Mangrove ecosystem is unique in nature that thrives in the intertidal zones of tropical and subtropical
regions with regular tidal inundation. Mangrove species are morphologically and physiologically
adapted to varying salinity condition. In this context Indian Sundarbans is an interesting test bed where
salinity profiles in different segments vary differently. In this article, the spatio-temporal change in
salinity during 1984 till 2016 was studied. Study shows an interannual increase in salinity in the central
sector associated with climate change induced gradual sea-level rise, whereas interannual decreasing
trend was seen in the western sector due to enhanced fresh water supply from glacier melt associated
with global climate change.
This book provides a cross-sectoral, multi-scale assessment of different environmental problems via in-depth studies of the Indian subcontinent. Data collected from different ecosystems forms a strong foundation to explore the topics discussed in this book. The book investigates how mankind is presently under the appalling shadow of pollution, climate change, overpopulation and poverty. The continuing problem of pollution, loss of forests, disposal of solid waste, deterioration of environment, global warming and loss of biodiversity have made nations aware of environmental issues. Many countries are desperately trying to move away from this adverse situation through technological development and policy level approaches. Through a number of case studies the authors provide details of ground level observations of the most environmentally stressed regions in the Indian subcontinent and beyond.
Son Beel wetland is facing ecosystem marginalization where ecosystem services aren’t being priced & reflected in decision making which proves complete market failure. Agricultural produce from converted lake does not reflect values lost due to flood protection, fisheries, biodiversity etc. People who deteriorate are not the same whose livelihoods are affected leading to continued degradation of the wetland. Wetlands governance has so far been failing to address sectoral policies providing incentives leads to wetlands depletion. Son Beel is the home to diversity of fishes in particular to an important habitat for small & tinny fishes. There are about 500 families engaged in the net building & designing and these fisher folk communities are linked this wetland to local market networks. It has been estimated by state government report and records that there are more than 35,000 families directly dependent on the Beel for traditional fishing system. Evergreen Forest comprises 40% peripheral area of the Beel. Son Beel is an important habitat for some reptiles and other various aquatic species. This wetland is home for migrant Siberian birds for 3 months every year. Son Beel is abundantly rich in fish biodiversity and around 69 different fish species are found among which small fishes are the most (D.Kar et. al, 2006). The economic value is the monetary value of goods & services offered by wetlands in which people’s preferences are expressed through choices & trade-offs. Total Economic Value (TEV) is the sum of the values of all wetland ecosystem services flows from providers to beneficiaries over the given spatial & temporal scales. Economic valuation is a powerful tool since it provides means to measure & quantify trade-offs between multiple wetland uses (Barbier et al., 1997) via monetary matrices. Valuation of wetland ecosystem in India has some major gaps likewise; the confusion of terminologies between intermediate & final ecosystem services, has led to double-counting that can inflate values that can seriously impact the credibility of economic valuation. (Johnston & Russel, 2011). The gap of methodological challenges in linking ecosystem characteristics to final ecosystem services is a serious constraint to current valuation process. Lack of clear guidance on relating ecological compensation programmes to conservation targets is a major loophole in ecosystem valuation in India. We tried the best to mitigate these gaps in the ecosystem valuation of Son Beel Wetland. Major aim & objective of our valuation is to provide useful information inputs to the wetland governance to sustain wetland for multiple benefits. Development of ecological production functions & non market valuation methods need ecological & social data which is currently unavailable in India. We shall produce this paper before the State Government of Assam to take adequate measures in protection & conservation of wetlands. We estimated monetary value of Son Beel is from a minimum of $88/Hectare/year to maximum of $29,716/Hectare/Year. Son Beel provides a wide range of natural capital flow in terms ecosystem services for the life & livelihood of people & community. We need to ensure that wetland conservation, wise use & restoration are an integral part to SDGs planning & implementation. Integrating wetlands services & benefits in Nationally Determined Contributions for the Paris Agreement on Climate Change is critical for achieving SDGs. Placing a value on nature’s ecosystem services shouldn’t be misconstrued as ‘putting a price on nature. The authors will strongly recommend the site should declare as Ramsar site of Wetland or such constructive steps should take by the authorities for its better conservation.
