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HEALTH BENEFITS OF PLANT-BASED MILKS AS ALTERNATIVES TO CONVENTIONAL MILK

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HEALTH BENEFITS OF PLANT-BASED
MILKS AS ALTERNATIVES TO
CONVENTIONAL MILK
Atefeh KARIMIDASTJERD
Istanbul Technical University, Food Engineering Department
ORCID: 0000-0003-2163-2608
dastjerd@itu.edu.tr
Zehra GULSUNOGLU KONUSKAN
Istanbul Aydin University, Nutrition and Dietetics Department
ORCID: 0000-0001-6497-1912
zehragulsunoglu@aydin.edu.tr
293
1. Introduction
Cowmilk has been mainly consumed in worldwide and acts as a
wholesome food which contains all of the macro and micronutrients such as
fat, carbohydrates, proteins, calcium and vitamins (A, B2 and B12) (Haas et
al., 2019; Vanga & Raghavan, 2018). Nowadays, consumers are increasingly
   milk alternatives due to concerns regarding cow milk
protein allergy, lactose sensitivity, calorie and frequency of
hypercholesterolemia. Additionally, increasing popularity for vegan and
vegetarian diets is driving the development of plant-based milk alternatives
(Sethi et al., 2016). In past years, due to the changes in lifestyle and increase
in autoimmune diseases problems, fibromyalgia, arthritis and gastrointestinal
problems like irritable bowel syndrome and also other health problems among
people mostly aged between 30-50 years old, plant-based milks have been
advised by nutritionist and specialists. According to consumers behavior,
many chains of coffeehouses have been offering plant-based milks as an

In last years, plant-based milk alternatives have grown in popularity
and they can provide a cost-effective option for low-income countries where
scarce. Plant-based milks are free from cholesterol and lactose,
they are beneficial to people who suffer from lactose intolerance and
cardiovascular dysfunctions (Sethi et al., 2016). The dairy industry is one of
the major sources of greenhouse gases in agriculture from an environmental
perspective. Besides that, production of milk has a substantially higher water
consumptions and eco-friendly footstep than fruits and vegetables. Overall,
these observations show that the consumption of plant-based milks and their
products are much more sustainable than the consumption of cow milk
(Haas et al., 2019).
Plant-based milks are produced from water-soluble extracts of
oilseeds, cereals, nuts, legumes and pseudo-cereals. The main idea during
processing is to reach a structure like cow milk, a homogenic and stable
colloidal dispersions or emulsions with particles in the range of 1 nm to about
1 mm (Dickinson, 1992). Furthermore, the extraction processes are basically
the same. The raw material is soaked in water (hot or cold) for several hours
before being processed. The extract is then washed to eliminate any remaining
insoluble residues by filtration. Flavors, sugar and stabilizers can be added to
plant-based milk to make it equivalent with dairy products to be used in
294
similar applications. At the end of the manufacturing, homogenization and
pasteurization are carried out to increase the stability and shelf-life (Rincon et
al., 2020; Scholz-Ahrens et al., 2020).
Among the plant-based milks, soy milk has been received a lot of
(Sethi et al.,
2016). But recently, due to the growing popularity of plant-based milk
alternatives, many numbers of commercial products are started to produce
including almond, coconut, hazelnut, flaxseed, pistachio, oat and rice milks.
This chapter provides a summary about plant-based milks, including
nutritional structure, health benefits and anti-nutritional compounds, to assist
consumers in making an informed decision.
2. Plant-Based Milk Alternatives
The nutritional value of plant-based milk is determined by the quality
and type of raw material, as well as the production method used (Rincon et
al., 2020). Plant sources have also been recognized as functional foods and
nutraceuticals in recent years, owing to their components such as dietary
fibers, unsaturated fatty acids, minerals, vitamins and antioxidants (Tangyu et
al., 2019). However, due to the lack of calcium and proteins, they do not have
the adequate nutritional value compared to cow milk. Therefore, it is
necessary to fortify plant-based milks with vitamins, amino acids and minerals
(Tangyu et al., 2019). Additionally, seeds contain some unpleasant off-flavors
like beany flavor and anti-nutritional compounds like polyphenols, phytate,
oxalate and trypsin inhibitors. Polyphenols and trypsin inhibitors negatively
affect the digestibility of proteins by binding enzymes. It is possible to degrade
or inactivate of trypsin inhibitors by heat application; however, heat treatment
can decrease the nutritional value especially amino acids   
2016). Other anti-nutritional compounds, phytate and oxalate affect adversely
the bioavailability of vitamins and minerals. Heat treatment can degrade the
oxalate, but not effective on phytate. To decrease the phytate amount in plant-
based milk, fermentation or phytase enzyme can be used effectively 
et al. 2016).
