ArticlePDF Available

Organizational justice, life satisfaction, and happiness: the mediating role of workplace social courage

Authors:

Abstract and Figures

Purpose Workplace social courage is a courageous behavior that can damage the actor's social relationships, social image and accrue face-loss costs. Sometimes, it is difficult to differentiate courageous behavior from incivility that predicts higher levels of psychological distress. While workplace social courage is widely discussed in the management literature, less is known about the conditions under which individuals are more or less likely to exhibit courageous behaviors. Given the theoretical considerations, in the present study, the authors consider two indicators of quality of life, which are life satisfaction and happiness, and set the aim of the study as to investigate the relationships between organizational justice and two dimensions of quality of life – life satisfaction and happiness – with particular attention to the mediation function performed by courage. Design/methodology/approach Cross-sectional survey data ( n = 408) were obtained from employees working in Turkey Fortune companies and analyzed with variance-based structural equation modeling (VB-SEM) technique. Findings The results showed that perceived organizational justice is a strong antecedent for workplace social courage. Workplace social courage emerges as a facilitator for subjective happiness and life satisfaction. Workplace social courage mediated the association between perceived organizational justice and subjective happiness, and between perceived organizational justice and life satisfaction. Prescriptions for theory development and practitioners are highlighted, research limitations and future directions are acknowledged. Originality/value So far, most of the work done in this subject is mainly in western countries, and it is considered as a virtue, feature, emotion and behavior in the studies of social scientists, and mainly focused on how employees need the courage to perform the desired behaviors that affect organizational outcomes positively such as organizational citizenship behavior, job performance, job satisfaction, life satisfaction, psychological well-being. Also, the authors studied how social courage positively relates to beneficial voice and silence, as well as negatively relates to detrimental voice and silence, how courage is correlated with psychological empowerment, coaching and how courage mediates on quality of life. As can be seen, there is little empirical work when it comes to the antecedents of courage in business life. Therefore, this study, which has been done with different variables in a different culture and country, aims to support and bring a new breath to the subject. Besides, the mediating effect of courage on the organizational variables is also among the trendiest subjects.
Content may be subject to copyright.
Organizational justice, life
satisfaction, and happiness: the
mediating role of workplace
social courage
_
Ibrahim Sani Mert
Business Administration, Antalya Bilim Universitesi, Antalya, Turkey
Cem Sen
NATO, Brussels, Belgium, and
Amro Alzghoul
Faculty of Business, Amman Arab University, Amman, Jordan
Abstract
Purpose Workplace social courage is a courageous behavior that can damage the actors social relationships,
social image and accrue face-loss costs. Sometimes, it is difficult to differentiate courageous behavior from
incivility that predicts higher levels of psychological distress. While workplace social courage is widely
discussed in the management literature, less is known about the conditions under which individuals are more
or less likely to exhibit courageous behaviors. Given the theoretical considerations, in the present study, the
authors consider two indicators of quality of life, which are life satisfaction and happiness, and set the aim of
the study as to investigate the relationships between organizational justice and two dimensions of quality of
life life satisfaction and happiness with particular attention to the mediation function performed by courage.
Design/methodology/approach Cross-sectional survey data (n5408) were obtained from employees
working in Turkey Fortune companies and analyzed with variance-based structural equation modeling
(VB-SEM) technique.
Findings The results showed that perceived organizational justice is a strong antecedent for workplace
social courage. Workplace social courage emerges as a facilitator for subjective happiness and life satisfaction.
Workplace social courage mediated the association between perceived organizational justice and subjective
happiness, and between perceived organizational justice and life satisfaction. Prescriptions for theory
development and practitioners are highlighted, research limitations and future directions are acknowledged.
Originality/value So far, most of the work done in this subject is mainly in western countries, and it is
considered as a virtue, feature, emotion and behavior in the studies of social scientists, and mainly focused on
how employees need the courage to perform the desired behaviors that affect organizational outcomes
positively such as organizational citizenship behavior, job performance, job satisfaction, life satisfaction,
psychological well-being. Also, the authors studied how social courage positively relates to beneficial voice and
silence, as well as negatively relates to detrimental voice and silence, how courage is correlated with
psychological empowerment, coaching and how courage mediates on quality of life. As can be seen, there is
little empirical work when it comes to the antecedents of courage in business life. Therefore, this study, which
has been done with different variables in a different culture and country, aims to support and bring a new
breath to the subject. Besides, the mediating effect of courage on the organizational variables is also among the
trendiest subjects.
Keywords Social courage, Organizational justice, Happiness, Life satisfaction, Non-western culture
Paper type Research paper
1. Introduction
There are three virtues that philosophers throughout history have focused on, strive to
understand and try to discover the purpose of life in a sense by understanding the
relationship among them: justice, courage and happiness. It is an important responsibility for
social scientists, who should be todays modern philosophers, to continue research on these
virtues. Therefore, discovering the importance of these virtues and the relationship among
Mediating role
of workplace
social courage
The current issue and full text archive of this journal is available on Emerald Insight at:
https://www.emerald.com/insight/0368-492X.htm
Received 10 February 2021
Revised 6 April 2021
4 May 2021
Accepted 15 May 2021
Kybernetes
© Emerald Publishing Limited
0368-492X
DOI 10.1108/K-02-2021-0116
them in todays business life is a necessity of ensuring continuity in the flag race initiated by
social scientists and philosophers in the historical process, which aims to understand and find
the meaning of life.
Courage, beyond being seen as one of the basic virtues, has been accepted by some
philosophers as the protector or even a prerequisite of all other virtues (S
¸en and Mert, 2020).
It has been emphasized and experienced for 2,500 years ago that not only physical but also
moral and social courage have great importance, beyond physical courage. Studies on
courage, seen as the rediscovery of an old virtue, continue with increasing popularity in
recent years, particularly in management, and industrialorganizational psychology
(Howard and Holmes, 2020). However, it seems that there is a gap between theory and
practice in the area of courage, and although its importance is accepted by everyone, there is a
great need for empirical and practice-oriented courage studies.
So far, most of the work done in this subject is mainly in western countries, and emphasis
is placed on how employees need the courage to perform the desired behaviors that affect
organizational outcomes positively, such as organizational citizenship behavior (Howard
et al., 2017), job performance, job satisfaction, life satisfaction (Bockorny and Youssef-
Morgan, 2019;Koerner, 2014;Schilpzand et al., 2014), psychological well-being (Gustems and
Calderon, 2014). Also, we studied how social courage positively relates to beneficial voice and
silence as well as negatively relates to detrimental voice and silence (Howard and Holmes,
2020), how courage is correlated with psychological empowerment (Khoshmehr et al., 2020),
coaching (Wood, 2021) and how courage mediates on quality of life (Magnano et al., 2019). As
can be seen, there is little empirical work when comes to the antecedents of courage in
business life (Comer and Sekerka, 2018;Howard and Cogswell, 2019;Koerner, 2014;
Schilpzand et al., 2014).
Workplace social courage, the core element of the current study, is a courageous behavior
that can damage the actors social relationships, social image and accrue face-loss costs
(Howard et al., 2017). Sometimes, it is difficult to differentiate courageous behavior from
incivility that predicts higher levels of psychological distress (Al-Zyoud and Mert, 2019).
While workplace social courage is widely discussed in the management literature, less is
known about the conditions under which individuals are more or less likely to exhibit
courageous behaviors. Courageous behaviors generally emerge as doing and speaking the
right things. But, if doing the right thing does not have a negative consequence, everyone
would behave correctly. However, doing the right thing and speaking the truth can
sometimes cause negative consequences. Although it is not always the case, doing the right
thing can hurt the other person and, therefore, often requires taking a risk. If the individual
feels fair, he or she will feel more comfortable and able to say and do the right thing without
any hesitation. Justice, in this sense, emerges as a facilitator to say and do the right thing,
giving the individuals what they deserve, and telling the truth even if it has a tiny chance to
create a negative consequence. Therefore, individualsrisk-taking attempt and consequently
being courageous is related to the perception of justice in the working environment. As Cajete
(1994) states, justice in human relations with each other and with the rest of nature is
dependent upon the transcendence of the illusion of discrete individualitya justice that is
made possible through the experiences of wholeness.Hence, employees who feel that they
work in a fair environment will be able to act more courageously and try to increase their
quality of life. Quality of life is a construct influenced by objective and subjective factors that
consist of the evaluation of functional, physical, social and emotional aspects of an individual
(Magnano et al., 2019). They considered life satisfaction and flourishing as indicators of the
quality of life.
As stated above, if an individual feels that he or she is in a fair environment, it relaxes him
or her and removes the feeling of anxiety. Then, in a fair environment, both happiness and life
satisfaction are expected to be positively affected. However, the perception of justice may not
K
appear in the same way for everyone. Therefore, it can be suggested that there is a clear need
for a mediating variable between the perception of justice and happiness. To be happy
depends on being fair, realistic and honest in our relationships. This is related to our respect
and honest behavior toward ourselves and others. If we do not do the right thing, do not tell
the truth, we cannot fulfill our respect for ourselves and our duty to justice, which is one of the
cardinal virtues. Social courage is needed to be happy in this situation. Courageous behavior
itself always demands doing the right thing and telling the truth all the time. Therefore, it is
not possible to be truly happy without being courageous. Even in the presence of justice,
being courageous always requires taking a risk in personal relationships. That justice can
lead to happiness can be realized with the courage of individuals. For justice to turn into
happiness, the mediation of courage is needed. True happiness cannot arise without
dedication, effort and struggle, which are the main features of being courageous. At the core
of courage, there lies action, self-sacrifice, taking risks to achieve an important and noble goal.
As can be seen, courage emerges as a diet of true happiness.
1.1 Purpose and objectives of the study
Given the theoretical considerations, in the present study, we consider two indicators of
quality of life, which are life satisfaction and happiness, and set the aim of the study as to
investigate the relationships between organizational justice and two dimensions of quality of
life life satisfaction and happiness with particular attention to the mediation function
performed by courage. Hence, the goal of this study is to review the relationships between
(1) organizational justice and workplace social courage, (2) workplace social courage and
subjective happiness, (3) workplace social courage and life satisfaction, respectively, to
determine the mediating role of workplace social courage between organizational justice and
two dimensions of quality of life. To do so, we first discuss the lay theory, which is basically
accepted as the foundation for studies investigating courage (Kapp and Scheele, 1996). Then,
we review organizational justice and workplace social courage, workplace social courage and
subjective happiness, workplace social courage and life satisfaction, respectively. This
process is followed by a study to determine the mediating role of workplace social courage
between organizational justice and two dimensions of quality of life. The following section is
a methodology, where information about sample and procedure, measures and demographic
breakdown is given. In the results section, measurement model assessment and structural
model assessment are discussed. Lastly, in the discussion and conclusion section, we explain
the underlying aspects, relations, consequences of our study, implications for theory and
management, limitations and how it can open new lines of practical use with future
recommendations.
