ArticleLiterature Review

Margarines: Historical approach, technological aspects, nutritional profile, and global trends

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Abstract

Margarines are an expanding market worldwide due to large-scale commercial, lower cost, growth of bakery and confectionery markets, and seasonal independence. The fatty acid composition, solid fat content, consistency, and melting point of the fats used in margarine determine their functional properties. Due to its proven association with increased risk of cardiovascular diseases, the recommendations of the World Health Organization and the enactment of laws in several countries to eliminate industrially produced trans fatty acids (TFA) have resulted in the prohibition of or progressive reduction in the use of partially hydrogenated fat. However, issues related to high levels of TFA and saturated fatty acids still constitute a challenge in the formulation of this product category. Current trends on margarine production addition of phytosterols, non-lipid components, organogels, and new interesterified fat bases are reviewed. This review aims to present a historical view and the technological evolution of margarines, including their production processes, formulations, and physical and nutritional characteristics, as well as legislation, and main trends.

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... These foods are concentrated sources of energy (899 kcal/100 g), because fats are the predominant nutrient (84%). Some of them contain essential fatty acids (linoleic and linolenic fatty acids), and they are also vehicles for fat-soluble vitamins (mainly vitamins A and E) [77]. ...
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Micro- and macro-nutrient deficiencies among women are considered a global issue that the food industry has not adequately considered until recently. The industry must provide and guarantee a diversity of food products worldwide that allow women to get a correct and balanced diet according their life stage. The food industry must focus on this challenge within a framework of sustainable production, minimizing the use of natural resources and avoiding the emission of waste and pollutants throughout the life cycle of food. Food coproducts are presented as potential bioactive functional compounds which can be useful for technological purposes, due to the fact that they can serve as non-chemical, natural and health-improving food ingredients. In this review, we focus on the potential use of food processing coproducts which must be part of a strategy to promote and improve women’s health and well-being. This knowledge will make it possible to select potential ingredients from coproducts to be used in the fortification of foods intended for consumption by females and to introduce sustainability and gender perspectives into food innovation. The attainment of fortifications for foods for women has to be linked to the use of sustainable sources from food coproducts in order to be economically viable and competitive.
... Similar results were reported by Hu et al. 19 Overall, compared with A, B exhibited decreased content of S 3 TAG and tri-unsaturated (U 3 ) TAG content while increased content of the monosaturated-diunsaturated (SU 2 ) TAG. As reported in previous studies, S 3 TAGs can provide a skeleton of a crystal network, and S 2 U and SU 2 TAGs contribute to the lubricity of a fat crystal system. Among them, these high melting TAG provide products with an improved structure and crystallization network. ...
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Tempering is the final step in Industrial Sheet Margarine (ISM) production, which has a substantial influence on the structure and application characteristics. There are limited reports on how the tempering process affects the ductility and application characteristics of ISM at an industrial production scale. Herein, we investigated the physicochemical properties and ductility of the ISM made from interesterification and non-interesterification fat at various tempering temperatures (10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 °C) for 5 days. By analyzing the triacylglycerol (TAG) compositions, polymorphism, thermal behavior and hardness of ISMs under different formulations and tempering conditions, the interaction between the physicochemical parameters and the application properties such as bending and sheeting abilities was elucidated. The results showed that low tempering temperatures (10 °C and 15 °C) led to higher hardness (>700 g) while high tempering temperature (30 °C) promoted polymorph transition (β' → β), further directing to poor crystallization behavior, poor plasticity and malleability. Products tempered at 20 °C and 25 °C exhibited optimal ductility properties. These findings provided practical guidance to improve the ductility of sheet margarine in industrial level production.
... This is due to the high consumption of processed foods such as margarines with low nutritional value and high use of synthetic additives. However, the new fatty products should not only respond to health and nutritional requirements, but also to the needs and gastronomic traditions of each country, historical approach, consumption habits, technological aspects, ease of preparation, and acquisition, among others [1]. Therefore, one of the trends and innovations in the formulation of new processed foods is the development of products enriched with bioactive compounds from the use of natural ingredients, such as extracts from fruits, vegetables, edible flowers, spices, and promising aromatic herbs, including the use of their by-products that allow a beneficial contribution to the consumer and help prevent chronic diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular, respiratory, and gastrointestinal diseases, among others [2][3][4][5][6][7][8]. ...
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The objective of this study was to evaluate different quality parameters and the oxidative stability of a vegetable margarine made with different concentrations: 100, 200, and 300 ppm of sweet red pepper peel and pulp (Capsicum annuum) oleoresin and tree tomato (Solanum betaceum Cav.) juice at 5, 10, and 15%. The oleoresin was added as an enriching agent in the fat phase, and tree tomato juice was added as an enriching agent in the aqueous phase. The results showed that sweet red pepper oleoresin obtained by ultrasound presented a higher concentration of bioactive compounds compared to that obtained by conventional methods with a content of total carotenoids (1473 ± 10.24 mg/100 g), total phenolic compounds (1158 ± 8.65 mg GAE/100 g), flavonoids (814 ± 7.63 mg CE/100 g), and ASTA color (765 ± 3.51); additionally tree tomato juice is a source of vitamin C: 22.34 ± 1.51 mg AA/100 g. The addition of these two natural extracts increased the content of bioactive compounds and notably improved the antioxidant activity, peroxides index, and p-anisidine during storage of the developed margarine formulations. The results of the physicochemical and microbiological tests showed that the vegetable margarine developed met the quality standards established for a commercial margarine. The qualification of the sensory analysis indicated that the evaluated attributes were acceptable in all the formulations. The margarine elaborated with the addition of 200 ppm of sweet red pepper oleoresin, and 10% of tree tomato juice was the one that presented the best sensory qualification.
