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Salmonella spp. em produtos lácteos no Brasil e seu impacto na saúde do consumidor

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  • Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia do Rio de Janeiro
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... A sua importância para a saúde pública reside em sua habilidade para causar desde uma simples gastrenterite auto limitante até, em casos mais extremos, a febre tifóide causada pelo sorotipo Salmonella Typhi (Ramos et al., 2021). ...
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The aim of the study was to prepare zein active film incorporated with pomegranate peel extract (PE) encapsulated in chitosan nanoparticles (CSNPs) for food packaging. Ultrasonic treatment was employed to enhance the polyphenols extraction from pomegranate peel using ethanol and methanol as extraction solvents. The ionic gelation method was employed to prepare the CSNPs/PE nanocomposite and was successfully incorporated into the zein film. The obtained CSNPs and CSNPs/PE nanocomposite exhibited spherical shape in the range of 225.28–289.8 nm as observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) device. The success of PE encapsulation and molecular interactions between zein, CSNPs, and PE was confirmed by FTIR and XRD studies. Cold nitrogen plasma was applied to modify film surface to maintain the sustained release of pomegranate polyphenols from the nanocomposite film. The surface modification of nanocomposite film was further disclosed with an X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) study. Thermogravimetric (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) studies revealed that zein/CSNPs/PE nanocomposite film had better thermal stability than the neat zein film. Antimicrobial property of zein/CSNPs/PE nanocomposite film was investigated for pork sample inoculated with L. monocytogenes. Plasma treated nanocomposite film displayed a slower release rate of PE and effectively restricted the growth of L. monocytogenes than the control film and plasma untreated nanocomposite film during refrigerated storage.
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The rejection of chemical additives has attracted the attention of consumers and research personals to continuously improve quality and safety of food. Chitosan is a polyelectrolyte non-toxic, antimicrobial and biocompatible polysaccharide. The annual production of chitin (poly-β-(1-4)-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine), the acetylated form of chitosan has been estimated 1011 tons and is approved by EU for use in plant protection (Reg. EU 2014/563). The film formation presents 20 to 30% of total chitosan activity apart from elicitation (30 to 40%) and antimicrobial activity (35 to 45%). Chitosan polymer scaffolds particularly nanoemulsions provides a protective covering to the fresh produce and acts as a carrier for antimicrobial agents and various functional compounds. The nanoemulsions are designed as smart functional coatings by microfluidization, high-pressure homogenization, ultra-sonication, phase inversion (PIC and PIT) and spontaneous emulsification. Considering the research reports available in the last decade, chitosan film production and related issues alluded to the possibilities for explorations of commercial applications on fresh foods. Chitosan-based biofilms with specific barriers and functional properties can be produced to address specific requirements of target food. Keeping in view the widespread applications of chitosan nanoemulsions for various food applications, the present review has been compiled to provide an insight into the developments and improvements made in the production, functionality, and delivery of bioactive substances for quality retention of fresh horticultural produce.
Article
In this study, the impact of chitosan in combination with aloe vera gel was investigated on the storage life of mango fruits. Mango samples were coated with 1% chitosan (CTS) and 1% chitosan + aloe vera gel (CTS + AVG), before storing at 12 ± 1 °C for 28 days and shifting to 25 ± 1 °C for 5 days. Results demonstrated that both coatings significantly (p ≤ 0.05) influenced the storage life of mango fruits, but CTS + AVG minimized the incidence of decay, and reduced weight loss, respiration rate, and ethylene production to a greater extent than CTS and control samples. In addition, fruit quality parameters such as titratable acidity, total soluble solids, fruit firmness, ascorbic acid, and peel color were also retained by the combined treatment. Furthermore, sustained phenolic content and antioxidant activity confirmed the effectiveness of this treatment. It was concluded that chitosan coating in combination with aloe vera gel suppressed diseases and maintained the natural properties of mango fruit during postharvest storage. Therefore, chitosan–aloe vera combination can be used to extend the storage life of mango fruit, however, more in-depth studies are required for successful commercialization of this organic, edible coating in the mango fruit industry.