2. Literature review
2.1 Lay theory and social courage
This study is grounded in the lay theory, which is based on the public elucidation of social
behavior (Kinman and Jones, 2005). The lay theory basically mirrors what people have in
their minds (Furnham, 1997). Besides, the theory put forward complex and multidimensional
phenomenon (Furnham, 1997), by explaining cause-and-effect relationships (Kinman and
Jones, 2005). According to the lay theory, happiness, subjective well-being, social support and
esteem stems from having close friends and loving parents and social networks (Campbell,
1976;Larson, 1978). Due to the lack of a common theoretical framework for courage (Howard
and Fox, 2020), researchers often use it to identify relationships that can develop more
sophisticated theoretical integrations (Howard and Fox, 2020;Kapp and Scheele, 1996). The
lay theory of courage tends to include all positive virtue with attribution of courage, and
Mediating role
of workplace
social courage
courageous people have three important functions, which are enhancing, moral modeling and
protecting (Detert and Bruno, 2017;Kinsella et al., 2015).
Courage is defined as the quality of the mind enabling one to overcome fear or difficult
obstacles, in other words, overcoming the negative experience of fear with more positive
feelings (Schwartz, 2004). Woodard (2004) defines courage as the power to survive mentally
and morally in the face of fear, anxiety and difficulty. And, he defines the courageous person
as, despite feeling fear and anxiety in a situation threatening his existence, the person who
can do what is necessary. According to another definition, courage is an individuals power
where he/she gets from his/her depths to achieve a virtuous conclusion (Sekerka and Bagozzi,
2007). The individual gets this power without being able to cope with the fear he/she feels. In
other words, this power, which comes from the foundation of existence, gives its first exam by
controlling the fear felt.
Courage has three dimensions, namely, physical, moral and social (Howard and Cogswell,
2019;Schilpzand, 2008). Physical courage is a courageous behavior that risks the actors
physical well-being, generally emerges in wartime and battles, and may not be relevant to the
day-to-day interactions of most people (Howard and Reiley, 2020;Howard et al., 2017;
Howard, 2019;Koerner, 2014;Schilpzand, 2008). Moral courage is the courage to act for moral
reasons despite the risk of adverse consequences and is believed to influence the day-to-day
life of most individuals (Sekerka and Bagozzi, 2007). Social courage is an act of courage in
which the risks involved are to the actors esteem in the eyes of others, and it is relevant and
important to the daily lives of most people (Howard and Cogswell, 2019). Social courage
means not conforming to the expectations of others, being willing to show your true self even
if it means risking social disapproval or punishment. It means being able to express opinions
and preferences without checking to see if they are in line with everyone elses opinions and
preferences(Lions Whiskers, 2011). According to Howard and Holmes (2020), social courage
behaviors involve risking ones social image and/or deteriorating his/her relationships in the
workplace. By having such different facets, courage has gained momentum with positive
psychology studies.
Gould (2005) states that courageous behavior has three dimensions, namely, fear, proper
behavior and purpose. Kilmann et al. (2010) focused on the organizational features of
courageous behavior and identified them as follows: free choice, experience, risk, valuable
purpose, conscious behavior of the person despite the danger and fear. As can be seen, these
features show that courage involves emotion, cognition and action in which individual risks
harm in pursuit of a noble purpose.
2.2 Organizational justice and workplace social courage
Courage is closely related to risk-taking, which is among the components and/or antecedents
of courage (Mert, 2021;Comer and Sekerka, 2018;Howard and Cogswell, 2019;Koerner, 2014;
Schilpzand et al., 2014). Therefore, it will be easier to be courageous in environments where it
is easy to take risks (S
¸en and Mert, 2020). Doing the right thing may demand courage. Doing
the right thing is also doing what is fair. It will be easier to take risks in an environment of
justice. As discussed above, workplace social courage is a courageous behavior that can
damage the actors social relationships, social image and accrue face-loss costs (Howard et al.,
2017). According to the research conducted by Bashir et al. (2011), social courage is linked to
negative feedback giving, leading others effectively, organizational citizenship behaviors and
many other desirable work outcomes. The virtue of justice denotes excellence in determining
what is due to whom (Karches and Sulmasy, 2016). Employeesperceptions of justice may be
a result of their expectations, and the consequences of these expectations show themselves as
different organizational attitudes and behaviors (Shapiro and Kirkman, 2001), even at the
time of recruitment (Bell et al., 2006). Also, it was found that justice perceptions were
K
positively associated with intention to sabotage (Abubakar and Arasli, 2016), and negatively
associated with somatic complaints (Herr et al., 2018), workplace deviance (Abou Hashish,
2019) and emotional exhaustion (Dishon-Berkovits, 2018), which can be assumed as an
appropriate environment for the courage to emerge.
It is stated that the perception of injustice affects employees negatively and the perception
of justice affects employees positively (Totawar and Nambudiri, 2014;Thomas and
Nagalingappa, 2012). The lay theory shows that perceptions of benefits and risks are a
primary determinant of complex and multidimensional phenomenon (Furnham, 1997), and
goal-directed risky behaviors (Zhang et al., 2016), like workplace social courage behavior. In
other words, employees may habitually perform courageous behaviors because they
particularly value the benefits and/or devalue the risks involved (Brandst
atter et al., 2016),
which is eventually a cause-and-effect relationship (Kinman and Jones, 2005). The positive
effect created by the perception that organizational justice exists has the potency to spill into
courage domain. Specifically, employees who are treated fairly may act in favor of the
organization (Barling and Philips, 1993), which we contend will be able to affect workplace
social courage behavior positively. Thus, in the light of the discussion, we propose the
following hypothesis:
H1. Organizational justice positively influence workplace social courage behavior.
2.3 Workplace social courage and subjective happiness
Individual happiness is contingent upon personality factors, socioeconomic conditions, social
relationships and health (Diener et al., 2018). A person with high levels of happiness
experiences positive emotions more frequently than negative emotions and evaluates his/her
life as satisfying. The literature has focused on many determinants of individual happiness,
except social courage. A courageous character is one that positively affects well-being/
happiness (Huber et al., 2020). Similarly, moral courage, which is accepted as a leading
characteristic of spiritually intelligent individuals, positively affects well-being (Vasconcelos,
2020). Recent studies have begun to examine the role of workplace social courage on
organizational outcomes, suggesting that courageous behaviors influence positive work
behavioral outcomes (Howard et al., 2017;Koerner, 2014). Besides, individuals with a high
level of courage are more likely to be motivated in reaching their goals and have less level of
fear (Magnano et al., 2019). Courage, beyond psychological capital, positively contributes to
psychological well-being and subjective well-being (Gustems and Calderon, 2014). The lay
theory provides psychological meanings to social interactions that aids individual behavior
and judgment about a situation. Hence, workplace social courage, which is a behavioral
dimension required in situations perceived as threatening, the capacity to react to situations
characterized by fear can strengthen the psychosocial resources (Magnano et al., 2019) and
improve subjective happiness. Thus, in the light of the discussion, we propose the following
hypothesis:
H2. Workplace social courage behavior positively influence subjective happiness.
2.4 Workplace social courage and life satisfaction
Life satisfaction can be defined as a subjective component of quality of life and is considered
as the cognitive dimension of subjective well-being, and it takes place when an individual
cognitively assesses his or her current life meets his/her subjective standard (Schalock and
Felce, 2004). Most of the researchers assert that the strongest determinants of life satisfaction
are money, prestige, family, health or work (Diener et al., 1985). Bockorny and Youssef-
Morgan (2019) found out that entrepreneurscourage is related to their life satisfaction, even
after accounting for various characteristics of the entrepreneur (demographics and human
Mediating role
of workplace
social courage
capital) and the venture (venture size and survival). Recent studies revealed the positive
influence of courageous behaviors on work behavioral outcomes (Howard et al., 2017) such as
job and life satisfaction (Bockorny and Youssef-Morgan, 2019). The lay theory permit
individual to impart meaning and in making inferences about the social interactions and
phenomenon around us. In essence, workplace social courage strengthens psychosocial
resources (Magnano et al., 2019;Santisi et al., 2020), primarily because of its subjective nature
and assessments. We theorize that life satisfaction is a significant and meaningful courage
outcome. Thus, in the light of the discussion, the following hypothesis is developed:
H3. Workplace social courage behavior positively influence life satisfaction.
2.5 The mediating role of workplace social courage
Employees who think that they are treated fairly and act in favor of the organization (Barling
and Philips, 1993) will be able to affect workplace social courage behavior positively, which is
eventually translated into positive organizational outcomes, such as increased performance,
organizational commitment and organizational citizenship behaviors (Koerner, 2014). Past
studies documented that courage positively contributes to job and life satisfaction, as a
dimension of entrepreneurial success, and correlates positively with life satisfaction
(Bockorny and Youssef-Morgan, 2019), psychological well-being, subjective well-being
(Gustems and Calderon, 2014), life satisfaction (Santisi et al., 2020), personal identity and
prosocial behaviors (Howard et al., 2017;Koerner, 2014), and also strengthens psychosocial
resources (Magnano et al., 2019). Recent studies have shown that courage mediates the
relationship between career adaptability and life satisfaction in adolescents (Ginevra et al.,
2018), the relationship between personality and coping (Magnano et al., 2017), the relationship
between employability and quality of life (life satisfaction and flourishing), and the
relationship between meaningful work and quality of life (Magnano et al., 2019). Building on
previous research studies and the lay theory, we theorize that the effects of organizational
justice on subjective happiness and life satisfaction could be mediated by courage. Thus, in
the light of the discussion, we propose the following hypotheses:
H4. Workplace social courage behavior will mediate the relationship between
organizational justice and subjective happiness.
H5. Workplace social courage behavior will mediate the relationship between
organizational justice and life satisfaction.
