Article
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

[IT] Il saggio esplora la ricostruzione di Skopje dopo il terremoto del 1963 che innesco la mobilitazione di aiuti e competenze internazionali. Non si trattava solo di affrontare il tema del centro in relazione alla citta storica; entrarono in gioco fenomeni insediativi gia in atto, la gestione dell'emergenza, le politiche di pianificazione regionale, quindi il ruolo geografico della citta. Skopje costitui un banco di prova per la cultura architettonica e urbanistica del dopoguerra. ----- ----- ------ [EN] This paper explores the reconstruction of Skopje in the aftermath of 1963 earthquake which, at the time, became an international testing ground for post-war architectural and urban planning culture. The task of reconstruction went beyond the project for the city-centre in relation to the historical core and identity. It had to face the management of emergency, the settlements at place, and regional planning policies which all toghteher challenged the geographical role of the city.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
Article
Full-text available
Development studies of the deal with the pillars of sustainability and sustainable developmentis broader in your vision format field. The aim of this scientific paper is to contextualize intellectual and professional trajectory of Ignacy Sachs, to understand how was the construction of concepts that include economic, social and environmental fundamental aspects to studies in Local Development. The bibliographical research used on the spiral of knowledge is to show how it is consolidated ideas starting from local studies.
Article
Full-text available
This article takes stock of my attempt to scrutinize the onset of the Syrian uprising with the help of some key analytical concepts derived from social movement theory, including “opportunity” and “threat,” “social networks,” “repertoires of contention,” “framing,” and “diffusion.” These tools allow me to identify and disentangle the mechanisms of early mobilization and the uprising and explain why they commenced in relatively peripheral areas. Social networks and framing processes are argued to have been key in mobilization, by transmitting opportunities derived from the “Arab Spring,” by mediating the nexus between repression and mobilization, by creating and feeding a rich new repertoire of defiant protest acts and claims-making, and by aiding the diffusion or agglomeration of mobilization throughout the country.
Article
Full-text available
Human activity is leaving a pervasive and persistent signature on Earth. Vigorous debate continues about whether this warrants recognition as a new geologic time unit known as the Anthropocene. We review anthropogenic markers of functional changes in the Earth system through the stratigraphic record. The appearance of manufactured materials in sediments, including aluminum, plastics, and concrete, coincides with global spikes in fallout radionuclides and particulates from fossil fuel combustion. Carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus cycles have been substantially modified over the past century. Rates of sea-level rise and the extent of human perturbation of the climate system exceed Late Holocene changes. Biotic changes include species invasions worldwide and accelerating rates of extinction. These combined signals render the Anthropocene stratigraphically distinct from the Holocene and earlier epochs. Copyright
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In developing countries the concept of urban center has been changing with modernization. In this paper our aim is to examine the position of Skopje's historic center, the Old Bazaar, in the modern urban center and discuss a design concept to sustain and even promote its significance. First, we examined modern developments that restructured the urban form and transformed the position of the Bazaar in the city. Secondly, we examined the formation of Skopje's Bazaar developed by the Ottoman urban concept. The analysis evaluated the authentic significance of historic places as I) Main Center II) Bazaar's components and III) periphery points of urbanization. The change of urban center's concept transformed the position of the Bazaar from city center to edge of the modern city center, physically and functionally isolated from the modern center. However, even though Skopje's Bazaar is today recognized as edge of the city center, the authentic significance of its position can be clarified by careful examination of the Ottoman urban concept. The evaluation of place significance can serve as base for a new urban concept that can integrate historic place and modernization in the future center and conserve Skopje's identity and authenticity.
Article
Full-text available
This essay, in two parts, argues for the centrality of historical thinking in coming to grips with capitalism’s planetary crises of the twenty-first century. Against the Anthropocene’s shallow historicization, I argue for the Capitalocene, understood as a system of power, profit and re/production in the web of life. In Part I, I pursue two arguments. First, I situate the Anthropocene discourse within Green Thought’s uneasy relationship to the Human/Nature binary, and its reluctance to consider human organizations – like capitalism – as part of nature. Next, I highlight the Anthropocene’s dominant periodization, which meets up with a longstanding environmentalist argument about the Industrial Revolution as the origin of ecological crisis. This ignores early capitalism’s environment-making revolution, greater than any watershed since the rise of agriculture and the first cities. While there is no question that environmental change accelerated sharply after 1850, and especially after 1945, it seems equally fruitless to explain these transformations without identifying how they fit into patterns of power, capital and nature established four centuries earlier.
