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The objective of the present work is to assess the wave power in the North Sea in the vicinity of the most relevant wind farms that are operating there. At this moment, the coastal environment of the North Sea is among the most significant areas in the world from the point of view of harvesting marine renewable energy. Furthermore, this area is also very relevant for offshore activities related to oil and gas extraction. From this perspective, its coastal environment would be a perfect candidate for the implementation of the wave projects, which would benefit from existing infrastructure. The ERA5 dataset has been considered for the evaluation of the wave power for the 30-year period (1989-2018). 10 reference points have been defined in the coastal environment of the sea covering the most relevant locations and for them, the mean wave power has been first assessed. After this, the seasonal and monthly variability of the wave power have been also evaluated together with some statistical parameters. The results show that the northern part of the sea has relatively significant wave energy resources and it can be a viable candidate for implementation of the future wave projects. However, the linear trends indicate a slight tendency of decrease of the wave power, but on the other hand, the coefficient of resource variation has small values. Finally, a comparison with the satellite data provided by the European Space Agency is also carried out for the 27-year period 1992-2018. While in general there is a very good concordance between the two datasets, for the reference points located in the northeastern part of the sea, which are the most resourceful locations, the satellite data indicate higher values.
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.
... The sea site selection and planning of wave-wind combined energy generation is an important link in the preliminary work of co-located offshore wind and wave farm (COWWF) construction project, which is the key to determine the good economic benefits of electric field construction. Evaluation of the complementarity of the wind and wave energy potential have been carried out in various studies around the world (Astariz and Iglesias, 2017;Azzellino et al., 2013;Kalogeri et al., 2017;Murphy et al., 2011;Rusu and Rusu, 2021a;Rusu et al., 2017;Rusu and Rusu, 2021b;Wan et al., 2018). ...
... The hindcast datasets were widely used directly (Martinez and Iglesias, 2020;Rusu and Rusu, 2021a;Rusu and Rusu, 2021b), or to form the input data for wave simulation models such as Swan, WAVEWATCH-III, and WAM in wave-wind energy resource assessments and co-location evaluation. (Zheng et al., 2013;Kalogeri et al., 2017;Kamranzad and Lin, 2020;Kamranzad and Takara, 2020;Gideon and Bou-Zeid, 2021). ...
... Gideon and Bou-Zeid, (2021) used NOAA and Hywind data as the input data to analyze the variability of wave-wind power farms in different sites. The ERA-5 database was chosen by Martinez and Iglesias, (2020), Rusu and Rusu, (2021a), and Rusu and Rusu, (2021b). Wan et al. (2018) selected the ERA-Interim reanalysis data, and some scholars used the satellite data (Rusu and Rusu, 2021a;Wan et al., 2016). ...
With the commercialization of offshore wind and the continued advancement of wave energy technologies, the option of locating both in the same sea area has emerged. The joint development of offshore wind and wave energy can effectively address the challenges faced by offshore wind and wave energy development, reduce costs, and improve the stability of power generation and output. This article introduces the current status of sea area utilization and marine functional zoning in Zhejiang Province and proposes a site selection method to identify the most suitable sea area for the construction of co-located offshore wind and wave farms in Zhejiang. First, a geographic information systems database was developed to identify unsuitable areas for co-located offshore wind and wave farms. Then, a literature review was conducted to establish a system of resource, economic, and technical selection indicators, and the Delphi method was used to determine the weight of each indicator. Finally, the sea areas suitable for the construction of co-located offshore wind and wave farms were evaluated and ranked, and the order of power plant development was given. The results of the study illustrate the potential of developing co-located offshore wind and wave farms in Zhejiang, especially in the northern part of Zhoushan and the southern part of Taizhou.
... Ocean wave energy has the advantages of green, clean, sustainable utilization, and great development potential. It is implemented as a strategic resource in the world [1,2]. With technological progress of the energy collection equipment, the economic competitiveness of wave energy will continue to increase, which has great development value and application prospects [3,4]. ...
... The ERA5 model reanalysis data is employed in this study. The data is produced by the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, distributed by the Copernicus Climate Data Store, and have been applied for multiple studies regarding wave energy assessment (e.g., ). The calculation periods of the model data for the sites are the same as those of the observation periods. ...
