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Asst. Prof. Dr. Hüseyin ERDAL
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Bu eserin; yayın, satış ve kopyalama hakları EFE AKADEMİ’ye aittir.
Istanbul Technical University, Food Engineering Department
ORCID: 0000-0003-2163-2608
Istanbul Aydin University, Nutrition and Dietetics Department
ORCID: 0000-0001-6497-1912
1. Introduction
Cowmilk has been mainly consumed in worldwide and acts as a
wholesome food which contains all of the macro and micronutrients such as
fat, carbohydrates, proteins, calcium and vitamins (A, B2 and B12) (Haas et
al., 2019; Vanga & Raghavan, 2018). Nowadays, consumers are increasingly
   milk alternatives due to concerns regarding cow milk
protein allergy, lactose sensitivity, calorie and frequency of
hypercholesterolemia. Additionally, increasing popularity for vegan and
vegetarian diets is driving the development of plant-based milk alternatives
(Sethi et al., 2016). In past years, due to the changes in lifestyle and increase
in autoimmune diseases problems, fibromyalgia, arthritis and gastrointestinal
problems like irritable bowel syndrome and also other health problems among
people mostly aged between 30-50 years old, plant-based milks have been
advised by nutritionist and specialists. According to consumers behavior,
many chains of coffeehouses have been offering plant-based milks as an
In last years, plant-based milk alternatives have grown in popularity
and they can provide a cost-effective option for low-income countries where
scarce. Plant-based milks are free from cholesterol and lactose,
they are beneficial to people who suffer from lactose intolerance and
cardiovascular dysfunctions (Sethi et al., 2016). The dairy industry is one of
the major sources of greenhouse gases in agriculture from an environmental
perspective. Besides that, production of milk has a substantially higher water
consumptions and eco-friendly footstep than fruits and vegetables. Overall,
these observations show that the consumption of plant-based milks and their
products are much more sustainable than the consumption of cow milk
(Haas et al., 2019).
Plant-based milks are produced from water-soluble extracts of
oilseeds, cereals, nuts, legumes and pseudo-cereals. The main idea during
processing is to reach a structure like cow milk, a homogenic and stable
colloidal dispersions or emulsions with particles in the range of 1 nm to about
1 mm (Dickinson, 1992). Furthermore, the extraction processes are basically
the same. The raw material is soaked in water (hot or cold) for several hours
before being processed. The extract is then washed to eliminate any remaining
insoluble residues by filtration. Flavors, sugar and stabilizers can be added to
plant-based milk to make it equivalent with dairy products to be used in
similar applications. At the end of the manufacturing, homogenization and
pasteurization are carried out to increase the stability and shelf-life (Rincon et
al., 2020; Scholz-Ahrens et al., 2020).
Among the plant-based milks, soy milk has been received a lot of
(Sethi et al.,
2016). But recently, due to the growing popularity of plant-based milk
alternatives, many numbers of commercial products are started to produce
including almond, coconut, hazelnut, flaxseed, pistachio, oat and rice milks.
This chapter provides a summary about plant-based milks, including
nutritional structure, health benefits and anti-nutritional compounds, to assist
consumers in making an informed decision.
2. Plant-Based Milk Alternatives
The nutritional value of plant-based milk is determined by the quality
and type of raw material, as well as the production method used (Rincon et
al., 2020). Plant sources have also been recognized as functional foods and
nutraceuticals in recent years, owing to their components such as dietary
fibers, unsaturated fatty acids, minerals, vitamins and antioxidants (Tangyu et
al., 2019). However, due to the lack of calcium and proteins, they do not have
the adequate nutritional value compared to cow milk. Therefore, it is
necessary to fortify plant-based milks with vitamins, amino acids and minerals
(Tangyu et al., 2019). Additionally, seeds contain some unpleasant off-flavors
like beany flavor and anti-nutritional compounds like polyphenols, phytate,
oxalate and trypsin inhibitors. Polyphenols and trypsin inhibitors negatively
affect the digestibility of proteins by binding enzymes. It is possible to degrade
or inactivate of trypsin inhibitors by heat application; however, heat treatment
can decrease the nutritional value especially amino acids   
2016). Other anti-nutritional compounds, phytate and oxalate affect adversely
the bioavailability of vitamins and minerals. Heat treatment can degrade the
oxalate, but not effective on phytate. To decrease the phytate amount in plant-
based milk, fermentation or phytase enzyme can be used effectively 
et al. 2016).
According to the raw materials, it is possible to divide the plant-based
milk alternatives into five main groups: cereals (rice, oat, millet), legumes
(soy, peanut, cowpea, chickpea, lupin, mung bean), nuts (almond, hazelnut,
coconut, pistachio, walnut), seeds (sesame, flaxseed, hemp, sunflower) and
pseudo-cereals (quinoa, teff, amaranth). 
commercial plant-based milk alternatives are given in Table 1.
Table 1. Nutritional comparison commercial plant-
based milk alternatives
*Source: Nutritional information available on product labels, NG: Not given.
