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Relationship between Employee Engagement, Job Satisfaction and Potential Turnover


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High employee engagement (EE) is associated with high work performance therefore; it is in the center of attention of researchers and HR managers. The aim of the study was to determine the level of employee engagement in the exposed workplace and to verify whether there are relationships between employee engagement, job satisfaction and potential labor turnout. Based on a survey conducted with operators (N=257) in call centers, where the rate of fluctuation is high, these relationships were confirmed. It was found that the level of EE may not be low even at a demanding workplace. It was also verified that EE has a positive effect on job satisfaction and at the same time negatively affects potential turnover.
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TEMJournal–Volume10/Number2/2021. 847
Relationship between Employee Engagement,
Job Satisfaction and Potential Turnover
Alice Reissová
, Marek Papay
1 University of Jana Evangelisty Purkyně in Ústí nad Labem 400 96, Pasteurova 1, Czech Republic
Abstract High employee engagement (EE) is
associated with high work performance therefore; it is
in the center of attention of researchers and HR
managers. The aim of the study was to determine the
level of employee engagement in the exposed workplace
and to verify whether there are relationships between
employee engagement, job satisfaction and potential
labor turnout. Based on a survey conducted with
operators (N=257) in call centers, where the rate of
fluctuation is high, these relationships were confirmed.
It was found that the level of EE may not be low even
at a demanding workplace. It was also verified that EE
has a positive effect on job satisfaction and at the same
time negatively affects potential turnover.
Keywords employee engagement, job satisfaction,
potential labor turnover, call centers, operators.
1. Introduction
The issue of employee engagement has been
receiving attention for several decades and its
importance is still growing. Engagement is often
defined as dedication to the employer and the values
preferred by the organization [1]. An engaged
employee tends to be motivated and focused on
achieving set goals and motivates his colleagues in a
similar way. An engaged employee is positively
emotionally connected with his/her work, his/her
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performances which is naturally of high quality, and
very often even beyond the set duties [2].
Many studies focus on identification of the factors
that influence an increase in work exposure. Karasek
[3] created the Job Demand-Control (JDC) model
which is based on the assumption that the factors that
affect the level of engagement are mainly the
working environment and autonomy (freedom in
decision making). The model was later further
developed and extended by another important factor,
the social support [4]. Within social support, the
main variables were identified as relationship at the
workplace, both between co-workers and between
subordinate and superiors [5], [6]. Recent studies [7]
point to the fact that, in the context of the human
resources management process, there is a general
need to look for practices that, as a system, will
contribute to higher performance. These HRM
systems of processes, commonly referred to as “High
Performance Work Systems (HPWS)”, are
considered to be the main sources of productivity.
The pillar of these systems is the fair treatment of
employees, which leads to development of positive
work attitudes, sense of responsibility and employee
engagement. The fact that organizational stimulation
leads to the development of employee engagement is
confirmed by other studies as well [8], [9].
On the other hand, stress can be a general factor
that significantly reduces employee engagement.
Elimination of the stressor intensity may increase the
engagement rates [10], [11], [12].
A high level of employee engagement is desirable
because it brings a number of positive effects. The
main areas in which the benefit of a high degree of
engagement can be observed are higher work
performance, higher job satisfaction, lower potential
turnover, and many others [13], [14].
In the services sector, high employee engagement
is also reflected in the service climate and higher
employee performance and it will subsequently be
reflected in customer loyalty [15].
There is a relative consensus among researchers in
this regard. There is no doubt about the positive
effects of employee engagement. The only
differences are in the number of variables and the
extent to which they affect the employee
engagement. Given the benefits that employee
engagement brings, it definitely is advisable to pay
attention to the topic. The aim of this article will be
to find out what the level of employee engagement is
in the workplace, which can be generally described
as a “stressful environment”, since the goals are
usually high and the rules for achieving them are
strict. Furthermore, it will be verified whether there
are relationships between employee engagement, job
satisfaction, and potential labor turnover, because it
is the turnover that is high among the employees of
the call centers.
2. Methodology
The research took place at the call centers of a
large corporate company. These workplaces were
chosen because here the employees work under the
influence of a number of stressors. The theoretical
background, therefore, suggests that employee
engagement should be low.