... The development of new fatty foods that are safe and healthy is a need and current trend due to the global health and nutritional problems faced by the population due to the high consumption of processed foods such as margarines with low nutritional value and high use of synthetic additives. However, the new fatty products should not only respond to health and nutritional requirements, but also to the needs and gastronomic traditions of each country, historical approach, consumption habits, technological aspects, ease of preparation and acquisition, among others (Silva et al., 2021). Therefore, one of the trends and innovations in the formulation of new processed foods is the development of products enriched with bioactive compounds from the use of natural ingredients, such as natural extracts from fruits, vegetables, edible owers, spices and promising aromatic herbs, including the use of their byproducts that allow a bene cial contribution to the consumer and help prevent chronic diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular, respiratory and gastrointestinal diseases, among others (Yoo et Within processed foods are margarines, which are emulsions usually consisting of 80% fat phase and 20% aqueous phase with the addition of additives to extend their shelf life and improve their sensory attributes (Paduret, 2022). ...
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The objective of this study was to evaluate different quality parameters and the oxidative stability of a vegetable margarine made with different concentrations of sweet red pepper ( Capsicum annuum ) oleoresin and yellow tree tomato ( Solanum betaceum Cav.) juice using ultrasound technology. Oleoresin was added as an enriching agent in the fat phase at different concentrations: 100, 200 and 300 ppm, and tree tomato juice was added as an enriching agent in the aqueous phase at 5, 10 and 15%. Physicochemical, microbiological, sensory and oxidative stability tests were carried out. The results showed that sweet red pepper oleoresin is a significant source of total carotenoids 1473 ± 10.24 mg/100 g, total phenolic compounds 1158 ± 8.65 mg GAE/100 g, flavonoids 814 ± 7.63 mg CE/100 g and ASTA color 765 ± 3.51, additionally tree tomato juice is a source of vitamin C 22.34 ± 1.51 mg AA/100 g. The addition of these two natural extracts improved notably the antioxidant activity, peroxides index and p-anisidine during storage of the developed margarine formulations. The results of the physicochemical and microbiological tests showed that the vegetable margarine developed met the quality standards established for a commercial margarine. The qualification of the sensory analysis indicated that the evaluated attributes were acceptable in all the formulations, being the margarine elaborated with the addition of 200 ppm of sweet red pepper oleoresin and 10% of tree tomato juice, the one that presented the best sensory qualification.
... Nutritional quality of lipid is defined with the FA composition by calculating the atherogenic index (AI) which is used to assess the risk of cardiovascular diseases. The AI is calculated with three highly atherogenic fatty acids (lauric, myristic, and palmitic acids), TFAs, and unsaturated fatty acids, and the higher the content of TFAs and myristic acids, the higher the AI [8]. The TFAs, not stearic acid, are used for the equation formula due to their high arteriosclerosis potential. ...
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Fats containing the stearoyl-rich triacylglycerols (TAGs) of 1,2-distearoyl-3-oleoylglycerol (SSO) and 1,3-dioleoyl-2-stearoylglycerol (OSO) were synthesized via the lipase-catalyzed acidolysis of tristearin (SSS)-rich fat and oleic acids, followed by solvent fractionation. Their physicochemical properties and in vitro digestibilities were compared. The SSS-, SSO-, and OSO-rich fats comprised 81.6%, 52.9%, and 33.1% stearic acid, respectively, whereas oleic acid comprised 2.9%, 37.5%, and 56.2%, respectively. The SSS-, SSO-, and OSO-rich fats contained the TAGs of SaSaSa (100.00%), SaSaMo (86.98%), and MoSaMo (67.12%), respectively, and the major TAGs were SSS, SSO, and OSO, respectively. Melting and crystallization temperatures were higher and fat crystals were larger and densely packed in the descending order of SSS-, SSO and OSO-rich fats. Both in vitro multi-step digestion and pH-stat digestion were more rapid for OSO- than SSO-rich fat. Oleic acid was digested faster than stearic acid during the initial digestion, then the rate decreased, whereas that of stearic acid increased over prolonged digestion. Fats that were richer in stearoyl at the sn-1,3 position of TAG melted and crystallized at higher temperatures, had a densely packed microstructure of large fat crystals and were poorly digested. Stearic acid imparts the essential physical attributes of melting and crystallization in solid fats, and the low digestible stearoyl-rich fat would be a viable substitute for trans fatty acids in food lipid industry.