2.1. Cereal Based Milk Alternatives
2.1.1. Oat Milk
Oat (Avena sativa L.) is a cereal that is mostly consumed as whole grain
and has a strong nutritious value due to vitamins, minerals, dietary fibers and
antioxidants including tocopherols, ferulic, caffeic acids and avenasterol
making it promising raw materials for production of healthy plant-based milk
alternatives (Sethi et al., 2016). Oat has great interest, since they contain
soluble dietary fibers, the main -glucan which associated with
Milk type
(per 100 mL)
Whole c
Almond milk
Cashew milk
Coconut milk
Hemp milk
Living harvest
Hazelnut milk
Oat milk
Pistachio milk
Quinoa milk
Rice milk
Sesame milk (with
agave syrup)
Soybean milk
Teff milk
Walnut milk
its positive health effects. Several studies have shown that -glucan can
increase the viscosity of a solution and can decrease gastric emptying time,
increases gastrointestinal transit time which are linked with lower glucose
level in blood. Oat fibers have a hypocholesterolemic effect, which means that
they can reduce cholesterol level. Oats contain well-balanced amino acid
composition which make them a decent source of high-quality protein (Sethi
et al., 2016). Additionally, oat is a good source of lipids, especially long-chain
fatty acids, with significantly higher levels than other cereals. However, oat
milk is low in calcium, an important mineral for human growth, therefore,
calcium concentration must be increased by fortification before being
consumed as a milk alternative (Demir et al., 2021). Even though its
health benefit, oat has some anti-nutritive compounds like phytic acid which
prevent the absorbtion of some minerals as zinc and iron (Aydar et al., 2020).
Oat also contains a lot of lipase enzyme, which causes rancidity, but it can be
easily deactivated by heat treatment (Silva et al., 2020).
2.1.2. Rice Milk
Rice (Oryza sativa) is one of the most consumed cereal which provides
nutrients for most of people in all over the world. Rice milk is the most
hypoallergenic plant-based milk alternative. Therefore, people who have
allergy to cow milk protein and lactose intolerance can be recommended to
consume rice milk. Based to high amount of selenium and magnesium in rice
milk boosts the immune system and helps body to provide resistance to
pathogenic microorganisms (Abou-Dobara et al., 2016).
Rice milk contains high amount of carbohydrates, but it contains low
amount of protein, lipid, vitamin and mineral. The main mineral found in rice
is iron which is mostly found in bran fraction. However, the rice bran is
removed before using them for production of rice milk. Another limiting
mineral is calcium. Therefore, rice milk should fortify with iron and calcium
(Paul et al., 2019; Sethi et al., 2016). Rice milk can be produced from both
white and brown rice. Brown rice can be used as a beverage which has 2-3
times higher amount of mineral and vitamin and lower glycemic index
compared to white rice. Brown rice milk has a low starch content and high
complex carbohydrate content, which can help to reduce the risk of diabetes
type 2 (Latifah & Warganegara, 2018). Rice milk is known one of the lowest
proteins especially low in phenylalanine contents among the plant-based milks
and this property makes it a suitable for phenylketonuria (PKU) individuals.
To increase the protein content of rice milk for PKU individuals, it can be
fortified with caseinomacropeptide obtain from sweet whey (Karimidastjerd
& Kilic-Akyilmaz, 2021).
2.1.3. Millet Milk
Millet is a small, seeded grain that is produced in tropical and slightly
dry regions. Millet is an ideal replacement for dairy as low-cost raw material
and also contains high protein, dietary fibers and low calories. It is high in
micronutrients, especially minerals and B group vitamins, as well as phenolic
compounds primarily ferulic acid and catechins which provide specific health
benefits (Nithiyanantham et al., 2019). The main minerals found in millet are
iron and magnesium. Finger millet boasts the highest calcium content (13%)
compared to all cereal grains. And also, it shows low glycemic index which
makes it suitable for diabetic patients. However, some anti-nutritional factors
such as tannin, phytic acid and trypsin inhibitors were discovered in water-
soluble extract of millet. Fermentation can be used to increase the mineral
extractability and digestibility by reducing anti-nutrients such as phytates,
tannins and trypsin inhibitors (Tangyu et al., 2019).
2.2. Legume-Based Milk Alternatives
2.2.1. Soy Milk
Soybean seeds (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) are good sources in
macronutrients, vitamins and minerals. They contain essential
monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids including linoleic and
linolenic acids, but no cholesterol (Silva et al., 2020). Soy products are rich in
bioactive compounds mainly isoflavones which give beneficial health effects
with increasing the protection against cancer, cardiovascular disease,
osteoporosis, neurodegenerative disorders and dermatologic diseases (Aydar
et al., 2020).
Soy milk contains no lactose, cholesterol and it has lots of nutritious
compounds, high digestibility and low-cost (Sethi et al., 2016). However,
people who suffer from cow's milk allergy can also show reactions against
soy, since it contains different proteins that can cause allergic reactions (Silva
et al., 2020). Soy milk has a negative health effect by lowering vitamin and
mineral bioavailability due to some anti-nutrients like phytate, oxalate and
saponins which are forming insoluble compounds as a result of reaction with
mineral cations (Aydar et al., 2020).