3. Methods
3.1 Sample and procedure
To increase the generalizability of the study results in terms of modern work life, Turkey
Fortune 5002018 companies were selected as the research universe. In particular, 340 out of
the 500 companies of Turkey Fortune 500 companies, which are based in Istanbul, Ankara,
Izmir and Bursa. These four cities are the biggest cities in Turkey, in which the researchers
live or can directly contact the companies. We selected a random sample of 50 companies out
of 340 and sent e-mails to the human resources (HR) departments of these companies, where
we explained the purpose of the research and shared the details of the questionnaire form, and
requested an appointment to ask for permission and support for data collection. Specifically,
21 out of 50 companies (three in travel and transportation, five in energy, four in construction,
two in textile, three in food, two in oil and derivatives production and distribution, and two in
information and communication services sectors) responded positively. By working in
coordination with HR personnel, online surveys were applied to 100 employees (a total of
K
2.100) who are, according to demographic factors, randomly selected to represent the whole of
the employees.
It was emphasized that participation in the study would be entirely voluntary, and
personal data would certainly be protected and not be used anywhere else. Participants who
did not respond to the questionnaire within two weeks were sent a reminder e-mail again.
According to previous studies, the response rates to online surveys are fairly low (Baruch and
Holtom, 2008;Sheehan, 2001). The companiesHR personnel were asked if there was a
difference between this studys response rate (468, an average of 22.3%) and the response
rates of the previous studies or not. They stated that the low response rates are not
extraordinary, and they did not find out any particular reason for that. Based on the extant
evidence, we concluded that the low response rates are not a major problem in this study.
3.2 Measures
The measures of this study are as follows:
Organizational justice a tripartite construct with the following sub-dimensions:
distributive, procedural and interactive justice, was operationalized with the 18-item scale
from (Niehoff and Moorman, 1993), which is validated and widely used in the Turkish context
(Abubakar et al., 2019a,b). The measures of organizational justice were rated using a
five-point Likert scale (1 5strongly disagree; 5 5strongly agree).
Workplace social courage was operationalized with an 11-item scale from Howard et al.
(2017). The measures of workplace social courage were rated using a seven-point Likert scale
(1 5strongly disagree; 7 5strongly agree).
Subjective happiness was operationalized with a four-item scale (Lyubomirsky and
Lepper, 1999). Two items for measures of subjective happiness were rated using a seven-
point Likert scale (1 5strongly disagree; 7 5strongly agree) and the other two-items using a
seven-point Likert scale (1 5not at all; 7 5a great deal).
Life satisfaction was operationalized with a five-item scale (Diener et al., 1985) and
adapted to the Turkish context by Mert et al.(2018) and Abubakar (2019). The measures of life
satisfaction were rated using a seven-point Likert scale (1 5strongly disagree;
75strongly agree).
3.3 Demographic breakdown
In total, 408 valid responses were obtained, 46.1% of these are male, and the rest female
employees. The majority of the employees (59.6%) are single, and 40.4% are married. About
56.4% of the participants are between 21 and 30 years, 27.9% are between 31 and 40 years,
10.3% are between 41 and 50 years, 4.4% are above 51 and the remaining 1% are less than 20
years. The educational level of the participants showed that 79.9% are university graduates,
14.2% have completed their masters degrees, 5.4% are high school graduates and the rest
have doctorate degrees. Finally, 27.2% have less than one year organizational tenure, 34.6%
of the participants have between one and three years organizational tenure, 26.7% have more
than six years organizational tenure and the remaining 11.5% have between four and six
years organizational tenure.
4. Results
4.1 Measurement model assessment
Recently, scholars (e.g. Hair et al., 2020;Schuberth et al., 2018) interchangeably refer to
confirmatory composite analysis (CCA) as measurement model evaluations in variance-based
structural equation modeling (VB-SEM). CCA mirrors analytical activities aimed at
confirming measurement models in VB-SEM. The current study measures are reflective
Mediating role
of workplace
social courage
measured constructs; to assess the psychometric properties, we retained items with
standardized factor loadings greater than 0.500 and t-statistics greater than ±1.960. This led
to the exclusion of one item each from the subjective happiness and life satisfaction scale, and
two items each from the organizational justice and workplace social courage. The composite
constructsaverage variance extracted (AVE) is the average variance explained per factor/
construct; our estimation delineates that the research constructsAVE values were greater
than the 0.500 threshold (Hair et al., 2017).
Two, we assess each constructs reliability using three indicators, namely, Cronbachs
alpha (
α
), DijkstraHenselers rho (
ρ
A), J
oreskogs rho (
ρ
c). All the constructsreliability
indicators were above the widely accepted thresholds of 0.700, 0.700 and 0.700, respectively
(Henseler et al., 2015). Three, the squared inter-construct correlations between the constructs
under investigation were below the AVE values per the FornellLarcker criterion (Fornell
and Larcker, 1981). The heterotrait-monotrait ratio of correlations (HTMT) exhibited by the
constructs was also below the threshold of 0.900, which further substantiates discriminant
validity (Henseler et al., 2015). In light of the above-established criterion, we concluded that
reliability, convergent and discriminant validity have been established. See Tables 13for
details.
4.2 Structural model assessment
In this section, the proposed hypotheses were assessed. VB-SEM relies on bootstrapping
resamples to generate the bias-corrected and accelerated (BCa) bootstrap confidence
Constructs 1 2 3 4
Organizational justice 0.548
Workplace social courage 0.049 0.468
Subjective happiness 0.039 0.159 0.682
Life satisfaction 0.049 0.073 0.291 0.738
Note(s): Values below the diagonal are squared inter-construct correlations for the FornellLarcker criterion;
values in italic are construct-specific AVE values
Constructs
ρ
A
ρ
c
α
AVE
Organizational justice 0.963 0.950 0.947 0.548
Workplace social courage 0.870 0.887 0.858 0.468
Subjective happiness 0.796 0.863 0.759 0.682
Life Satisfaction 0.938 0.918 0.885 0.738
Note(s):
α
5Cronbachs alpha;
ρ
A5Dijkstra-Henselers rho;
ρ
c5J
oreskogs rho; AVE 5average variance
extracted
Constructs 1 2 3 4
Organizational justice
Workplace social courage 0.191
Subjective happiness 0.215 0.471
Life satisfaction 0.253 0.275 0.613
Note(s): Values below the diagonal are HTMT correlation ratios
Table 2.
Discriminant validity
using FornellLarcker
criterion
Table 1.
Construct reliability
and convergent
validity
Table 3.
Discriminant validity
using HTMT ratios
K
intervals. The resample was based on 4,999 bootstrap runs to assess the significance level of
the tested hypotheses (Henseler et al., 2015). According to Figure 1, organizational justice is
found to produce a significant and positive effect on workplace social courage (β50.222,
t55.100,
ρ
< 0.001). Workplace social courage is found to produce a significant and positive
effect on subjective happiness (β50.399, t59.916,
ρ
< 0.001) and life satisfaction (β50.270,
t55.901,
ρ
< 0.001). Consequently, the hypothesized indirect effects were assessed following
Zhao et al. (2010) guidelines. The results showed that organizational justice has an indirect
effect on subjective happiness (β50.089, t54.204,
ρ
< 0.001) and life satisfaction (β50.059,
t53.350,
ρ
< 0.001) through workplace social courage.
The coefficient of determination R-squared (R
2
) is useful for determining the strength of a
linear relationship between two or more constructs. In other words, the percentage of
variation in the dependent construct explained by an independent construct. The structural
model in Figure 1 explains 4.9% of the variance for workplace social courage (R
2
50.049).
Furthermore, workplace social courage explains 15.9% of the variance for subjective
happiness (R
2
50.159), 7.3% for life satisfaction (R
2
50.073). These coefficients of
determination represent moderate predictive power (Hair et al., 2016). Cohensf
2
, also known
as effect size, is a measure that shows the size of the effects of an independent variable on a
dependent variable. According to Cohens (2013) guidelines, f
2
0.020, f
2
0.150 and
f
2
0.350 represent small, medium and large effect sizes, respectively. The results in Table 4
show that the effect sizes of the structural model ranged from 0.052 to 0.079; thus, we can
conclude that they have small to moderate effect sizes. In light of the above results, H1,H2,H3,
H4 and H5 were supported.
A1
A6
A7
A8
A9
A2
A3
A4
A5
M1
M2
M3
A15
A16
A17
A18
C7
C9
C10
0.399***
0.222***
0.270***
Organizational Justice
C11
Social Courage
Life Satisfaction
Happiness
C2
C3
C5
C6
Y2
Y3
Y4
R2 = 0.073
R2 = 0.159
R2 = 0.049
C8
Y1
A11
A13
A14
0.748
0.846
0.849
0.843
0.673
0.808
0.835
0.856
0.838
0.671
0.644
0.657
0.569
0.566
0.768
0.673
0.661
0.772
0.580
0.685
0.633
0.748
0.604
0.894
0.898
0.663
0.817
0.841
0.912
0.864
0.621
0.705
Constructs R
2
f
2
Organizational justice ––
Workplace social courage 0.049 0.052
Subjective happiness 0.159 0.189
Life satisfaction 0.073 0.079
Note(s): R
2
5coefficient of determination f
2
5Cohens effect size
Figure 1.
Structural model
Table 4.
Coefficient of
determination and
effect sizes
Mediating role
of workplace
social courage
5. Discussion
5.1 Summary of findings
It is obvious that the discussions and searches on justice, courage and happiness since the
first philosophers in the historical process are still fresh and valid. As social scientists, we
aimed to understand the relationship among these concepts and virtues, which constitutes
most todays business life, and would like to transfer them to theory and practice. In this
context, courage has a great effect on happiness and life satisfaction, and justice is identified
as an important antecedent of courage. As a result, the effects of perceived organizational
justice on social courage, social courage on happiness and life satisfaction, and the mediating
role of courage were tested.
As H1 (organizational justice positively influences workplace social courage behavior)is
supported, it brings the truth to daylight that if the employees have the perception that
organizational justice exists, their workplace social courage will be influenced positively. In
other words, the results showed that perceived organizational justice is a strong antecedent
for workplace social courage. The findings are consistent with the lay theory, as individuals
use their cognitions to process and interact in a given situation. More subtly, organizational
justice helps individuals in processing their moral judgment and social interaction, which
results in social courage. This is also a great starting point to think about how to influence
organizational outcomes positively by using organizational justice and workplace social
courage.
Recent studies (Bockorny and Youssef-Morgan, 2019;Gustems and Calderon, 2014;
Howard et al., 2017;Koerner, 2014;Magnano et al., 2019;Santisi et al., 2020) have begun to
examine the role of workplace social courage on organizational outcomes, suggesting that
courageous behaviors influence positive work behavioral outcomes. In this context, our
findings support H2 (workplace social courage behavior positively influences subjective
happiness) and H3 (workplace social courage behavior positively influences life satisfaction),
which clearly state that workplace social courage emerges as a facilitator for an individuals
subjective happiness and life satisfaction. The findings are consistent with the lay theory, as
individuals use their social courage to help individuals in increasing their subjective
happiness and life satisfaction. This also points out the need for having organizational justice
in the workplace and letting employees have and show workplace social courage.