Article
Consumption of plant-based beverages (PBB) is a growing trend; and have been used as viable substitutes for dairy based products. To date, no study has comparatively analyzed mineral composition and effect of in vitro digestion on the bioaccessibility of different PBB. The aim of this research was to investigate the content of essential minerals (calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn)) and to estimate the effect of in vitro digestion in plant-based beverages, and their antioxidant bioactive compounds (phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity). Moreover, the presence of antinutritional factors, such as myo-inositol phosphates fractions, were evaluated. Samples of PBB (rice, cashew nut, almond, peanut, coconut, oat, soy, blended or not with another ingredients, fortified with minerals or naturally present) and milk for comparison were evaluated. TPC ranged from 0.2 mg GAEq/L for coconut to 12.4 mg GAEq/L for rice and, the antioxidant capacity (DPPH) ranged from 3.1 to 306.5 µmol TE/L for samples containing peanut and oat, respectively. Only a few samples presented myo-inositol phosphates fractions in their composition, mostly IP5 and IP6, especially cashew nut beverages. Mineral content showed a wide range for Ca, ranging from 10 to 1697.33 mg/L for rice and coconut, respectively. The Mg content ranged from 6.29 to 251.23-268.43 mg/L for rice and cashew nut beverages, respectively. Fe content ranged from 0.76 mg/L to 12.89 mg/L for the samples of rice. Zinc content ranged from 0.57 mg/L to 8.13 mg/L for samples of oat and soy, respectively. Significant variation was observed for Ca (8.2-306.6 mg/L) and Mg (1.9-107.4 mg/L) dialyzed between the beverages, with lower concentrations of Fe (1.0 mg/L) and Zn (0.5 mg/L) in dialyzed fractions. This study provides at least 975 analytically determined laboratory results, providing important information for characterization and comparison of different plant-based beverages.
Article
Cabbage stalks (CSF) and pineapple crowns (PCF) were collected after fresh-cut processing and transformed into flour by drying in oven. Both flours presented greenish colors and heterogeneous particles (30–150 μm). CSF and PCF presented similar aw (0.43) and moisture (10%). CSF presented higher mineral content (18.1 g.100 g⁻¹), especially for Ca (1671.11 mg.100 g⁻¹) and K (8582.93 mg.100 g⁻¹), than PCF (5.9 g.100 g⁻¹) that presented also high content of K (2250.62 mg.100 g⁻¹). PCF and CSF presented great fiber content (67.22 and 42.67 g.100 g⁻¹, respectively), especially insoluble fiber (about 87% of total fiber). Malto-oligosaccharides were identified in PCF and no fructo-oligosaccharides was detected. The ethanolic extract of PCF was considered as cytotoxic, while the aqueous extracts were considered safe. Thus, the direct recovery of high-added value molecules can be obtained by water extraction of CSF and PCF, specially focusing in the great levels of fiber and mineral compounds.
The innate immunity of a plant represents the first defense line against any invading pathogen. This innate immunity is triggered by the infected plant once it detects a pathogenic infection. Peroxidase, catalase, and total phenols are considered among the main components of the plant’s innate immunity. In this regard, copper (CuNPs) and chitosan (CsNPs) nanoparticles showed a potency to modulate that innate immunity. The present work aims to compare between CuNPs and CsNPs in terms of their potencies to modulate the levels of peroxidase, catalase, and total phenols in date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) seedlings. Results showed that both CuNPs and CsNPs enhanced the innate immunity of date palm seedlings, wherein treating date palm seedlings with 50 mL of CuNPs (1 g/L) increased peroxidase and catalase levels by 199% and 4.15%, respectively; while total phenols level was decreased by 28.7%. On the other hand, the same treatment regime with CsNPs increased peroxidase, catalase, and total phenols levels by 12.5%, 12.4%, and 7.83%, respectively. These findings provide a possibility to use CuNPs and CsNPs for enhancing the innate immunity of date palm seedlings. In addition, this paper reports for the first time the ability of CuNPs to inhibit the formation of phenolics in date palm seedlings, which may be useful in reducing the oxidative browning caused by these phenolics in date palm explants during In vitro micropropagation.