The northern coastal region of the South China Sea (SCS) is the key area for wave energy research and application. Planning for wave energy resources and equipment development depends on the accurate assessment of energy distribution and variation characteristics. Based on in situ observation data for 19 months, this paper systematically assesses the wave energy resources of three typical coastal sites in the northern SCS. The results show that wave energy resources have significant temporal and spatial variabilities. The eastern part of the SCS’s northern shore has the most energy, followed by the western part and the center part. The mean energy densities during the observation period are 2.1, 0.75, and 0.33 kW/m, respectively. The energy density is relatively high in summer, followed by winter and autumn, and relatively low in spring. For example, the mean energy densities on the northeast coast of the SCS in the four seasons are 3.1, 1.8, 1.7, and 1.2 kW/m, respectively. Based on statistics for three in situ sites, the considerable energy is mostly contributed by the sea state with a wave height between 0.5 m and 1.5 m and a period between 5 s and 9 s. This study emphasizes the importance of in situ observations for wave energy measurement in nearshore locations, and the results may provide support for the planning and utilization of wave energy in the northern SCS.
... Wave energy (WE) is a kind of green power, which is inexhaustible in supply and always available for use. The conversion and utilization of WE have been paid great attention in recent years, which could be supplied to the ocean islands and engineering [1,2]. However, marine energy equipment would be damaged in marine disasters by the excessive dynamics and energy accompanied by wind and waves . ...
Based on a two-month simultaneous in-situ wave dataset of two observational sites in the coastal regions of the northern South China Sea, the variabilities and richness of the wave energy (WE) during typhoon Lupit (2021) are studied and the discrepancies in WE responses between the two sites are also discussed. The results show that the WE of the sites mainly consists of the ocean condition whose significant wave height ranges from 0.5 to 1.5 m and energy period ranges from 5 to 8 s. It is suggested that the richness of WE could be significantly enhanced by the passage of the typhoon. For example, the energy density is enhanced by 2–4 times, i.e. from 1.2–4.2 kW/m to 5.9–9.5 kW/m, and the available level frequency maintains as high as 100%. Moreover, the increase in WE caused by typhoons occurs several days before the passage of the typhoon and can maintain for nearly a week after its passage. Further analysis reveals that the variable intensity of the WE responses to typhoons is mainly decided by the wind speed of the typhoon and the distance between the typhoon centers to the location of the sites. Our study highlights the possibility and importance of WE to meet the basic power consumption of equipment in coastal regions, under extreme weather conditions when wind energy and solar energy are both difficult to be utilized.
... Furthermore, the Baltic Sea is among the coastal environments where the offshore wind farms have been systematically implemented in the last decades, with 18 operational wind farms  . However, the most significant European marine area, and probably one of the most significant in the world, from the point of view of harnessing the marine energy resources is the North Sea, where around 40 wind projects are nowadays operating  . Furthermore, huge projects are planned for this marine area, where an artificially constructed island is planned to be built by Denmark 80 kilometres from the shore of the Jutland peninsula. ...
Journal of Marine Science represented even from the beginning an open framework dedicated to the presentation of the most significant discoveries and insights in marine science research. Taking into account the high concern of the scientific community related to the climate dynamics, on one hand, and the expected development and very
ambitious targets related to the marine renewable energy sector, on the other hand, climate change effects in marine and coastal environment, as well as the assessment of the main challenges and advances associated to the extraction of marine renewable energy are considered topics of extremely high interest for our journal. In this way, we
hope that Journal of Marine Science will play an active role in following the green road towards a low carbon future.
The objective of this work is to evaluate the wave energy potential in the European seas (Mediterranean Sea, Black Sea and Baltic Sea) using ERA5 dataset. This is the latest ocean wave climate reanalysis data produced by ECMWF (European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts). The analysis covers a 30-year time period (1989-2018). In each basin, reference points located in the coastal environment were se-lected for the wave energy assessment. The chosen points correspond to the ERA5 grids. In this way no fur-ther data processing was necessary. The characteristics of the main wave parameters over the target areas are provided with 0.5º spatial resolution and 3 hours temporal resolution. The wave power in each reference point was computed based on the significant wave height and wave energy period, values available from ERA5 dataset. The temporal variability of the wave energy over the 30-year is also investigated. The mean wave energy potential and its annual, seasonal and monthly variations are computed and analysed.
