. First, despite continued calls for empirically driven work, the bulk of research on sex dolls, sex robots, and personified sex tech continues to be theoretical. In some cases, theoretical models discussing how people might be affected by human-like and personified sex tech have outpaced the technological capabilities of sex toy manufacturers. Another trend is the noticeable focus on developments and users in North American and European countries. Finally, sex doll ownership is primarily researched and theorized in ways that center heterosexual men as the primary users. While empirical research shows that single middle-aged heterosexual men use sex and sex robots more than women, developments in personified sex tech may push the industry in new directions. Summary Current debates about sex dolls, sex robots, and personified sex tech frame such devices around the potential for escalation and harm reduction. Although more empirical attention is being paid to users' motivations and experiences, a dearth of research directly addresses these debates. More research in needed to refine theoretical assertions about the potential benefits and harms of human-like and personified sex tech. Specifically, robust quantitative data and samples from outside of Western contexts are needed to better assess how such technologies affect users.
... Examining our evolving relationships with such artificial erotic agents-or erobots-is important as interest in sexual technology and artificial companions grows (Dubé & Anctil, 2020). This is exemplified by the widespread use of sex toys (Döring, 2021b;Döring & Pöschl, 2019a), the uptick in doll purchases (Arafat & Kar, 2021), the growing use of virtual partners (e.g., Replika, Xiaoce, and Harmony AI; Kaufman, 2020;Larcher, 2022;RealDollX, n.d.;Skjuve et al., 2021;Ta et al., 2020), and the results of YouGov surveys suggesting that the willingness to have sex with a robot increased from 9% in 2013 to 22% in 2020 (HuffPost, 2013;YouGov, 2017YouGov, , 2020. ...
Examining the links between personality traits and attitudes toward sex robots can provide insights into who may desire such machines, and why. This online study thus examined the associations between the Big-Five, traits related to sexuality, technology, and (sexual) novelty, and people's willingness to engage with and perceived appropriateness of using sex robots in a convenience sample of 492 adults (≥18 years; 283 ciswomen, 171 cismen, and 37 non-binary and gender nonconforming individuals with access to the recruitment material on social media, the Concordia University participant pool, or flyers/word-of-mouth in the Montreal Community). Correlational analyses showed that willingness to engage with and perceived appropriateness of using sex robots were more closely related to erotophilia and sexual sensation seeking than any other traits. Mixed repeated measures ANOVAs and independent samples t-tests with Bonferroni corrections also showed that cismen and non-binary/gender nonconforming individuals were more willing to engage with sex robots and perceive their use as more appropriate than ciswomen. These findings suggest that erotophilic individuals seeking novel or more intense sexual experiences may be(come) the primary users of sex robots and influence their development. These findings are important given the growing place of technology in our intimate lives and relationships.
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Unlabelled: A majority of American adults report having used sex toys, which, by design, interact with intimate and permeable body parts yet have not been subject to sufficient risk assessment or management. Physical and chemical data are presented examining potential risks associated with four types of currently available sex toys: anal toy, beads, dual vibrator, and external vibrator. A standardized abrasion machine made real-time breakdown of products into microplastics and nanoplastics. The microplastics from the sex toys were then solvent extracted and analyzed using GC-MS. Rates of microplastics and nanoplastics released during abrasion testing from most microplastic release to least was the anal toy, beads, dual vibrator, external vibrator. Both micro- and nanoplastics particles were generated following the abrasion test, with the 50 percentile diameters (D50) ranging from the anal beads at 658.5 μm, dual vibrator at 887.83 μm, anal toy at 950 μm, and external vibrator at 1673.33 μm. The material matrix of each product was analyzed using ATR-FTIR, with results identifying the anal toy as polyethylene terephthalate (PET), the anal beads as polyvinyl chloride (PVC), the external vibrator as a silicone blend (polydimethylsiloxane [PDMS]), and the dual vibrator as a rubber mixture (polyisoprene). After extraction, phthalates known to be endocrine disruptors were present in all tested sex toys at levels exceeding hazard warnings. Analogous findings have been reported for similar materials that, when incorporated into other product categories, are subject to regulatory scrutiny in both the US and EU. This data set is not intended to be representative of sex toys as an entire class of products, nor are the abrasion experiments claiming to simulate exact use conditions. However, these exploratory data frame potential concerns, highlighting research questions and the need for prompt prioritization of protective action. Therefore, future studies and multi-stakeholder action are needed to understand and reduce risk for this class of products. Supplementary information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1186/s43591-023-00054-6.
