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Abstract

Previous research with general journalist samples has shown that journalists, in comparison to the general population, are at increased risk for trauma exposure and related psychological distress. Studies have seldom investigated more specific subgroups within the occupation. This study investigated current levels of work-related and personal exposure to potentially traumatic events and trauma reaction symptoms (posttraumatic stress, depression, anxiety, and stress) in TV news camera operators (N = 117). It also investigated whether trauma exposure and neuroticism were related to increased levels of trauma reaction symptoms. An international sample of camera operators participated in an online survey. Regression analyses were conducted to investigate study topics. Camera operators reported high rates of work-related and personal trauma exposure. The sample experienced greater levels of PTSD symptoms than expected in the general population, while fewer differences were found regarding depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms. More personal trauma exposure and neuroticism significantly predicted distress symptoms of all four kinds, while work-related exposure did not. Study limitations include the limited sample size and issues related to using surveys for measuring exposure to potentially traumatic events. The findings confirm what we know about the relationship between repeated exposure to aversive events and psychological distress. It contributes to the field by expanding this knowledge to include TV news camera operators, a unique role group within the journalism industry. It is also among the first to verify the positive association between neuroticism and trauma reactions in a journalist sample.

Predictors of Trauma Reactions in TV News Camera Operators
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©American Psychological Association, 2021. This paper is not the copy of record and
may not exactly replicate the authoritative document published in the APA journal.
Please do not copy or cite without author's permission. The final article is available,
upon publication, at DOI: 10.1037/trm0000332
++(+'#"+# "/  + #<+ ( )
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Predictors of Trauma Reactions in TV News Camera Operators
Abstract
+*/++"6#"'+=/+#(""6#"#=/+#(+
##"'+((/#+#++!)+#+/8(/++#($"'
#+ #/ "*  *#'# + () /'+/( 6#"#" /(#
" #/$ *#'# /++# * ) 6+!:+#  (+ 8(/+ # (##$
#+/#*#  #+/+# $(# A(##+/##+(+ 8#$
 #+B  0 6+ (+#+ AN C 4B# *#'# 6"#"+ #+/
8(/+/+#6++##+*)#+/+#$(#
#+#  (  )  +  (+#+  (+#(#        /+*$  '+
$6+/##*#'##/$#(+(+#++(+#"'"+#)
6+!:+#(+#+/8(/+"(8(+'+#+*)
$(#  #"  8(#    #"  '+  ((/# 6"  )6+  ))+  6+  )/
+'+' (+ 8#$  #+ $(# + (+ #+/ 8(/+ 
/+#')#$(+##+$(#))/+!6"6+!:+#
8(/+##/$##/#"#(D/+##/'
/+*$)+/+'8(/+#(##$#+/#*# ")')+6"#
6  !6  /#  #"  +#"(  #6  +(#  8(/+  #  *+*  *#  
($"'#+##+/###")$8('#"!6'#/0
6+(+#+/E/+'+/(6#"#"=/+/#+$#'
#")+# # *+)$ #" (#*# #6 /+#  #+/+# 
=/+#(
Key words<+/8(/+F+/+#F06F/+F+(+#+
,

Predictors of Trauma Reactions in TV News Camera Operators
/+#+8(#6*+#$)6+!:+#(##$#+/#*#AB
#  +)++ #  (##$ #+/# '# AB /+# "*
6+!:+# 8(/+ (+* +#  "'" @;2G A #  ,24BF
'+((/##/##+(+#6+(+*+#) ((+8#$;4H@2G
A=# #  ,23F (#+! #  ,21F  #  ,2F  ,22,B "
8(/+    +/#      +'  )  #+/  +#  $(# +*  +#  )
(##+/##+++AB'#=/+#('+"*+')+
-1G#-1,GA!"I=J+!E*#,2,F6+D!,2F9#I6,22,F
&#!#,22FK#,2@F.#,246#,221F$*"#
,221F#,225B&6*+)'/+*+$('#"#)+
/#:))((
++(')'/+)+#"+($"'$(##"#$#6#"
#+/  8(/+  +    $  +(+#  +  *  )  #+/  8(/+  +
#  6#"  *#  *  )  (+*  $(#  '#  =/+#  (
A!"  I =J+!E*#  ,22F ,2,F    #      (+B     #
+ *# )   (+* $(# "   +(+# A9#
,2,F9##,23F#(+B/+#("*)/
#8(+*#*)/+/#F)#+#6#"+/+/#$(#
/)'+$/'+')6+$+)=/+8(+6+!')+
6((+6#"+/#DA#,23B6+D!A,25B)/
#"#+(+8(/++/(+*/((+#)+/(+*+
(+"6+#6#"*#$(#)()#'/06
=/+# #"+(+  6+!( )#+ #"# +* # +/#" 6:' )
1