The objective of the present study is to show a comprehensive assessment of the wind resource dynamics along the Spanish coastal environment of the Iberian Peninsula. After studying the historical resources (reported at 100 m height) for the 20-year period from 1999 to 2018 by analyzing the ERA5 time series of wind speed data, the 10 locations with highest historical wind resources are considered. For these, the study of the future dynamics for the 30-year period from 2021 to 2050 under the climate change scenario RCP 4.5 is carried out. After further selection, mean and maximum values, as well as the seasonal and monthly variability of the wind power density, are obtained for six locations along the Spanish coasts. Furthermore, a performance and economic dynamics assessment is presented for four different wind turbine technologies with rated capacities ranging between 3 and 9.5 MW. A further comparison with other locations in the Baltic Sea and the Black Sea is presented to provide a critical image of the Spanish wind resources dynamics in the European framework. The results indicate a noticeable gain of wind resources in various locations of the Atlantic and Mediterranean coasts, with others presenting slight losses.
The aim of the present work is to provide an overview of the possible implications involving
the influence of a generic marine energy farm on the nearshore processes. Several case studies
covering various European coastal areas are considered for illustration purposes. These include
di�erent nearshore areas, such as the Portuguese coast, Sardinia Island or a coastal sector close to the
Danube Delta in the Black Sea. For the case studies related to the Portuguese coast, it is noted that a
marine energy farm may reduce the velocity of the longshore currents, with a complete attenuation of
the current velocity for some case studies in the coastal area from Leixoes region being observed. For
the area located close to the Danube Delta, it is estimated that in the proposed configuration, a marine
energy farm would provide an e�cient protection against the wave action, but it will have a relatively
negligible impact on the longshore currents. Summarizing the results, we can conclude that a marine
energy farm seems to be beneficial for coastal protection, even in the case of the enclosed areas, such
as the Mediterranean or Black seas, where the erosion generated by the wave action represents a
Coastal areas are defined by numerous opportunities and threats. Among them we can mention emerging renewable projects and on the other hand coastal erosion. In the present work, the impact of a generic wind-wave farm on the nearshore waves and currents in the vicinity of the Porto Ferro inlet (northwest Sardinia) was assessed. Using a reanalysis wave dataset that covers a 40-year interval (1979-2018), the most relevant wave characteristics in the target area were identified. These can reach during winter a maximum value of 7.35 m for the significant wave height. As a next step, considering a modeling system that combines a wave model (simulating waves nearshore (SWAN)) and a surf model, the coastal impact of some generic marine energy farms defined by a transmission coefficient of 25% was assessed. According to the results corresponding to the reference sites and lines defined close to the shore, it becomes obvious that there is a clear attenuation in terms of significant wave heights, and as regards current velocities, although the general tendency for them to decrease, there are, however, some situations when the values of the nearshore current velocities can also decrease. Finally, we can mention that the presence of a marine energy farm seems to be beneficial for the beach stability in this particular coastal environment, and in some cases the transformation of the breaking waves from plunging to spilling is noticed.
The main objective of this article is to provide a comprehensive picture of existing wave technologies being used for wave energy extraction. The overview will explain their potential and also the challenges wave technologies face. The article will also briefly discuss the benefits of combined offshore wind-wave projects, also known as hybrids. Key factors and impacts on relevant existing wave technologies will be outlined, including capacity factor and capture width. Finally the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) targets for the most promising technologies will be discussed.