The promotion and enabling of vulnerable and long‐stay inpatients’ sexualities is a largely neglected practice. This paper offers a novel contribution to the existing literature by considering the assessment of capacity to use sex toys. It describes the development of a set of guidelines and application of these in two clinical cases. It is hoped that the paper will provide a start point from which the guidelines could be scrutinised and refined by professional bodies and legal review.
The worldwide disaster caused by COVID-19 and its variants has changed the behavior and psychology of consumers. Panic buying and hoarding of various commodities continue to emerge in our daily life. Meanwhile, many scholars have focused on the causes of panic buying and hoarding of physical products like daily necessities and food during the outbreak of COVID-19. In fact, the phenomenon of panic buying and digital hoarding of paid social Q&A and other digital content products is very prominent, both in the outbreak period of COVID-19 epidemic and the current coexistence stage. However, the existing literature lacks empirical research to explore this phenomenon, and the psychological mechanism behind it has not been clearly revealed. Therefore, at the current stage of coexistence with COVID-19, based on the SOBC framework, we developed a theoretical model and explored the causes of panic buying and digital hoarding in paid social Q&A. The data collected from 863 paid social Q&A users in China are empirically tested. The results show that the characteristics of paid social Q&A (usefulness, ease of use, professionalism and value) can cause emotional contagion among platform users, activate their willingness to pay, and finally lead to digital hoarding and panic buying behavior of COVID-19 co-existence stage. In addition, the sensitivity to pain of payment moderates the relationship between emotional contagion and willingness to pay. Compared with the spendthrifts, the tightwads are more willing to pay. The conclusions will have positive significance for improving the retail service of digital content platform and promoting the consumption of digital content.
A disaster is an event that disrupts the normal existence of a community and causes hardship that overwhelms its innate capacity for adaptation. Panic buying has been observed as a response to disaster throughout the course of human history. Though panic buying is an understandable and even adaptive response to an immediate threat, it can have long-term repercussions on other members of the community and can hinder economic recovery from the impact of a disaster. Theoretically, panic buying can be studied from several perspectives – biological, psychological, social, economic and disaster-related. In this chapter, panic buying is examined from these diverse viewpoints, and links between different levels of analysis are established. A suggestion is provided for the integration of all possible variables of interest into a meta-theoretical framework or unified model, which can subsequently be tested and refined using data-driven and machine learning approaches.KeywordsDisaster managementPsychologyCultureEconomicsPanic buyingHoardingArtificial intelligence
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Panic buying (PB) is a social and behavioral phenomenon in which an individual tends to procure large quantities of supplies from sellers which can cause unavailability, supply shortfall, and chain difficulties of necessary items to the vulnerable group of population, and is particularly observed during crisis situations including disaster and pandemic. Disaster can be natural, man-made, and hybrid. Disasters are usually divided into three phases: pre-disaster, disaster, and post-disaster phase. Although the characteristics of disasters might differ from one another, there exists one common element among disasters, i.e., its severity. As disasters are unavoidable completely, so it is necessary to learn to prepare, respond, recover, rehabilitate, and reintegrate for the impacts of disasters including PB and its consequences. Understanding PB during different phases of disasters helps us manage or even prevent the behavior. This chapter introduces characteristics and attributing factors of PB during different phases of disasters.KeywordsPanic buyingCoronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)BehaviorDisasterCalamities
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Background: Panic buying is an erratic human behavior that has been reported irregularly and episodically. There is a dearth of studies exploring the identifiable factors accounting for it. We aimed to identify the factors responsible for panic buying extracted from online media reports. Methods: We scrutinized the media reports published in English discussing the different aspects of panic buying. We collected data until May 30, 2020, and searched the possible mentioned reasons responsible for panic buying. Results: We analyzed a total of 784 media reports. The majority of the reports were found in Bing (18%), Ecosia (12.6%), Google (26.4%), and Yahoo (12.5%). Panic buying was reported in 93 countries. Among the 784 responses, a total of 171 reports did not explain the responsible factors of panic buying. Therefore, we analyzed the remaining 613 reports to identify the same. A sense of scarcity was reportedly found as the important factor in about 75% of the reports followed by increased demand (66.07%), the importance of the product (45.02%), anticipation of price hike (23.33%), and due to COVID-19 and its related factors (13.21%). Other reported factors were a rumor, psychological factors (safety-seeking behavior, uncertainty, anxiety reduction, and taking control), social learning, lack of trust, government action, and past experience. Conclusions: The study revealed the responsible factors of panic buying extracted from media reports. Further, studies involving the individuals indulging in panic buying behavior are warranted to replicate the findings.