2.2.2. Peanut Milk
Peanuts (Arachis hypogea L.) are highly consumed in India and also
they consume by vegetarians and children who is allergic to cow milk
proteins. Peanuts can be classified as functional nut because they have many
bioactive compounds that have been linked to disease prevention. Peanuts
contain proteins, fats (mainly linoleic and oleic acids), dietary fibers, vitamins,
minerals, antioxidants and phytosterols which have potential to reduce the
levels of blood lipid and blood sugar and ensures longer life. The functional
properties of peanuts are due to the existence of phenolic compounds which
are recognized as antioxidative and protective compounds against various
diseases such as cardiovascular disease, stroke and various cancers (Sethi et
al., 2016). However, peanut milk has some undesired beany flavor due to high
hexanal content. Fermentation can be used as an alternative method to reduce
the off-flavor , 2016).
2.2.3. Lupin Seed Milk
Lupin seed is a protein-rich legume belonging to genus Lupinus. It is
one of the oldest agricultural crops, used for both protein source in domestic
animals and also for soil improvement. The health effects of lupin seed
proteins are due to preventive effects in high blood pressure and cholesterol
and insulin resistance (Elsamani et al., 2014). In addition to their high protein
content, lupin seeds contain high amount of fiber, low fat and starch (Hickisch
et al., 2016). Lupin seeds are known as a source of mineral, vitamin and
polyphenols (tannins and flavonoids). They are also free from trypsin
inhibitors in contrast to soybeans. These beneficial properties make lupin
seeds as promising candidates for     
(Mohamed et al., 2019).
2.2.4. Mung Bean Milk
Mung bean or green gram (Vigna radiata L.) is grown in many Asian
countries, southern Europe, Canada and United States. Mung bean has known
as a source of food and feed due to its high nutritional components (Yi-Shen
et al., 2018). Mung bean contains about 18-32% protein, 25% dietary fiber, 2-
5% fat and 3.5% mineral. Studies are shown that the consumption of legumes
can decrease the incidence of chronic diseases like cardiovascular disease,
cancer, diabetes, osteoporosis and hypertension (Wu et al., 2015). However,
mung bean has some anti-nutritional factors like tannins, phytic acid,
hemagglutinins, polyphenols, trypsin and proteinase inhibitors and these
factors can affect the digestion, bioavailability and bioconversion of nutrients
(Dahiya et al., 2015).
2.2.5. Cowpea Milk
Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) is a legume which contains
high amount of bioactive peptides and phenolic substances. Cowpea also
contains oligosaccharides (prebiotic) which can stimulate probiotic growth.
On the other hand, these oligosaccharides may cause flatulence in some
individuals. Studies are shown that cowpea has ability to reduce chronic
diseases like gastrointestinal problems, heart diseases, diabetes and various
cancers (Aduol et al., 2020). Cowpea milk has strong beany flavor, when
cowpea blending with peanut, the beany flavor is decreased. The blend of
          due to their
nutritious value in terms of protein, fibers, minerals and vitamins mainly folate
(Aidoo et al., 2012).
2.2.6. Chickpea Milk
Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is a good source of carbohydrates,
protein and vitamins like riboflavin, thiamine, niacin, folate and vitamin A
and minerals such as phosphorus, magnesium, iron, potassium, copper,
manganese, zinc and calcium (Kishor et al., 2017). The protein content of
chickpea changes in the range of 20.9 and 25.27% with high bioavailability
compared to other legumes. However, some amino acids like methionine and
cysteine generally lack in chickpea (Rincon et al., 2020; Silva et al., 2020). It
also contains both soluble and insoluble fiber, which contributes in the
reduction of total cholesterol and LDL. Chickpea are high in unsaturated fatty
acids, mostly linoleic and oleic acids. Chickpea milk is useful in the treatment
of chronic diarrhea and aid in nutritional recovery (Silva et al., 2020).
However, chickpea milk has beany flavor like other legume-based milk
alternatives. The reasons of unpleasant flavor can be explained by the presence
of unsaturated fatty acids and lipoxygenase enzyme. Lipoxygenase enzyme is
responsible for the production of aldehydes and alcohols like n-hexanal and
n-hexanol which are responsible for beany or off-flavor (Sethi et al., 2016).
Heat treatment can be used for inactivation of this enzyme or deodorization
can be applied for removing of off-flavor. It is also possible to mask the
unpleasant flavor by using of artificial or natural flavorings (Silva et al., 2020).