Article
Non-thermal dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma with needle-in-tube configuration was used to improve hydrogenation reaction for trans-fat free margarine production. Refined palm olein was used as raw material with operating conditions at ambient pressure, room temperature (29 °C) and no catalyst. Effects of hydrogen gas (H2) concentration, input power, gas flow rate, discharge gap size and reaction time on fatty acid compositions and properties of hydrogenated refined palm olein after plasma treatment was evaluated. Lowest iodine value (IV) was achieved with reduction from 60.75 to 23.56 with increase in saturated fatty acid composition from 40.82 ± 0.05 to 68.70 ± 0.07% and decrease in unsaturated fatty acid composition from 59.11 ± 0.12 to 31.39 ± 0.01% under the condition of 0.5 L/min gas flow rate with 100% H2, 40 W input power, 0.5 cm gap size and 15 h reaction time. In addition, no trans-fat was detected by GC-MS analysis. Slip melting point (SMP) was increased from 9.33 ± 0.5 to 36.33 ± 0.5 °C. Acid value (AV) was reduced from 0.47 ± 0.02 to 0.32 ± 0.03 mg KOH/g oil. Texture of produced margarine was similar to that of commercial one. Generated hydrogen free radicals were hypothesized to perform hydrogenation by reacting with carbon-carbon double bonds (π-bonds), converting poly- and monounsaturated fatty acids into saturated ones. This highly effective catalyst-free plasma hydrogenation system can be used as alternative, environmentally friendly and economically feasible method to produce trans-fat free margarine.
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This study reports the impact of margarine-representative ingredients on its oxidative stability and green tea extract as a promising antioxidant in margarine. Oil-in-water emulsions received much attention regarding factors that influence their oxidative stability, however, water-in-oil emulsions have only been scarcely investigated. Margarine, a widely consumed water-in-oil emulsion, consists of 80–90% fat and is thermally treated when used for baking. As different types of margarine contain varying additives, their impact on the oxidative stability of margarine during processing is of pressing importance. Thus, the influence of different ingredients, such as emulsifiers, antioxidants, citric acid, β-carotene and NaCl on the oxidative stability of margarine, heated at 80 °C for 1 h to accelerate lipid oxidation, was analyzed by the peroxide value and oxidation induction time. We found that monoglycerides influenced lipid oxidation depending on their fatty acyl chain. α-Tocopheryl acetate promoted lipid oxidation, while rosemary and green tea extract led to the opposite. Whereas green tea extract alone showed the most prominent antioxidant effect, combinations of green tea extract with citric acid, β-carotene or NaCl increased lipid oxidation in margarine. Complementary, NMR data suggested that polyphenols in green tea extracts might decrease lipid mobility at the surface of the water droplets, which might lead to chelating of transition metals at the interface and decreasing lipid oxidation.
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Margarine contains a minimum of 80% fat and is therefore prone to lipid oxidation. While lipid oxidation in vegetable oils and o/w emulsions has been thoroughly investigated, studies about the oxidative stability and the identification of potential indicators of lipid oxidation in margarine are scarce. To evaluate the oxidative stability and to indicate the progress of lipid oxidation, four different types of industrial margarine (M1–M4), which differed in their composition of the minor ingredients and the oil phase, were stored at 15 °C for 180 days and analyzed at days 0, 1, 7, 14, 28, 56, 99, and 180 regarding peroxides, conjugated dienes, oxidized triacylglycerols, and volatiles. The peroxide value and the conjugated dienes increased up to 4.76 ± 0.92 meq O2/kg oil and 14.7 ± 0.49 in M2, respectively. The oxidative stability decreased by a maximum of 50.9% in M4. We detected three different epoxidized triglycerides—TAG54:1 (O), TAG54:2 (O) and TAG54:3 (O)—in M3. Acetone could be identified, for the first time, as lipid oxidation product in stored margarine by headspace-solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS). It increased in all types of margarine during storage by a maximum of 1070 ppb in M2. Acetone might be used as a new indicator for lipid oxidation in margarine.
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Obesity and its related disorders, such as diabetes and cardiovascular risk, represent an emerging global health issue. Even though genetic factors seem to be the primary actors in the development and progression of these diseases, dietary choices also appear to be of crucial importance. A healthy diet combined with physical activity have been shown to ameliorate glycaemic levels and insulin sensitivity, reduce body weight and the risk of chronic diseases, and contribute to an overall improvement in quality of life. Among nutrients, phytosterols have become the focus of growing attention as novel functional foods in the management of metabolic disorders. Phytosterols are natural plant compounds belonging to the triterpene family and are structurally similar to cholesterol. They are known for their cholesterol-lowering effects, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties, and the benefits they offer to the immune system. The present review aims to provide an overview of these bioactive compounds and their therapeutic potential in the fields of obesity and metabolic disorders, with special attention given to oxidative stress, inflammatory status, and gut dysbiosis, all common features of the aforementioned diseases.