A standard UWES questionnaire (abbreviated
version) according to Schaufeli et al. [16] was used
to determine the degree of involvement. The
questionnaire items are listed in Table 1.
Table 1. UWES Questionnaire – abbreviated version
1) When I am working intensively, I feel happy.
2) I get carried away when I am working.
3) I am immersed in my work.
1) At my work, I feel bursting with energy.
2) At my work, I feel strong and vigorous.
3) When I get up in the morning, I feel like going to
1) I am enthusiastic about my job.
2) My job inspires me.
3) I am proud of the work that I do.
Source: Designed according to [16]
The processing and evaluation of questions took
place according to the relevant manual [16], from
which the standards were also used (see Table 2).
Table 2. Standards for evaluation of engagement level
EE* Vigor Dedication Absorption UWES
1 ≤ 2.00 ≤ 1.33 ≤ 1.17 ≤ 1.77
2 2.01 – 3.25 1.34 – 2.90 1.18 – 2.33 1.78 – 2.88
3 3.26 – 4.80 2.91 – 4.70 2.34 – 4.20 2.89 – 4.66
4 4.81 – 5.65 4.71 – 5.69 4.21 – 5.33 4.67 – 5.50
5 ≥ 5.66 ≥ 5.70 ≥ 5.34 ≥ 5.51
Note EE = employee engagement level
1 = very low to 5 = very high
Source: Designed according to [16]
H1 assumes that the level of engagement of call
center employees is low.
Given that the aim of the study is to find out what
the relationships between employee engagement and
other variables (potential turnover and job
satisfaction) are, the questionnaire also included
questions that are focused on these variables. The
formulation of the questions was operationalized
according to the study by Ro et al. [10]. The
questions are listed in Table 3. For each question,
respondents answered using a seven-point Likert
scale (0 = definitely not to 6 = definitely yes).
Table 3. Questions to identify potential turnover and job
Potential turnover
1) I am thinking about leaving my job.
2) I read various job offers.
3) If I received a job offer at another call center for the
same salary, I would leave the current job.
Job satisfaction
1) I consider my work to be meaningful.
2) I like our company culture.
3) The employer values my work.
Source: Designed according to Ro & Lee (2017)
Subsequently, hypotheses were formulated:
H2 There are statistically significant relationships
between the individual variables (employee
engagement, job satisfaction and potential turnover).
The questionnaire was distributed to call center
employees in electronic form. A total of 287
employees were contacted. Some of the
questionnaires were discarded during their checking
because not all questions were filled in and several
employees did not complete the questionnaire. In the
research, 257 completed questionnaires were
The data were processed and evaluated with use of
MS Excel and statistical software SPSS. From
statistical methods, Cronbach’s alpha and
MacDonald’s omega were used to determine
reliability, Pearson’s correlation coefficient was
chosen to calculate the strength of the linear
relationship between paired data, and finally
ANOVA was used to verify the statistical
significance of the ascertained differences.
3. Results
Before starting the calculations themselves, the
internal consistency (reliability) of the components of
individual factors was verified using Cronbach’s
alpha and MacDonald’s omega. The values from 0.6
to 0.8 can be considered acceptable. The values from
0.8 to 1 are very good and show a very good
consistency. It is clear from Table 4 that all three
variables showed very good reliability.
Table 4. Evaluation of the internal consistency of the items
in the questionnaire
Alpha Omega
UWES 0.916 0.919
Job satisfaction 0.749 0.776
Potential turnover 0.825 0.826
Source: Own calculation
Furthermore, the level of call center employee
engagement was determined. For the calculation, a
process according to the manual [16] was used. The
results are shown in Table 5.
Table 5. Evaluation of employee engagement level
Vigor Dedication Absorption Employee
Value 4.199 4.495 5.056 4.583
Level low medium medium medium
Source: Own calculation
H1 assumed that the level of employee
engagement in the call center is low. However, the
results show that the overall exposure rate is
medium. The hypothesis was, therefore, not
confirmed. From a deeper analysis of the results, it is
evident that only one of the components of employee
engagement, namely vigor, shows lower values.
Values of dedication and absorption were found in
the middle zone. It should be noted, however, that the
level of employee engagement did not show a normal
distribution, which is clearly evident from the
histogram in Figure 1.