2.3. Nut-Based Milk Alternatives
2.3.1. Almond Milk
Almonds (Prunus dulcis) has high amount of proteins, lipids, soluble
sugars, minerals, fibers and antioxidants (Maria & Victoria, 2018; Silva et al.,
2020). Health benefits of almond milk are to control of blood lipid, to decrease
the risks of heart diseases, to prevent anemia, to show laxative effect, and
antioxidant effect by protection against free radicals. Besides from all these
properties, almonds can be named as prebiotic due to arabinose content which
helps reducing serum cholesterol level. However, almonds have allergy
potential to individuals (Sethi et al., 2016; Silva et al., 2020).
 milk contains low amount of vitamin E, while almond milk is
high in vitamin E (6.33%) in the form of -tocopherol and manganese. As a
powerful antioxidant, vitamin E can be play a protection role against free-
radical reactions (Chalupa-Krebzdak et al., 2018).
2.3.2. Coconut Milk
Coconut (Cocus nucifera L.) is a nutritious product and rich in dietary
fibers, vitamins such as, vitamin C and E, and minerals. The consumption of
coconut milk has health benefits due to its anti-microbial, anti-bacterial, anti-
viral and anti-carcinogenic effects. Coconut milk has cooling properties and it
helps in digestion and maintain elasticity of skin (Sethi et al., 2016). Coconut
milk also contains medium chain fatty acids mainly lauric acid which is found
in human milk and has been linked to brain improvement, immune system
improving, positive impact on cholesterol, insulin sensitivity, body mass,
waist circumference, energy consumption, general adiposity and blood vessels
elasticity. A recent study has reported that the consumption of coconut milk
for two-months shows significant reduction in low-density lipoprotein (LDL)
and increase in high-density lipoprotein (HDL), implying that the health
benefits of the fatty acids found in coconut oil (Chalupa-Krebzdak et al.,
2018). On the other hand, coconut milk is prone to enzymatic rancidity caused
by microbial lipases, resulting in off-flavor and phase separation. It is possible
to use sodium benzoate, sodium nitrite and sulphur dioxide as food
preservatives for inactivation of microorganisms (Ruengdech & Siripatrawan,
2.3.3. Hazelnut Milk
Hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) is commonly consumed as a whole nut
and also can be used in snacks and confectionary products due to it is highly
desirable taste, aroma and crunchy texture (Tsai et al., 2018). Hazelnut is
beneficial to human health and nutrition due to its high content of
carbohydrates with low glycemic index, dietary fiber, proteins, lipids,
vitamins, minerals, phytosterols and phenolic compounds (Gul et al., 2017).
Hazelnut contains unsaturated fatty acid primarily oleic and linoleic acids with
high content in vitamin E which have been shown to be effective at lowering
cholesterol and the risk of cardiovascular diseases (Aydar et al., 2020; Bernat
et al., 2014). Furthermore, hazelnut contains some taste-active compounds
such as amino acids, organic acids which makes hazelnut more acceptable and
consumable. However, tryptophan is a limiting amino acid in hazelnut; it can
be absent or present in low concentrations, while the non-essential amino acids
account for nearly 70% of the free amino acid content (Silva et al., 2020).
2.3.4. Pistachio Milk
Pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) is one of the most popular and nutritious
nuts in the world and it contains high amount of dietary fiber, vitamin B6,
thiamine, lutein, vitamin E, vitamin K, magnesium, calcium, phosphorus,
copper, omega-3 fatty acids and phytosterols (Wang et al., 2019). Pistachio
has been shown to reduce risk of coronary heart disease, diabetes and
gallstones and decrease the levels of blood lipid and LDL cholesterol
(Shakererdekani et al., 2011).
2.3.5. Walnut Milk
Walnuts (Juglans regia L.) are the most cultivated nut in all over the
world with high economic interest due to their nutritional, health and sensory
attributes (Cui et al., 2013). Walnuts have high content of protein, magnesium,
copper, folic acid, potassium, dietary fiber and vitamin E (Bolarinwa et al.,
2018). They also contain well-balanced mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids
ratio and antioxidant compounds, which make the products healthy for people
with heart diseases and high cholesterol. Walnut milk has higher fat content
and lower protein content when compared to cow milk (Popovici et al.,
2.4. Seed-Based Milk Alternatives
2.4.1. Sesame Milk
Sesame (Sesamum indicume L.) seeds are one of the most significant
crop rich in oil mainly palmitic, stearic, oleic and linoleic acids. Sesame seeds
contain high amount of protein, minerals, fats and antioxidants. The protein
content of sesame seeds is rich in sulfur-containing amino acids; however,
lysine is the limiting amino acid. Sesame seed minerals are mainly found in
the husk. However, the husk is removed during the production which results
in decrease of the mineral content. The sesame seed has still good amounts of
calcium, iron, phosphorus, copper, magnesium, manganese and zinc.
Vitamins are also found in the husk, but still, sesame seeds contain high
amount of B complex vitamins (Silva et al., 2020). Sesame seeds have showed
good healthy compounds such as antioxidants and also nutritional properties
like anticarcinogenic and antivirus effects, enhancing detoxification of the
liver and cholesterol-reducing effect due to the amount of lignans which are
sesamin, sesamolin and sesaminol (Aydar et al., 2020; Sethi et al., 2016).
Besides these properties, sesame seeds contain some anti-nutritive compounds
like phytate, oxalate and saponins which reduce the bioavailability of vitamins
and minerals (Silva et al., 2020).