Since some of the recent previous studies (Ginevra et al., 2018;Gustems and Calderon,
2014;Howard et al., 2017;Koerner, 2014;Magnano et al., 2107,2019;Santisi et al., 2020) have
shown that courage mediates the relationship between career adaptability and life
satisfaction, and also it mediates the relationship between personality and coping, it
triggers the idea that workplace social courage can play the role of mediator between
organizational justice and subjective happiness and life satisfaction. In this context, our
findings support H4 (workplace social courage behavior will mediate the relationship between
organizational justice and subjective happiness) and H5 (workplace social courage behavior will
mediate the relationship between organizational justice and life satisfaction), which clearly
show that organizational justice and workplace social courage are great contributors to
improve positive organizational outcomes, and workplace social courage is a mediator
between perceived organizational justice and subjective happiness, and between perceived
organizational justice and life satisfaction. Similar to our study, two past studies found that
courage increases life satisfaction, and courage has a mediating role in the relationship
between self-perceived employability and life satisfaction, meaningful work and life
satisfaction (Manago et al., 2019). While, the latter study found that courage does not have a
mediating role in the relationship between psychological capital and life satisfaction (Santisi
et al., 2020). The present study extends these inconclusive findings and also expand the line of
argument by including happiness into the equation. Our findings have theoretical and
practical implications for managers and organizations.
K
5.2 Implications for theory
Despite the enormous effort made to identify strategies to boost workplace courage and/or to
identify key employee traits that determine workplace courage and resultant work outcomes,
little research attention has focused on justice climate. The present research contributed both
theoretically and conceptually to the workplace courage research stream by introducing
justice climate as a potential predictor, happiness and life satisfaction as outcomes.
According to the findings obtained within the scope of the research, it is seen that social
courage plays a mediating role in the effect of organizational justice on happiness and life
satisfaction. In this context, besides the research studies that determine the effects of courage
on some organizational outcome variables in the literature (Bockorny et al., 2019;Howard
et al., 2017;Howard and Holmes, 2020;Gustems and Calderon, 2014;Khoshmehr et al., 2020;
Koerner, 2014;Magnano et al., 2019;Schilpzand et al., 2014), it is important that this research
shows the power of courage as being a mediator variable in business life and the relationships
between organizational justice and outcome variables (life satisfaction and happiness); in
essence, it has contributed to this line of research. This research has extended the concept of
courage in a non-western culture, which provides theoretical developments from a cultural
point of view (Arun et al., 2021).
In a similar study, Joshanloo (2019, p. 2) stated according to lay conceptions of happiness;
Yet a central theme to inclusive happiness is the notion that our happiness depends on
things other than ourselves, and thus changing our level of happiness would be a collective
project which requires the involvement of others. In other words, changing ones level of
happiness would depend on the broader context of ones actual and symbolic relationships
with the non-self.Past findings on the mediating role of courage appears to be inconsistent
(Joshanloo, 2019;Manago et al., 2019;Santisi et al., 2020). Our findings contributed to the
literature by highlighting the possible mediating role of courage based on the lay theory
assumptions. More subtly, we contribute to the development of the lay theory. Past work that
built on the lay theory to investigate workplace courage were mostly in non-western context
and countries; our work contributed to theory by interrogating the applicability of theory
developed in the western world. The variables examined in this study are interdisciplinary
subjects that are scrutinized in different disciplines such as philosophy, psychology, ethics,
sociology, religion, etc. In this context, it is thought that the research findings can shed light
on different disciplines.
5.3 Implications for management
The present study has valuable practical and managerial implications. In their previous
work, Lucas et al. (2012) found that individual-level beliefs for justice for both selves, and
others were more strongly associated with life satisfaction at the macro level. For this reason,
happiness and life satisfaction in business life play a big role in determining and shaping
employee welfare. In organizations with justice climate, employees are able to take risks, say
or do things rightly and morally, irrespective of the repercussions and potential ripple effects
that may arise due to courageous acts courageous. The message of this paper to managers is
that organizational justice climate enables the emergence of social courage; thus, managers
and administrators should pay attention and ensure the provision of justice. In this context,
employees should be encouraged to increase their social courage through increased justice
climate and practices. The practical importance of social courage identified as an
intermediary variable in this research can be better understood in two episodic processes:
(1) that spans from justice to workplace courage and to happiness, while (2) the other episode
spans from justice to workplace courage and to life satisfaction. In this context, the findings of
this research contain valuable recommendations for managers who are provides the
necessary foundation for increased employees happiness and life satisfaction. It is important
and necessary for managers to create a fair environment to have happy employees, the
Mediating role
of workplace
social courage
necessity of social courage of employees should be known and reflected in practice to
transform this justice into happiness and life satisfaction.
The contribution of social courage to society, examined in this study, will also manifest
itself in the relationship between cybernetics and courage. In the study where he discussed
courage from a cybernetic viewpoint, MacGill (2013, p. 1,424) stated that The dominant
paradigms of the world today are reductionist and linear, and have led us towards crises in
the environment, economics, health and more. Cybernetics is one alternative paradigm, which
moves beyond reductionist thought. A cybernetic worldview enables us to see ourselves as
partners in dynamic co-creative processes reaching beyond dualities. To live by such a life
requires courage.In the same study, he also pointed out that Having the courage to
acknowledge our interconnectedness leads us reassess our relationship to the world and all
the day-to-day decisions we make(MacGill, 2013, p. 1,427). Hence, he tried to show how to
integrate cybernetic principles into the individual life on daily life. As Maltz (1960, p. 118)
stated in his book titled Psycho-Cybernetics,”“You must daily have the courage to risk
making mistakes, risk failure, risk being humiliated,which has valuable practical and
managerial implications.
5.4 Limitations and future research direction
This paper enriches the current state-of-the-art knowledge regarding the antecedents and
consequences of workplace social courage research. This study has relied on exhaustively
renowned statistical approaches to scrutinize the research model. Nevertheless, several
issues need to be considered while interpreting the findings. First, the data emerged from a
single source and responses are self-reported; even though efforts were directed to remove the
adverse effects, there is a tendency that the findings might have been affected. Future studies
can adopt a longitudinal experiment or multi-source data. Second, the use of a mixed-method
approach (Leong et al., 2020;Yakubu et al., 2020), fuzzy sets (Kaya et al., 2020) and artificial
intelligence techniques (Abubakar, 2019) may provide incremental causational evidence.
Third, even though our findings are limited to a few variables, we believe that the findings
will guide future research efforts concerning the antecedents and consequences of workplace
social courage. Fourthly, this study did not capture the position, income level of the
participants, we believe that this can influence workplace social courage. Also, the study
excluded some of the key sectors such as banking, finance, health care, etc. due to its universe.
Future studies are encouraged to address the limitations. Finally, a fruitful area includes the
nature of effects (i.e. positive or negative, see Behravesh et al., 2020) that high-performance
work systems would exert on courage. It would be interesting to examine the association
between high performance work system (HPWS) and workplace courage. Past work did not
only document the potential interdependence between HPWS and future time perspective
(FTP), but also called for more research on antecedents of FTP (Abubakar et al., 2019a,b). In
lieu of this, we suggest that future work should examine the association between workplace
courage and FTP alongside other potential antecedents and outcomes.
References
Abou Hashish, E.A. (2019), Nursesperception of organizational justice and its relationship to their
workplace deviance,Nursing Ethics, Vol. 27, pp. 273-288.
Abubakar, A.M. (2019), Using a hybrid SEM-artificial intelligence approach to examine the nexus
between boreout, generation, career, life and job satisfaction,Personnel Review, Vol. 49 No. 1,
pp. 67-86.
Abubakar, A.M. and Arasli, H. (2016), Dear top management, please dont make me a cynic: intention
to sabotage,The Journal of Management Development, Vol. 35 No. 10, pp. 1266-1286, doi: 10.
1108/JMD-11-2015-0164.
K
Abubakar, A.M., Behravesh, E., Rezapouraghdam, H. and Yıldız, S.B. (2019a), Applying artificial
intelligence technique to predict knowledge hiding behavior,International Journal of
Information Management, Vol. 49, pp. 45-57.
Abubakar, A.M., Foroutan, T. and Megdadi, K.J. (2019b), An integrative review: high-performance
work systems, psychological capital and future time perspective,International Journal of
Organizational Analysis, Vol. 27 No. 4, pp. 1093-1110, doi: 10.1108/IJOA-12-2017-1302.
Al-Zyoud, M.F. and Mert,
_
I.S. (2019), Does employeespsychological capital buffer the negative
effects of
_
Incivility?,EuroMed Journal of Business, Vol. 14 No. 3, pp. 239-250.
Arun, K., Gedik, N.K., Okun, O. and S
¸en, C. (2021), Impact of cultural values on leadership roles and
paternalistic style from the role theory perspective, World Journal of Entrepreneurship,
Management and Sustainable Development (Early Cite: 30 March 2021). doi: 10.1108/
WJEMSD-10-2020-0128.
Barling, J. and Phillips, M. (1993), Interactional, formal and distributive justice in the workplace: an
exploratory study,Journal of Psychology, Vol. 127 No. 6, pp. 649-656.
Baruch, Y. and Holtom, B.C. (2008), Survey response rate levels and trends in organizational
research,Human Relations, Vol. 61 No. 8, pp. 1139-1160, doi: 10.1177/0018726708094863.
Bashir, S., Khattak, H.R., Hanif, A. and Chohan, S.N. (2011), Whistle-blowing in public sector
organizations: evidence from Pakistan,Review of Public Administration, Vol. 41, pp. 285-296.
Behravesh, E., Tanova, C. and Abubakar, A.M. (2020), Do high-performance work systems always
help to retain employees or is there a dark side?,Service Industries Journal, Vol. 40 Nos 11-12,
pp. 825-845.
Bell, B.S., Wiechmann, D. and Ryan, A.M. (2006), Consequences of organizational justice expectations
in a selection system,Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol. 91 No. 2, pp. 455-466.
Bockorny, K. and Youssef-Morgan, C.M. (2019), Entrepreneurscourage, psychological capital, and
life satisfaction,Frontiers in Psychology, Vol. 10, p. 789.
Brandst
atter, V., Jonas, K.J., Koletzko, S.H. and Fischer, P. (2016), Self-regulatory processes in the
appraisal of moral courage situations,Social Psychology, Vol. 47, pp. 201-213.