Article
Numerous studies have been conducted to investigate the capability of edible coatings for preserving the quality and prolonging the shelf life of fresh/fresh-cut fruits. Evidence has shown that an edible coating could function as a barrier on the fruit surface, modify the internal gas atmosphere, decrease water losses and delay fruit ripening. Efforts have been exerted to introduce new natural coating materials to sustain the safety and quality of fresh/fresh-cut fruits. This review attempts to provide a summary of the recent studies on the application of edible coatings on different fresh/fresh-cut fruit categories, namely pome fruits (apple and pear), citrus, stone fruits, tropical and exotic fruits, berries, melon, and tomatoes. A fundamental theory behind the edible coating treatment and the effect on the physiological, physicochemical, sensory, and antimicrobial properties of fresh/fresh-cut fruits is discussed. The future perspective of this preservation method is also highlighted. The edible coating can be used as an alternative strategy to prolong the shelf life of fresh/fresh-cut fruits. The materials selection for edible coating plays a key role in determining its effectiveness and consumer' s acceptability. The ability of the selected materials in extending the shelf life of fresh/fresh-cut fruits without reducing the sensory and nutritional characteristics are the main challenges in the edible coating techniques, which demands attention for further research.
Article
This paper presents a special capability of Sisvar to deal with fixed effect models with several restriction in the randomization procedure. These restrictions lead to models with fixed treatment effects, but with several random errors. One way do deal with models of this kind is to perform a mixed model analysis, considering only the error effects in the model as random effects and with different covariance structure for the error terms. Another way is to perform a analysis of variance with several error. These kind of analysis, when the data are balanced, can be done by using Sisvar. The software lead a exact $F$ test for the fixed effects and allow the user to applied multiple comparison procedures or regression analysis for the levels of the fixed effect factors, regarding they are single effects, interaction effects or hierarchical effects. Sisvar is an interesting statistical computer system for using in balanced agricultural and industrial data sets.
Article
Total contents and bioaccessible fractions of Ca, K, Mg, Na, P and Zn in bovine milk and soy-based were determined to investigate if this plant-based beverage could be an adequate substitute of bovine milk with relation to the ingestion of these essential elements. The quantification of the elements was made by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES) and their bioaccessibilities were evaluated by in vitro simulation of the human gastrointestinal digestion. Total contents of minerals were similar among the milk samples, whereas the concentrations determined in soy-based beverages exhibited more variability, mainly for Ca, P and Zn. All the evaluated elements presented bioaccessible fractions higher than 60% in bovine milk, whereas in the soy-based beverages bioaccessibilities lower than 30% were obtained for P and Zn. Special attention should be given for P and Zn intake in cases of substitution of bovine milk by soy-based beverages.
Article
Excessive sodium (Na) consumption can lead to serious health problems such as hypertension, and cardiovascular and renal diseases. Therefore, the food industry in worldwide has been trying to reduce sodium levels in processed products. The aim of this study was to validate a method and quantify sodium in processed and packaged foods and to estimate its ingestion in the consumption. In the first step, for choose the adequate analytical procedure different samples preparations (mineralization) were evaluated as wet and dry ash mineralization, as well as CsCl concentration to suppress chemical interferences for apply FAAS technique. The best performance conditions were applied for the analytical method validation: mineralization by wet digestion and adding 0.1% CsCl, which characterized the method as simple and low cost. The method was validated and was applied in 12 different processed food matrices (5 brands, 3 batches), including products of vegetable and animal origins, different majority components and interferences for Na evaluation. The results showed that sausage, hamburger, ham, bread, tomato sauce, ketchup, mustard, mayonnaise and mashed potato were classified as high-sodium foods, with mean values above 460 mg 100 g-1. It was verified that 68% of the samples were regarded as having high sodium content and the maximum value found was 2851 mg 100 g-1 for a sample of mashed potatoes. In addition, it was found that 38% of the samples presented differences in Na concentration when compared to content declared on the label. It is also observed that is possible different sodium ingestion according the combinations of processed and packaged foods in the same meal and, in this case, the sodium consumption is above than the daily value as recommended by the regulatory agencies. It was concluded that the majority of processed and packaged foods presented high sodium concentration even with efforts of the food industry to reduce the levels of this mineral and its remains an important public health problem.