According to the raw materials, it is possible to divide the plant-based
milk alternatives into five main groups: cereals (rice, oat, millet), legumes
(soy, peanut, cowpea, chickpea, lupin, mung bean), nuts (almond, hazelnut,
coconut, pistachio, walnut), seeds (sesame, flaxseed, hemp, sunflower) and
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pseudo-cereals (quinoa, teff, amaranth). 
commercial plant-based milk alternatives are given in Table 1.
Table 1. Nutritional comparison commercial plant-
based milk alternatives
*Source: Nutritional information available on product labels, NG: Not given.
2.1. Cereal Based Milk Alternatives
2.1.1. Oat Milk
Oat (Avena sativa L.) is a cereal that is mostly consumed as whole grain
and has a strong nutritious value due to vitamins, minerals, dietary fibers and
antioxidants including tocopherols, ferulic, caffeic acids and avenasterol
making it promising raw materials for production of healthy plant-based milk
alternatives (Sethi et al., 2016). Oat has great interest, since they contain
soluble dietary fibers, the main -glucan which associated with
Milk type
(per 100 mL)
Fat
(g)
Protein
(g)
Carbohydrate
(g)
Calcium
(mg)
Reference
Product*
Whole c
3.5
3.0
4.5
120

Almond milk
1.9
0.7
2.0
120
Fomilk
Cashew milk
1.1
0.5
2.6
120
Alpro
Coconut milk
0.9
0.1
2.7
120
Alpro
Hemp milk
3.3
0.8
0.4
NG
Living harvest
Hazelnut milk
2.1
0.5
2.2
120
Fomilk
Oat milk
1.5
0.3
7.2
120
Alpro
Pistachio milk
2.5
0.6
2.9
120
Fomilk
Quinoa milk
1.2
0.5
3.5
NG
Ecomil
Rice milk
1.0
0.1
9.5
120
Alpro
Sesame milk (with
agave syrup)
2.4
0.6
6.7
NG
Ecomil
Soybean milk
1.8
3.0
2.5
120
Alpro
Teff milk
1.0
<0.5
6.3
NG
Amandin
Walnut milk
4.6
1.3
0.4
10
Elmhurst
296
its positive health effects. Several studies have shown that -glucan can
increase the viscosity of a solution and can decrease gastric emptying time,
increases gastrointestinal transit time which are linked with lower glucose
level in blood. Oat fibers have a hypocholesterolemic effect, which means that
they can reduce cholesterol level. Oats contain well-balanced amino acid
composition which make them a decent source of high-quality protein (Sethi
et al., 2016). Additionally, oat is a good source of lipids, especially long-chain
fatty acids, with significantly higher levels than other cereals. However, oat
milk is low in calcium, an important mineral for human growth, therefore,
calcium concentration must be increased by fortification before being
consumed as a milk alternative (Demir et al., 2021). Even though its
health benefit, oat has some anti-nutritive compounds like phytic acid which
prevent the absorbtion of some minerals as zinc and iron (Aydar et al., 2020).
Oat also contains a lot of lipase enzyme, which causes rancidity, but it can be
easily deactivated by heat treatment (Silva et al., 2020).
2.1.2. Rice Milk
Rice (Oryza sativa) is one of the most consumed cereal which provides
nutrients for most of people in all over the world. Rice milk is the most
hypoallergenic plant-based milk alternative. Therefore, people who have
allergy to cow milk protein and lactose intolerance can be recommended to
consume rice milk. Based to high amount of selenium and magnesium in rice
milk boosts the immune system and helps body to provide resistance to
pathogenic microorganisms (Abou-Dobara et al., 2016).
Rice milk contains high amount of carbohydrates, but it contains low
amount of protein, lipid, vitamin and mineral. The main mineral found in rice
is iron which is mostly found in bran fraction. However, the rice bran is
removed before using them for production of rice milk. Another limiting
mineral is calcium. Therefore, rice milk should fortify with iron and calcium
(Paul et al., 2019; Sethi et al., 2016). Rice milk can be produced from both
white and brown rice. Brown rice can be used as a beverage which has 2-3
times higher amount of mineral and vitamin and lower glycemic index
compared to white rice. Brown rice milk has a low starch content and high
complex carbohydrate content, which can help to reduce the risk of diabetes
type 2 (Latifah & Warganegara, 2018). Rice milk is known one of the lowest
proteins especially low in phenylalanine contents among the plant-based milks
and this property makes it a suitable for phenylketonuria (PKU) individuals.