Abstract: In the present work, the wind and wave conditions in the European nearshore are assessed considering a total of 118 years of data, covering the time interval from 1900 to 2017. In this context, special attention has been given to the western European coasts that are facing the ocean. In order to do this, the reanalysis data coming from three state-of-the-art databases (ERA Interim, ERA20C, and NCEP) were processed. Furthermore, a more complete picture was provided by also including the satellite measurements coming from the AVISO (Archiving, Validation and Interpretation of Satellite Oceanographic Data) project in the analysis. From this perspective, the distribution of the twomarineenergyresourceswasdiscussed,whichthroughoutenergeticmaps—andfurther,onsome speciﬁcreferencesites—weredeﬁnedatadistanceof50kmfromtheshoreformoredetailedanalysis and comparison. As expected, the places located in the vicinity of the United Kingdom present more important energy resources, but some other interesting sites were also highlighted. Furthermore, although each dataset is deﬁned by particular features, there is a similar pattern in the identiﬁcation of the sites’ attractiveness, regardless of the database considered for assessment.
The objective of this work is to assess the synergy of the marine resources in the vicinity of several European offshore sites, in order to analyze the viability of the combined wind-wave renewable projects. The reference sites considered for evaluation are located in the vicinity of the European coasts, being already taken into account for various marine projects. As a first step, based on the dataset provided by the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts for the 10-year interval 2005–2014, it was possible to analyze the joint seasonal distribution of the offshore resources. In the second part of the paper, based on the technical characteristics of various offshore wind turbines and wave energy converters, it was possible to identify the
performances of some systems for wind and wave energy conversion. Finally, it can be also highlighted that the results presented in the present work can be considered interesting and useful, since they provide some insights regarding the potential of some operational European sites to support colocated wind-wave projects.
The higher requests concerning the large scale implementation of the renewable energy imposed by the EU directives implies a substantial enhancement of the renewable energy extraction all over Europe. Wind turbines entered in the last decades gradually in the common landscape and the success of the wind power industry renewed the interest in discovering what might work in the sea. On the other hand, it becomes quite obvious nowadays that wave power will play an important role in the global energy portfolio. Combined offshore wind-wave projects, also known as hybrids, hold great potential down the line when wave technologies will become more established. At that point, wave production might compensate for the intermittent offshore wind, while economies of scale developed from offshore wind could accelerate cost reduction for wave components. Despite a certain degree of uncertainty related to the variability in the wave-wind climate, improvements in the accuracy of evaluating the environmental data in coastal areas would also enhance the accuracy of the predictions that future energy converters yield. Another important problem that arises together with the implementation of the energy farms in the coastal environment is related to the correct assessment of their impact on the littoral dynamics. From this perspective, the proposed work presents the main challenges related to the wave energy extraction in the nearshore. This includes also the identification of the best European locations from the point of view of the synergy between the wind and the wave power.
Abstract: The main objective of the present work was to assess and compare the wave power resources in various offshore and nearshore areas. From this perspective, three different groups of coastal environments were considered: the western Iberian nearshore, islands and an enclosed environment with sea waves, respectively. Some of the most representative existent wave converters were evaluated in the analysis and a second objective was to compare their performances at the considered locations, and in this way to determine which is better suited for potential commercial exploitation. In order to estimate the electric power production expected in a certain location, the bivariate distributions of the occurrences corresponding to the sea states, defined by the significant wave height and the energy period, were constructed in each coastal area. The wave data were provided by hindcast studies performed with numerical wave models or based on measurements. The transformation efficiency of the wave energy into electricity is evaluated via the load factor and also through the capture width, defined as the ratio between the electric power estimated to be produced by each specific wave energy converters (WEC) and the expected wave power corresponding to the location considered. Finally, by evaluating these two different indicators, comparisons of the performances of three WEC types (Aqua Buoy, Pelamis and Wave Dragon) in the three different groups of coastal environments considered have been also carried out. The work provides valuable information related to the effectiveness of various technologies for the wave energy extraction that would operate in different coastal environments.