Figure 1. Histogram – found results of the distribution
level of engagement
Table 6 shows the elementary description of each
Table 6. Descriptive data of individual variables
N 257 257 257
Average 4,5831 4,5577 2,9858
Median 4,78 4,67 2,67
Standard error 0,08202 0,08624 0,0988
Standard deviation 1.31486 1,38254 1,58387
Dispersion 1.729 1.911 2.509
Source: Own calculation
In the next part of the research, the relationship
between employee engagement, job satisfaction, and
potential turnover were verified with the use of
Pearson’s correlation coefficient. It is evident from
Table 7 that employee engagement has a strongly
positive correlation with job satisfaction (0.734) and,
at the same time, negative correlation with potential
turnover (-0.529).
Table 7. Correlation between individual variables
Factors Employee
engagement 1 0.734* -0.529*
Job satisfaction 0.734* 1 -0.560*
Potential turnover -0.529* -0.560* 1
* p = 0,01
Source: Own calculation
H2, which assumed the existence of relationships
between these variables, was thus confirmed. For
completeness, it should be added that the higher the
employee engagement rate, the higher the job
satisfaction rate (positive correlation) and, at the
same time, the higher the employee engagement rate,
the lower the potential turnover (negative
correlation). Therefore, an engaged employee is also
more satisfied employee who is less likely to leave
his or her employer.
As part of a deeper analysis of this issue, the
individual variables were subsequently tested
separately. Table 8 shows the results of the ANOVA
test, based on which it is clear that there is a
statistically significant effect between employee
engagement and job satisfaction.
Table 8. Relationship between job satisfaction and
employee engagement
Sum of
squares Df Mean
square F Significance
Regression 263.541 1 263.541 297.642 0.000
Residuals 225.785 255 0.885
Total 489.326 256
a = Dependent variable: Job satisfaction
b = Predictors: Employee engagement
Source: Own calculation
In a similar way, the relationship between
employee engagement and potential turnover was
investigated. The results are shown in Table 9.
Table 9. Relationship between potential turnover and
employee engagement
Sum of
squares df Mean
square F Significanc
Regression 179.711 1 179.71
4 0.000b
Residuals 462.501 25
5 1.814
Total 642.212 25
a = Dependent variable: Potential turnover
b = Predictors: Employee engagement
Source: Own calculation
It is clear from the results that the independent
variable (employee engagement) statistically
significantly predicts the dependent variable
(potential turnover).
4. Discussion
The issues related to employee engagement, the
possibility of its measurement, and especially the
possibilities of its subsequent influence have been in
the focus of attention in the field of human resources
management for a long time. Employee engagement
is sometimes even referred to as a key indicator of an
organization’s health [16]. Burnout syndrome is
considered the opposite of employee engagement.
Burnout syndrome occurs primarily at workplaces
with demanding working conditions (time stress or
other disproportionate workload, limited autonomy,
high pressure on results which the employee can,
however, affect only partially or not at all, etc.). The
consequences of burnout syndrome are low work
performance and high turnover. Such a risky work
environment can be considered, for example, the
position of operator at a call center, where this
research took place. However, the range of possible
occupations where there is a potential threat of
burnout is very wide. A lot of research in this area
has been carried out, for example, in health care,
where demanding working conditions are
accompanied by a high degree of responsibility [17].
The level of employee engagement, nevertheless,
affects productivity in other sectors, such as
education [18]. In this context, education can be also
considered a risky environment. The occurrence of
burnout syndrome (which can also arise from the
initial very high EE) is relatively common there.
Positive effects of EE on performance have been
reported in the area of public administration [19],
[20], but also in a number of other sectors [21], [22].
An interesting finding was that even though the
call center can be considered a risky workplace (in
terms of high demands on the goal fulfillment and
strong time stress), and therefore a rather low level of
engagement is expected, a medium level of EE was
found. At the same time, however, it was clear from
the histogram that the EE values did not show a
normal distribution. It would certainly be appropriate
to make a deeper analysis and address the question of
whether it is among the people who have been
working here for a very short time (and have not yet
managed to “burn out”) that a higher level of
engagement exists, or whether it might be among the
people who have been working here a long enough
time but show a high degree of tolerance to these
stressors. It would also be interesting to use a
longitudinal survey to find out whether in the long
run a higher level of engagement would negatively
correlate with a low rate of real turnout (not just
potential turnout, i.e. declared turnout).