Cajete, G. (1994), Look to the Mountain: An Ecology of Indigenous Education, Kivaki Press,
Durango, CO.
Campbell, A. (1976), Subjective measures of well-being,American Psychologist, Vol. 31, pp. 117-124.
Cohen, J. (2013), Statistical Power Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences, Academic, New York.
Comer, D. and Sekerka, L.E. (2018), Factors that contribute to durable moral courage in
organizations,Human Resource Management Review, Vol. 28 No. 2, pp. 116-130.
Detert, J.R. and Bruno, E.A. (2017), Workplace courage: review, synthesis, and future agenda for a
complex construct,The Academy of Management Annals, Vol. 11 No. 2, pp. 593-639.
Diener, E., Emmons, R.A., Larsen, R.J. and Griffin, S. (1985), The satisfaction with life scale,Journal
of Personality Assessment, Vol. 49, pp. 71-75.
Diener, E., Oishi, S. and Tay, L. (2018), Advances in subjective well-being research,Nature Human
Behaviour, Vol. 2 No. 4, pp. 253-260.
Dishon-Berkovits, M. (2018), The role of organizational justice and stress in predicting job-burnout,
Journal of Career Development, Vol. 45, pp. 411-424.
Fornell, C. and Larcker, D.F. (1981), Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable
variables and measurement error,Journal of Marketing Research, Vol. 18 No. 1, pp. 39-50.
Furnham, A. (1997), Lay theories of work stress,Work and Stress, Vol. 11 No. 1, pp. 68-78.
Ginevra, M.C., Magnano, P., LodiAnnovazzi, E.C., Camussi, E., Patrizi, P. and Nota, L. (2018), The role
of career adaptability and courage on life satisfaction in adolescence,Journal of Adolescence,
Vol. 62, pp. 1-8.
Mediating role
of workplace
social courage
Gould, N.H. (2005), Courage: its nature and development,Journal of Humanistic Counseling
Education and Development, Vol. 44 No. 1, pp. 102-116.
Gustems, J. and Calderon, C. (2014), Character strengths and psychological wellbeing among students
of teacher education,International Journal of Educational Psychology, Vol. 3, pp. 265-286.
Hair, J.F. Jr, Hult, G.T.M., Ringle, C. and Sarstedt, M. (2016), A Primer on Partial Least Squares
Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM), SAGE, Thousand Oaks, CA.
Hair, J.F. Jr, Sarstedt, M., Ringle, C.M. and Gudergan, S.P. (2017), Advanced Issues in Partial Least
Squares Structural Equation Modeling, SAGE, Thousand Oaks, CA.
Hair, J.F. Jr, Howard, M.C. and Nitzl, C. (2020), Assessing measurement model quality in PLS SEM
using confirmatory composite analysis,Journal of Business Research, Vol. 109, pp. 101-110.
Henseler, J., Ringle, C.M. and Sarstedt, M. (2015), A new criterion for assessing discriminant validity
in variance-based structural equation modeling,Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science,
Vol. 43 No. 1, pp. 115-135.
Herr, R.M., Bosch, J.A., Loerbroks, A., Genser, B., Almer, C., van Vianen, A.E.M. and Fischer, J.E.
(2018), Organizational justice, justice climate, and somatic complaints: a multilevel
investigation,Journal of Psychosomatic Research, Vol. 111, pp. 15-21.
Howard, M.C. and Cogswell, J.E. (2019), The left side of courage: three exploratory studies on the
antecedents of social courage,The Journal of Positive Psychology, Vol. 14 No. 3, pp. 324-340.
Howard, M.C. and Fox, F.R. (2020), Does gender have a significant relationship with social courage?
Test of dual sequentially mediated pathways,Personality and Individual Differences, Vol. 159,
109904, pp. 1-10.
Howard, M.C. and Holmes, P.E. (2020), Social courage fosters both voice and silence in the workplace:
a study on multidimensional voice and silence with boundary conditions,Journal of
Organizational Effectiveness: People and Performance, Vol. 7 No. 1, pp. 53-73.
Howard, M.C. and Reiley, P.J. (2020), Physical courage predicts relevant outcomes in associated
contexts: the creation of a measure and empirical analysis into the construct,Journal of
Business Research, Vol. 110, pp. 80-94.
Howard, M.C., Farr, J.L., Grandey, A.A. and Gutworth, M.B. (2017), The creation of the workplace
social courage scale (WSCS): an investigation of internal consistency, psychometric properties,
validity, and utility,Journal of Business and Psychology, Vol. 32 No. 6, pp. 673-690.
Huber, A., Strecker, C., Kachel, T., H
oge, T. and H
ofer, S. (2020), Character strengths profiles in
medical professionals and their impact on well-being,Frontiers in Psychology, Vol. 11, doi: 10.
3389/fpsyg.2020.566728.
Joshanloo, M. (2019), Lay conceptions of happiness: associations with reported well-being, personality
traits, and materialism,Frontiers in Psychology, Vol. 10, pp. 1-8.
Kapp, F. and Scheele, B. (1996), What do you mean by moral courage - approaches to a psychology of
the correct path using subjective theories,Gruppendynamik-Zeitschrift Fur Angewandte
Sozialpsychologie, Vol. 27 No. 2, pp. 125-143 .
Karches, K.E. and Sulmasy, D.P. (2016), Justice, courage, and truthfulness: virtues that medical
trainees can and must learn,Family Medicine, Vol. 48 No. 7, pp. 511-516.
Kaya, B., Abubakar, A.M., Behravesh, E., Yıldız, H. and Mert,
_
I.S. (2020), Antecedents of innovative
performance: findings from PLS-SEM and fuzzy sets (fsQCA),Journal of Business Research,
Vol. 114, pp. 278-289.
Khoshmehr, Z., Barkhordari-Sharifabad, M. and Nasiriani, K. (2020), Moral courage and
psychological empowerment among nurses,BMC Nursing, Vol. 19, p. 43.
Kilmann, R.H., OHara, L.A. and Strauss, J.P. (2010), Developing and validating a quantitative
measure of organizational courage,Journal of Business and Psychology, Vol. 25 No. 1, pp. 15-23.
Kinman, G. and Jones, F. (2005), Lay representations of workplace stress: what do people really mean
when they say they are stressed?,Work and Stress, Vol. 19 No. 2, pp. 101-120.
K
Kinsella, E.L., Ritchie, T.D. and Igou, E.R. (2015), Lay perspectives on the social and psychological
functions of heroes,Front. Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 6, pp. 1-12, Article 130.
Koerner, M.M. (2014), Courage as identity work: accounts of workplace courage,Academy of
Management Journal, Vol. 57 No. 1, pp. 63-93.
Larson, R. (1978), Thirty years of research on the subjective well-being of older Americans,Journal
of Gerontology, Vol. 33, pp. 109-125.
Leong, L.Y., Hew, T.S., Ooi, K.B. and Wei, J. (2020), Predicting mobile wallet resistance: a two staged
structural equation modeling-artificial neural network approach,International Journal of
Information Management, Vol. 51, 102047.
Lions Whiskers (2011), What is social courage?, available at: www.lionswhiskers.com/2011/02/what-
is-social-courage.html (accessed 04 May 2021).
Lucas, T., Zhdanova, L., Wendorf, C.A. and Alexander, S. (2012), Procedural and distributive justice
beliefs for self and others: multilevel associations with life satisfaction and self-rated health,
Journal of Happiness Studies, Vol. 14 No. 4, pp. 1325-1341.
Lyubomirsky, S. and Lepper, H.S. (1999), A measure of subjective happiness: preliminary reliability
and construct validation,Social Indicators Research, Vol. 46 No. 2, pp. 137-155.
MacGill, V.R.D. (2013), Developing a cybernetic lifestyle,Kybernetes, Vol. 42 Nos 9/10, pp. 1424-1430.
Magnano, P., Paolillo, A., Platania, S. and Santisi, G. (2017), Courage as a potential mediator between
personality and coping,Personality and Individual Differences, Vol. 111, pp. 13-18.
Magnano, P., San si, G., Zammitti, A., Zarbo, R. and Di Nuovo, S.F. (2019), Self-perceived
employability and meaningful work: the mediating role of courage on quality of life,
Sustainability, Vol. 11 No. 3, p. 764.
Maltz, M. (1960), Psycho-Cybernetics, Prentice-Hall, NY.
Mert,
_
I.S. (2021), Cesaret ve biles
¸enlerinin kes
¸fine ilis
¸kin nitel bir aras
¸tırma: eski bir erdemin yeniden
kes
¸fi,
_
Is
¸ve
_
Insan Dergisi, Vol. 8 No. 1, pp. 19-32.
Mert,
_
I.S., Bekmezci, M. and Abubakar, M. (2018),
_
Is
¸-yas
¸am dengesinin yas
¸am tatmini yordamasında
çalıs
¸ılan sekt
or
un d
uzenleyici etkisi,
Org
utsel Davranıs
¸Kongresi, Isparta, Turkey, Kasım 2018.
Niehoff, B.P. and Moorman, R.H. (1993), Justice as a mediator of the relationship between methods of
monitoring and organizational citizenship behavior,Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 36
No. 3, pp. 527-556.
Santisi, G., Lodi, E., Magnano, P., Zarbo, R. and Zammitti, A. (2020), Relationship between
psychological capital and quality of life: the role of courage,Sustainability, Vol. 12 No. 13,
p. 5238.
Schalock, R.L. and Felce, D. (2004), Quality of life and subjective well-being: conceptual and
measurement issues, in Emerson, E., Hatton, C., Thompson, T. and Parmenter, T.R. (Eds),
International Handbook of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities,Wiley,London,
pp. 261-279.
Schilpzand, P. (2008), Personal Courage: A Measure Creation Study, University of Florida,
Gainesville, FL.
Schilpzand, P., Hekman, D.R. and Mitchell, T.R. (2014), An inductively generated typology and
process model of workplace courage,Organization Science, Vol. 26 No. 1, pp. 52-77.
Schuberth, F., Henseler, J. and Dijkstra, T.K. (2018), Confirmatory composite analysis,Frontiers in
Psychology, Vol. 9, pp. 25-41.
Schwartz, N.L. (2004), Dreaded and dared: courage as a virtue,The University of Chicago Press
Journals, Polity, Vol. 36 No. 3, pp. 341-365.
Sekerka, L.E. and Bagozzi, R.P. (2007), Moral courage in the workplace: moving to and from the
desire and decision to act,Business Ethics: A European Review, Vol. 16 No. 2, pp. 132-149.