=/+#/8(/+# '+/#/+' #"'#*+') +/':
#+))!'+'D+/#"6#++$/#()6+!#!
(+"#+$)(+*/#++A!#,21F+#,2-F#"
#,2;B
+/++"+=/+#("##)/(+/"
6"#"+(+#(#*+#+#)#+#6+ 6"#"++##"$
"**+()/"#"6)++$#A.#,24B+!
" "#' A!" I =J+!E*# ,2,B " E/###* #+#/+ +'
#+/+#=/+#"++$+(##))+#+/8(/+
+#+'#+F##")/"(+#$#++/#'+
=/+#  (    #  )#  "'"'"#  #" ($"'  (#  )+  +(+#+  
))+($"'$(#"*#)#"+)/+/#A#+
+(+#+    :'#  +  =/+#  ((+  #    #  '+#+  +! #"  #"+
=/+#+F#,23B/#/A=/+#*+'6++#
'+#+  +!  #"  #"+F   #    ,23B #$ +  #    A,2-B
+(+#  "'"+  +#  )  ($"'  #+  $(#  '  +  (+#+  
("#'+("+#")+#"+=/+#")6E/###*#/#"#"*!#+
))+($"'#+/''####+/+##+/8(/+
+#  '#  *+  +    /+  !6'    E/###*  #/$  "  )/
(++$#"#+/8(/++#)06+(+#+
L/##*  ++"  "  ))+  ')/  #8#/  '"#  #  #"  (##
))+#"#06+(+#++(+#+'"#8(+6#"+(##
#+/8(/++#")'+(+#$#A,2,2((5H@B
/''##"#)/+#"+*#'#)#+/8(/++#'#06+
(+#+6++# '*#"# #"$M++ !$#" +(+#+#' ##" )
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#'#+##+/##/#8(##+/##/)+'+N
+(+#+++!$#"+(+#+#)#"*(+$=#
#  #+/#  O  )  )/+#"+  +    #"  (+*  "++"  +'D#
#+/#/++$(+#(#6"+$+(+#++'+$+#
6+    ##/  #"  +(+#+    #  #    ("$$  (+#  )+  +(+#+  
'#6"#"))9$#A,2,2B+(+##"###)
("$+!#")+:(+#+++$*#"+(+#++/#
)#"++#"+E/(#(##$!'#"#+'##
#+6
98A,25B)/#"#6"#066+!+("#"#6+!'
+6 +("$  ($"')#$ 6 #" E/#$) #" 6+!
(+/#"+ + +' /#+$ #+) AB /' ':(++6  6""
+  (+#+  +  )#  +E/+  #  '  #  #"  )  #  *+        A,B
/D#)=+/#')6+8(+#))6#"6+##+
"8(+6+!+#)#+/*+'"++###(#'#
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6//)/(+#)'+(+##"+)+'+=/+#(
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L,<&6(+*/8(/+#6+!:+#(++##/++#
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+)##+#/"  (+*++## '# !'
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#+/#+#"*/A'#,24B/+!6'###/
"* # *+) #" !  ( 6#" =/+#  '+ + + (+#+ 
(+#/+)/+#"+)#" /++##/$ #"/#*#'#6"#"+ /+#
+##+*)#+/+#$(##"+ L+###"#(
)+/#)6<
L1<   &6    /+#  +#  #  /++#  #+/  +#    #"  )+  )
(##+/# #+ (+ 8#$  #+ $(#  0 6 +
(+#+Q
Method
Participants
"((+406+(+#+F5;6+6+!'/#+#"
#"+  1,  (+#(#    )+ D    $(+/  #  +  %+  %+
.$6T/+!$#'###)
3