2.4.2. Flaxseed Milk
Flaxseeds (Linum usitatissimum) contain high amount of nutrients and
show health benefits due to the content of omega-3 fatty acids mainly -
linolenic acid, dietary fibers, vitamins and phenolic compounds (Oomah,
2001). Flaxseeds are cholesterol-free and naturally lactose-free, which make
them ideal for individuals who suffering from lactose-intolerance. Phenolic
compounds found in flaxseeds have antioxidative and hepatoprotective effects
and presence of phytoestrogen and lignans have shown tumor-inhibiting
properties in human and rats. Furthermore, the efficiency of isoflavones and
peptides in flaxseed milk can be increased by fermentation (Kumaresan et al.,
2.4.3. Hemp Milk
Hemp (Cannabis sativa ssp. sativa) seed has a high concentration of
vitamin E, minerals, antioxidants and dietary fiber. The 65% of hemp seed
proteins made up of high quality edestin protein (highly digestible), and 35%
made up of albumin and essential amino acids (Vahanvaty, 2009). Hemp milk
contains omega-3 fatty acids mainly -linoleic acid with a concentration of
0.4 g per 100 mL, which provide 25% of recommended daily intake (Chalupa-
Krebzdak et al., 2018). Hemp milk is thicker and creamier than soy milk, and
it is less grainy (Vahanvaty, 2009). Hemp milk is an oil-in-water emulsion
which tends to make flocculation, coalescence and creaming. It is possible to
use high pressure homogenization to prevent the phase separation in oil-in-
water food emulsions (Wang et al., 2018).
2.5. Pseudo-Cereal-Based Milk Alternatives
2.5.1. Quinoa Milk
Quinoa has been consumed as a holy plant by people in South America
due to its high nutritional importance (Makinen et al., 2015). Quinoa contains
higher amount of protein compared to some cereals such as wheat, rice, oat,
corn, millet and rye. Moreover, quinoa is rich in methionine, cysteine and
lysine which are limiting essential amino acids in some cereals (Sezgin &
Sanlier, 2019). Quinoa has a similar fatty acid profile to soybean oil. Mostly
unsaturated fatty acids (85%) are found in quinoa as linoleic and oleic acid
(Silva et al. 2020). The omega-6/omega-3 ratio in quinoa is about 1/6th.
Quinoa contains high amount of minerals than other cereals in terms of
calcium, copper, iron, magnesium, manganese and potassium. Additionally,
quinoa is a good source of vitamin E, vitamin C and B complex vitamins (Silva
et al., 2020). According to literature, polysaccharides found in quinoa have
been shown antioxidant and immunoregulatory activities (Nevruz-Varli &
Sanlier, 2016). Although quinoa seed is very nutritive and has low glycemic
index but milk from this grain should investigate and improve in terms of its
sensory acceptance (Pineli et al., 2015).
2.5.2. Teff Milk
Teff (Eragrostis abyssinica Schrad.) is a staple food originated from
Ethiopia and Eritrea. Teff has gaining popularity due to its attractive nutritious
properties. It is a good source of minerals, particularly iron and also contains
high amount of phosphorus, copper, aluminum, barium and thiamine
(Awulachew, 2020). Moreover, it is a good source of bioactive compounds
like phenolics. Due to its unique chemical composition, teff has shown a wide
range of health benefits including antioxidative activities, increase
hemoglobin level, prevent malaria, diabetes and reduce the risk of anemia
(Zhu, 2018).
2.5.3. Amaranth Milk
Amaranth (Amaranthus cruentus L.) is originally from the Andean
region in South America. Nutrient composition of amaranth is very similar to
quinoa and both of these seeds are known as highly nutritive and gluten-free
(gluten<20 mg/kg) grains. Amaranth is also rich in vitamins like B complex
vitamins, vitamin C and E and phytochemicals such as phenolic compounds,
terpenoids, tocopherols and betanins (Tang & Tsao, 2017). Amaranth contains
high quality fatty acids especially the polyunsaturated fatty acids which
lowering the cholesterol level, increase the insulin resistance and decrease the
systemic inflammation (El Gendy et al., 2018).
2.6. Other plant-based milks
Other plant-based milks, such as bambara nut, baobab, potato, corn,
melon seed, sunflower and different types of wheat milks are prepared and
consumed locally at different regions where plants are growing or they are
     especially in undeveloped countries
(Ukwuru & Ogbodo, 2011; Sethi et al., 2016). However, the composition of
these milk is not well documented in the literature, yet.
3. Conclusion
As a conclusion, the chapter outlines the nutritional components
among different plant-based milk alternatives. It is quite clear that plant-based
milk alternatives have beneficial health effects as antioxidant activity on
immune system and reducing the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Additionally,
the production of plant-based milk alternatives has a positive effect on
environment by reducing the water footprint and creating a possibility for
reducing climate change and ecotoxicity. Besides all these advantages, plant-
based milk alternatives have insufficient protein content, lower bioavailability
of calcium and various vitamins. It is possible to produce nutritionally
based milks or by combining two or more plant-based milks together.