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The field of oleogel research has been active in recent decades, generating numerous oleogels with desirable properties like thermal resistance, texture, and structural stability. Moreover, several food matrices have been formulated with oleogels. In some cases, oleogels in these food products have been shown to resemble textural attributes of products made with conventional hardstock fat, to enhance dietary nutrition, to demonstrate high physical and oxidative stability, and to exhibit a high oil binding capacity. These innovations clearly illustrate the potential of the field of oleogels, but certain drawbacks and a lack of in-depth information in various aspects have delayed its commercialization in the food industry. This review aims to update the current status of the oleogel field and to cover some areas that need to be addressed to make oleogel foods a reality in the near future.
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Lipids are key ingredients in the human diet. Because of the manipulation and modification of lipids in the food industry, the amount of trans and saturated fat has been substantially increasing in industrialized products. At the same time, the number of studies demonstrating the harmful effects of these foods on human health has increased. Organogels arise as a promising alternative for replacing trans and saturated fat in processed foods. Among the main challenges of preparing an organogel is the difficulty of finding compatible and viable structuring agents in the food industry. Waxes have been studied for this purpose and are one of the most promising organogelators. This article brings a bibliographical review on the recent studies regarding the use of waxes as structuring agents for edible vegetable oils.
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Metabolic health and the maintenance of good levels of triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, blood pressure and glucose levels are concerns that can greatly impact human quality of life. Health-driven consumers’ demands, together with technological innovations, have led to a diversification of the food industry. The fostering of off-the-shelf available and affordable healthy food products is necessary, as detrimental effects on human health from the ingestion of saturated fat sources urge the efforts to find alternatives. Oleogels can be tailored using specific triglycerides and oleogelators, that can be selected to yield targeted fatty acids, reduce higher levels of cholesterol with competing binding-molecules (e.g. phytosterols), reduce saturated fat content, lessen appetite (e.g. modelling the shape of foods) or carry exclusive bioactive compounds to be absorbed in the digestive tract. Oleogels are foreseen as an important technological advance in food science due to their versatility, easy processing and affordability. This review explored the strategies in place to develop and produce oleogels, foreseeing their introduction in foods and how they might represent an important source of functionality through the use of healthy molecules. It also explored how oleogels can act on the human overall metabolic health if they are used in human diet. Keywords: Oleogel, Vagal pathway, Nutrition, Fatty acids, Metabolism, Gut-brain axis
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In this research two oleogelation methods, in casu wax-based oleogelation and emulsion-templated oleogelation, were combined. Emulsion-templated oleogels are known to have a high elastic modulus. However, they also exhibit limited structure recovery after applying shear. Oil partially leaking out of the oleogels greatly limits their application potential in food products. Wax-based oleogelation on the other hand, requires high wax concentrations to attain the required level of structuring, causing a waxy mouthfeel upon consumption. Still, contrary to emulsion-templated oleogels, wax-based oleogels do demonstrate high levels of structure recovery after shear.
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Background Elevated cholesterol has been linked to cardiovascular disease in adults and preclinical markers of atherosclerosis in children, thus reducing saturated (SFA) and trans-fatty acids (TFA) intake from an early age may help to reduce cholesterol and the risk of cardiovascular disease later in life. The aim of this review is to examine the evidence for health effects associated with reducing SFA and TFA intake in free-living children, adolescents and young adults between 2 to 19 years of age. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and prospective cohort studies. Study selection, assessment, validity, data extraction, and analysis were undertaken as specified by the Cochrane Collaboration and the GRADE working group. Data were pooled using inverse variance models with random effects. Data sources EMBASE; PubMed; Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials; LILACS; and WHO Clinical Trial Registry (up to July 2016). Eligibility criteria for selecting trials RCTs involving dietary interventions aiming to reduce SFA or TFA intakes and a control group, and cohort studies reporting the effects of SFA or TFA exposures, on outcomes including blood lipids; measures of growth; blood pressure; insulin resistance; and potential adverse effects. Minimum duration was 13 days for RCTs and one year for cohort studies. Trials of weight loss or confounded by additional medical or lifestyle interventions were excluded. Results Compared with control diets, there was a highly statistically significant effect of reduced SFA intake on total cholesterol (mean difference (MD) -0.16 mmol/l, [95% confidence interval (CI): -0.25 to -0.07]), LDL cholesterol (MD -0.13 mmol/l [95% CI:-0.22 to -0.03]) and diastolic blood pressure (MD -1.45 mmol/l [95% CI:-2.34 to -0.56]). There were no significant effects on any other risk factors and no evidence of adverse effects. Conclusions Advice to reduce saturated fatty acids intake of children results in a significant reduction in total and LDL-cholesterol levels as well as diastolic blood pressure without evidence of adverse effects on growth and development. Dietary guidelines for children and adolescents should continue to recommend diets low in saturated fat.