+ ))+6+ )/#6 #" /#+  :/#+ '+/( 
+##$)#"#+/8(/+++#*++#(#"6+')
8(+*#"06/#+$+'')+#6#"#;-$+"
/#+$  8(+  6  43  $+  ASE C  B    +#  #  (+  '+("
(+#(#+'')+@H42$+#"')+#"*+(6-,
$+  ASE C  B  "  (  #  )  24    A@;GB    2  )  A5;GB
(+#(#++$$#')#))+$'+$)#"
#+#+/+#/+#"(+(+#))#"(6
 )/+#"+ $ +'+' '+ (+ 6+ /#  +# # +#
##/(+#(#6++!$#++A;12GB(+##"#"+#'+
A'C;-G+#"(C3,G)#C@-G(+#C1-G*+
C,3GB
Materials
"/+#+/8(/+AF$*",22B,1:#):+(+#
  +'  =/+#P  6+!:+#  8(/+  #    #  +E/+  (+#(#  #
##"+AB+')8(/+U6"#"++##"$"*8(#-))+#
!)(+#)6+!'#A,B)+E/$)8(/+U"6$#
#"$"*8(##"!)*#A1B##$)8(/+U6"#"++
# (+#(#"* 8( #$ )  /''# ##$ ) 8(/+ #
A$*"#,221B+#(##"(+##/$6+!#+(#"#
6#" #"+ #+++ 8(+  #" (+# #/$+'  ##$ )
8(/+/6+/ A reliabilityassessment is not presented for PTE
scales as the sumscales of these reect exposure to various types of
events rather thana unied underlying construct.
4

"  +/#  .)  *#  L/#+  A.LB      /+  )  (++  (+
8(/+# #+/A /$ # ,222B +#(## "6 )+E/#$#"$ "*
8(#,,))+##$(*:(#.!+#A+'')+V*+P#
V)*#++PB6"#"++ ##"8(/+/#"#8(+#
)+ "( + "+++ A++ I& ,22-F +,22B +#(#  #"
(+##/$6+!#+(#"#6#"#"+)8(+
/+#6/+6#"#"'"#:#/+#/)+#"'9*
*#+$A9F"I+*#*@@@B"9/+##++#$+
)5-(+##"#)#"+#+(#*=#*AB9*9#+
*#+$A:99B/+#A5;+(#*$F"I+*#*@@@B/#"
#"  )# ) #' )6+ # +#(# +( # *+/ )+#:(+
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####"(+##/$#"+"P(")+#"/653
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##,C###1C+#$-CE/##;C8#+$A#"+#
@@1B+"P(")+#"##.H/+6@-#"(+##/$"
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+#)6;G"+)+/#:)))12/#"(+##/$##
#"(+(+#)#"(#"#$8(+''+*/++"
5
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#,221B
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"  E/#+  /  /+  '  '+("  6+!:+#  
(+/+##+/+#$(#A(+8#$
#+B"E/#+#!;H,;/##(#
Results
 #"#"+ ##$( )6+!:+# /+' +(+#+P
+++###"+')8(/+/F#"$6+8(/+#
=/+Z "+ )+  #+ *" # " (+* +# ) 8(/+
+#"(622GF"(+#(###"$"8(##)
#"-#"+')+#)+#"#)-6H16#"
)@ASEC21B
W+#"+Y
+###"##$)6+!:+#8(/+")#"#6+
+$##-;G)(+#(###6+<##")
#+/#  '#    *+$  #"+#    '#    *+  #"  
'#/#(##"6!AB+#(#+);3
#ASEC2,B+#+/8(/+6/+/'#".L($
#"  #"+  #    /#$(  ) (+    6#"  )+E/    #
(+#')#"*+(#"#"8(F#"#$8(+
*#6+#+*"#/#"))++*#/+
#+"(+*+#)(+8(/+)+#"*+(6@-2GF*
(+#(# # #"$ " #  8( # $ ) #" ,, # " +' )
+#62H36#"(+#(#+')1@ASE = 21B
+/  +#  $(#  6+    +  )/+  $(#  *+<  
(+8#$#+"*+()+$(#6121ASEC
,B6""*#"/#:)))12W#-X211Y"(($'
2