297
To increase the protein content of rice milk for PKU individuals, it can be
fortified with caseinomacropeptide obtain from sweet whey (Karimidastjerd
& Kilic-Akyilmaz, 2021).
2.1.3. Millet Milk
Millet is a small, seeded grain that is produced in tropical and slightly
dry regions. Millet is an ideal replacement for dairy as low-cost raw material
and also contains high protein, dietary fibers and low calories. It is high in
micronutrients, especially minerals and B group vitamins, as well as phenolic
compounds primarily ferulic acid and catechins which provide specific health
benefits (Nithiyanantham et al., 2019). The main minerals found in millet are
iron and magnesium. Finger millet boasts the highest calcium content (13%)
compared to all cereal grains. And also, it shows low glycemic index which
makes it suitable for diabetic patients. However, some anti-nutritional factors
such as tannin, phytic acid and trypsin inhibitors were discovered in water-
soluble extract of millet. Fermentation can be used to increase the mineral
extractability and digestibility by reducing anti-nutrients such as phytates,
tannins and trypsin inhibitors (Tangyu et al., 2019).
2.2. Legume-Based Milk Alternatives
2.2.1. Soy Milk
Soybean seeds (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) are good sources in
macronutrients, vitamins and minerals. They contain essential
monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids including linoleic and
linolenic acids, but no cholesterol (Silva et al., 2020). Soy products are rich in
bioactive compounds mainly isoflavones which give beneficial health effects
with increasing the protection against cancer, cardiovascular disease,
osteoporosis, neurodegenerative disorders and dermatologic diseases (Aydar
et al., 2020).
Soy milk contains no lactose, cholesterol and it has lots of nutritious
compounds, high digestibility and low-cost (Sethi et al., 2016). However,
people who suffer from cow's milk allergy can also show reactions against
soy, since it contains different proteins that can cause allergic reactions (Silva
et al., 2020). Soy milk has a negative health effect by lowering vitamin and
mineral bioavailability due to some anti-nutrients like phytate, oxalate and
298
saponins which are forming insoluble compounds as a result of reaction with
mineral cations (Aydar et al., 2020).
2.2.2. Peanut Milk
Peanuts (Arachis hypogea L.) are highly consumed in India and also
they consume by vegetarians and children who is allergic to cow milk
proteins. Peanuts can be classified as functional nut because they have many
bioactive compounds that have been linked to disease prevention. Peanuts
contain proteins, fats (mainly linoleic and oleic acids), dietary fibers, vitamins,
minerals, antioxidants and phytosterols which have potential to reduce the
levels of blood lipid and blood sugar and ensures longer life. The functional
properties of peanuts are due to the existence of phenolic compounds which
are recognized as antioxidative and protective compounds against various
diseases such as cardiovascular disease, stroke and various cancers (Sethi et
al., 2016). However, peanut milk has some undesired beany flavor due to high
hexanal content. Fermentation can be used as an alternative method to reduce
the off-flavor , 2016).
2.2.3. Lupin Seed Milk
Lupin seed is a protein-rich legume belonging to genus Lupinus. It is
one of the oldest agricultural crops, used for both protein source in domestic
animals and also for soil improvement. The health effects of lupin seed
proteins are due to preventive effects in high blood pressure and cholesterol
and insulin resistance (Elsamani et al., 2014). In addition to their high protein
content, lupin seeds contain high amount of fiber, low fat and starch (Hickisch
et al., 2016). Lupin seeds are known as a source of mineral, vitamin and
polyphenols (tannins and flavonoids). They are also free from trypsin
inhibitors in contrast to soybeans. These beneficial properties make lupin
seeds as promising candidates for     
(Mohamed et al., 2019).