Questions of the tightness of the bonds between
employee engagement and other variables are the
subject of a large amount of research. Given the
definition of employee engagement (see the
introduction), the positive correlation with job
satisfaction is probably less surprising. Surprisingly,
however, despite the fact that these connections are
repeatedly demonstrated in different work
environments from the point of performance
management, job satisfaction of the employees is
often neglected or underestimated. Employers
generally consider the EE of their employees to be
higher than it actually is [23]. The complexity of this
phenomenon is due to the fact that EE and job
satisfaction are both affected by a wide range of
different factors which differ not only according to
the nature of work and job position but also
according to personality traits, value hierarchies, and
preferences of each individual. This diversity is
confirmed by a number of studies [24], [25].
Job satisfaction is also sometimes confused with
EE. These variables are related but they are two
different factors. Djoemadi et al. found that job
satisfaction is one of the factors that positively
influence employee engagement and that the most
important items in job satisfaction are working
conditions, employment relationships, and possibility
of promotions [26]. The results of this study show
that it is always necessary to clarify the terminology
and operationalization within the methodology
because the same items that were declared here in the
category of “job satisfaction” can be elsewhere
classified in the category “employee engagement”.
However, it is clear that all these variables are very
important for human resource management.
From the point of view of employers, the
relationship between the level of employee
engagement and potential turnover seems to be a
fundamental issue. The financial costs of recruiting
and selecting new employees, as well as the costs
associated with the process of their adaptation, are
considerable. With managerial positions, direct
financial losses can be exacerbated by the loss of
know-how. The fact that employee engagement has a
positive effect on potential turnover has been found
both in this study and in a number of others [27],
[28], [29]. However, studies on the relationship
between EE and real turnover are not very
widespread, which can be seen as a challenge for
further research in this area.
5. Conclusion
The aim of this study was to determine whether
there is also a low level of employee engagement at a
workplace with a higher level of stress and whether
this level of engagement shows relationships with
other variables. Based on the research, it was found
that even in a workplace that has significantly
unfavorable working conditions; the level of EE may
not necessarily be low. On the other hand, it is
evident that the detected values are in the lower
average range. The question remains whether these
findings are not affected by the limitations of the
study that were mentioned in the discussion section.
The relationship between employee engagement
and job satisfaction was proven to be clearly positive
and at the same time the correlation between EE and
potential turnover was verified as negative. These
findings, which are in concord with the findings of a
number of other studies conducted in different types
of workplaces, confirm to employers and HR
managers the importance of addressing employee
engagement issues if they are to achieve high
productivity and prevent undesirable employee
This research was supported by the Jan vangelista
Purkyně University in Ústí nad Labem, Czech Republic
[grant number UJEP-SGS-2019-45-009-2].
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... Penelitian Rachmatan dan Kubatini (2018) menjelaskan tingkat employee engagement yang tinggi terhadap perusahaan akan menyebabkan pada tunrover intention yang rendah. Reissová & Papay (2021) yang menemukan bahwa variabel job satisfaction dan employee engagement memiliki pengaruh negatif terhadap turnover intention. Terdapat penelitian serupa tentang turnover intention dan job satisfaction di hotel tetapi jarang dikaitkan bersama employee engagement yang mungkin menjadi akar penyebab tingginya turnover. ...