#"/#:))+#"(-2,G)(+#(#AnC-4B/+#+!)
"*+(+")#"#"+/A(+<M
C3@SEC25F8#$<MC-2SEC2;F#+<MC@1SEC24B)6#"#"+
+')#"*+#$+#'A.*I.*,22-B"/(+'6#"
#" *+Z8#+$  *+  $(#  #"+" )+  "  )  #"    /  6+
(+<nC-,2G8#$<nC25;G#+<nC-1-G
 +  )  +  +'+  $  6+  /#  #  *#'#  #"  (##
(+#*#$)8(/+##")/+#+/+#$(#*+/#
"6 #" (##+ + $(# *+   (+ 8#$ 
#+A,B+(+*/(+8(/+##+//+6#".L(+#
+ $(# )  )/+ #$( #' #"# + (+#+ 6" " 8(+
*+#"+(+)8(++#+/+#$(###"#)
#"#/$+8(/+##+//#)+#")6'*+##"#+/
+#$(#<C5G(+C@2G8#$C3G#+C--G
"##6+!:+#8(/+#"+/'"/##"++#"++')
6+!:+#8(/+ + * ) 8(/+##$ /+' '# 6++##
$(#*+#$#"+6+#"+')))+#!)(+#(#"
8(#6"6+!'#"8#+)(+#(#P8(+/+'8(/+
#(+##+/$(#*+#$#"#/$
W+#,"+Y
+#(#  #      +  )  @5  ASE = 23;B    #"  9  /+#
/"+ +  #+/#:))(( # #" / 9++(#*
(/+(6#"#"(+##/$#"(+')+A5H-2B6*##"+
####*$ # ))+6#" #"( 6#" +(## * )/+#
A6 +# "'"B " (  + # +# * ) /+#F


---G)#"(/+#8(+'6*)/+#An C
;, + )5H5B -3,G +# An C ;- @H,@B @-G "'" An C  12H-2B
'+$"6 #"#"'"+/+# +6++##'+#+#+/
+#  $(#  )    )/+  #$(  +  (+#+  6#"    #$  )+  #
++##+6++$'#"/+(+#+*+$(#)(+
8#$#+/+#/#)+#")6'*+#"#+/+#
$(#<C,;;G(+C,-5G8#$C42G#+C14G
Discussion
"(+##/$)#")+##8(#$#"#+/8(/++#)
+ (+#+ "+ $  )/# ))+ +# # 6+! #! #6
+(+#+#"+66+!+/"+(+#+#"#++(#))+
#+/8(/++#AI98,25F#,2,2B"
)#"(+##/$6+#<AB+/++#*)#+/8(/++#
  #+#  (  ) 6  +  (+#+  A,B *#'#  #"  +  )  (+*/
8(/+#)+#+/+#$(#A1B*#'#6"#"+/+#
+##+*)#+/+#$(#
")+#++"E/#6<What kinds of work-related and personal potentially
traumatic events (PTEs) are TV news camera operators exposed to? ''6#"6+!:
+# 8(/+ " ) #" # 6 + $ # # -;G ) #" (+#(#
#'6+')#+/8(/+8(++#"("(+*)
8(/+  #  6+!:+#    6  22G  8'  #"  +#  )  8(/+  +(+#  
'+=/+# ( A@;GF  # ,24B "# )+E/#$ +
6+8(/+#=/+Z"+)+#+*"#"!
)*# 6+ '# #"# )+E/#$ 8(+ #"+ #/ /'#" 
A!"I=J+!E*#,2,F +6#,2,F $*"# ,221B#$
,