Article
Full-text available
Insurgency and war in Syria have induced changes in urban policies towards informal settlements. Syrian urban policies in the 2000s set the issue of informal settlements as a priority item on the agenda. The reform of the legislative urban frameworks, designed with international assistance, and new master plans encouraged both their regularization and upgrading and their renewal (destruction/reconstruction). While competition between these models and objectives delayed decisions and programme implementation in Damascus, the beginnings of the 'Arab Spring' elsewhere in the region influenced the orientation of these policies, showing the different ways in which urban planning can be used for strategic purposes. Initially, the Syrian uprising led to an inflexion of policies towards more social options for regularization. Subsequently, as it developed into an armed conflict, and with the escalation of physical destruction, the urban renewal option was favoured and overlapped military targets. Thus conflict, destruction and displacements have led to all urban options being put back on the table with the view to future reconstruction. This article discusses policies towards informal settlements in Syria before and during the uprising with a special focus on the case study of urban policies in the metropolitan area of Damascus.
Book
Full-text available
When governments fail them, how citizens organize and build their own communities Irregular or illegal housing constitutes the ordinary condition of popular urban housing in the Middle East. Considering the conditions of daily practices related to land and tenure mobilization and of housing, neighborhood shaping, transactions, and conflict resolution, this book offers a new reading of government action in the cities of Amman, Beirut, Damascus, Istanbul, and Cairo, focusing on the participation of ordinary citizens and their interactions with state apparatus specifically located within the urban space. The book adopts a praxeological approach to law that describes how inhabitants define and exercise their legality in practice and daily routines. The ambition of the volume is to restore the continuum in the consolidation, building after building, of the popular neighborhoods of the cities under study, while demonstrating the closely-knit social relationships and other forms of community bonding.
Article
Full-text available
Référence électronique Mohamed Kamel Doraï, « L'exil irakien à Damas », EchoGéo, Numéro 8 | 2009, [En ligne], mis en ligne le 31 mars 2009. URL : http://echogeo.revues.org/index10976.html
Article
Reconstruction is becoming the new battleground in the Syrian conflict – its continuation by other means. It is instrumentalized by the regime as a way to reconsolidate its control over the country and by rival regional and international powers to shape the internal balance of power and establish spheres of influence in the country. The paper examines the Asad regime's practices, including co‐optation of militia leaders via reconstruction concessions and use of reconstruction to clear strategic areas of opposition‐dominated urban settlements. The paper then surveys how the geopolitical struggle in Syria has produced an asymmetry as regards reconstruction: those powers that lost the geopolitical contest on the ground seek to use geo‐economic superiority to reverse the geopolitical outcome. First the impact of proxy wars and spheres of influence in the country on the security context for reconstruction is examined. Finally, the reconstruction initiatives of the various external parties are assessed, including Russia, Iran and Turkey as well as the spoiler role by which the US seeks to obstruct reconstruction that would spell victory in Syria for its Russian and Iranian rivals.
Article
Skopje underwent many changes to its urban environment, caused by different factors both human and natural. Due to these impacts the community’s responses have ranged from deeply personal to collective mobilization of attachment that erupted during some periods of rapid change. After the big changes that occurred after the 1963 earthquake and the dissolution of Yugoslavia when Macedonia reached its independence, the city and its citizens continuously struggled to find urban identity that could reflects the collective memories of the previous times. In searching for this urban identity, the last phase of the process was the “Skopje 2014” agenda promoted by the then ruling government. This paper presents the transitions in Skopje’s urban panorama. It analyzes and presents how such transformations of urban and architectural environment can affect the urban identity and the collective urban memories.
Article
In Syria’s Reconciliation Agreements, Raymond Hinnebusch and Omar Imady explore how the regime and the opposition interacted with the evolving idea of musalahat or ‘reconciliations’. At first, when neither side could unseat the other, these reconciliations were in essence, truces which reflected the war of attrition. As the regime grew stronger, largely after the Russian intervention, the musalahat evolved into several more advanced types, all designed to break the rebels, yet significantly different in the extent to which the regime was willing to agree to a more balanced arrangement. Hinnebusch and Imady proceed to examine the more recent, and internationally sanctioned, ‘deconfliction zones’ and show how they are similar, and different, from previous arrangements. The critical trademark of all of this, from a governance perspective, is the fact that all these arrangements entail, in various degrees, the decentralisation of government authority. The paper ends with the ironic conclusion that the Syria that may emerge from all this extensive decentralisation may resemble in certain ways the very Syria the protesters back in 2011 were advocating.