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Background: Wax esters contribute to the transformation of liquid oils into solid-like oleogel systems, which can act as alternatives for trans- and/or saturated fats in food products. The use of solely waxes reduces the solid content, consistency and sensory quality in the final products. Therefore, a combination of sunflower wax and palm fat in rice bran oil was created to accomplish the hybrid low-saturated shortenings and margarines with a compatible structure and lower amounts of saturated fats. Results: During cooling of the hybrid shortenings, sunflower wax crystallized first and acted as nucleation sites for the crystallization of palm fat. At 5°C, a mixture of different crystal morphologies (α, β', and β crystals) existed in the hybrid shortening. In margarine processing, the hybrid samples were subjected to a simultaneous cooling-emulsification, in which sunflower wax crystallized first at the interface and adsorbed onto the water droplets. Based on the hardness measurements, the maximum amount of palm fat replaceable by 1.0 %wt sunflower wax was up to 40% in shortenings and 25% in margarines. A higher amount of sunflower wax (2.5 %wt) reduced up to 40% of saturated fats in the hybrid emulsions. Conclusion: The addition of 1.0 %wt sunflower wax enhanced the solid content and network strength of hybrid palm-based shortenings. Sunflower wax helped stabilizing the water droplets inside the wax-based crystalline network without flocculation during shear-cooling. This research provides fundamental insight into the structuring of hybrid systems containing waxes, which could be interesting to produce low-saturated fat products in food industry.
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Margarine contains a higher level of unsaturated and trans-fatty acids (TFA) than butter. The aim of this study was to investigate the physicochemical properties of these products in Iranian market during storage. Physicochemical analyses included fatty acid composition, peroxide and Anisidine values, slip melting point (SMP), color, chlorophyll content, solid fat content (SFC) and texture analysis. Margarine, compared to the butter, contained a higher degree of unsaturation, TFA, SMP, peroxide and Anisidine than butter. Predominant TFA in butter and margarine were vaccenic (about 2.83-3.41%) and elaidic acids (about 7.55-9.26%), respectively. Peroxide and Anisidine values of margarine increased significantly during storage. a* value and SMP of all samples increased significantly during storage. The SMP of margarine-2 was more than that of other samples. Chlorophyll content of butter was significantly more than margarine. Also, the content of chlorophyll of all samples was constant during storage. L* and b* values of all samples decreased significantly during storage. SFC of butter was significantly (p<0.05) more than margarine at 5 to 10°C, but at temperatures ranging 20 to 35.5°C, SFC of margarine-2 was more than butter and margarine-1. At 5°C, a yield value of butter was significantly more than margarine-2, but at 20 and 30°C, a yield value of margarine-2 was more than butter and margarine-1. As a result, the comparison between butter and margarine showed that butter is superior in terms of qualitative factors. However, if the hydrogenation process in the manufacturing of margarine is removed and replaced by other safe methods it can lead to products with high nutritional value.
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Dietary recommendations to decrease the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) have focused on reducing intake of saturated fatty acids (SFA) for more than 50 years. While the 2015–2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans advise substituting both monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids for SFA, evidence supports other nutrient substitutions that will also reduce CVD risk. For example, replacing SFA with whole grains, but not refined carbohydrates, reduces CVD risk. Replacing SFA with protein, especially plant protein, may also reduce CVD risk. While dairy fat (milk, cheese) is associated with a slightly lower CVD risk compared to meat, dairy fat results in a significantly greater CVD risk relative to unsaturated fatty acids. As research continues, we will refine our understanding of dietary patterns associated with lower CVD risk.
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Background Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) is known as power house of omega fatty acids which has great health benefits. It contains up to 78% linolenic acid (ω-3) and 18% linoleic acid (ω-6), which could be a great source of omega-3 fatty acids for functional foods. Therefore, in this study, margarines were prepared with supplementation of different concentrations of chia oil to enhance omega-3 fatty acids, antioxidant characteristics and oxidative stability of the product. Methods Margarines were formulated from non-hydrogenated palm oil, palm kernel and butter. Margarines were supplemented with 5, 10, 15 and 20% chia oil (T1, T2, T3 and T4), respectively. Margarine without any addition of chia oil was kept as control. Margarine samples were stored at 5 °C for a period of 90 days. Physico-chemical (fat, moisture, refractive index, melting point, solid fat index, fatty acids profile, total phenolic contents, DPPH free radical scavenging activity, free fatty acids and peroxide value) and sensory characteristics were studied at the interval of 45 days. Results The melting point of T1, T2, T3 and T4 developed in current investigation were 34.2, 33.8, 33.1 and 32.5 °C, respectively. The solid fat index of control, T1, T2, T3 and T4 were 47.21, 22.71, 20.33, 18.12 and 16.58%, respectively. The α-linolenic acid contents in T1, T2, T3 and T4 were found 2.92, 5.85, 9.22, 12.29%, respectively. The concentration of eicosanoic acid in T2, T3 and T4 was 1.82, 3.52, 6.43 and 9.81%, respectively. The content of docosahexanoic acid in T2, T3 and T4 was present 1.26, 2.64, 3.49 and 5.19%, respectively. The omega-3 fatty acids were not detected in the control sample. Total phenolic contents of control, T1, T2, T3 and T4 samples were 0.27, 2.22, 4.15, 7.23 and 11.42 mg GAE/mL, respectively. DPPH free radical scavenging activity for control, T1, T2, T3 and T4 was noted 65.8, 5.37, 17.82, 24.95, 45.42 and 62.8%, respectively. Chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, quercetin, phenolic glycoside k and phenolic glycoside Q in T3 were present 0.78, 0.73, 1.82, 4.12 and 4.49 mg/mL, respectively. After 90 days of storage period, free fatty acids and peroxide value of all the treatments were less than 0.2 (% and MeqO2/kg). Sensory characteristics of treatments were not different from the control. Conclusion Margarines supplemented with chia oil showed enhanced level of omega-3 fatty acids and antioxidant characteristics. These results suggest that chia oil can be used for formulation of margarine with increased level of omega-3 fatty acids and acceptable sensory characteristics.