!"=J+!E*#+(+##"##"!)6#"#"8(#))+6+
)/#)#"##+)/)+#"(+#(##"$("#$
+ ##$ ) 8(/+ # #" (+# #/$ 6+<  # #"  )
#+/#  '#    *+$  #"+#    '#    *+  #"  
'#  /#(  #    #"    6!  "  )'  +  '+/#  6#"  #"
+(+#$$*"#A,221B
/#//+6)+#")'#"#+#=/+#'+
+(+#+$8(+++#)#+/8(/++/#)#"+6+!
 $  6"# + 8( #  #" #"+ =/+# +# (+
+#/+ "''"6*+/))+'#(+)+8(/+"*
(((($'++:'#)+#"(+##/$$+/)/
6"+'#"//#*#/+)#+/8(/++#',:#"
#)+'"#+/+#+)8(+(##$#++:
# (+ ) (+#(# $ +/' #" (#) # 6#" #" /#+$
A6+D! ,225B "+ $   /) ' *#$ 6" #'+D' 0
6  6+!+      +  (/"  E/##*  #  #  $  #"  )+#  /#"+
/''##"#+ A/"  6+'#B#" =/+/#+$
'"#*'6$)++(#
/+' # (+ #" #  #$( 8(+  #"#/$ 6+<
#+*"#/#"))++*#/+#+
")'+(+#)#"=/+#(+8(/+)'+(+#
6"+#"#+#/+A!"I=J+!E*#,2,F6#,221F$*"#
,221F(I''@@@B"(+*+#)(+8(/+)+#"*+
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(A;4H@2GF=##,23F(#+!#,21F#,2F
1
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,22,B(+#+/8(/+'#=/+#A15H@2GF#,24B
")'##"#+(+#+#"(+##/$8(+*#*
) (+ #+/ 8(/+ (+ # #" '+ ((/#  #"# #" (+
8(/+    /(  6#"  *#  6+!:+#  8(/+  "  ##  #  
+##6+!:+#8(/+*6+#"+(#'F#"/)#+/8(/+
###"/+)8(/+#+/+#6#"#"##
)  (+#(#  +$  +  #    # #"#    #+/  ++"+  '+((  6#"  #"
##
" ++"E/# *#'# (##! #6  #+/
+#< How is previous exposure to work-related and personal PTEs related to current
trauma reactions in the form of posttraumatic stress, depression, anxiety, and stress in TV
news camera operators?"$(#+A121B8#"/#:
)))12'+#+#""+(+#(+*/#/))+)'"#+(
A# ,223F&' # ,22B"( +')+)+ #"/+ )
$(#4H5;/##"#/+')+)+#"(64H3;'
#"/#:)))12-2,G)#"(/+#+!)*('
###"#"#4-H52G)*/#"#+"#"/#:)))12+/##$
' 6#"  A+$!6! #  @@5F .' #  ,221B $ (($' #"
))$)'##"(+##/$,5H12G)+(+#+AnC5;H,22B'"#
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((+(+#'#"+)+(+*6#"'*((/#
+*/#/6#"=/+#/'#"."*(#++*#*
/#:))9+(+#*(/+(#"(+(+#)#"(+#(8'+)
156 ,;3G An C 12B 6""  + #" / #" ,G +(+# $ !"
=J+!E*#A,2,B#/(#'/#:)))--"*+(+#(+(+#)-1H@,G
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#"#+#/+  #"$ +  ) #")+# # ##"# 06 + (+#+ 
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#"+066+!+/"+(+#+"(+(+#)06+(+#+6"
$8(+'$')#$(#'+#+#""+(+#
(+*/#/'+=/+#(&6*+'##+*6'6/
##)/#/+++"#(+*#)#"#((+(+#/#:))
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!#"(+!$##+''+#"/+#6/#"/((+#"#+
(+#+8(+ '+#+*) $(# #"#" +(+# #"'+
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&6*+#")+(+"'"+#"(+#(#""+(+#
/#+  +#* # )+ #"  /+ A+6)+ #  ,22@F ,2F
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"'+#+(+(+##"*+Z8#+$*+$(##'+)+(+
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$ *#'#' #" (## (+#* #$ ) 6+!:+#  (+
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(+#+/8(/+')#$(+##+/+#$(#))/+!
6" 6+!:+# 8(/+  # " ! #6   (+ )  +
#+/+#$(#'+/#6#"*+(+*/#/6#"=/+#(
A!" I =J+!E*# ,22F 6 #  ,221F $*" #  ,221F( I
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#"!6'#/+(+#+6+!'6#"06$(+*'#
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"#"!#6(+#+/+#"+#*$6
#"=/+#(+/#+'+'6+!:+#"*+
#/"*)/(#*+#"(#"++'+)+E/$)8(/+
#+/+#A+6#,2,F.#,24F+I#/+#,22;F6#
 ,221F  # ,225B  #"+ #/ A/' #" (+# B "*#
A!"I=J+!E*#,22F6+D!,225F#",225B"+($$+)#
#"#6+!:+#8(/+$##"##+'#=/+#+(+#+
#+#*8(#$#"##"6+')#"/+/)+6+!:+#
#"#/$/'#" ) #E/#$ #'/"#6 (##8(/+#
#+/++$66+!"8(#6(+* )! (+*/
#/$ $  ) #" /#"+ A!" ,23F !" I =J+!E*# ,22B  6""
(+#(#'=/+###"#6+!'6#")+#)+#+(+#
*+$'6$: )+ (+#(## $ 6+!' #"+'
3