Furthermore, plant-based milk alternatives will also remain a key research
field in the newer product development in order to meet market acceptability
through technical interventions.
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... Rice is rich in carbohydrates and thus during processing it is broken down to sugars and impart sweet flavor. However, consumption of rice milk instead of cow milk results in malnutrition as it is low in protein, lipids, vitamins and minerals (Karimdastjerd and Konsukan, 2021: 294-310; Vanga and Raghavan, 2018: [10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20]. Amongst all milk substitutes rice milk contains the lowest amount of protein and soy milk contains the highest amount of protein (Aydar, 2020). ...
Plant based milk alternatives are emerging functional beverages. Dietary transition to veganism, rising prevalence of endocrinal disorders, lactose intolerance, cow milk allergies and intolerances, acne is an avenue for increasing need for milk alternatives. This review considered research papers from the past 11 years (2011 - 2022) from PubMed database, using keywords - plant based milk alternatives, plant based milk substitutes, plant based milk analogues, nutritional composition of plant based milk versus cow milk. Five commonly consumed plant milks were selected and discussed further. Coconut milk had highest and almond milk had lowest total energy. Total carbohydrate was highest in rice milk and lowest in almond milk, but oat milk had the highest sugar and coconut milk had no sugar. Soy milk and coconut milk had better protein content. Coconut milk had higher fat - lauric acid and MCTs. Vitamins A, D and E were found to be a good source in oat, soy and almond milk. All 5 plant milks were a good source of calcium. Plant milks were beneficial for lactose intolerance, reducing cholesterol, diabetes, CVD, cancer, and had immune boosting properties. Hence, it’s a healthier functional beverage when cow milk needs to be replaced in the diet. Key words: plant based milk alternative, nutrition, health benefits
... Saponins are compounds that produce antimicrobial and antibacterial activity, which can help to lower blood cholesterol. The content of saponins in chayote and mung beans has not been researched in any detail, both qualitatively or quantitatively [7], [8]. It should be noted that tannins may interfere with the absorption of nutrients needed by the body. ...
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BACKGROUND: Saponins and tannins are active compounds of secondary metabolites which are known to have several health benefits, including antibacterial and antioxidant. Chayote and green beans are natural ingredients that contain saponins and tannins. Starch from these two ingredients is used as a basic ingredient for making biscuits. AIM: The purpose of this study was to determine the levels of saponins and tannins in biscuits made from chayote and green beans. METHODS: Saponins and tannins in the samples were extracted and analyzed using the Gravimetric method. The tannin content of flour and biscuits based on chayote and green beans was analyzed spectrophotometrically. RESULTS: The results of the saponin analysis of biscuits made from chayote, flour, and chayote were 5.693%, 2.813%, and 2.574%. Meanwhile, the tannin levels were 1.143%, 4.308%, and 1.922%, respectively. The saponin levels in biscuits made from mung bean, flour, and mung bean obtained were 6.742%, 4.593%, and 4.315%, respectively, while the tannin levels were 4.464%, 3.250%, and 3.893%, respectively. From the sample of chayote and green bean flour biscuit formulation (1:1), the saponin content was 1.558%, while the tannin content was 3.436%. CONCLUSION: In mung bean flour and mung bean biscuits, the saponin content was higher than that of chayote flour and chayote biscuits. The increase in tannin content in the formulation (1:1) was derived from mung bean flour, because the tannin content in mung bean was higher than that of chayote.
Conference Paper
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The aim of this research was the development and characterisation of vegetable beverage (most known as vegetable milk) derived from walnuts, which were selected owing to their compositional and nutritional values. Potentially walnuts were used to obtain vegetable milk, not only able to exert health benefits, but also as an alternative to dairy based products. Processing steps and conditions to ensure chemical composition, quality properties, microstructure and rheological behavior of walnut milk were analysed. These studies showed high potential and positive view on walnut milk production, in agreement with the current demand of healthy products. These results offer new interesting expectations to continue with this research line and demand the application of advanced technologies to provide better quality of the product, being the main challenge to be faced in future studies.
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Fermentation of cowpea milk was carried out using three mixed starter cultures containing (i) Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium spp, and Streptococcus thermophilus (ABT) (ii) Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus (DT) or (iii) Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 and Streptococcus thermophilus (GT). Proximate composition of raw and fermented cowpea milk was determined using the AOAC methods. Lactic acid bacteria survival and sensory attributes of the fermented cowpea milk was also determined. Crude fat decreased significantly (P<0.05) after fermentation except for GT culture which led to 33.2% increase. Crude fiber was not detected in all the samples. Fermentation with GT also led to increase in protein content, although this was not significant. A decrease was observed for carbohydrate content, after fermentation, with DT culture leading to the highest decrease of 7.1%. There was a general increase in microbial growth during the first two weeks of storage (refrigeration at 4˚C). Thereafter the number reduced to Log10 4.11 cfu/ml on the 28th day of storage. No significant differences were observed for sensory attributes of taste, texture and overall acceptability. However, aroma and appearance had significant differences among the samples (P<0.05). The study demonstrated that nutritional quality of cowpea milk can be achieved through fermentation. Also, cowpea milk fermented with lactic acid bacteria produce a yoghurt-like product that can be sweetened to taste and be acceptable to consumers. The study therefore recommends that more work should be done to improve the sensory acceptability of the products and that their potential health benefits should be determined through in vivo studies.