2.2.4. Mung Bean Milk
Mung bean or green gram (Vigna radiata L.) is grown in many Asian
countries, southern Europe, Canada and United States. Mung bean has known
as a source of food and feed due to its high nutritional components (Yi-Shen
et al., 2018). Mung bean contains about 18-32% protein, 25% dietary fiber, 2-
5% fat and 3.5% mineral. Studies are shown that the consumption of legumes
299
can decrease the incidence of chronic diseases like cardiovascular disease,
cancer, diabetes, osteoporosis and hypertension (Wu et al., 2015). However,
mung bean has some anti-nutritional factors like tannins, phytic acid,
hemagglutinins, polyphenols, trypsin and proteinase inhibitors and these
factors can affect the digestion, bioavailability and bioconversion of nutrients
(Dahiya et al., 2015).
2.2.5. Cowpea Milk
Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) is a legume which contains
high amount of bioactive peptides and phenolic substances. Cowpea also
contains oligosaccharides (prebiotic) which can stimulate probiotic growth.
On the other hand, these oligosaccharides may cause flatulence in some
individuals. Studies are shown that cowpea has ability to reduce chronic
diseases like gastrointestinal problems, heart diseases, diabetes and various
cancers (Aduol et al., 2020). Cowpea milk has strong beany flavor, when
cowpea blending with peanut, the beany flavor is decreased. The blend of
          due to their
nutritious value in terms of protein, fibers, minerals and vitamins mainly folate
(Aidoo et al., 2012).
2.2.6. Chickpea Milk
Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is a good source of carbohydrates,
protein and vitamins like riboflavin, thiamine, niacin, folate and vitamin A
and minerals such as phosphorus, magnesium, iron, potassium, copper,
manganese, zinc and calcium (Kishor et al., 2017). The protein content of
chickpea changes in the range of 20.9 and 25.27% with high bioavailability
compared to other legumes. However, some amino acids like methionine and
cysteine generally lack in chickpea (Rincon et al., 2020; Silva et al., 2020). It
also contains both soluble and insoluble fiber, which contributes in the
reduction of total cholesterol and LDL. Chickpea are high in unsaturated fatty
acids, mostly linoleic and oleic acids. Chickpea milk is useful in the treatment
of chronic diarrhea and aid in nutritional recovery (Silva et al., 2020).
However, chickpea milk has beany flavor like other legume-based milk
alternatives. The reasons of unpleasant flavor can be explained by the presence
of unsaturated fatty acids and lipoxygenase enzyme. Lipoxygenase enzyme is
responsible for the production of aldehydes and alcohols like n-hexanal and
n-hexanol which are responsible for beany or off-flavor (Sethi et al., 2016).
Heat treatment can be used for inactivation of this enzyme or deodorization
300
can be applied for removing of off-flavor. It is also possible to mask the
unpleasant flavor by using of artificial or natural flavorings (Silva et al., 2020).
2.3. Nut-Based Milk Alternatives
2.3.1. Almond Milk
Almonds (Prunus dulcis) has high amount of proteins, lipids, soluble
sugars, minerals, fibers and antioxidants (Maria & Victoria, 2018; Silva et al.,
2020). Health benefits of almond milk are to control of blood lipid, to decrease
the risks of heart diseases, to prevent anemia, to show laxative effect, and
antioxidant effect by protection against free radicals. Besides from all these
properties, almonds can be named as prebiotic due to arabinose content which
helps reducing serum cholesterol level. However, almonds have allergy
potential to individuals (Sethi et al., 2016; Silva et al., 2020).
 milk contains low amount of vitamin E, while almond milk is
high in vitamin E (6.33%) in the form of -tocopherol and manganese. As a
powerful antioxidant, vitamin E can be play a protection role against free-
radical reactions (Chalupa-Krebzdak et al., 2018).
2.3.2. Coconut Milk
Coconut (Cocus nucifera L.) is a nutritious product and rich in dietary
fibers, vitamins such as, vitamin C and E, and minerals. The consumption of
coconut milk has health benefits due to its anti-microbial, anti-bacterial, anti-
viral and anti-carcinogenic effects. Coconut milk has cooling properties and it
helps in digestion and maintain elasticity of skin (Sethi et al., 2016). Coconut
milk also contains medium chain fatty acids mainly lauric acid which is found
in human milk and has been linked to brain improvement, immune system
improving, positive impact on cholesterol, insulin sensitivity, body mass,
waist circumference, energy consumption, general adiposity and blood vessels
elasticity. A recent study has reported that the consumption of coconut milk
for two-months shows significant reduction in low-density lipoprotein (LDL)
and increase in high-density lipoprotein (HDL), implying that the health
benefits of the fatty acids found in coconut oil (Chalupa-Krebzdak et al.,
2018). On the other hand, coconut milk is prone to enzymatic rancidity caused
by microbial lipases, resulting in off-flavor and phase separation. It is possible
to use sodium benzoate, sodium nitrite and sulphur dioxide as food
301
preservatives for inactivation of microorganisms (Ruengdech & Siripatrawan,
2021).