(##$ 8( # #+' # 6" #" 8(+ )+ #"+ =/+# $
+)#"*'6+!##"))6#"+6+#')+#(+*$+//#"+#
#=/+##8#9/+#"+*#)#"##/6+!:+#
8(/+=/+#++$(+)+$6#"+8#*(D
'#/###+#'+E/##*++"'
#"#"+++"E/#(##+#"(#6/+##+/
+#$(#6+*#'#<How is neuroticism related to current trauma reactions
in the form of posttraumatic stress, depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms in TV news
camera operators? $ "6  #"# /+# ')#$ (+# +  *+
$(#))/+!"#"+/+#"+###+/+#
6:!6)+'+((/#(A+/I"/#D,21F!RS#,2,B
#"#/$)#")+##*#'#(+#$+(+#++#"+
6=/+#(A'!",23)+*+*6B
.###"/++# #/$+## ()(+#)#" ++"'"*
 / *  # (## ## ) #" #/$ +# # #" (
++/#F4(+#(##"=+#$)6""6+)+/#+/##"##
##+#*/66+!+##"++"((/#6#
#"/))#'#"'+D#$)#")'!$/+$)')#"#/$6+#"
#!'  #  /#  )+  )/#/+  ++"    #"  )    #"#  (+#(#  ++/##  )+
E/###*++"6#"#"((/#'+/($"''#/'
" #/$ " (+* /+ ) */ #+/# #"# "*  #
*('/+#')#+/8(/++#6#"#"#8#)=/+#
6+!/"#+/#"#"/)/+'$(#)
(+8#$#+'"(+*++/+#')
#"!)#+/+##"#+((+#6#"#"(8#'/(#"(#
4

#"++""#")+#((#)#"6#"++"('#"8/)
=/+    ($"'$F  #"  )#  )  6""  /<  AB  #  (+$  *#
#'+A,B#"#$#+#*##/#"#"*/
#"  U+'  #"  #$  #  #8#/  )'  6#"  #"  ++  #+/
++"A1B#"## )+$ A-B #"#$ ##+#"  #
#'#    (+)  +'#+#  A'  +'#+#      ($"'#B  "  #/$
((+#  #" )+# # *+)$ #"(#* # #6 /+#  #+/
+#=/+#(
9$#"#/$#")+##(++$+#"#+/8(/++#)
06+(+#+/E/+'+/(6#"#"=/+/#+$ +*/
++"  +'  #+/  8(/+    +#    =/+#  (  "  #  #
(+#$(*/6+!'6#"+(+#'(#$+"#"+
(#+(+#+#:+!((/#6+#"$)+/#+$/((+#)/+#"+
++"  &  #"  (+#  )'  ("D  #"#  +  (+#+  +  E/$  
+*')!6'##+)#"(##($"'+!(#
)#"+6+!'6#"#"($'/((+#++"#+#
Acknowledgements
"/#"+6/!#!6'8#'+#((+##)#"+
(+#+  6"  !$  '+  #  (+#(#    #"  #/$    6    /'    
9D/"!)+++"##/((+#6#"#"/+(#
5

References
+$!6!+*#/#.I+A@@5B##+/#
#+++)#+#+##)++#+<+*)'/)#"
"!#*0+A.:B+'#+/#Journal of
Consulting and Clinical Psychology66A1B;53H;@2
!\\'/""++)#%I&+A,21B#
'=/+#<$##+*6International Journal of Social
Psychiatry, 59, 144H1@2<244Z22,243-2,-14343
!" A,23B#+'=/+#6+!'#"#.
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#"!""#'#Media, War & Conflict, 5A,B4;H@2
!" I=J+!E*# A,2,B"#'))#)(+#6
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Journal of Psychotraumatology, 3H5
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#+/8(/+Journal of Constructivist Psychology<
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355@H2;
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/##$)(8+#"(Clinical Psychology Review, 33353H3@4
+A,22B/+)+/##+++(##+/##+++
#$I+AB+##+]'/#(+$
/+)8#$A((,;;H124B /6+Z/
$*"A,22B"+#"(''#*"#=:+##+/#
8(/+=/+#/(/""#"*+#$)/
()$"'$
$*"6IA,221B"+#"(''#*
"=:+##+/#8(/+(##+/##+++
=/+#Journal of Traumatic Stress, 16 A-B1,;H1,5
A,22,B+/(##+/##+++/#+<9'#"
((/#()#"/#+#/+*$)#&#"'
Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 36 A-B;;H;,2
,-