Human resources are the main factor in creating a company's competitive advantage. The employee turnover intention is still a problem in Hotel Santika Premiere Semarang. Job satisfaction and employee engagement are thought to be the cause of high turnover intention. This type of research is explanatory research. Sampling using the saturated sampling technique as many as 78 employees of Hotel Santika Premiere Semarang. Collecting data using questionnaires, interviews, and literature study. This study uses quantitative analysis using validity, reliability, correlation coefficient, coefficient of determination, simple and multiple linear regression, t test, and F test which is processed using SPSS 25.0 version. The results of the study indicate that there is a negative and significant effect of job satisfaction and employee engagement variables, either partially or simultaneously, on the turnover intention of the employees of Hotel Santika Premiere Semarang. Based on the results of the study, it is suggested that Hotel Santika Premiere Semarang can seek to provide verbal and emotional work support and can maintain a conducive work environment, so that employees feel comfortable and enthusiastic and reduce the effort to find other alternative jobs.Sumber daya manusia merupakan faktor utama dalam menciptakan keunggulan bersaing suatu perusahaan. Faktor turnover intention karyawan masih menjadi masalah bagi Hotel Santika Premiere Semarang. Job satisfaction dan employee engagement diduga sebagai penyebab tingginya turnover intention. Tipe penelitian ini adalah explanatory research. Pengambilan sampel menggunakan teknik sampling jenuh sebanyak 78 karyawan Hotel Santika Premiere Semarang. Pengumpulan data menggunakan kuesioner, wawancara, dan studi pustaka. Penelitian ini menggunakan analisis kuantitatif dengan menggunakan uji validitas, reliabilitas, koefisien korelasi, koefisien determinasi, regresi linier sederhana dan berganda, uji t, dan uji F yang diolah menggunakan SPSS 25.0 version. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan adanya pengaruh negatif dan signifikan variabel job satisfaction dan employee engagement baik secara parsial maupun simultan terhadap terhadap turnover intention pada karyawan Hotel Santika Premiere Semarang. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian disarankan bagi Hotel Santika Premiere Semarang dapat mengupayakan untuk memberikan dukungan kerja secara verbal maupun emosional dan dapat menjaga lingkungan kerja tetap kondusif, sehingga karyawan merasa nyaman dan antusias serta mengurangi usaha untuk mencari alternatif pekerjaan lain.
... İşe tutulma ile yapılan çalışmalar güncel olarak ele alındığında; iş memnuniyeti (Reissová & Papay, 2021, iş performansı (Satata, 2021Abdullahi vd., 2021), uzaktan çalışma Amano vd., 2021;Mehta, 2021), öncülleri ve sonuçları (Khusanova vd., 2021), örgütsel kimlik ve iş tatmini (Çelebi, 2021) ve örgütsel güç kaynaklarının (Uzun & Köse, 2021) ele alındığı çalışmalar mevcuttur. ...
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The aim of this study is to reveal the relationship between tenacity and intention to leave work and the perception of decent work through moderator effect of decent work. In the study, the employees of a municipality as a public legal entity were taken as a sample, as it is an example of an organization that provides work with different statuses and job diversity. The concept of decent work is a concept that is also considered as a respectable job. At a minimum, the relationship between the concept that each organization is expected to present to its employees and tenacity and intention to leave work. For this purpose, data were collected from 320 employees with simple random sampling method. The obtained data were analyzed using the 21 st version of the SPSS package program. Correlation analysis was conducted in order to determine the relationship between tenacity and intention to leave work and the perception of decent work for the municipal employees through moderator effect of decent work, and the regulatory effect of decent work on tenacity and intention to leave work was tested by multiple regression analysis. As a result of the analysis, a moderate positive relationship between tenacity and decent work and a weak negative one between intention to leave work decent work were found. In addition, it was concluded for decent work to have a moderating effect between tenacity and intention to leave work.
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El objetivo del presente artículo fue determinar el impacto del compromiso organizacional (CO) y satisfacción laboral (SL) en el desempeño laboral (DL) de los trabajadores, a través de la revisión bibliográfica, analizando, comprendiendo e interpretando la información obtenida de distintos artículos de investigación, realizadas en diversos sectores laborales, ocupacionales y profesionales. El estudio se alineó al paradigma interpretativo-hermenéutico, donde se describió, analizó, comprendió e interpretó las interrelaciones de los constructos (CO, SL y DL). La investigación tiende al enfoque mixto (cuantitativo y cualitativo), pues, se realizó la descripción, comprensión e interpretación de la revisión bibliográfica sobre las variables en estudio, mediante el uso de la bibliometría. Respecto a la metodología, se utilizó el método de la investigación documental. Para la búsqueda y selección de la literatura científica se utilizó el Scopus como gestor bibliográfico y la bibliometría para el estudio de las publicaciones científicas y cuya unidad de análisis es el artículo científico. Los resultados, basados en una muestra de 92 artículos, durante los últimos 19 años, que la cantidad de estudios divulgados y de citas se ha incrementado de manera progresiva. Adicionalmente, los resultados revelan el impacto positivo de las variables CO y SL sobre el DL, del mismo modo, la mediación de los componentes del compromiso y satisfacción de los empleados para la mejora continua del desempeño de estos en el trabajo; esto implica logro de reputación positiva, prestigio e imagen organizacional o empresarial, en síntesis, el comportamiento organizacional con desarrollo sostenible.