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Objectives Media reporting has an influential role in panic buying (PB). We aimed to evaluate the media portrayal of PB during this COVID-19 pandemic. Methods We searched, collected, and analysed the news reports from the English media discussing the PB events. The search was done between 23 and 30 May 2020. Results A total of 525 news reports were analysed. Approximately half (49.3%) discussed the government action to handle the situation, 36.4% discussed the expert opinion regarding PB, 20.6% discussed the psychology of PB, 21.5% discussed the rumours, and 18.5% suggested remedial measures. Concerning the negative aspects, 96.6% of the titles mentioned panic buying, 75.4% mentioned the cause, and 62.3% mentioned the photos of empty shelves. The media in low–middle-income countries are 1.5 times more likely to include expert opinion (p = 0.03), 2.1 times more likely to discuss rumours regarding PB (p = 0.001), almost thrice more likely to report the cause of PB (p = 0.001), and thrice more likely to mention its impact (p = 0.001). Conclusion Media has been portraying more negative aspects of PB. Further, there are variations in reporting patterns between high-income and low–middle-income countries.
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This study used data collected from an online survey study on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Taiwan to examine changes in sex life during the pandemic and the factors affecting such changes. In total, 1954 respondents were recruited from a Facebook advertisement. The survey inquired changes in sex life during the pandemic, including satisfaction with the individual’s sex life, frequency of sexual activity, frequency of sex-seeking activity, and frequency of using protection for sex. The associations of change in sex life with risk perception of COVID-19, general anxiety, gender, age, and sexual orientation were also examined. For each aspect of their sex life, 1.4%–13.5% of respondents reported a decrease in frequency or satisfaction, and 1.6%–2.9% reported an increase in frequency or satisfaction. Risk perception of COVID-19 was significantly and negatively associated with frequencies of sexual and sex-seeking activities. Higher general anxiety was significantly and negatively associated with satisfaction of sex life and frequencies of sexual and sex-seeking activities. Sexual minority respondents were more likely to report decreased satisfaction with sex life and frequencies of sexual activity and sex-seeking activities during COVID-19. Health care providers should consider these factors when developing strategies for sexual wellness amid respiratory infection epidemics.