Book
Between 1948 and 1951, the Marshall Plan delivered an unprecedented $ 12.3 billion in U.S. aid to help Western European countries recover from the destruction of the Second World War, and forestall Communist influence in that region. The Marshall Plan: A New Deal for Europe examines the aid program and its ideological origins, and explores how ideas about an Americanized world order inspired and influenced the Marshall Plan’s creation and execution. The book provides a much-needed re-examination of the plan, enabling students to understand its immediate impact and its political, social, and cultural legacy. Including essential primary documents, this concise book will be a key resource for students of America’s role in the world at mid-century.
Article
Socialist cities have most often been studied as manifestations of the socialist system itself, linked to the political fate of the Communist Parties in power during their design, construction, and expansion. This article revisits the socialist city and argues for the validity of the concept historically and in the present. Looking qualitatively at this distinct paradigm in Europe, two analytical frameworks are offered, infrastructural thinking and the socialist scaffold. The analysis shows that the universal aspiration for socialist cities was their continuous operation as synchronized instruments of economic production and social transformation in physical space. Distinct from capitalist cities, they had an ideological role in an economic model that instrumentalized cities as nodes in an integrated system, described using Stephen Kotkin’s term, “single entity.” The agency of the socialist scaffold has continued into the era of neoliberalism, shown here to have previously unexplored roots in socialism.
Chapter
This chapter details the various aspects of urban informality and methods of property registration in informal settlements in Aleppo, as well as the tribal codes that govern social relations in these neighborhoods. It describes how, by making a false declaration of breach of contract in court, the parties officially set out the details of a plot and the names of its owners. The author carries out a micro-sociological study of working-class neighborhoods in Aleppo in order to show that their residents handle crimes and homicides themselves, following customary tribal law, before referring cases to the police.
Article
The death of Syrian President Hafez al-Asad and the passing of power to his son Bashar ushered in a new phase not only for Syria but also for the Middle East. Although Asad meant to assure the continuity and legacy of his rule by bequeathing the presidency to his son, we have witnessed both continuity and change under Bashar: continuity in foreign policy, new dynamics in domestic politics. In foreign policy, Bashar has both the benefit and the burden of following a parent considered to have been highly skilled in foreign relations strategy. The domestic scene is another matter, and almost any change there will make good marks for Bashar. The economy and the political system are riddled with problems, and Bashar came in sounding like a reformer. However, there are contending forces complicating the initiative for liberalizing political change within Syria, and even Bashar may be ambivalent toward such change. His turnaround on political liberalization in the middle of his first year shows that while economic reform may be forthcoming in Syria, the new regime is reluctant to take a path of political reform. The question Syria will face is, can the two be separated?
Book
Democracy does not come from the sky along with the bombs, but is built from below, encouraging people and communities to choose the form of self-government compatible with their cultural traditions and historical roots. Failed policies of interference of Western countries, which have even theorized the export of democracy through the use of weapons, it's time to spread worldwide the culture of dialogue and inclusion. This is the thesis of Citizens of the world, the new essay by Daniele Archibugi, one of the most influential advocates of democratic cosmopolitanism. Only a utopia for naive idealists, as insinuated his detractors, or, as it argues the author, the only viable strategy to address the great challenges of globalization? The urgency of a response increases with the escalation of global violence. The hopes with which he closed the last century - the fall of the Berlin Wall, the abolition of apartheid in South Africa or the defeat of the dictatorship in several Latin American countries - could lead to a peaceful expansion of democracy. The new millennium, however, has opened inauspiciously and the war has returned the daily tool for managing conflicts. Like his main inspirations - Norberto Bobbio, Amartya Sen and Jürgen Habermas - Daniele Archibugi suggests the strengthening and reform of existing international bodies, from the cumbersome gear UN and the International Criminal Court, the creation of new institutions, such as the world Parliament, and a progressive harmonization of national interests with the needs of the global community. On an international scenario in continuous evolution and surprising, this courageous and pragmatic text offers us with renewed energy the idea of a globalization in solidarity, democratic and above all possible.