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Orientation: To remain competitive South African organisations must improve their operational efficiency by lowering manufacturing and service costs, and the key is the performance of its employees.Research purpose: The purpose of the study was twofold: firstly, to establish if there is a relationship between performance management and employee engagement; and secondly to ascertain if performance management can be rebooted through increased employee engagement.Motivation for the study: Organisations that measure and manage performance generally outperform those that do not. Organisations need to understand what drives employee engagement and performance to outperform their competitors.Research approach, design and method: A qualitative approach was employed that included a review of research articles and interviews with employees from various functions across all levels within operations of a fast-moving consumer goods organisation based in Gauteng. A sample size of 20 employees was used.Main findings: The results suggest that a relationship exists between performance management and employee engagement and that an increase in employee engagement would result in improved performance of employees and subsequently the organisation. The study revealed that whilst engagement and communication occur across all levels within the organisation, there is still a significant gap. The messages and expectations are not simple enough to be understood. Employees are not empowered to have a voice which causes them to be demotivated. Supportive management, which is fundamental to the success of performance management, is lacking.Practical/managerial implications: The insight from this study may be used to change the way organisations engage with employees and manage performance to ensure it is a beneficial exercise that adds value to all stakeholders.Contribution/value-add: This study will contribute towards organisations understanding the relationship between performance management and employee engagement and how to leverage this towards improving operational efficiency and organisational effectiveness.
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The study of HRM and Performance of public service is an extremely relevant theme. Although studies on the HRM-performance link have been well documented, the results were inconclusive. Besides, previous studies have paid little attention to the public service from developing country's context. Drawing on the AMO Model and SET, the present study examined the effect of HRM System on Employee Engagement and Organizational Performance. Likewise, this study tested the intervening effect of Employee Engagement in the HRM-performance link. Using a sample of federal employees (n = 340) in government organizations, we tested the hypothesized three-factor model using SEM. The finding of the study shows that there is a positive and significant relationship between HRM, Employee Engagement and Organization Performance. Besides, employee engagement partially mediated the link between HRM and Performance. Concerning the effect of the individual HR practices, the present study revealed a positive and differing effect of HR practices on both engagement and performance although the magnitude effect is smaller than, the combined effect of the HR practices together. Moreover, Autonomy was identified as an important driver of both engagement and performance. This result contributes to the HRM-performance debate. As a final point, the present study incorporates conclusions, implication and future research direction.
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Organizations increasingly introduce wearable devices, hoping to improve organizational performance. Wearables provide new and unique opportunities for engaging employees with their work and their organizational environment. The performance-related feedback these devices provide is supposed to help both employees and managers navigate the work environment more effectively. Despite the compelling benefits of wearables, they may prove to be detrimental to organizational performance unless a number of ethical issues are addressed. This article provides an overview of the benefits that certain wearable technologies can provide employees and managers, as well as the challenges they may create for organizations.
This study investigated the relationships among professional identity, employee engagement, job satisfaction, and turnover intention of hotel employees in China based on the conservation of resources theory. The research was operationalized using empirical data collected from 1312 hotel employees in China. By leveraging the structural equation modeling technique, the findings confirmed that the professional identity of hotel employees is a second-order structure consisting of four dimensions: career practice, career affirmation, identification with commitment, and reconsideration of commitment. Further, the results showed that professional identity has a positive impact on employee engagement and satisfaction and a negative impact on turnover intention. Meanwhile, employee engagement and job satisfaction have negative effects on turnover intention. In addition, we further explained the mediating role of the two variables, namely, employee engagement and job satisfaction, between professional identity and turnover intention. This study contributes by investigating the research field of professional identity in the hospitality workplace and evaluating its impacts on various work performance metrics. Hospitality practitioners and scholars may find many useful insights based on the study findings.