Mediating role
of workplace
social courage
S
¸en, C. and Mert,
_
I.S. (2020), Courage management: courage as a management tool, in Babacan, H.
and
_
Inan, R. (Eds), Social and Humanities Sciences: Theory, Current Researches, and New
Trends, IVPE, Montenegro, pp. 160-183.
Shapiro, D.L. and Kirkman, B.L. (2001), Anticipatory injustice: the consequences of expecting
injustice in the workplace, in Greenberg, J. and Cropanzano, R. (Eds), Advances in Organization
Justice, Stanford University Press, Stanford, pp. 152-178.
Sheehan, K.B. (2001), E-mail survey response rates: a review,Journal of Computer-Mediated
Communication, Vol. 6 No. 2, JCMC621.
Thomas, P. and Nagalingappa, G. (2012), Consequences of perceived organizational justice: an
empirical study of white-collar employees,Researchers World - Journal of Arts Science and
Commerce, Vol. 3 No. 2, pp. 1-10.
Totawar, A.K. and Nambudiri, R. (2014), How does organizational justice influence job satisfaction
and organizational commitment? Explaining with psychological capital,Vikalpa: The Journal
for Decision Makers, Vol. 39 No. 2, pp. 83-97.
Vasconcelos, A.F. (2020), Spiritual intelligence: a theoretical synthesis and work-life potential
linkages,International Journal of Organizational Analysis, Vol. 28 No. 1, pp. 109-134.
Wood, C. (2021), The role of courage in the development and practice of coaches,International
Journal of Evidence Based Coaching and Mentoring, Vol. 19 No. 1, pp. 28-43.
Woodard, C.R. (2004), Hardiness and the concept of courage,Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice
and Research, Vol. 56, pp. 173-185.
Yakubu, M.N., Dasuki, S.I., Abubakar, A.M. and Kah, M.M. (2020), Determinants of learning
management systems adoption in Nigeria: a hybrid SEM and artificial neural network
approach,Education and Information Technologies, Vol. 25, pp. 3515-3539.
Zhang, L., Zhang, C. and Shang, L. (2016), Sensation-seeking and domain-specific risk-taking
behavior among adolescents: risk perceptions and expected benefits as mediators,Personality
and Individual Differences, Vol. 101, pp. 299-305.
Zhao, X., Lynch, J.G. Jr and Chen, Q. (2010), Reconsidering baron and Kenny: myths and truths about
mediation analysis,Journal of Consumer Research, Vol. 37 No. 2, pp. 197-206.
K
Appendix
Org
utsel adalet / Organizational justice
Y
oneticim is
¸imle ilgili karar verirken bana saygılıveya onurumu koruyucu sekilde davranır. / When decisions
are made about my job. the general manager treats me with kindness and consideration
Y
oneticim is
¸imle ilgili karar verirken kis
¸isel ihtiyaçlarıma duyarlılıkg
osterir. / When decisions are made about
my job, the general manager is sensitive to my personal needs
Y
oneticim is
¸imle ilgili karar verirken bana d
ur
ustçe davranır. / When decisions are made about my job, the
general manager deals with me in a truthful manner
Y
oneticim is
¸imle ilgili karar verirken çalısan olarak bana haklarımla ilgili saygıduymaktadır. / When decisions
are made about my job, the general manager shows concern for my rights as an employee
Y
oneticim is
¸imle ilgili karar verirken benimle verilecek kararların etkisini tartıs
¸ır. / Concerning decisions made
about my job, the general manager discusses the implications of the decisions with me
Y
oneticim is
¸imle ilgili karar verirken yeterince Kabul edilebilir sebeplerini de sunar. / The general manager
offers adequate justification for decisions made about my job
Y
oneticim is
¸imle ilgili karar verirken bana is
¸im ile ilgili mantıklııklamalarda bulunur. / When making
decisions about my job, the general manager offers explanations that make sense to me
Y
oneticim is
¸imle ilgili herhangi bir karar verildi
ginde gerekli açıklamalarda bulunur. / My general manager
explains very clearly any decision made about my job
Çalıs
¸ma programım oldukça adildir. / My work schedule is fair
_
Is
¸imle ilgili olarak aldı
gım
ucretin adil oldu
gunu d
us
¸
un
uyorum. / I think that my level of pay is fair
_
Is
¸y
uk
um
un oldukça adil oldu
gunu d
us
¸
un
uyorum. / I consider my workload to be quite fair
Aldı
gım
od
ul ve ikramiyelerin oldukça adil oldugunu d
us
¸
un
uyorum. / Overall, the rewards I receive here are
quite fair
_
Is
¸sorumluluklarımın adil oldu
gunu d
us
¸
un
uyorum. / I feel that my job responsibilities are fair
Y
onetici tarafından verilen is
¸kararlarıs
¸
uphe uyandırmaz. / Job decisions are made by the general manager in
an unbiased manner
Karar almadan
once çalıs
¸anların fikir ve d
us
¸
uncelerine bas
¸vurulur. / My general manager makes sure that all
employee concerns are heard before job decisions are made
_
Is
¸kararlarıkesin ve tam bilgi toplandıktan sonra verilir. / To make job decisions, my general manager collects
accurate and complete information
Y
oneticiler, çalısanların talep etmesi durumunda gerekli bilgileri verirler. / My general manager clarifies
decisions and provides additional information when requested by employees
Çalıs
¸anlar, y
oneticiler tarafından verilen kararlara kars
¸ıolma veya onay verme konusunda serbesttirler. /
Employees are allowed to challenge or appeal job decisions made by the general manager
_
Is
¸Yerinde Sosyal Cesaret / Workplace social courage
Arkadas
¸lı
gımızızedeleyecek olsa bile, çalıs
¸ma arkadas
¸ım yanlıs
¸bir s
¸ey yaparsa y
oneticime s
oylerim. /
Although it may damage our friendship, I would tell my superior when a coworker is doing something
incorrectly
Çalıs
¸ma arkadas
¸ımınkırılaca
gınıbilsem dahi, ona is
¸lerin daha iyi yapılmasına y
onelik
onerilerde bulunurum. /
Although my coworker may become offended, I would suggest to him/her better ways to do things
Aptalca bir soru olarak algılanaca
gınıbilsem dahi, is
¸te anlamadı
gım bir s
¸eyi sorarım. / If I thought a question
was dumb, I would still ask it if I did not understand something at work
Çalıs
¸ma arkadas
¸larım hakkımda olumsuz d
us
¸
unse dahi, bas
¸arısızlık ihtimali olan bir is
¸i/projeyi y
ur
ut
ur
um. /
Even if my coworkers could think less of me, I would lead a project, with a chance of failure
Çalıs
¸ma arkadas
¸ımın bozulaca
gınıbilsem de, onun bas
¸ka birisine kaba davranmasına m
usammaha etmem. /
I would not tolerate when a coworker is rude to someone, even if I make him/her upset
Astlarım/çalıs
¸ma arkadas
¸larım hos
¸lanmasa dahi, s
¸irket/kurum politikasına aykırıbir s
¸ey yaparlarsa ikaz
ederim. / Despite my subordinate disliking me, I would tell him/her when they are doing something against
company policy
(continued )
Table A1.
The items of the scales
(Turkish and English)
Mediating role
of workplace
social courage
Corresponding author
Cem Sen can be contacted at: cem.sen@hotmail.com
For instructions on how to order reprints of this article, please visit our website:
www.emeraldgrouppublishing.com/licensing/reprints.htm
Or contact us for further details: permissions@emeraldinsight.com
Çok negatif birisi oldu
gumu d
us
¸
uneceklerini bilsem dahi, çalıs
¸ma arkadas
¸larımınis
¸le ilgili birs
¸eyden endis
¸e
duydu
gumu bilmelerini isterim. / I would let my coworkers know when I am concerned about something, even
if they would think I am too negative
_
Ilis
¸kimizi tamamen zedeleyecek olsa bile, bir astım/çalıs
¸ma arkadas
¸ımis
¸arkadas
¸larıyla birlikte çalıs
¸ırken
ahengi bozuyorsa, onun
ust
une giderim. / Even if it may damage our relationship, I would confront a
subordinate who had been disrupting their workgroup
Beni beceriksiz, yetersiz g
osterecek olsa bile, çalıs
¸ma arkadas
¸larıma isle ilgili yanlıs
¸bir s
¸ey yaptı
gımda
s
oylerim. / Although it makes me look incompetent, I would tell my coworkers when Ive made a mistake
Dinleyicilerin g
oz
unde yetersiz g
or
unece
gimi bilsem dahi, is
¸yerinde bir sunum yapmak için g
on
ull
u olurum. /
Despite appearing dumb in front of an audience, I would volunteer to give a presentation at work
Arkadas
¸lı
gımızıtamamen zedeleyecek olsa bile, bir çalıs
¸ma arkadas
¸ıma is
¸performansıhakkında d
ur
ust bir
geri bildirim veririm. / Although it may completely ruin our friendship, I would give a coworker an honest
performance appraisal
Mutluluk / Subjective Happiness
Genellikle kendimi mutlu bir insan olarak g
or
ur
um. / In general, I consider myself a very happy person
Kendimi akranlarımla kıyasladı
gımda daha mutlu g
or
uyorum. / Compared with most of my peers, I consider
myself more happy
Bazıinsanlar genellikle çok mutludur. Olan bitene aldırmadan, ço
gu s
¸eyin dıs
¸ında kalarak hayatan zevk alırlar.
Bu durumun size uygunlu
guna ne derece katılırsınız? / Some people are generally very happy. They enjoy life
regardless of what is going on, getting the most out of everything. To what extent does this characterization
describe you?
Bazıinsanlar genellikle çok mutlu de
gildir. Canlarıçok sıkkın, bunalımda olmasalarda onlarıçok mutlu
g
oremezsiniz. Bu durumun size uygunlu
guna ne derece katılırsınız? / Some people are generally not very
happy. Although they are not depressed, they never seem as happy as they might be. To what extent does this
characterization describe you?
Yas
¸am Tatmini / The satisfaction with life scale
_
Ideallerime yakın bir hayatım var. / In most ways, my life is close to my ideal
Hayat kos
¸ullarımm
ukemmeldir. / The conditions of my life are excellent
Hayatımdan memnunum. / I am satisfied with my life
S
¸imdiye kadar hayattan istedi
gim
onemli s
¸eylere sahip oldum. / So far, I have gotten the important things
I want in life
Table A1.
K
... research measurement was assessed using the structural equation modeling technique based on the partial least squares' algorithm (PLS-SEM). PLS-SEM aims to reduce errors and aerate the explained variance of the outcome variables(Mert et al., 2021; Hair Jr et al., 2011). This approach was chosen over covariance-based SEM for the following reasons. ...