Article
The relationship between space and politics is explored through a study of French urban policy. Drawing upon the political thought of Jacques Rancière, this book proposes a new agenda for analyses of urban policy, and provides the first comprehensive account of French urban policy in English. Essential resource for contextualizing and understanding the revolts occurring in the French 'badland' neighbourhoods in autumn 2005. Challenges overarching generalizations about urban policy and contributes new research data to the wider body of urban policy literature. Identifies a strong urban and spatial dimension within the shift towards more nationalistic and authoritarian policy governing French citizenship and immigration.
Article
Robert Thayer brings the concepts and promises of the growing bioregional movement to a wide audience in a book that passionately urges us to discover "where we are" as an antidote to our rootless, stressful modern lives. LifePlace is a provocative meditation on bioregionalism and what it means to live, work, eat, and play in relation to naturally, rather than politically, defined areas. In it, Thayer gives a richly textured portrait of his own home, the Putah-Cache watershed in California's Sacramento Valley, demonstrating how bioregionalism can be practiced in everyday life. Written in a lively anecdotal style and expressing a profound love of place, this book is a guide to the personal rewards and the social benefits of reinhabiting the natural world on a local scale. In LifePlace, Thayer shares what he has learned over the course of thirty years about the Sacramento Valley's geography, minerals, flora, and fauna; its relation to fire, agriculture, and water; and its indigenous peoples, farmers, and artists. He shows how the spirit of bioregionalism springs from learning the history of a place, from participating in its local economy, from living in housing designed in the context of the region. He asks: How can we instill a love of place and knowledge of the local into our education system? How can the economy become more responsive to the ecology of region? This valuable book is also a window onto current writing on bioregionalism, introducing the ideas of its most notable proponents in accessible and highly engaging prose. At the same time that it gives an entirely new appreciation of California's Central Valley, LifePlace shows how we can move toward a new way of being, thinking, and acting in the world that can lead to a sustainable, harmonious, and more satisfying future.
Article
Once the cosmopolitan center of the Middle East, Beirut was devastated by the civil war that ran from 1975 to 1991, which dislocated many residents, disrupted normal municipal functions, and destroyed the vibrant downtown district. The aftermath of the war was an unstable situation Sawalha considers "a postwar state of emergency," even as the state strove to restore normalcy. This ethnography centers on various groups' responses to Beirut's large, privatized urban-renewal project that unfolded during this turbulent moment. At the core of the study is the theme of remembering space. The official process of rebuilding the city as a node in the global economy collided with local day-to-day concerns, and all arguments invariably inspired narratives of what happened before and during the war. Sawalha explains how Beirutis invoked their past experiences of specific sites to vie for the power to shape those sites in the future. Rather than focus on a single site, the ethnography crosses multiple urban sites and social groups, to survey varied groups with interests in particular spaces. The book contextualizes these spatial conflicts within the discourses of the city's historical accounts and the much-debated concept of heritage, voiced in academic writing, politics, and journalism. In the afterword, Sawalha links these conflicts to the social and political crises of early twenty-first-century Beirut.
Article
Yasser Elsheshtawy explores Dubai's history from its beginnings as a small fishing village to its place on the world stage today, using historical narratives, travel descriptions, novels and fictional accounts by local writers to bring colour to his history of the city's urban development. With the help of case studies and surveys this book explores the economic and political forces driving Dubai's urban growth, its changing urbanity and its place within the global city network. Uniquely, it looks beyond the glamour of Dubai's mega-projects, and provides an in-depth exploration of a select set of spaces which reveal the city's 'inner life'.
Article
This paper investigates how integration policies and welfare-state regimes have affected the socio-economic integration of immigrants, focusing on eight European countries: Germany, France, the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, Switzerland, Sweden, Austria and Belgium. It presents comparative data on integration policies and welfare-state regimes. The expectations derived from this comparative policy analysis are tested with cross-national data on integration outcomes regarding labour market participation, spatial segregation and incarceration. The results suggest that multicultural policies—which grant immigrants easy access to equal rights and do not provide strong incentives for host-country language acquisition and interethnic contacts—when combined with a generous welfare state, have produced low levels of labour market participation, high levels of segregation and a strong overrepresentation of immigrants among those convicted for criminal behaviour. Sweden, Belgium and the Netherlands, which have combined multicultural policies with a strong welfare state, display relatively poor integration outcomes. Countries that either had more restrictive or assimilationist integration policies (Germany, Austria, Switzerland, France) or a relatively lean welfare state (the United Kingdom) have achieved better integration results. These differences are highly consistent across the three domains of integration that are examined, with the exception of segregation rates in the United Kingdom.