Keywords: wave power; wave energy converters (WEC); electricity; efficiency; nearshore; wave models
The potential for wave energy extraction can from the analysis of the wave climate which can be determined with numerical models. The wave energy devices can be deployed in offshore, nearshore and shoreline. From this reason, it is important to be able to assess properly the spatial distribution of the wave energy in various locations from the offshore to the coastline in a specific area. The methodology proposed here considers a SWAN based wave model system focusing in the Portuguese continental coastal environment from deep water towards the nearshore. An analysis of the average and high energetic conditions was first performed for a ten-year period, between 1994 and 2003, considering the most relevant in situ measurements available in the Portuguese nearshore. In this way both the average and high energetic conditions corresponding to the Portuguese continental costal environment have been properly defined. For the most relevant average wave conditions, SWAN simulations were performed in some medium resolution areas covering the northern and central parts of Portugal continental, which are traditionally considered richer in wave power resources. The present work allows the identification of some locations in the continental coastal environment of Portugal with greater potential from the point of view of wave power resources. An important observation is related to the fact that the wave power depends on the product between the energy density spectrum and the group velocity of waves. This means that, although the significant wave height is a relevant parameter when assessing the wave power in a specific site, a location having in general higher wave heights is not necessarily also the richest in wave power.
The objective of the present work is to analyse the expected dynamics of the wind energy in the Baltic Sea. From the 18 offshore wind farms currently operating there, 10 locations with higher installed capacity have been selected as reference. The wind data delivered by a Regional Climate Model (RCM) are processed and analysed considering the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) scenarios 4.5 and 8.5. The novelty of the proposed study consists in the fact that this is focused on the assessment of the expected average and extreme wind power, considering the 30-year time window 2021–2050. Furthermore, in order to make a comparison, an analysis of the historical wind data coming from the same RCM corresponding to the past 30-year period 1976–2005 is also carried out. The results indicate a slight enhancement of the wind power, which is higher for RCP4.5. Some locations where the wind power enhancement is expected to be more significant have been also identified. Finally, it can be noticed that while for the historical data the trend indicates a constant tendency, as regards the near future period (2021–2050) the trends show a tendency of enhancement of the wind power, which is higher for RCP 8.5.
Starting from the observation that an important next stage in exploiting the ocean energy is to install large arrays of several identical devices in order to raise their overall electricity production, the present work has as objective to assess the local and coastal impact of a large wave farm that would operate in the Portuguese coastal environment. The target area is the Portuguese maritime pilot zone, São Pedro de Moel, which is located in the central part of the Portuguese continental nearshore. A generic wave farm was considered and various transmission situations were analyzed. The study started with the situation without wave farm (zero absorption) and subsequently different scenarios were considered by increasing gradually the conditions to the hypothetic case of the total absorption. For each case study, model simulations were performed covering the entire year 2009 using a wave prediction system based on Wave Watch 3, for the wave generation at the level of the entire North Atlantic Ocean, and on SWAN, for the coastal wave transformation. In this way, a comprehensive picture of the possible impact of the wave farm is provided. The results show that the presence of a wave farm operating offshore has a strong influence on the wave conditions immediately down wave. Although this influence is usually attenuated at the level of the coastline, it appears as obvious a general decrease in terms of significant wave height due to the wave farm, but also some other wave parameters are modified.
Soares Guedes, Carlos. Assessment of the changes induced by a wave energy farm in the nearshore wave conditions
Eugen Bento A Rute
Bento A Rute, Eugen Rusu, Paulo Martinho, Soares Guedes, Carlos. Assessment of the changes induced by a wave energy farm in
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Global reanalysis: goodbye ERA-Interim, hello ERA5
Munoz Sabater Joaquin
Hersbach Hans, Bill Bell, Paul Berrisford, Andras Horányi, Munoz Sabater Joaquin, Julien Nicolas, et al. Global reanalysis: goodbye
ERA-Interim, hello ERA5. ECMWF Newsl 2019;159:17-24.
ESA sea state climate change initiative: global remote sensing merged multimission monthly gridded significant wave height, L4 product, version 1.1. Centre for Environmental Data Analysis
Piollé Jean-François, Guillaume Dodet, Yves Quilfen. ESA sea state climate change initiative: global remote sensing merged multimission monthly gridded significant wave height, L4 product, version 1.1. Centre for Environmental Data Analysis; 2020, 2020.
Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.5285/47140d618dcc40309e1edbca7e773478.
Global reanalysis: goodbye ERA-Interim, hello ERA5