2.3.3. Hazelnut Milk
Hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) is commonly consumed as a whole nut
and also can be used in snacks and confectionary products due to it is highly
desirable taste, aroma and crunchy texture (Tsai et al., 2018). Hazelnut is
beneficial to human health and nutrition due to its high content of
carbohydrates with low glycemic index, dietary fiber, proteins, lipids,
vitamins, minerals, phytosterols and phenolic compounds (Gul et al., 2017).
Hazelnut contains unsaturated fatty acid primarily oleic and linoleic acids with
high content in vitamin E which have been shown to be effective at lowering
cholesterol and the risk of cardiovascular diseases (Aydar et al., 2020; Bernat
et al., 2014). Furthermore, hazelnut contains some taste-active compounds
such as amino acids, organic acids which makes hazelnut more acceptable and
consumable. However, tryptophan is a limiting amino acid in hazelnut; it can
be absent or present in low concentrations, while the non-essential amino acids
account for nearly 70% of the free amino acid content (Silva et al., 2020).
2.3.4. Pistachio Milk
Pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) is one of the most popular and nutritious
nuts in the world and it contains high amount of dietary fiber, vitamin B6,
thiamine, lutein, vitamin E, vitamin K, magnesium, calcium, phosphorus,
copper, omega-3 fatty acids and phytosterols (Wang et al., 2019). Pistachio
has been shown to reduce risk of coronary heart disease, diabetes and
gallstones and decrease the levels of blood lipid and LDL cholesterol
(Shakererdekani et al., 2011).
2.3.5. Walnut Milk
Walnuts (Juglans regia L.) are the most cultivated nut in all over the
world with high economic interest due to their nutritional, health and sensory
attributes (Cui et al., 2013). Walnuts have high content of protein, magnesium,
copper, folic acid, potassium, dietary fiber and vitamin E (Bolarinwa et al.,
2018). They also contain well-balanced mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids
ratio and antioxidant compounds, which make the products healthy for people
with heart diseases and high cholesterol. Walnut milk has higher fat content
302
and lower protein content when compared to cow milk (Popovici et al.,
2016).
2.4. Seed-Based Milk Alternatives
2.4.1. Sesame Milk
Sesame (Sesamum indicume L.) seeds are one of the most significant
crop rich in oil mainly palmitic, stearic, oleic and linoleic acids. Sesame seeds
contain high amount of protein, minerals, fats and antioxidants. The protein
content of sesame seeds is rich in sulfur-containing amino acids; however,
lysine is the limiting amino acid. Sesame seed minerals are mainly found in
the husk. However, the husk is removed during the production which results
in decrease of the mineral content. The sesame seed has still good amounts of
calcium, iron, phosphorus, copper, magnesium, manganese and zinc.
Vitamins are also found in the husk, but still, sesame seeds contain high
amount of B complex vitamins (Silva et al., 2020). Sesame seeds have showed
good healthy compounds such as antioxidants and also nutritional properties
like anticarcinogenic and antivirus effects, enhancing detoxification of the
liver and cholesterol-reducing effect due to the amount of lignans which are
sesamin, sesamolin and sesaminol (Aydar et al., 2020; Sethi et al., 2016).
Besides these properties, sesame seeds contain some anti-nutritive compounds
like phytate, oxalate and saponins which reduce the bioavailability of vitamins
and minerals (Silva et al., 2020).
2.4.2. Flaxseed Milk
Flaxseeds (Linum usitatissimum) contain high amount of nutrients and
show health benefits due to the content of omega-3 fatty acids mainly -
linolenic acid, dietary fibers, vitamins and phenolic compounds (Oomah,
2001). Flaxseeds are cholesterol-free and naturally lactose-free, which make
them ideal for individuals who suffering from lactose-intolerance. Phenolic
compounds found in flaxseeds have antioxidative and hepatoprotective effects
and presence of phytoestrogen and lignans have shown tumor-inhibiting
properties in human and rats. Furthermore, the efficiency of isoflavones and
peptides in flaxseed milk can be increased by fermentation (Kumaresan et al.,
2018).