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The consumption of plant-based milk substitutes has spread rapidly around the world due to its numerous positive health effects on the human body. Individuals with cow’s milk allergy, lactose intolerance, and hypocholesterolemia prefer these beverages. In spite of the added sugar and lack of total protein content, phenolic compounds, unsaturated fatty acids, antioxidant activity, and bioactive compounds such as phytosterols and isoflavones make plant-based milk substitutes an excellent choice. In addition to the health effects, this review includes conventional and novel processes for 12 different plant-based milk substitutes including almond, cashew, coconut, hazelnut, peanut, sesame, soy, tiger nut, oat, rice, hemp, and walnut. The unique element of this review is our holistic approach in which 12 different plant-based milk substitutes production techniques are presented, including patents, the health effects of bioactive compounds, the bioavailability of vitamins and minerals, the market share, consumer acceptance, and the environmental impact.
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Consumers are increasingly interested in decreasing their dietary intake of animal-based food products, due to health, sustainability, and ethical concerns. For this reason, the food industry is creating new products from plant-based ingredients that simulate many of the physicochemical and sensory attributes associated with animal-derived foods, including milk, eggs, and meat. An understanding of how the ingredient type, amount, and organization influence the desirable physicochemical, sensory, and nutritional attributes of these plant-based foods is required to achieve this goal. A potential problem with plant-based diets is that they lack key micronutrients, such as vitamin B12, vitamin D, calcium, and ω-3 fatty acids. The aim of this review is to present the science behind the creation of next-generation nutritionally fortified plant-based milk substitutes. These milk-like products may be formed by mechanically breaking down certain plant materials (including nuts, seeds, and legumes) to produce a dispersion of oil bodies and other colloidal matter in water, or by forming oil-in-water emulsions by homogenizing plant-based oils and emulsifiers with water. A brief overview of the formulation and fabrication of plant-based milks is given. The relationship between the optical properties, rheology, and stability of plant-based milks and their composition and structure is then covered. Approaches to fortify these products with micronutrients that may be missing from a plant-based diet are also highlighted. In conclusion, this article highlights how the knowledge of structural design principles can be used to facilitate the creation of higher quality and more sustainable plant-based food products.
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Nutraceutical and functional food market are one of the fastest-growing food segments in the newer food product development category. In the recent past, focus of beverage industry has shifted towards making food more nutritious and functionally enriched. To load the food with nutraceutical functionality, herbal sources having target functional compounds are either directly used as food or for separation of target compounds. Among beverages, milk is considered as a wholesome complete food providing macro (fat, proteins, and carbohydrates) and micronutrients (calcium, selenium, riboflavin, vitamin B12, and pantothenic acid vitamin B5) in balanced proportions. However, limited access to milk in some regions of globe, low availability of certain minerals (iron), vitamins (folate), and other biomolecules (amino acids) compounded with issues like milk allergy, lactose intolerance, and hypercholesterolemia have forced some specific population groups to search for better milk alternatives which are more or at least equi-nutritional to conventional milk. Plant-based wholesome or blended milk analogs are better studied as inexpensive alternates to conventional milk for people who are in search of better alternates for one or other reason. The market of milk analogs is currently dominated by soya bean milk, oat milk, coconut milk, hemp milk, cocoa milk, multigrain milk etc. most of which are produced by controlled fermentation which owes to their functional bioactive composition. Such analogs are appreciated for their functionally active components which are often correlated to their health-promoting and disease-preventing properties. One major advantage of analogs over conventional milk is that the energy input per unit of milk produced is much less compared to animal milk while there is always an opportunity to manipulate their composition based on demand. However, the major limiting factor in the acceptance of such non-conventional beverages is their challenging production technology and poor sensory profile which is true particularly for beverages derived from legumes. These challenges provide an opportunity for both industries and research personals to put in major concerted efforts in the field of functional bioactive food segment to produce tailor-made novel beverages which are nutritional, economic and have improved functionality. Keeping in view the potential of plant-based milk alternates and associated challenges the aim of the present review is to give a scientifically comparative and conclusive overview of the present status, market potential, and health concerns of plant-based nondairy milk beverages.