Chapter
Chitin consists of large, crystalline nitrogen‐containing polysaccharides made of chains of a modified glucose monosaccharide, being N‐acetylglucosamine. This chapter provides more information related to the structure of chitin, sources of chitin and chitosan, and their extraction and purification, as well as the conversion of chitin into chitosan. The shells of crustaceans mainly contain chitin, proteins, minerals, pigments, and sometimes also lipids. Chitin is found in the exoskeleton of insects, but also in internal structures such as the inner cuticular linings of the alimentary canal and the tracheal system. The chapter is concerned with biomass pre—treatment, deproteination, demineralization, decoloration, and post‐treatment processes. Two approaches have been reported—chemical and biological demineralization. The specific characteristics of the resulting chitosan are influenced by the deacetylation process parameters, and by the nature of the chitin source, such as its physical structure and the isolation process applied. Many fungal species have been investigated for the production of chitosan.
Article
Chitosan nanoparticles (CNP) were synthesized via ionic gelation and used for the preparation of starch-based nanocomposite films containing different concentration of CNP (0, 5, 10, 15, 20% w/w). Antimicrobial properties of starch/CNP films was evaluated via in vitro (disc diffusion analysis) and in vivo (microbial count in wrapped cherry tomatoes) study. It was found that inhibitory zone of the 15 and 20% of starch/CNP films were clearly observed for all the tested bacteria including Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium. In vivo study revealed that the starch/CNP film (15% w/w) was more efficient to inhibit the microbial growth in cherry tomatoes (7 × 102 CFU/g) compared to neat starch film (2.15 × 103 CFU/g) thus confirmed the potential application of the films as antimicrobial food packaging.
Article
A alta perecibilidade da graviola restringe a comercialização da fruta in natura a mercados mais distantes dos centros produtores, sendo necessário processá-la para estender sua vida útil. Nesse sentido, objetivou-se elaborar licores de graviola mediante utilização de planejamento experimental fatorial 22, com três repetições no ponto central, resultando em 7 tratamentos, variando-se as concentrações de polpa (300, 400 e 500 g) e xarope de sacarose com diferentes teores de sólidos solúveis (50, 60 e 70 °Brix). Após processamento, os licores foram acondicionados em embalagens de polietileno e submetidos aos testes sensoriais de aceitação, com uso de uma escala de nove pontos, com avaliação dos atributos sensoriais de cor, aroma, consistência, aparência, sabor frutal, sabor alcoólico, doçura e impressão global. Paralelamente efetuou-se investigação da intenção de compra, com uso de uma escala de cinco pontos. Na análise da influência das variáveis independentes sobre as variáveis respostas foi realizada análise de regressão para a obtenção de superfícies de resposta, a partir dos dados da avaliação sensorial. Verificou-se elevada aceitabilidade para todos os tratamentos de licores de graviola, com índices de aceitabilidade médios superiores a 70%. Evidenciou-se maior preferência pelas amostras com maiores quantidades de polpa de graviola e menores teores alcoólicos. Os licores processados com as maiores quantidades de polpa apresentaram intenções de compra superiores a 65%, indicando potencial mercadológico.
Article
Chitosan is an alternative to synthetic polymers for food packaging. The mechanical and barrier properties of pure chitosan films are promising. Chitosan properties can be modified by combining chitosan with other components such as plasticizers, other polysaccharides, proteins and lipids. Here we review mechanical and barrier properties of composite films based on chitosan. The major points are: (1) compared with synthetic plastic films, an important limitation of chitosan-based films is their mechanical properties, especially their capacity to elongation; (2) chitosan is a polymer that allows an easy combination with other polysaccharides, plasticizers, proteins and lipids; (3) this allows to develop mixed components and modify the film properties according to the nature of the food to be packaged.