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Chapter
The scientific and industrial sectors largely focus on the development of new bio-based materials with advanced technological applications. Among the various materials reported, assembled system with specific architecture displayed the potential in electronic, medical, pharmaceutical and food industries. In particular, soft materials derived from renewable resources as structuring agents in edible oils or bio-compactable medium are extensively used in drug delivery, cosmetic, pharmaceutical and food industries because of their thermoreversibility, mechanical stability and biocompatibility.
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In this study, different combinations of hydrocolloids were used to produce a low‐oil spreadable emulsion gel using flaxseed oil. The effect of different levels of locust bean gum (0%–0.25%), κ‐carrageenan (0%–2%), xanthan gum (0%–3.5%), and maltodextrin (0%–20%) on the sensory attributes of the product and instrumental hardness was investigated using response surface methodology. Optimization of the formulation by Design Expert software introduced formulations with high spreadability acceptance, desirable sensory properties, and acceptable instrumental hardness. The optimized formulation contained 0.09% locust bean gum, 1.95% carrageenan, 0.8% xanthan gum, and 10% maltodextrin mixed into an emulsion gel containing 19% flaxseed oil. The resultant emulsion gel was shear‐thinning and had G′ value greater than G″ at all tested frequency ranges. This new product could be a healthy alternative for spreadable fat, margarine, and butter as it contains ω‐3 essential fatty acids and low levels of saturated and total fat content. Due to the rise in diseases associated with high fat intake, attempts are made to introduce new products with low fat content containing zero trans and low amounts of saturated fatty acids. However, lowering the fat content causes some textural and organoleptic problems. Gelling low‐fat emulsions with the help of hydrocolloids to produce emulsion gels is a promising process to obtain more healthful foods. In this study, by using flaxseed oil as an oil phase and rich source of ω‐3 fatty acids, new spreadable emulsion gel was produced. This product could be a healthy alternative for spreadable fats, margarines, and butters.
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Driven by the need for trans and saturated fat replacement strategies, the field of fat mimetics has made tremendous advances over the past decade. Fat mimetics include polymeric networks of ethylcellulose, emulsion-templated networks of proteins and polysaccharides, colloidal and self-assembled fibrillar networks of polar lipid crystals, as well as solid o/w emulsions of oil trapped within crystallized lamellar mesophases. Extensive research has gone into formulating various food products with fat mimetics. These include, bakery products (cakes and laminated pastries), chocolate, dairy products (cream cheese), margarines and spreads, and meat products. The clean-label nature of the ingredients used to produce fat mimetics and their demonstrated functionality makes them a promising alternative to solid fats in food products.
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Palm oil based shortenings and margarines are important products within the lipid industry. However, a widespread quality deterioration issue is often reported on their longterm storage: the appearance of granular crystals or grains which are regarded as unwanted because of the deflecting visual appearance and the negative mouth feel during consumption. In this review, the role of fat blends composition, crystallization process and storage conditions to the formation and growth of these unwanted granular crystals will be discussed and summarized. Besides, some potential approaches in preventing the formation of granular crystals in palm oil based shortening and margarine are also introduced.
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Trans-fatty acid (TFA) intake can increase the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) morbidity and mortality and all-cause mortality. Industrially produced TFAs and ruminant TFAs are the major sources in foods. TFA intake and TFA-attributed CHD mortality vary widely worldwide. Excessive TFA intake is a health threat in high-income countries; however, it is also a threat in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Data on TFA intake are scarce in many LMICs and an urgent need exists to monitor TFAs globally. We reviewed global TFA intake and TFA-attributed CHD mortality and current progress toward policy or regulation on elimination of industrially produced TFAs in foods worldwide. Human biological tissues can be used as biomarkers of TFAs because they reflect actual intake from various foods. Measuring blood TFA levels is a direct and reliable method to quantify TFA intake.
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Background and aims: Because of the conflicting research results, the association between saturated fatty acid (SFA) consumption and the risk of stroke remains controversial. We conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate potential dose-response relation between SFA intake and stroke. Methods and results: PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Web of Science were searched. Summary relative risks (RRs) of the highest vs. the lowest category of SFA intake and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were pooled by random-effects models. Linear or nonlinear dose-response trend estimations were evaluated with data from categories of SFA consumption in each study. Fourteen studies involving a total of 598,435 participants were eligible for high vs. low meta-analysis, and 12 studies involving a total of 462,268 participants were eligible for the dose-response relation assessment. Higher dietary SFA intake was associated with a decreased overall risk for stroke (RR, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.78-0.96; I2 = 37.8%). A linear relation between SFA and stroke was explored (P = 0.01), the pooled RR of stroke per 10 g/day increase in SFA intake was 0.94 (95% CI, 0.89-0.98; P = 0.01). Conclusion: This meta-analysis further demonstrated that a higher consumption of dietary SFA is associated with a lower risk of stroke, and every 10 g/day increase in SFA intake is associated with a 6% relative risk reduction in the rate of stroke. Further research is needed to explore the influence of specific SFA types and different macronutrient replacement models of SFA on the stroke risk.