The present research investigates the effects of “High Performance Work Systems (HPWS)” on employees’ “work engagement” and “service-oriented Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB)”, through the development of a social and justice climate. In doing so, “Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM)” was applied based on a convenient sample of 448 customer-contact hotel employees across ten Greek hotel organizations. In summary, the study reveals first the valuable contribution of HPWS towards the development of a justice and service climate, which in turn influence positively employees’ work engagement. As a consequence, employees respond by exhibiting extra role behaviors and by engaging in service-oriented OCB. Overall, the findings clarify the mechanism behind the HPWS process, known as the “black-box”, a valuable knowledge for professionals practicing Human Resource Management (HRM).
The purpose of this research is to observe employee satisfaction with respect to their position in various commercial banks, including private, public banks in Rajasthan, and to examine how various variable factors affect employee satisfaction. This study characterizes the factors that lead to higher level of job satisfaction. These factors relate to the manager, remuneration, reorganization, remuneration, promotion, work safety and relationships in the work environment. The research shows that there is a positive correlation and connection among job satisfaction & the award, remuneration, job security, promotion opportunities and good relations with employees. The survey results also show that the majority of bank employees in the banking sector are satisfied as far as work culture is concern but salaries and timings are still remain main concern for them.
This study focuses on the impact of organizational inducement on work engagement and its mediating and moderating mechanisms. Social exchange theory is used to construct the research framework and to explore the mediating role of job embeddedness on the impact of organizational inducement on work engagement in hospitality industry. A total of 440 valid questionnaires were collected from the top 12 provinces or municipalities in China according to list of China's provincial GDPs in 2017. The research results show that the organizational inducement can increase the work engagement of employees, which is consistent with social exchange theory. In this process, job embeddedness plays a mediating role and the mediating role of job embeddedness can be moderated positively by the employees' exchange ideology; perceived job alternatives only negatively moderates the relationship between job embeddedness and work engagement. This study contributes to the hospitality literature by developing a moderated mediation model of organizational inducement and work engagement.
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between three antecedents, namely, work self-determination, managerial support (i.e. interpersonal motivation style) and person–organization fit (P-O) (i.e. shared values among employees and the overall organization) on employee work satisfaction in a French Canadian health care context. Assessing the relationships between such intrapersonal, interpersonal and macro-level variables will help to better comprehend work satisfaction in health care and shed light on applicable transformations for management. Design/methodology/approach The study tested a judicious model grounded in self-determination theory in order to capture and construe the three levels of influence. Participants were recruited from four health centers in the Suroît (Quèbec, Canada) region. Management was provided with the questionnaire and asked to distribute to all employees including nurses and allied health. A serial multiple mediation analysis was used to test the proposed model. Findings The findings revealed that nearly 60 percent of the participants from each of the professional groups reported feeling moderately to not at all satisfied with their job (follow-up ANOVA revealed that nurses were the least satisfied). Through closer examination, the findings revealed that 46 percent of the variance in reported job satisfaction was explained by the three focal antecedents from the hypothesized model (work self-determination, managerial support and P-O fit). Therefore the model, in its entirety, represents a comprehensive perspective for influencing employee work satisfaction in particularly demanding health care work contexts. Originality/value The study is the first to indicate the prevailing factors necessary to pursue and support employee satisfaction within a health care context among French Canadians.
Purpose: The purpose of this study was twofold: (a) to assess predictors of the turnover intention, burnout, and perceived quality of care among nurses working in Oman, and (b) to examine the potential moderating role of job satisfaction on the relationship between work environment and nurse turnover intention. Design: A cross-sectional design was used to collect data from a sample of 207 nurses working in a public hospital in Muscat, Oman. Methods: An electronic survey was used to assess nurses' perceptions of work environment, burnout, job satisfaction, turnover intention, and quality of care. Findings: Participation in hospital affairs, a foundation for quality of care, and staffing adequacy were predictors of burnout among nurses and perceived quality of care. Logistic regression analysis revealed that working in a favorable environment was associated with less turnover intention, but only when job satisfaction was high. Conclusions: Improving nurse job satisfaction is a mechanism through which future interventions could enhance working conditions and promote better nurse retention. Clinical relevance: Organizational strategies are needed to increase nurse job satisfaction by empowering nurses to take more active roles in hospital affairs as a strategy to reduce turnover intention and enhance the quality of patient care.