Article
Nanostructured coatings made with chitosan (100%Q), alginate (100%A) and blends of 50%Q-50%A; 90%Q-10%A and 90%A-10%Q, were added with (1%v/vgel) of nanoZnO and applied to guavas (Psidium guajava L.). After the coating application, fruits were stored for 15 days at 21 ± 1 °C and 80 ± 2% RH. To determine the effect on ripening process, fruits were submitted to water loss, texture, color, rot index, and physic-chemical assays. The results showed that coatings are able to prevent rot appearance in every sample, corroborating with the antibacterial action of nanoZnO. Coatings made with alginate and 90%A did not delay the maturation process, however, chitosan matrices (100%Q or 90%Q) protected fruits against excessive mass loss and retarded physic-chemical changes related to maturation. The experiment or study showed that it is possible to extend guava shelf life with ZnO nanostructured coatings with 100%Q or 90%Q-10%A for up to twenty days versus seven days of uncoated fruits.
Article
Background: The use of natural antimicrobial agents is attracting much consideration for improving food safety. Reduced efficiency of antimicrobial compounds during their application in food matrix mainly due to their reaction with food components is among important problems to be solved. Nanotechnology is rapidly growing in the food industry specially to design nanodelivery systems of bioactive compounds such as nisin as the most important antimicrobial compound. Loaded-nisin nanoparticles are engineered antimicrobial agents based on nanotechnology, which have been used mostly for improving food safety. A variety of nanocarriers including nanoliposomes, nanoemulsions, solid lipid nanoparticles, lipid nano carriers, biopolymeric nanoparticles, and nanofibers are available to be used for the delivery of nisin into various food formulations. Scope and approach: Stability against environmental stresses and controlled release are two main factors which must be considered in the case of using nisin as an antimicrobial agent for improving the shelf life of foods. The main objective of this review is to consider the role of different nanoencapsulation systems for improving the antimicrobial activity of nisin against foodborne pathogens. Loading of nisin into different food-grade nanodelivery systems, their formulation, and diverse ways to improve their functional roles are also covered in this work. Key findings and conclusions: Nanocarriers containing nisin can be used as a suitable antimicrobial substance in food formulations and in the structure of food packaging materials (active packaging). Encapsulation of nisin into nanoparticles provides many advantages including sustained release, preventing undesirable interactions, and providing a high stability and efficient antimicrobial activity during food storage. The formulation of nanoparticle plays a key role in the functional properties of nisin. For example, the types of lipids, biopolymers, and nanofibers in the nanoparticle formulation should be considered.
Article
The present study aimed to verify the antioxidant capacity in vitro of baru almond, evaluate the effect of baru intake on gastrointestinal transit and biochemical profile in rats and based on such results characterize the chemical composition of a baru‐enriched dairy dessert and analyze its effect in vivo. It was observed that traditional dairy desserts hastened the gastric emptying and delayed intestinal transit. Ingestion of dairy dessert with baru slowed gastric emptying and avoided the delay of intestinal transit time. After baru consumption, the biochemical profile was extremely favorable with reduced triglycerides and very low‐density lipoprotein, and increased high‐density lipoprotein‐c. The results show that baru almond is a good source of lipids, fibers, and antioxidants (1,179 mg GAE kg−1 sample by ABTS and 8,342 mg GAE kg−1 sample by ferric tripyridyltriazine). The dairy desserts with the highest content of baru normalized gastrointestinal transit compared to traditional dessert, and improved biochemical parameters in rats. In our work, we have developed a new dairy dessert with a Brazilian almond called Baru. The manuscript is significant because it demonstrates the presence of lipids, fibers, and antioxidants in high levels in baru almond and the health benefits associated with the intake of these compounds in dairy desserts.