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Fat ratio and emulsifier content of water in oil margarine emulsions changes the sensory properties of the margarines by affecting the volatile release. The effect of fat and emulsifier content on volatile release using headspace/solid phase microextraction/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (HS/SPME/GC/MS), and sensory properties of model margarine emulsions was investigated. 2‐heptanone, 2‐nonanone, 2‐undecanone, hexanoic acid, and δ‐decalactone releases were found to be lower while 2,3‐butanedion and butanoic acid releases were higher in model margarine with high fat content. Also the releases of 2‐nonanone, 2‐undecanone, hexanoic acid and δ‐decalactone decreases due to the increase of the emulsifier ratio used in the model margarine. It was found that the hardness and G' values of the margarines increased together with the increase of fat and emulsifier ratio. In model margarines butter aroma and taste, cheese aroma and taste were intensely perceived characters by descriptive sensory analysis and they perceived more intensely in products with higher fat content. On the other hand, creamy character was perceived more intensely in model margarines with less fat content. The release of volatile compounds depended on fat and emulsifier content used in the model margarines. Taste and aroma of model margarines were especially affected by the change in fat content while textural properties were affected by both fat and emulsifier content. Practical applications The flavour of the food plays an important role in the consumer's choice of food and it is influenced by the matrix and composition of the food. Fat is an important part of food, and on the other hand overconsumption of fat could cause health problems. There is an increasing interest in foods with low fat content for healthier human diets. However, reducing the fat in the product leads to a change in the flavour and texture of the product. Designing the product with the desired properties without affecting the flavour of the food generates problems for the researchers. This study aimed to investigate the effect of fat and emulsifier content on volatiles of model margarine. Knowledge obtained from this study could provide guide for margarine and spread producers to formulate low fat margarine by using the data obtained on volatile release and flavour depending on fat content and emulsifier mixture of margarines.
Chapter
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Trans fatty acid (TFA) content in foods is not regulated in most European countries. Fatty acid (FA) composition, total TFA levels, and TFA isomers were determined for 43 margarines available on the Slovenian market and 33 samples of shortenings used by food manufacturers. In most margarines, the TFA content (as a percentage of total FA) was low (0.1–0.8%), although two different margarines contained 3.1% and 6.4% TFA, respectively. In shortenings, a wider variation in TFA content (from 0.1% to 11.2%) was observed. In samples with high total TFA, trans-C18:1 was present in higher quantities than trans-C18:2 and trans-C18:3. In almost all samples, the predominant TFA isomers were elaidic acid (t9-C18:1) and t10-C18:1, followed by t11-C18:1 and (t6-t8)-C18:1. Isomers t12-C18:1 and (t13-t14)-C18:1 were also detected. Among trans-C18:2 isomers the t/c-C18:2 predominated over c/t-C18:2 and t/t-C18:2. Above 2% TFA was only found in samples labelled to contain partially hydrogenated fats. Results show a high variability in the FA composition of hard vegetable fats in the food supply, and indicate that more efficient regulation and control on the market are needed to minimize the exposure of the population to TFAs.
Article
Margarines and spreads contribute greatly to the intake of saturated and trans fats in the diet. Therefore, the objective of this work was to produce margarines using the oleogel technology and to verify the physical, thermal, oxidative, and sensorial properties of this product during six months of shelf life, comparing it with commercial margarine. When compared with commercial margarine, the oleogel margarine showed similar color results. Due to the different structural shape, the results of microstructure and the melting curve were differentiated, but this indicated a structure more resistant to temperature oscillations and an overall softer product. However, the sensorial difference between the samples was easily detected by the consumers, mainly with respect to the parameters of taste, texture, and overall impression. It was concluded that it is possible to produce margarines using the oleogel technology, which display good physical properties, similar shelf life, and improved nutritional characteristics.