Nutritional composition of hilsa, Tenualosa ilisha, of different size groups was analyzed to study variations in their composition with the progression of growth, and to correlate it with the flavor of adult hilsa (>800 g size) collected from different riverine systems (Hooghly and Padma). The amino acid analysis revealed significantly higher arginine (P < 0.01), methionine (P < 0.01) and glycine (P < 0.05) contents in samples below 5 g, whereas samples above 800 g had higher (P < 0.01) leucine and isoleucine contents. Total saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids were lower (P < 0.01) in fish below 5 g as compared to larger size groups (>5 g), whereas docosahexaenoic acid was higher (P < 0.01) in fish below 5 g size. Nutritional composition of adult hilsa (>800 g) from Hooghly and Padma river revealed higher (P < 0.01) aspartic acid, glutamic acid, alanine, palmitoleic and oleic acid in samples from the Padma, whereas leucine and isoleucine contents were higher (P < 0.01) in hilsa from Hooghly. Sensory evaluation test revealed superior (P < 0.05) taste, aroma, and muscle texture of hilsa from the Padma as compared to those from Hooghly. Higher alanine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, oleic acid, and palmitoleic acid along with higher n3:n6 fatty acid are attributed to the superior taste of hilsa from the Padma.
In 2016, Sikkim, an Indian Himalayan state announced that it had certified all agricultural production as organic. In this article, we explore how Sikkim’s organic policies are affecting agroecology transitions. Drawing upon 47 interviews with Sikkimese farmers, consumers, and government officials, we explore how questions of scale are central to the Sikkimese state’s organic vision. Our four-part analysis reveals how the state’s move to scale up organics reflects: 1) the state’s perception that areal scale and low yield are the major constraints to their organic vision. To address this perceived constraint, the state is attempting to: 2) re-scale farm production to increase yield in single commodity crops, and 3) re-scale social processes to collectivize production and marketing. 4) Education is a primary pathway through which the state seeks to reorient farmers to engage in scaled up production and a yield oriented vision of cooperation. Our results show how these different scalar processes intersect, shedding new light on debates about the role of the state in agroecology transitions.
List of Acronyms: APEDA: Agricultural and Processed Food Products Export Development Authority; ATMA: Agricultural Technical Management Authority; CEO: Chief Executive Officer; FPO: Farmer Producer Organization; MOVCD: Mission Organic Value Chain Development
Climate Change: A Very Short Introduction examines the science, the history, and the politics of climate change. Drawing on the latest science from the recent IPCC reports, this VSI examines the potential catastrophic impacts of climate change in the future. Global awareness of climate change has grown very rapidly, as shown by the wide support for campaigners like Greta Thunberg and groups like Extinction Rebellion, and the declaration by many governments that we are now in a climate emergency. It is a threat that forces us to examine the whole basis of modern society. This VSI explores the geopolitical, economic, technological, and social solutions to climate change, and argues for new modes of thinking in tackling the climate crisis.
Climate change and natural disasters have important consequences on fiscal sustainability, especially for developing countries with limited financial resources and underdeveloped institutions. The paper contributes to shed light on the role of fiscal policy in climate-change adaptation, which aims at containing the economic damage of climate change. We use an overlapping generations (OLG) model for a small open economy in which adaptation reflects the extent to which public policies reduce the negative influence of climate change on the capital depreciation rate. Adaptation includes both preventive measures, i.e. investment in infrastructure, and remedial measures, i.e. post-disaster relief and reconstruction. Through model simulations we assess the costs and benefits of both remedial and preventive actions. We find that preventive intervention leads to higher GDP growth rates than either taking no action or waiting until remedial action is necessary. However, the evidence shows that, due to high costs of early adaptation and budgetary constraints, countries tend to focus on late corrective actions, also relying on international assistance. Given the expected increase in climate-related risks, a comprehensive strategy including both preventive and corrective actions would be desirable to strengthen resilience to shocks and alleviate the financial constraints, which particularly affect small countries.