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Background: In the past few months, the coronavirus disease COVID-19 pandemic has caused extensive economic and social damage. Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of COVID-19 pandemic and related containment measures on partner relationships, sexual and reproductive health. Methods: From May 1 to 5, 2020, we recruited 3,500 young Chinese online. Aspects of sexual and reproductive health obtained using a study-specific questionnaire. Results: 967 participants were included the sexual health analysis. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic and related containment measures, 212 out of 967 participants (22%) reported a decrease in sexual desire; 41% (n=396) participants experienced a decrease in the sexual frequency; 30% (n=291) participants reported an increase in the frequency of masturbation; 20% (n=192) participants reported a decrease in consumed alcohol before or during sexual activities and 31% (n=298) participants reported a deterioration of partner relationship during the pandemic. The logistic regression analysis indicated that accommodation during pandemic (P = .046; OR=0.59; 95 %CI = 0.30~0.86), in/not in an exclusive relationship (P <.001; OR=0.44; 95 %CI = 0.27~0.73), sexual desire (P = .016; OR=2.01; 95 %CI = 1.38~2.97) and sexual satisfaction (P <.001; OR=1.92; 95 %CI = 1.54~2.50) were closely related to partner relationships. COVID-19 also caused disruption in reproductive health services such as prenatal and postnatal care, safe childbirth, safe abortion, contraception and the management of sexually transmitted infections. Conclusions: Our results show that due to COVID-19 pandemic and related containment measures, many young participants have wide ranging issues affecting their sexual and reproductive health. Measures should be put in place to safeguard the sexual and reproductive health of young people during this pandemic. Clinicaltrial:
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Attributed to the recent COVID-19 pandemic, panic buying is now a frequent occurrence in many countries, leading to stockouts and supply chain disruptions. Consequently, it has received much attention from academics and the retail industry. The aim of this study is to review, identify, and synthesise the psychological causes of panic buying, which is a relatively new and unexplored area in consumer behaviour research. A systematic review of the related literature is conducted. The review suggests that panic buying is influenced by (1) individuals' perception of the threat of the health crisis and scarcity of products; (2) fear of the unknown, which is caused by negative emotions and uncertainty; (3) coping behaviour, which views panic buying as a venue to relieve anxiety and regain control over the crisis; and (4) social psychological factors, which account for the influence of the social network of an individual. This study contributes to the literature by consolidating the scarce and scattered research on the causes of panic buying, drawing greater theoretical insights into each cause and also offers some implications for health professionals, policy makers, and retailers on implementing appropriate policies and strategies to manage panic buying. Recommendations for future research are also provided.
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The COVID-19 pandemic is reinforcing health inequities among vulnerable populations, including men who have sex with men (MSM). We conducted a rapid online survey (April 2 to April 13, 2020) of COVID-19 related impacts on the sexual health of 1051 US MSM. Many participants had adverse impacts to general wellbeing, social interactions, money, food, drug use and alcohol consumption. Half had fewer sex partners and most had no change in condom access or use. Some reported challenges in accessing HIV testing, prevention and treatment services. Compared to older MSM, those 15–24 years were more likely to report economic and service impacts. While additional studies of COVID-19 epidemiology among MSM are needed, there is already evidence of emerging interruptions to HIV-related services. Scalable remote solutions such as telehealth and mailed testing and prevention supplies may be urgently needed to avert increased HIV incidence among MSM during the COVID-19 pandemic era.
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On January 2019, Brazil’s new far-right president Jair Bolsonaro was sworn into office. Bolsonaro’s administration supports downsizing the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS), while increasing the size of the private health sector. The new administration might leave millions of Brazilians without medical care, including hundreds of thousands of people living with HIV/AIDS. Bolsonaro’s administration, allied with a highly conservative Congress and sharp decreases in federal funding for public health, education and research, could jeopardize key health and human rights strategies focused on women, LGBTQ + individuals, Indigenous populations, and people living with HIV/AIDS.
Background Panic buying is an emerging phenomenon observed during, but not restricted to, pandemic. Aim We aimed to evaluate the nature, extent, and impact of panic buying as reported in the media. Methods This study was conducted by collecting the information from the English media reports published till 22nd May 2020. A structured format was developed to collect data. Searching was done by using the keyword “panic buying”. We have excluded the social media posts discussing the panic buying. Results The majority of media reporting was from the USA (40.7 %), and about 46 % of reports highlighted the scarce item. Approximately 82 % of the reports presented the causes of panic buying whereas almost 80 % report covered the impact of it. About 25.7 % of reports highlighted the rumor about panic buying and only 9.3 % of reports blamed the government. Only 27.1 % reports described the remedial measures, 30.8 % reports conferred the news on the psychology behind panic buying and 67.3 % news displayed the images of empty shelves. Conclusion A high proportion of reports on panic buying have been found from the developed countries discussing the causes & impact of panic buying on the basis of expert opinion.