Article
Scholars and practitioners have trumpeted business intelligence (BI) capability as a game-changer due to its significant impact on firm performance. Despite these claims, the amplifying and underlying mechanisms governing the relationship between BI capability and organizational performance are still in their infancy. This research examines the nexus between BI capability, decision-making speed, comprehensiveness, and organizational performance. This study, drawing on knowledge-based theory, proposes a conceptual model to explain how BI capability influences organizational performance through decision-making speed and comprehensiveness and the moderating role of firm size. The proposed moderated-mediated model was tested using survey data from 236 respondents occupying leadership positions in various Jordanian industries. Partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) was used to diagnose the proposed model. BI capability indirectly affects firm performance through decision-making speed and comprehensiveness. These mediating effects do not vary by company size. This paper contributed theoretically and practically to the BI framework considering decision-making, firm performance, and firm size. Implications for theory-building and practice are described.
... Researchers have recently begun to study workplace social courage's role in organizational results; they suggest that courageous behaviors affect positive work behavioral outcomes (54)(55)(56)(57)(58). In Mert's study (59), workplace social courage is a facilitator for subjective happiness and life satisfaction. Awareness of the importance of moral courage and its influential factors can help healthcare researchers, educators, clinicians, and leaders demonstrate moral courage, face ethical challenges and ethical environment maintenance (36). ...
Article
Full-text available
Background COVID-19 has become a major global health problem, and healthcare professionals are facing lot of pressure and stress. Accumulated resources and energy obtained via interpersonal relationships is called social capital, which can reduce the negative effects of pressure and stress related to the workplace by impacting happiness and moral courage. This study explored the effect of workplace social capital on moral courage and happiness in nurses working in the COVID-19 wards. Methods In this cross-sectional study, using a random sampling method, 169 nurses from three hospitals in East Mazandaran province, Iran, participated who worked in COVID-19 wards. The Onyx and Bullen Social Capital Questionnaire, the Sekerka's Moral Courage Scale, and the Oxford Happiness Inventory were used in this study. Descriptive analysis, Pearson correlation analyses, and stepwise multiple regression were performed for data analysis. Results The mean age of nurses was 31.38 ± 6.82 years. Socio-demographic factors such as age, gender, educational level, and employment status were significant predictors of workplace social capital. Social capital was positively correlated with moral courage (r = 0.29, p < 0.01) and happiness (r = 0.32, p < 0.01). In addition, social capital explained 6.8 and 8.6% variance in predicting moral courage and happiness, respectively. Conclusions Workplace social capital is a vital organizational phenomenon affecting nurses' moral courage and happiness, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic. Thus, hospitals should be aware of the importance of social capital; they should ensure that all the practices and policies are in place to develop and increase it.
... Measuring proficiency might be difficult without a clear explanation of the procedures that these procedures go through, many studies have been presented thus far, and many of them encompass various elements (e.g. Ray et al., 2004;Schreyögg & Kliesch-Eberl, 2007;Oliver & Holzinger, 2008;Collis, 2013;Mert et al., 2021). The dynamic nature of HRM proficiency should be demonstrated by obvious organizational features that aid the company in creating and maintaining value in order to fulfill business expectations. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study analyzed the key interrelationship between organizational sourcing, HRM proficiency. Upon extending the vast literature, this present study assessed the mediation role of HRM Processes between organizational Sourcing and HRM proficiency and the moderation role of transactional leadership between organizational sourcing and HRM processes. The study data were gathered from 127 managers sampled across varying organizations in Saudi Arabia. The partial least squares structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM) was deployed to test the research hypotheses and the conceptual model. The results obtained from this study for direct impact of organizational sourcing on HRM processes, HRM processes on HRM proficiency. In addition, HRM processes fully mediate the relationship between organizational sourcing and HRM proficiency, while the result fails to confirm the moderation relationship.
... This research expended a structural equation modeling technique by drawing on the partial least squares (PLS-SEM) algorithm. The main aspiration of PLS-SEM algorithms and techniques are to maximize the explained variance in the response variable and also to diminish the presence of estimation errors in the response variable (Khaddam et al., 2021;Mert et al., 2021). PLS-SEM operates on composite-grounds and is causal-predictive in terms of estimations Yakubu et al., Organizacija, Volume 54 Issue 4, November 2021 Research Papers 2020). ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Managers in labor-intensive industries are facing challenges on how to encourage innovation, as services are mostly offered by employees and not machines. Intense competition in the service and hospitality industry calls for more innovative work behavior exhibition among employees, and the question on how enterprises can nurture innovative behavior remains unanswered. The objective of the research is to clarify the inter-relationship between spiritual leadership and workplace spirituality and how their collective effect can nurture employee service innovative behavior in the hospitality industry by drawing on relational energy theory. Methodology: Data were obtained using a survey quantitative research method based on a convenience sampling technique from (n = 867) employees working in four- and five-star Jordanian hotels. A partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) technique was applied to assess the proposed research model and hypotheses. Results: Findings from PLS-SEM show that spiritual leadership impacts and increases the level of workplace spirituality and service innovative behavior among employees. Workplace spirituality increases the level of service innovative behavior and mediates the relationship between spiritual leadership and service innovative behavior. Conclusion: Spiritual leadership and workplace spirituality initiatives and practices can be beneficial for hospitality enterprises in terms of service innovative behavior. Moreover, the key point is that hospitality HR practitioners should not only focus on selecting, training, and appointing leaders with spiritual characteristics, but also on creating a spiritual work atmosphere to enable employees to exhibit service innovative behaviors. The results did not only advance our knowledge concerning the nexus and importance of spirituality in the workplace, but also validates and reveals the importance of spirituality on innovative behavior in the Arabian context.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Binlerce yıldır filozoflar hayatın anlamını idrak etmede, cesareti anlamanın önemine dikkat çekmişlerdir. Bu çabanın modern bir uzantısı olarak, günümüz bazı sosyal bilim araştırmacıları da, cesareti anlama gayretine girmişleridir. Son yıllarda yapılan bazı çalışmaların, özellikle cesaretin öncüllerine odaklanarak, adeta bu eski erdemi yeniden keşfetmeye başladığı görülmektedir. İlişkisel Teori’den hareketle yapılan çalışmada, cesaretin önemli öncüllerinden birini keşfetmeyi hedeflenerek kişilerarası güç boyutları ile cesaret arasındaki ilişki incelenmiştir. Araştırmanın bulguları, kişilerarası gücün, cesaret için güçlü bir öncül olduğunu göstermektedir. Bu kapsamda, kişilerarası güç boyutlarının cesaret üzerindeki etkisi açısından; sosyal zeka, bağlanmışlık ve şükran boyutları cesareti olumlu yönde etkilemektedir. Çalışmada elde edilen sonuçlar bağlamında teoriye ve uygulayıcılara katkısı tartılışmış, araştırmanın sınırlılıkları ve gelecekteki araştırmalara yönelik önerilere yer verilmiştir.
Article
Courageous behaviors are risky and devoted actions performed primarily for the benefit of others, and they closely relate to many beneficial organizational (e.g., commitment) outcomes. Even courage plays a crucial role in many professions’ results; investigating it in military content is a primary issue. This paper examined the relationship between the Big Five personality traits and organizational commitment and the moderator role of courage in this relationship by focusing on coast guards. Cross-sectional survey data (n = 512) were obtained from employees and analyzed using the least square method regression analysis. The results showed that the Conscientiousness trait is a strong antecedent for organizational commitment, and courage emerges as a moderator for the relationship between personality traits and organizational commitment. High courage strengthened the effect of Conscientiousness-Emotional Stability on normative commitment, Extraversion-Agreeableness on affective commitment, Openness on continuance, and normative commitment. Practitioners might recruit high conscientious, agreeable, emotionally stable, and courageous candidates considering correlational and moderating effects.
Research
Full-text available
Araştırmanın temel amacı Fauville vd.’nin (2021) geliştirdiği Zoom Exhaustion & Fatigue Scale isimli ölçüm aracının Türk kültüründe geçerlik ve güvenirliğini sağlamaktır. Araştırmanın evrenini Tokat Gaziosmanpaşa Üniversitesi’nde görevli akademisyenler oluşturmaktadır. Araştırmada zaman ve maliyet kısıtları nedeniyle kolayda örnekleme yöntemi tercih edilmiştir. Araştırma kapsamında Türkçeİngilizce çeviri ile ters çeviri işlemleri tamamlandıktan ve madde toplam korelasyonları incelendikten (.55 ile .88 arasında) sonra ifadeleri son haline getirilen ölçek, örnekleme elektronik ortamda ulaştırılmıştır. Gerekli analiz varsayımlarını karşılayan 62 katılımcıya ilişkin verilerle ileri analizler gerçekleştirilmiştir. Ölçeğin geçerleme sürecinde verilere uygulanan Doğrulayıcı Faktör Analizi sonucu, orijinaline uygun şekilde 15 ifade (en düşük madde faktör yükü .62) ve 5 alt boyut ile yapı geçerliği sağlanmıştır. İç tutarlılık katsayısı 5 alt boyut için .82 ile .94 arasında değişim göstermiştir. İlgili katsayı ölçeğin tamamı için .95 şeklinde hesaplanmıştır. Bulgulardan hareketle ölçeğin Türk kültürü için geçerli ve güvenilir bir ölçüm aracı olduğu tespit edilmiştir.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Çalışmanın temel amacı banka personellerinin nepotizm algılarını ölçmek ve iş yerindeki kişiler arası çatışma düzeylerine etkisini tespit ederek, ücret tatmininin bu etkileşimdeki düzenleyici rolünü belirlemektir. Nepotizm, kurumlarda adaleti algısını ortadan kaldıracak şekilde kullanılabilmektedir. Adaletin olmadığı kurumlarda da çatışmalar kaçınılmazdır. Bireyler bazı durumlarda kurum içerisindeki bu olumsuzlukları göz ardı etmektedirler. Kazanılan ücretin bireyleri tatmin edecek düzeyde dolgun oluşu veya tatminsizlik yaratacak şekilde düşük oluşu olumsuzluklara olan bakış açılarını değiştirebilmektedir. Performansa dayalı ücretlendirmenin yoğun olduğu bankacılık sektöründe kazanılan ücretin bu denklemde daha fazla rolü olduğu düşünülmektedir. Çalışma kapsamında banka personellerine online olarak 315 anket gönderilmiştir. Eldeki verilerin analizler için gerekli koşulları sağladığı tespit edilmiştir. Anket formunda kullanılan ölçeklerin geçerlilik ve güvenilirlik analizleri yapılmıştır. Sonraki aşamada değişkenler arasındaki ilişkilerin tespiti için korelasyon analizi yapılmış; hipotezlerin test edilmesi amacıyla da regresyon ve düzenleyici etki analizi gerçekleştirilmiştir. Analizler sonucunda nepotizmin iş yerindeki kişiler arası çatışmayı pozitif etkilediği ve ücret tatminin düşük düzeyde olduğu durumlarda bu etkileşimin arttığı tespit edilmiştir.