Article
Interesterification reaction involves rearrangement of the fatty acid radicals on the glycerol backbone, either randomly (chemical interesterification) or regioselectivity (enzymatic interesterification). Refined, bleached and deodourised palm oil (RBDPO) and palm kernel oil (RBDPKO) were blended in ratios from 25:75 to 75:25 (wt/wt). All blends were subjected to enzymatic (EI) and chemical interesterification (CI) using Lipozyme TL IM (4% w/w) and sodium methoxide (0.2% m/m) as the catalysts, respectively. The effect of EI and CI on the triacylglycerol (TAG) composition, thermal behaviour, polymorphism, crystal morphology and crystallisation kinetics were studied. The aim of this research is to characterise the nature of crystals in food product for certain desired structure. The crystallisation behaviour discussed in this study involves microstructure (PLM), polymorphism (XRD), thermal properties and crystallisation kinetics by DSC. The alteration in TAG composition was greater after CI as compared to EI with the reduction of LaLaLa (from 11.00% to 5.15%) and POO (from 14.28% to 4.87%). The DSC complete melting and crystallisation temperature of blend with 75% PO increased after CI, from 39.58 °C to 41.67 °C and from −30.84 °C to −28.33 °C, respectively. EI contributed to finer crystals than CI. However, the β′ and β polymorph mixture and crystallisation kinetics (n = 2) of PO-PKO blends did not change after CI and EI. The knowledge on controlling crystallisation of RBDPO and RBDPKO blends is vital for proper processing condition like margarine production.
Article
The effect of the thermal treatment on chemical parameters of margarines enriched with phytosteryl fatty acid esters is evaluated. Sterols, fatty acids, polar and volatile compounds, dimers, trimers, tocopherols, 3‐MCPD and glycidyl esters are analyzed applying GPC‐RI, GC‐FID, GC‐MS, and HPLC. Additionally, a Rancimat test is performed to compare the oxidative stability of margarines. This study shows that margarines with and without added phytosteryl esters are both stable at a mild temperature of 60 °C over a period of at least 7 days. On the other side after 15 min of pan‐frying at 180 °C a degradation of unsaturated fatty acids (14–47%), phytosterols (31–49%), and vitamin‐E‐active compounds (71–100%) is found. The supplementation of margarines with phytosteryl fatty acid esters have no effect on their oxidative stability during pan‐frying characterized by Rancimat test and total polar compounds. Volatile, degradation products of fatty acids as well as phytosterols, are found after pan‐frying. The composition of volatiles after pan‐frying significantly differed depends on the presence of additional PSE in margarines. For the first time, it is shown that pan‐frying with margarines over a period of 15 min results in a remarkable formation of 3‐MCPD esters while the increase of glycidyl esters is only very moderate. Practical Application: Based on this study results additional phytosteryl esters do not have antioxidative properties on margarines upon pan‐frying. What is more, they are not stable during pan‐frying at 180 °C. A significant amount of nutritionals as phytosterols, vitamin E active compounds, unsaturated fatty acids are degraded within 15 min and other undesired compounds as dimers, trimers, 3‐MCPD esters are formed. According to the research, heating at a high temperature over longer time should not be applied to this kind of product to avoid oxidation of valuable constituents and formation of degradation products. Volatile compounds which were found are characteristic for fatty acids and phytosterols degradation and can be used as indicators of margarines oxidation. The research presents chemical changes in margarines with and without additional phytosteryl/phytostanyl fatty acid esters. In the graphical abstract compounds which naturally occur in those margarines are presented and compounds which are formed after thermo‐oxidative degradation during pan‐frying.
Article
In order to obtain margarine free of trans-fatty acids, four interesterified basestocks were prepared by chemical interesterification (CIE) of oil blends. Different ratios of palm stearin, palm olein and soybean oil were mixed without and with 1) fully hydrogenated Acer truncatum oil (FHATO), 2) fully hydrogenated rapeseed oil or 3) palm kernel oil containing a similar amount of saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids, but different saturated fatty acid length for CIE. Compared to the physical blends, the CIE samples demonstrated lower slip melting points and decreased solid fat contents, especially at high temperatures, indicating that the CIE samples might have improved mouthfeel. In all CIE samples, the β crystal form disappeared and only the β’ crystal form was observed, except for sample 2, which contained a mixed β and β’ forms. Furthermore, in all CIE samples, except sample 1, the β′ crystal forms began transforming to β form after only two cycles of higher temperature treatments indicating that the CIE sample with FHATO had the most resistance to temperature fluctuation during storage which may be attributed to its longer saturated chains. In conclusion, the CIE basestocks containing longer saturated fatty acids could be more suitable for margarine use.
Article
Different processing conditions to obtain oleogels from high oleic sunflower oil and Myverol were explored with the aim to develop a fat with similar rheological and textural characteristics to margarine. The effects of the concentration of Myverol (MV), the mixture preparation temperature (TP), the speed of agitation (SA) and the ambient cooling temperature (TC) on 10 different selected responses −the oil binding capacity and the most representative rheological and textural parameters- were analyzed by applying an incomplete factorial design of four factors with three levels. In general, the MV and TC variables were the most significant factors on each analyzed response. The oleogel obtained under multi-objective optimization conditions achieved the same hardness value of margarine and similar parameters of the rheological models, whereas the adhesiveness and cohesiveness values were not totally reached. Likewise, their ability to retain oil was 98.45%, indicating the formation of a desirable strong gel network.
Article
Oils and fats have many functions in food product preparation. Quality, stability and nutritional features of oils are the most important factors in food technology. There is no pure oil with good functional and nutritional properties and appropriate oxidative stability. Therefore, vegetable oils are modified using different methods to enhance their commercial applications and to improve their nutritional quality. Modification methods are hydrogenation, interesterification, fractionation and blending.