Article
When in 1962 Miastoprojekt-Kraków won the international tender for the master plan of Baghdad, this initiated two decades of intense engagement in Iraq of this architectural and planning office from the People's Republic of Poland. By choosing an office from a socialist country, Iraqi governments from Abdul Karim Kassem to Saddam Hussein not only responded to the specific geopolitical conditions of the Cold War in the Middle East, but also aimed at drawing on the Polish experience of post-war reconstruction, with the state taking an active role in the processes of urbanisation. The lessons learned from the reconstruction of Warsaw and the construction of new towns such as Nowa Huta, designed by Miastoprojekt, reverberated throughout its two master plans for Baghdad (1967, 1973). Its numerous projects in Iraq focused on the distribution of welfare (housing and education) on a territorial scale and included, in particular, the General Housing Programme (1976–1980). The attempt to mediate between the ambitions of modernisation and attention to local specificity required extensive research. This study links the increasing role of research in the Iraqi projects of Miastoprojekt both to its previous contributions to architectural culture in Poland and to the political economy of architectural labour in the Cold War.
Article
Summary of U.S. oversight This appendix contains a list of completed audits, reports, and testimonies on Iraq reconstruction activities, as of June 30, 2007, released by the Special Inspector General for Iraq Reconstruction (SIGIR) and these agencies: " U.S. Army Audit Agency (USAAA) " Department of Defense Office of Inspector General (DoD OIG) " Department of State Office of Inspector General (DoS OIG) " Government Accountability Office (GAO) " U.S. Agency for International Development Office of Inspector General (USAID OIG) " Department of Treasury Office of Inspector General (Treasury OIG) For detailed summaries of recent SIGIR audits, see section 3 of this Report.
Article
The aim of this article is to show that land consolidation has not, during post-World War ii reconstruction, simply been a process of plot reallocation used to return to each land-owner the equivalent of the property he has lost. Applying a diagram on the town (Equal Value Zone), actors of reconstruction dematerialized it in a paroxysmal way. The example of Yvetot shows that this dematerialization allows those who reconstruct to recreate towns in adequacy with urbanism theories developed since the ninetennth century. Moreover, it illustrates how a town could have been reinterpreted and rationalized towards these theories.
Article
The fate of New Orleans in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina is uncertain. The rebuilding of the Gulf Coast presents the nation with the most massive redevelopment project in a single location ever. Reminiscent of the Urban Renewal changes between the late 1940s and early 1970s. Urban Renewal redevelopment projects were touted as being beneficial to the city by providing easier access to downtown and the construction of new housing. However, hindsight and scholarship coupled with the experience of thousands of residents, has taught us that the lasting effects of urban renewal included displacement of residents, disruption of community ties, and extensive psychological traumas associated with these shocks. In New Orleans, for example, the heart of the black business district along Claiborne Avenue in the Treme neighborhood, one of the oldest African American neighborhoods in the country, was cleared for the construction of the I-10 Expressway. The Storyville section, arguably the birthplace of jazz, was broken apart to make room for the Iberville Housing Projects. The fight against Armstrong Park continued for several decades, eventually ending in defeat with the displacement of over 400 families.
Article
Alvar Aalto (Finlandia, 1898-1976) es el arquitecto y diseñador funcionalista más importante de Finlandia y uno de los más destacados del mundo. La belleza de su obra radica en la expresión del equilibrio orgánico entre hombre, naturaleza y costrucciones; él mismo llamaba a sus obras "arte en contrucción", como una síntesis de la vida en forma material. La reputación internacional de Aalto creció con una serie de edificios anteriores a la II Guerra Mundial, todos ellos realizados con estructuras de madera, como el Pabellón de Finlandia de la Exposición Internacional de París de 1937 o la Villa Mairea (1938-1939). Llegó a los Estados Unidos en 1940 como profesor invitado por el Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), y allí permaneció ocho años, durante los cuales proyectó la Baker House (1947), una sorprendente residencia cuya planta serpentea junto al río Charles. Aalto regresó a Finlandia en 1948 para dirigir la Oficina de Reconstrucción de este país, después de la devastación producida por la II Guerra Mundial. Sus edificios más famosos son las oficinas e imprenta de un periódico en Turku (1927-1930), la Biblioteca de Viipuri y el sanatorio antituberculoso de Paimio (1929-1933).