Article
Full-text available
Character strengths profiles in the specific setting of medical professionals are widely unchartered territory. This paper focused on an overview of character strengths profiles of medical professionals (medical students and physicians) based on literature research and available empirical data illustrating their impact on well-being and work engagement. A literature research was conducted and the majority of peer-reviewed considered articles dealt with theoretical or conceptually driven ‘virtues’ associated with medical specialties or questions of ethics in patient care (e.g., professionalism, or what makes a good physician). The virtues of compassion, courage, altruism, and benevolence were described most often. Only a limited number of papers addressed character strengths of medical students or physicians according to the VIA-classification. Those articles showed that the VIA-character strengths fairness, honesty , kindness , and teamwork were considered most often by respondents to be particularly important for the medical profession. Available cross-sectional (time span: six years) and longitudinal (time span: three years) data regarding VIA-character strengths profiles of medical professionals were analyzed ( N = 584 medical students, 274 physicians). These profiles were quite homogenous among both groups. The character strengths fairness , honesty , judgment , kindness , and love had the highest means in both samples. Noteworthy differences appeared when comparing medical specialties, in particular concerning general surgeons and psychiatrists, with the former reporting clearly higher levels of e.g., honesty ( d = 1.02) or prudence ( d = 1.19). Long-term results revealed significant positive effects of character strengths on well-being and work engagement (e.g., perseverance on physicians’ work engagement) but also significant negative effects (e.g., appreciation of beauty and excellence on students’ well-being). Further, hope was significantly associated both positively with physicians’ well-being and negatively with students’ work engagement, possibly indicating specific issues concerning medical education or hospital working conditions. According to the modern-day physician’s pledge, medical professionals should pay attention to their own well-being and health. Therefore, promoting self-awareness and character building among medical professionals could be a beneficial strategy.
Article
Full-text available
Quality of life is a multidimensional concept, a construct influenced by objective and subjective factors that include the evaluation of functional, physical, social, and emotional aspects of the person. The recent contributions of positive psychology present the quality of life as a fundamental indicator for health promotion and prevention strategies. In the recent psychological studies about this topic, courage demonstrated to positively affect several work behavioral outcomes, personal identity, and prosocial actions. Courage promotes change, innovation, and coping skills to achieve aims, and it correlates positively with many individual resources. The aim of the study was to investigate, according to the positive psychology approach, the relationships between psychological capital and two dimensions of quality of life—life satisfaction and flourishing—with particular attention to the mediation function performed by courage. The research was attended by a convenience sample of 807 Italian workers, balanced by gender, belonging to public, private, and non-profit organizations, and recruited on a voluntary basis. Participants responded to a structured online questionnaire containing the following measures: Psychological Capital Questionnaire, Courage Measure, Satisfaction with Life Scale, and Flourishing Scale. Cronbach’s alpha on each scale showed very good internal consistency. The collected data were analyzed according to a model of linear structural equations. In the first step, we conducted a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to test the model fit of the measurement model; in the second step, we verified the mediation hypothesis through Process v.3.1. Finally, the correlations were implemented using SPSS 20.0. The results showed that, in general, psychological capital predicts life satisfaction and flourishing, with an indirect mediation effect of courage only on flourishing. Two main conclusions emerged from the study: flourishing and life satisfaction are representative indicators of the quality of life; courage emerges as an important psychological resource that supports the individual to face and manage the uncertainties of the risk society.
Article
Full-text available
No widespread theoretical framework exists to study courage, and researchers must turn to lay theory to identify relationships that can develop more sophisticated theoretical integrations. We test the lay theory that men are more courageous than women. Three studies show that gender does not have a significant direct effect with an important dimension of courage, social courage; however, gender has dual sequentially mediated indirect effects with social courage that jointly produce an overall null effect. One indirect effect is through femininity and prosocial tendencies, whereas the other is through masculinity and risk taking. These results support that (a) the lay theory that men are more courageous than women is false– at least regarding social courage, (b) gender does have indirect relationships with social courage, (c) and contexts relevant to two central features of courage, prosocial tendencies and risk taking, may alter the social courage behaviors of feminine or masculine individuals.
Article
Full-text available
Background Moral courage is one of the fundamental values of nursing profession and a powerful method of coping with ethical problems. Psychological empowerment is a suitable method of enabling individuals to coping mental pressures of the work environment. This study determined the correlation between moral courage and psychological empowerment of nurses. Methods This was a descriptive cross-sectional study. A total of 180 nurses employed in different wards were selected randomly. Data were collected by Demographics Questionnaire, Sekerka’s Moral Courage Scale, and Spreitzer’s psychological empowerment Scale and analyzed with SPSS16 using descriptive and inferential statistics. Findings The results indicated that the mean score of moral courage was 21.11 ± 69.90 and the greatest amount of moral courage was in the dimension of “going beyond compliance”. The mean score of “psychological empowerment” was 30.9 ± 73.58 and the greatest mean belonged to “competence”. There was a positive significant correlation between “psychological empowerment” and “moral courage and its dimensions” (P < 0.05). Conclusion The findings suggested a correlation between moral courage and psychological empowerment. Thus, nurses’ moral courage could be enhanced by reinforcing their psychological empowerment leading to increased patient satisfaction and quality care.
Article
Full-text available
The disregard of physical courage in modern research prevents a complete understanding of employee success in the many occupations that include physical dangers, such as military personnel, firefighters, nurses, police officers, athletes, performance artists, and blue-collar workers. To address this concern, the current article undergoes a four-study process to create the Physical Courage at Work Scale (PCWS) and provides evidence for its relationship with important employee behaviors and performance. Two empirical studies test whether the PCWS, while controlling for conscientiousness and social courage, relates to organizational citizenship behaviors, voice, counterproductive work behaviors, and performance. The empirical studies show that the PCWS does not relate to these outcomes in a general employee sample; however, it does relate to organizational citizenship behaviors, voice, and performance in a sample of United States Air Force Academy cadets. Physical courage does not predict all outcomes broadly, but it instead predicts relevant outcomes in associated contexts.
Article
Full-text available
Research has shown that technology, when used prudently, has the potential to improve instruction and learning both in and out of the classroom. Only a handful of African tertiary institutions have fully deployed learning management systems (LMS) and the literature is devoid of research examining the factors that foster the adoption of LMS. To fill this void, the present research investigates the factors contributing to students’ acceptance of LMS. Survey data were obtained from registered students in four Nigerian universities (n = 1116); the responses were analyzed using artificial neural network (ANN) and structural equation modeling (SEM) techniques. The results show that social influence, facilitating conditions, system quality, perceived ease of use, and perceived usefulness are important predictors for students’ behavioral intention to use LMS. Students’ behavioral intention to use LMS also functions as a predictor for actual usage of LMS. Implications for practice and theory are discussed.
Article
Full-text available
Purpose One of the strongest and most important outcomes of trait social courage is employee voice, but researchers have only studied this relationship with unidimensional conceptualizations of voice. The purpose of this paper is to apply Van Dyne et al. ’s (2003) three-dimensional conceptualization of voice, which also distinguishes three dimensions of silence, to provide a nuanced understanding of the relationship of social courage with voice and silence. The authors also test for the moderating effect of three contextual influences: top management attitudes toward voice and silence, supervisor attitudes toward voice and silence, as well as communication opportunities. Design/methodology/approach The authors conducted a four-timepoint survey with each measurement occasion separated by one week. A total of 134 participants completed all four timepoints. Findings The results support that social courage positively relates to prosocial voice and silence, whereas it negatively relates to defensive voice and silence as well as acquiescent voice and silence. In other words, social courage positively relates to beneficial voice and silence as well as negatively relates to detrimental voice and silence. The results also failed to support any moderating effects, suggesting that the relationships of social courage are very resilient to outside forces. Practical implications These findings both test prior results and discover new relationships of social courage, which can further stress the importance of courage. The authors also draw direct connections between the influence of social courage on the surrounding workplace environment – as well as the influences of the environment on social courage. While the current paper provides insights into social courage, it also directs future researchers toward new insights of their own. Originality/value Courage is an emergent research topic within organizations. While many authors have assumed that courage is important to work, the current paper is among the few to empirically support this notion.
Article
This study seeks to understand the role that courage plays in the development and practice of coaches. Courage is mentioned frequently in the coaching literature, but this research is the first study to investigate its significance. Within the precepts of constructivist grounded theory, which is appropriate for the investigation of under-represented topics, the perspectives of 12 coaches of varying levels of experience revealed that courage is required throughout a coaching career. It was found that courage enables coaches to deliver their best work and is integral to an ongoing cycle of increasing self-awareness and professional development.
Article
Collaboration for innovation and innovative performance have been documented as critical competitive advantage tools for firms in emerging markets. Drawing on the “transactive memory” theory, this paper proposes that organizational learning (OL) and inter-organizational communication (IOC) can positively impact innovative performance through the mediating role of collaboration for innovation. The proposed relationships were assessed by PLS-SEM (symmetric) and fuzzy sets (asymmetric) approaches using two independent survey datasets, which were obtained from firms operating in the telecommunications and IT industries in Turkey. Results from PLS-SEM revealed that higher levels of OL and IOC increased collaboration for innovation, while collaboration not only improved innovative performance but also mediated the impacts of OL and IOC on innovative performance. Results from fuzzy sets (fsQCA) reinforced the symmetric findings, fsQCA revealed that causal conditions OL and collaboration for innovation, IOC and collaboration for innovation were necessary and sufficient recipes for higher levels of innovative performance.
Article
Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) has historically been used to develop and improve reflectively measured constructs based on the domain sampling model. Compared to CFA, confirmatory composite analysis (CCA) is a recently proposed alternative approach applied to confirm measurement models when using partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM). CCA is a series of steps executed with PLS-SEM to confirm both reflective and formative measurement models of established measures that are being updated or adapted to a different context. CCA is also useful for developing new measures. Finally, CCA offers several advantages over other approaches for confirming measurement models consisting of linear composites.