#"A,225B+/=/+<8(+')+!+A#+
+##B#+*)++L/#..A11,52,B
#"6I+*A,2;B*+'#+/<(#=/+#
#+*)+"##(<ZZ+##++'Z##Z*+':#+/(#::=/+#
#"+*I6A,25B*+'#+/#6#+<9#+
#6#"(#:#+/##+++'=/+#Stress and Health, 34
A,B,5H,,3
#"+9.#D&+&/!I A@@1B""!#<
#$*#$'#/##$(+(+###"/*#)
#"#+##$)++/##+#/#^
9".I9$+"A,225B*+'#"#/#+</E/#
(#:#+/#(+*$(##)#+Stress and
Health, 24A,B,@H1;
,;


Frequencies for types and intensities of work-related PTEs, and
personal PTEs in the sample
Scale items Exposed
n%
Work-related exposure – types of exposure (JTES)
=/+Z" 23 @23
9+ 23 @23
#+*"# 23 @23
/++ 2- 55@
#/+#+ @5 515
$/# @2 43@
/#/#)#")$/# 55 4;,
.)#"+#' 5- 45
+(# 4- 31,
8//# 34 ;41
/#6#"#")$/# -@ -@
+#/+Z!((' -4 -2,
+ -, 1;@
#"+ ; -1
Work-related exposure – intensity of exposure (JTES) Exposed
n%
##")#+/#'# , @;4
*+$#"+#'# , @;4
*+#"'#/#(##"6! 21 552
*+'+/ 22 5;;
("$$##!'# 34 ;41
#"/+#+!'# ;@ ;2-
6#"*#Z(+(#+#+)'# -1 135
*(+=/+$'# 15 1,;
/6)#"#)$Z)+)*# 4 -;
Personal exposure (TLEQ) Exposed
n%
#+*"# 43 3;2
/#"))++* 31 ;15
#/+#+ ; -13
#"+# 1 ,3;
"+#)#"++/$"+ ,@ ,-5
##*+/#)E/#+#+'+ ,; ,-
.):#"+#'+(+#$'*#)+* ,- ,2;
.):#"+#' , 4@
+)++# , 4@
,3

+$**'6( ,2 4
##)$* 5 ;-
++' , 21
+# , 21
""("$/ 2 5;
*+/#$E/#+#+'+ 2 5;
8//)+'1$##;$++ 2 5;
"$/$##(+#+ ; -1
#!' - 1-
8///# - 1-
8//)+'1$' - 1-
#"+ 1 ,3
8///+' , 4
<##$+/#*#
</+#+/8(/+
.L<+/#.)*#L/#+
,4

,
Summary of analyses of the predictive ability of previous work-related and personal
trauma exposure and neuroticism on the four trauma reaction symptom variables
'+$)(+#+)$(#ARC35R2C-3=R2C--B
BB β
')(+*/6+!:+#8(/+# :21 21; :24
##$)(+*/6+!:+#8(/+# 22 232 :2
')(+*/(+8(/+# 13 211 1ddd
.*)/+# 2@; 21 ;1ddd
'+$)(+#+)$(#)(+ARC3@R2C-4=R2C-;B
BB β
')(+*/6+!:+#8(/+# :21, 2,1 :
##$)(+*/6+!:+#8(/+# :224 2-2 :2
')(+*/(+8(/+# 2@3 2,, 11ddd
.*)/+# 23- 22@ ;,ddd
'+$)(+#+)$(#)8#$ARC31R2C-2=R2C15B
BB β
')(+*/6+!:+#8(/+# :2, 23 :23
##$)(+*/6+!:+#8(/+# :22, 2,5 :2
')(+*/(+8(/+# 24, 2; 15ddd
.*)/+# 21; 223 -1ddd
'+$)(+#+)$(#)'+#+ARC42R2C-@=R2C-4B
BB β
')(+*/6+!:+#8(/+# :2,4 2,2 :
##$)(+*/6+!:+#8(/+# 2-2 21- 2@
')(+*/(+8(/+# 2;5 2@ ,1dd
.*)/+# 23, 224 ;@ddd
ddpe2dddp e22
B#"/#+D+'+))#
,5
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