303
2.4.3. Hemp Milk
Hemp (Cannabis sativa ssp. sativa) seed has a high concentration of
vitamin E, minerals, antioxidants and dietary fiber. The 65% of hemp seed
proteins made up of high quality edestin protein (highly digestible), and 35%
made up of albumin and essential amino acids (Vahanvaty, 2009). Hemp milk
contains omega-3 fatty acids mainly -linoleic acid with a concentration of
0.4 g per 100 mL, which provide 25% of recommended daily intake (Chalupa-
Krebzdak et al., 2018). Hemp milk is thicker and creamier than soy milk, and
it is less grainy (Vahanvaty, 2009). Hemp milk is an oil-in-water emulsion
which tends to make flocculation, coalescence and creaming. It is possible to
use high pressure homogenization to prevent the phase separation in oil-in-
water food emulsions (Wang et al., 2018).
2.5. Pseudo-Cereal-Based Milk Alternatives
2.5.1. Quinoa Milk
Quinoa has been consumed as a holy plant by people in South America
due to its high nutritional importance (Makinen et al., 2015). Quinoa contains
higher amount of protein compared to some cereals such as wheat, rice, oat,
corn, millet and rye. Moreover, quinoa is rich in methionine, cysteine and
lysine which are limiting essential amino acids in some cereals (Sezgin &
Sanlier, 2019). Quinoa has a similar fatty acid profile to soybean oil. Mostly
unsaturated fatty acids (85%) are found in quinoa as linoleic and oleic acid
(Silva et al. 2020). The omega-6/omega-3 ratio in quinoa is about 1/6th.
Quinoa contains high amount of minerals than other cereals in terms of
calcium, copper, iron, magnesium, manganese and potassium. Additionally,
quinoa is a good source of vitamin E, vitamin C and B complex vitamins (Silva
et al., 2020). According to literature, polysaccharides found in quinoa have
been shown antioxidant and immunoregulatory activities (Nevruz-Varli &
Sanlier, 2016). Although quinoa seed is very nutritive and has low glycemic
index but milk from this grain should investigate and improve in terms of its
sensory acceptance (Pineli et al., 2015).
2.5.2. Teff Milk
Teff (Eragrostis abyssinica Schrad.) is a staple food originated from
Ethiopia and Eritrea. Teff has gaining popularity due to its attractive nutritious
304
properties. It is a good source of minerals, particularly iron and also contains
high amount of phosphorus, copper, aluminum, barium and thiamine
(Awulachew, 2020). Moreover, it is a good source of bioactive compounds
like phenolics. Due to its unique chemical composition, teff has shown a wide
range of health benefits including antioxidative activities, increase
hemoglobin level, prevent malaria, diabetes and reduce the risk of anemia
(Zhu, 2018).
2.5.3. Amaranth Milk
Amaranth (Amaranthus cruentus L.) is originally from the Andean
region in South America. Nutrient composition of amaranth is very similar to
quinoa and both of these seeds are known as highly nutritive and gluten-free
(gluten<20 mg/kg) grains. Amaranth is also rich in vitamins like B complex
vitamins, vitamin C and E and phytochemicals such as phenolic compounds,
terpenoids, tocopherols and betanins (Tang & Tsao, 2017). Amaranth contains
high quality fatty acids especially the polyunsaturated fatty acids which
lowering the cholesterol level, increase the insulin resistance and decrease the
systemic inflammation (El Gendy et al., 2018).
2.6. Other plant-based milks
Other plant-based milks, such as bambara nut, baobab, potato, corn,
melon seed, sunflower and different types of wheat milks are prepared and
consumed locally at different regions where plants are growing or they are
     especially in undeveloped countries
(Ukwuru & Ogbodo, 2011; Sethi et al., 2016). However, the composition of
these milk is not well documented in the literature, yet.
3. Conclusion
As a conclusion, the chapter outlines the nutritional components
among different plant-based milk alternatives. It is quite clear that plant-based
milk alternatives have beneficial health effects as antioxidant activity on
immune system and reducing the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Additionally,
the production of plant-based milk alternatives has a positive effect on
environment by reducing the water footprint and creating a possibility for
reducing climate change and ecotoxicity. Besides all these advantages, plant-
based milk alternatives have insufficient protein content, lower bioavailability
305
of calcium and various vitamins. It is possible to produce nutritionally
-
based milks or by combining two or more plant-based milks together.
Furthermore, plant-based milk alternatives will also remain a key research
field in the newer product development in order to meet market acceptability
through technical interventions.
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