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Cow milk is under increased scrutiny due to its environmental impact and ethical considerations concerning animal welfare. At the same time, a rising share of consumers is switching to plant-based milk substitutes (abbreviated “plant milk”). The objective of this study was (1) to analyze the product image of plant milk and cow milk and (2) to compare the motivational structure behind the consumption of both product categories. For this purpose, a quantitative survey with Austrian consumers was carried out to analyze the product image of plant milk in comparison to cow milk (n = 1001). The product image analysis revealed that the product image of cow milk is still much better than that of plant milk. Amongst others, cow milk is considered to be healthier, more natural, and better for bones. Product image valuation was dependent on the (non-)consumption of plant milk. Plant milk consumers evaluated plant milk significantly better; they considered plant milk to be much better digestible and allergy-free. The qualitative study using means-end-chain analysis, with two sub-samples of interviewees (plant milk consumers, n = 30, and cow milk consumers, n = 30), identified different motives for the consumption of cow milk and plant milk. Motives that were only reported from cow milk consumers are the origin of milk and the support of small-scale dairy production of farmers. Motives of plant milk consumers were much more diverse and included animal welfare and sustainability aspects.
A rice drink with low protein and fat contents was developed by response surface methodology. Effects of three factors, levels of white rice flour (3–8 % w/v) and xanthan gum (0.01−0.05% w/v) and process temperature (80−90 °C) on physical stability of the drink were evaluated. Viscosity, phase separation, sedimentation, color, particle size and zeta potential of the samples were measured as response variables. Models were developed from the data to predict response variables from the factors evaluated. Models for viscosity, particle size, color, zeta potential and phase separation of the drink were found significant while that of sedimentation was not significant. Significant models were then used in optimization to achieve selected response variables, minimum phase separation, particle size and viscosity and zeta potential in range of values measured in commercial samples of milk-like drinks. Optimum conditions were found to be 3% rice flour and 0.05% xanthan gum in formula and process temperature of 80 °C applied for 15 min. Sucrose addition at a level of (2.5% w/v) to the formula increased acceptability of the drink in sensory analysis but it had no significant effect on physical properties of the rice drink. The drink was fortified with a caseinomacropeptide (CMP) concentrate for development of a milk-like drink for consumers with phenylketonuria. Fortification with CMP concentrate resulted in partial neutralization of zeta potential, slight sedimentation and an increase in particle size of the drink. Color and zeta potential of the drink became closer to those of low fat milk by the addition of CMP concentrate.
The efficiency of ultrasonic nanoemulsion to improve physical stability and antioxidant activity of catechins when exposed to stress conditions imitating food process was investigated. The catechin nanoemulsions (CaNE) were fabricated using ultrasonication and subjected to different stress conditions including pH (2–8), ionic strengths (200–1000 mmol/L NaCl) and temperatures (pasteurization, sterilization, and high pressure processing; HPP). Physical stability (droplet size and polydispersity index; PDI) and antioxidant activity (DPPH and FRAP values) of the CaNE were investigated during storage at 4 °C for 28 days. The developed CaNE showed good physical stability at various pH (2–8) and ionic strengths (200–600 mmol/L NaCl), whereas DPPH and FRAP values of the CaNE significantly decreased at pH > 6 and NaCl > 600 mmol/L. Pasteurization and sterilization induced an increase in droplet size and a decrease in antioxidant activity, whereas HPP had no effect on the CaNE. The efficiency of nanoemulsion to stabilize catechins in a high pressure processed catechin-fortified coconut milk (HPP-CM-CaNE) was investigated in comparison to HPP-CM and HPP-CM containing catechin solution (HPP-CM-Ca) during storage at 4 °C. The decrease in pH and antioxidant activity of HPP-CM-CaNE was less than those of HPP-CM-Ca, indicating that the nanoemulsion could enhance catechin stability in HPP-CM.
Lately, the demand for cow's milk substitutes has been growing. These substitutes are called plant-based milk, which are water-soluble extracts based on vegetables, legumes, cereals, pseudocereals, or nuts. Legumes are an attractive option in the development of new products since they are rich in proteins. Chickpea is one of them also rich in fibers, and minerals while coconut milk is plant-based, rich in lipids, and with good acceptance by consumers. Despite the use of coconut milk in food industries, there are no studies in the literature regarding the development of plant-based milk based on chickpea. So, this study aimed to develop a plant-based milk based on chickpea and coconut as a substitute for cow's milk. Seven different concentration extracts were prepared, with varying dilutions of chickpea and coconut extracts. The chemical composition was analyzed, including calcium, potassium and sodium content; total soluble solids; pH; titratable acidity; color, physical stability, and acceptance. Protein content ranged from 2.1 g/100 g to 1.04 g/100 g, and calcium content ranged from 107.41 to 131.26 mg/100 g among the seven samples. The samples containing 100, 90, 80, and 70% of chickpea extract reached higher protein values than other plant-based milk and calcium content similar to cow's milk, as well as soy milk, almond extract, and rice extract. Plant-based milk consumers well-accepted chickpea extracts with 10 and 30% of coconut. When the vanilla extract was added to both evaluated beverages in the secondary sensory analysis, acceptance improved. Novel plant-based milk based on chickpea and coconut was developed in this study. The drink has a good nutritional composition (such as protein, carbohydrate, lipid, and calcium content) when compared to cow's milk and other common substitutes for cow's milk, such as oat, almond, and rice extracts. Thus, it may be a potential substitute for cow's milk.